Sunbury American. (Sunbury, Pa.) 1848-1879, December 09, 1848, Image 2

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    Annual Message
Of thi President ofjht United States, to
thsScnateand&useof Representatives
in Congress assembled. '
Under the benignant Providence of Almigh
ty God, the representatives of the States and
of the people are again brought together to
deliberate lor the public good. The grati
tude of the nation to the sovereign Arbiter of
II human events, should be commensurate
with the boundless blessings which we enjoy.
Peace, plenty, and contentment reign
throughout our borders, and our beloved eoun
try presents sublime moral spectacle to the
The troubled and unsettled condition of
some of the principal European powers has
had a necessary tendency to check and em
barrass trade, and to depress prices through
out all commercial nations, but notwithsthnd
ing these causes, the United States, V ith
their abundant products, have felt their effects
less severely than any oilier country, and al
our great interests are still prosperous and
In reviewing the great events or the past
year, and contrasting the agitated and distur
bed'state of other countries with our own tran
quil and happy condition, we may congmlH
late ourselves that we are the most favored
people on the face of the earth. While the
people of othi-rs countries are struggling to
establish free institutions, under which man
may govern himself, we are in tho nctunl en
joyment of tluni a rich inheritance from
our fathers. While enlightened nations of
Europe are convulsed and distracted by civil
war or intestine strife, we settle all our poli
tical controversies by the peaceful exercise of
the rights of freemen nf tho ballot-box. '1 he
great republican maxim so deeply engraven
mi ihn hrm ls of our nconle. that tho will of
the majority, eonstitutioiiiilly expressed, shall
is our sure aieirunra ngmiisi
and violence. It is a subject of just prule,
that our fame and character as a nation con
tinue rapidly to advance in the estimation of
the civilized world. To our wise and free
institutions it is to be attributed, that while
other nations have achieved glory at the price
of the suffering, distress, and impoverishment
of their people, we have won our honorable
position in the midst of an uninterrupted pros
perity, and of an increasing individual corn
tort and happiness. I am happy to inform
you that our relation with all nations are
friendly and pacific.
Advantageous treaties of commerce have
been concluded within the last four years
with New Grenada, Peru, the Two Sicillies,
Belgium, Hanover. Oldenburg, and Mecklen
burg Schwerm. Pursuing our example, the
restrictive system of Great Britain, our prin
cipal foreign customer, has been relaxed, a
more liberal commercial policy hag been a
dopted by other enlightened nations, and our
ttade has been greatly enlarged and extended.
Our country stands higher in the respect of
the world than at any former period. To
continue to occupy this proud position, it is
only necessary to preserve peace, and faith
fully adhere to the great and fundamental
principle of our foreign policy, of non-interference
in tho domestio concerns of other
nations. We recognise in nil nations the rights
which we cnjny ourselves, to change nnd re
form their political institutions, according to
their own will and pleasure. Henco we do
not look behind existing governments, capa
nle of maintainiug their own authority. We
recognise all such actual governments, not on
ly from the dictates of true policy, but from
a sacred regard for tho independence of na
tions. While this is our settled policy, it does not
follow that we can never bo indifferent spec
tators of tho progress of liberal principles.
The government and people of the United
States hailed with enthusiasm and delisrht
the establishment of tha French republic, as
we hail now the ettorts in progress to unite
the States of Germany in a confederation,
slmilaj in many respects to our own federal
Union, If the great and enlightened German
States, occupying, as they do, a central and
commanding position in Europe, shall succeed
in establishing such a confederated govern
ment, securing at the same time to the citi
zens of each State, local governmentsadapted
to the peculiar condition of each, with unre
stricted trade and intercourse with each other
will' be an important era in the history of hu
man events. Whilst it will consolidate and
strengthen the power of Germany, it must es
sentially promote the cause of peace, com
merce, civilization and constitutional liberty
throughout the-world.
With all the governmentson this continent
our relations, it is belirved, are now on a
more friendly and satisfactory footing than
they have ever been at any former period.
Since the) exchange of ratifications of tho
treaty of peace with Mexico, our intercourse
with the government of that republic has been
of tha most friendly character. The Envoy
cxiraoruinary ana .Minister i'lenipotentiary
01 me L imea states 10 Mexico nas been re
ceived and accredited ; and a diplomatic re
presentative from Mexico of similar rank has
been received and accredited by this govern
ment. The amicable relations between the
two countries which had been suspended
have been happily restored, and are destined,
i irusi, 10 oe long preserved. I no two re
publics, both situated on this continent, and
with coterminous territories, have evory mo
tive of sympathy and of interest to bind them
together in perpetual amity.
The gratifying coudiliui of onr foreign re
lations renders it unnecessary for me to call
vour attention more specifies lv to them
It has been my constant aim and desire to
cultivate peaco and commerce with u na
lions. Tranquility at home, and peaceful re
lations abroad, constitute the true permanent
policy of our country. War, tho scourge of
nations, sometimes becomes inevitable, but is
always to be avoided when it can be done
consistently with the rights and honor of the
One of tho most important results of the
war into which we were recently forced with
a neighboring nation, is the demonstration it
has afforded of -the military strength of our
country, tie to re t lie late war with Mexico
European and other foreign Powers entertain
eil unpertect anil erroneous views ot ourphy
sical strength as a nation, nnd of our ability
to proscule war, and especially a war waged
out ot our own country, l hey saw that ou
standing army on the peace establishment did
not exceed ten thousand men.
Aocustomed themselves to maintain
peaco large standing armies for the protection
of thrones against their own subjects, as well
si"' iuii-ijjii enemies, mey nau 1101 con'
ceived that it was possiblo for a nation with
oui Bucii an army, well uiciplined and ot Ion
service, to wage war successfully. They
held in low repute our militia, and were far
iroin regnnuiiR iimm as an etlective torce,
unless it might be for temporary defensive o
pe rations when invaded on our own soil. The
events of the late war with Mexico have not
only undeceived, them, but have removed er
roneous impressions which prevailed to some
extent even among a portion of our own
That war has demonstrated, that upon the
breakink out of hostilities not anticipated, and
for which no previous preparation had been
made, a volunteer army of citizen soldiers e
qual W veteran troops, and in numbers equal
to auy emergency, can in a short period be
brought into the field. Unlike what would
have occurred in any other country, we were
under no necessity of resorting to draughts or
conscriptions. On the contrary, such was the
number of volunteers, who patriotically ten
dered their services, that the chief difficulty
was in making selections and determining
wh should be disappointed and compelled to
remain at home. Our citizen-soldiers are un
like those drawn from tha population of any
other country. They are composed indiscri
minately of all profession! and pursuits far
mers, lawyers, physicians, merchants, manu
facturers and laborer ; and this: not vnly a
mong the officers,' but the privates in the
ranks. Our citizen-soldiers are unlike those
of any other country in other respects. They
are armed, and have been accustomed from
their youth up to handle and use fire-arms;
and a Urge proportion of them, especially in
the western and more newly settled States,
are .expert marksmen. They are men who
have a reputation to maintain at home by
their good conduot in the field. ' ' ;
They are intelligent, and there is an indi
viduality of character which is found in the
ranks of no other army. In battle, each pri
vate man, as well as every officer, fights not
only for his country, but for glory and distinc
tion among his fellow citizens when he shall
return to civil life.
The war with Mexico has demonstrated
not only the ability of the government to or
ganize a numerous army upon a sudden call,
but also to provide it with all the munitions
and necessary supplies with despatch, con
venience, and ease, and to direct its opera
tions with efficiency. The strength of our
institutions has not only been displayed in
the valor and skill of our troops engaged in
active service in the field, but in the organi
zation of those executive branches which
were charged with the general direction and
conduct of the war.
While too great praise cannot be bestowed
upon the officers and men who fought our
battles, it would be unjust to withhold from
those officers necessarily stationed at home,
who were charged with the duty of furnish
ing the army, in proper time, and at proper
places, with ull tho munitions of war anil o
ther supplies so necessary to make it efficient,
tho commendation to which theyaro entitled
The credit duo to this class of our officers is
tho greater, when it is considerd that no ar
my m ancient or modern times was ever bet
ter appointed or provided than our army in
Operating in an enemy's country, removed
two thousand miles from the seat of the fed
eral government, its different corps spread o
ver a vast extent of territory, hundieds and
even thousands of miles apart from each
other, nothing short of the untiring vigilance
and extraordinary energy of these officers
could have enabled them to provide the army
at ail points, and m proper season, witn nil
that was required for the most efficient ser-
It is but an act of justice to declare that
10 officers in charge of the several executive
means; al under the immediate eye and su
pervision ol the secretary ot W ar, pertormeu
their respective duties with ability, energy
and erliciency.
J. hey have reaped less of the glory ot war,
not havinc been personally exnosed to its per
ils in battle, than their companions in arms;
but without their forecast, efficient aid, and
co-operation, those in the field would not
nave been provided with the ample means
thev nossessed nf nrhinvintr for themselves
and their country the unfading honors which
thev have won for both
When all these facts are considered, it may
cease to be a matter of so much amazement
abroad, how it happened that our noble army
in Mexico, regulars and volunteers, were vic
torious upon every battlefield, however tear
ful the odds amunst them.
The war with Mexico has thus fully de
veloped the capacity of republican govern
ments to prosecute succesfullv a iust and ne
cessary foreign war with all the vigor usually
attributed to more arbitrary lorms ot gov
ernment. It has been usual lor writers on
publio law to impute to republics a want of
that unity, concentration of purpose, and vi
gor ot execution, which are generally admit
ted to belong to the monarchical and aristo
cratic forms : ami this featu.e of popular gov
ernment has been supposed to display itself
more peculiarly m the conduct ot a war car
ned on in an enemy's territory, ihe war
with Great Britain, in 1812, was a great ex
tent confined within our own limits, and shed
uui utile limit on tnis suuiect nut the war
which we have just closed by an honorable
peace, evinces beyond all doubt that a popu
lar representatives government is equal to
any emergency which is likely to arise in
the atlairs ot a nation.
The war with Mexico has developed most
strikingly and conspicuously another feature
in our institutions. It is, that without cost to
the government or danger to our liberties, we
huve in the bosom of onr society of freemen.
available in a just and necessary war, virtual
ly a standing army ot two millions of armed
citizen-soldiers, such as fought the battles of
But our military strength does not consist
alone in our capacity tor extended and sue
ccssiui operations on land. 1 be navy is an
important arm of national defence. If the
services of the navy were not so brilliant as
tnose ot the army in the lute war with Me
co, it was because they had bo enemy to
meet on their own element. While the army
had opportunity of performing more conspicu
ous service, the navy larcelv participated in
the coduct of the war. Both branches of the
service performed their whole duty to the
For the able and gallant services of the of
ficers and men of the navy acting independ
ently as wbm as in co-operuuon wim our troops
iu the conquest of the Califomias, the cap
ture oi vera uruz, and the seizure and occu
pation ot other important positions on the I'a
cific coasts, the highest praise is due. Their
1 J I 'll 1 , .1
vijjnance, energy aim skiii rendered ine most
effective service in excluding mututions of
war and other supplies lromtlie enemy, while
mey secured a sale entrance lor abund
ant supplies for our own army. Onr eX'
tended commerce was no where interrupted
und fur this immunity from the evils of war
tne country is indebted to the navy.
1 1 no t resident says tho concert of action
between the army and navy on the Pacific
and Gulf operated to great advantage and that
me great results will tend powerlully to pre
serve as from foreign collisions.!
Within less than four years the annexation
ot Jexasto tne union has been consumma
ted : all conflicting title to the Oregon Terri
tory south of the forty-ninth degrea of north
latitude, being ull that was insisted by any of
my predecessors, nas been adjusted, and
New Mexico and Upper California have been
acquired by treat y. the areaot these sever
al territories, according to a report carefully
Prepared by the Commissioner of the General
nnd Office from the most authentic informa
tion in his possession, and which is herewith
iransmiued, contains 1,193,061 square miles,
or 763,559,040 acres, while the area of the
remaining 2 Slates, and the territory not yet
organized into States east of the Rocky Moun
tains, containing 2,059,513 square miles, or
ISO 1 Arii rsl . .
i,djo. i.u,ujo acres, inese estimates show
that the territories recently acquired, and
over which our exclusive jurisdiction and do
minion have been extended, constitute a
country more than half as large as all that
which was held by the United States before
their acquisition.
If Oregon be excluded from the estimate,
there will still remain within the limits of
Texas, New Mexico, and California, 851,598
square miles, or 545,012,720 acres; being an
additien equal to more than one third of all
the territory owned by the United States be
fore their acquisition ; and, including Oregon,
nearly as great en extent of territory as the
whole of Europe, Russia only excepted, The
Mississippi, so lately the frontier of our coun
try, is now only its centre. With the addi
tion of the late acquisitions, the United States
are now estimated to be uearly as large as
the whole of Europe. .,, , ,
It is estimated by tha superintendent of
the coast survey, in the accompanying report,
that the extent of the seacoast of Texas on
the Gulf of Mexico is upwards of 400 milles,
of the ooast of Upper California, on the Pad
flo, of 970 miles J and of Oregon, including
the Straits of Fuoa, of 660 miles ; making the
whole extent of seacoast on the Paoifio 1,620
miles, and the whole extent on both the Paci
fio and the Gulf of Mexico 2,0S0 miles.
The length of the coast on the Atlanlio
from the northern limits of the United States,
around the Capes of Florida to the Sabine, on
the Eastern boundary of Texas, is estimated
to be 3,100 miles; so that the addition of sea
coast, including Oregon, is very nearly two
thirds as great as all we possessed before ;
and excluding Oregon, is an addition of 1,370
miles ; being nearly equal to one half of the
extent of coast which we possessed before
these acquisitions.
We have now these great maritime fronts
on the Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and
the Pacific makinir in the whole, an extent
of seacoast exceeding S000 miles. This is
the extent of the seacoast of the United States,
not including bays, sounds, and small irregu-
1 : . : -f . 1. . -V nn,4 .f tlia ann
IttlltltTS UJ UIU lllltlll OIIU Ul lliu
islands. If these be included, the length of
the shore line of coast, as estimated by the
suiHTiinenueni oi me cuusi Buivey, in ma ic
port, would be 33,063 miles.
Such an immense sea const in the hands of
foreign power would be, he says, dangerous
to our peace.
Tho depot of tho vast commerce which
must exist on the Pacific will probably be at
some point on the bay of San Francisco, and
will occupy tho same relation to tne wnoie
western coast of that ocean, as New Orleans
docs to tho valley of the Mississippi and the
gulf of Mexico. To this depot our numerous
whale ships will resort with their cargoes, to
trade, refit, and obtain supplies.' This of it
self will largely contribute to buildup a city
which would soon become the centre of a
great and rapidly increasing commerce. Situ
ated on a safe harbor, sufficiently capacious
lor all the navies as well as the marine oi
the world, and convenient to excellent timber
for ship building owned by the United States
it must become our great western naval depot.
It was known that mines of the precious
metals existed to a considerable extent in
California at the time of its acquisition. Re
cent discoveries render it probable that these
mines are more extensive and vnluabio than
was anticipated. The accounts of the abun
dance of gold in that territory are of such an
extraordinary character as would scarcely
command belief, were thev not corroborated
by the authentic reports ot otneers in tne
publio service, who have visited the mineral
district, and derived the facts which they de
tail from personal observation. Reluctant to
credit the reports in general circulation ns to
the quantity ot cold, the oiticer commanding
onr lorces in California visited the minora
district in July last, for the purpose of obtain
ing accurate information on tho subject. Hi
report to the War Department of tho result
of his examination, and the facts obtained on
the spot, is herewith laid belore Congress
When he visited the country, there were a
bout 4000 persons engaged in collecting gold
There is every reasou to believe that the
number ot persons so employed has since
been augmented. The explorations already
made warrant the beliet that the supply is ve
ry large, and that gold is lound m various
placesin extensive districtsof country.
Information received from officeis of the
navy and oilier sources, though not so full and
minute, confirm the accounts of the comman
der of our military force in California. It
appears also, from these reports, that mines
of quicksilver are found in the vicinity of tho
gold region. One of them is now being work
ed and is believed to be among the most pro
ductive in the world.
The effects produced by the discovery of
these rich mineral desposites aud the success
which has attended the labors of those who
have resorted to them, have produced a sur
prising change in the state of affuirs in Cali
fornia. Labor commands a most exhorbitant
price, and all other pursuits but that of search
ing for the precious metals are abandoned
Nearly tho wnole of the male population of
the country have gone to the gold district.
Ships arriving on the coast are deserted by
their crews, and their voyages suspended for
want of sailors. Our commanding officer
theie entertains apprehensions that soldiers
cannot be kept in the public service without
a largo increase of pay. Desertions in his
command have become frequent, and he re
commends that those who snail withstand the
strong temptations and remain faithful, should
be rewarded.
This abundance of gold, and the all engros
sing pursuit of it, have already caused in
California an unprecedented rise in the price
of the necessaries of life.
That we mav the more speedily and fullv
avail ourselves of the undeveloped wealth of
these mines, it is deemed of vast importance
that a branch of the mint of the U. States be
authorized to be established, at your present
session, in California. Among other signal ad
vantages which would result from such an es
tablishment would be that of raisiug the gold
to its par value in that territory. A branch
mint of the United States at the great com
mercial depot on the west coast, would con
vert into our own coin not only the gold de
rived trom our own rich mines, but also the
bullion and specie which our commerce may
bring from the whole -west coast of Central
and South America, The west coast of A-
merica and the adjacent interior embrace
the richest and best mines of Mexico, New
Grenada, Central America, Chili and Peru.
the bulliou and specie drawn trom these
countries, and especially from those of West
ern Mexico and Peru, to an amount in value
of many millions of dollars, are now annually
diverted and carried by the ships of Great Bri
tain to her own ports to be recoined or used
to sustain her National Bunk and thus contri
bute to increase her ability to command so
much of the commerce of the world.
IThe acnuisition of California, the settlement
of the Oregon boundary, and tho annexation
of Texas extending to the Rio Grande, are re
sults which combine one of greater conse
quence, and will add more to the strength
and wealth of the nation than any which have
preceded them since the adoption of the
Constitution, but to effect these great resuits
it is our solemn duty to provide for New Mex
ico and California organized territoral Gov
ernments. The causes of the failure to do this at the
last session of Congress are well known and
deeply regretted. In view of the high and
responsible duties which we owe to ourselves
and to mankind, you may be able, at the
present session, to approach the adjustment
of the only question which seriously threatens
or probably ever can threaten, to disturb the
harmony and successful operation of our sys
tem. The question is believed to be rather ab
stract than practical, whether slavery ever
can or would exist in any portion of the ac
quired Territory, even it it were left to the
option of the sluveholding States themselves.
From the nature of the climate and produc
tions in much the larger portion of it, it is
certain it never could exist, and in the re
mainder, the probabilities are it would not.
But however this may be, the question, in
volving as it does, a prinoiple of eqaliiy of
rights, of the seperate and several States as
equal co-partuer in the confederacy, should
not be disregarded in organizing Governments
over these Territories. No duty imposed on
Congress by the constitution requires that
they should legislate on the subject of slavery
while their power to do so is not only seriously
questioned, but denied by many of the sonnd
est expounders of that instrument.
Whether Congress shall legislate or not, the
people of the acquired territories when as
sembled in convention to form safe constitu
tions will possess the sole and exclusive pow
er to determine for themselves whether la-
very shall or shall not exist within their li- I
mils. If Congress shall abstain from inter-
tering witn the question tne people ot inese pctmjo wim mexico, i recommenaeu m -territorieswill
be left free to adjust it as they aoption of measures for the speedy payment
mar think nroiier. when thev armlv for ad- of the publio debt. In reiterating that re
mission as States into the Union. I
ble o enactmenr ot congress could restrain
the people of any of the sovereign States of
the Union, old or new, North or South, slave-
holding or non-slaveholding, from determine
ing, the character of their own domestio in
stitutions as thev may deem wim and nrorter.
any and all the States possess this right, and
congress cannot deprived them of it.
1 11 the whole subject be referred to tne ju
diciarv. all tnrts nf tho ITninn should cheer-
tuny acquiesce in the final discretion ot tins
, .. " . r---- - . .. . . .. 7. !
JHe recommends the Mineral lands to be
sold in New Mexico in small quantities
yso i;ar irom entertaining apprehensions 01
territory, the belief is confidently entertain- made by Congjess shall not exceed the a
ed that each new State Hven strength and an mount estimated, the means in the treasury
additional gunranty for the preservation of
the Union itself
ITho liouidation of American claims against
Mexico is recommended.
By the ratification of the treaty Commis
sioners are to meet at San Diego on the 30th
of May, 1848 to run the boundary to tho
mouth ot the Del Norte. 1
The Indian War in Oregon is referred to. No
authority having been granted to raise troops
orders were given to tho Stiuadron on the
l'acihc to Rfford assistance. The cause of
the difficulty is delay of tho U. States on ma.
king a trifling compensation of a few thou
sand dollars in presents, for the land.l
ihe secretary ot the Treasury will present
in his annual report a highly satisfactory
statement of tho condition of the finances.
The imports for the fiscal year ending on
tho 30lh of Juno Inst were of tho value of
$154,977,876, of which Ihe amount exported
was $21,128,010, leaving 8133,849,866 in the
country tor domestic use.
1 ho value ot tho exports for the same pe
riod was $154,032,131, consisting of domes
tic productions amounting to 132,904, 121, and
21,128,010 dols., of foreign articles.
The receipts into the treasury for the same
period, exclusive of loans, amounted to 35,-
436,750 dols., and 59 cents; of which there
was derived from customs 31,757,070 dols.
and 96 cents ; from stiles of public lands, 3..
328,642 dols., and 56 cents; nnd from mfscel.
i i : : i ,i . ok, ni "y
IfllltHUS film JIIUUllllUl SUUlCft, O.Pl,vJI uuio.j
and 7 cents.
It will be perceived that the revenue from
customs for the last fiscal year exceeded by
757,070 dols., and 96 cents the estimate of
Ihe Secretary of the Treasury in his last an
mial report ; and that the aggregate leceipts
during the same period from customs, lands
and miscellaneous sources, also exceed the
estimates by the sum of 536,750 dols., nnd
59 cents indicating, however, a very near
approach in the estimate to the actual result.
The expenditures during tho fiscal year
ending on the 30th of June last, including
those for the war, and exclusive of payments
of principal and interest for the public debt,
were 42,811,970 dols., and three cents.
It is rstimntrtl that the receipts into llic trrnni'
rv for the fiscal year ending on the 30. of June,
1849, incluilinir the balance in the treasury on tlio
first of July last, will amount to the sum of 57,-
048,969 90: of which 833,000,000, it is cstima
ted, will lie derived from customs ; three millions
of dollars from the sale of public lands ; and one
million two hundred thousand dollars uom mis
cellaneous and incidental sources, including the
premium upon the loan, aud th.9 amount paid nnd
to le paid into the treasury on account of military
contributions in Mexico, and the sales of arms and
vessels and other public property rendered untft
eessnry for the use of the government by the ter
mination of the war; and $20,695,435 30 for
loans already negotiated, including treasury notes
funded, which, together with tne balance in the
treasury on tho 1. of July lt, muke the sum csti
The expenditures for the same period, including
the necessary payment on account of the princi
pal and interest or the public debt, and Hie pnnci.
pal and interest of the first instalment due to Mc
xico on the 30. of Mav next, and other cxpemli.
tures growing out of the war, to be paid during
the present year, will amount, including the rcim
hurscment of treasury notes, to the sum ot ai.iya,
275 06 : leaving an estimated balaneo in the tres
ury on the 1. of July, 1849, of 2,853,604 84 cts.
1 he Secretary of the Treasury will present, as
required by law, the estimate of the receipts and
expenditures for the next fiscal year. The expen
ditures as estimated for that year are $33,213,152
73 cts. including $3,799,102 18 for the interest of
the public debt, and $3,540,000 for the principal
and interest due to Mexico on the 30. May, 1850;
leaving the sum of 25,874,050 35 J which, it is be
lieved, will be ample for the ordinary peace expen
The operations of the tariff of 1846 have been
such during the past yeur as fully to meet the pub
lic expectation, and to confirm the opinion hereto
fore expressed of the wisdom of the change in our
revenue system winch was enected by it. 1 be re.
ceipts under it into the treasury for the fiscal year
tier its enactment exceeded by the sum of 5,44,.
403 09 the amount collected during the last fiscal
year under the tariff set of 1842, ending the 30th
June, 1846. The total revenue realized from the
commencement of its operation, on the 1. of Dec
1846, until the close of the last quarter, on the 30.
Sept. last, being 22 months, was $56,654,563 79
being a much larger sum than was ever before
received from duties during any equal period under
the tariff act of 1824, 1828, 1832 sod 1842.
Whilst by the repeal of highly protective andpro-
hibitory duties the revenue has been increased, the
taxes on the people have been diminished. 1 hey been made lor the transportation of the Paci
have been relieved from the heavy amounts with I fio mails across the isthmus from Chagres to
wnirn mey were uuruenea unuer lormer laws in
the form of iucreasd prices or bounties paid to (a-
vored classes and pursuits.
I he prcdicUons which were made, that the tariff
net of 1846 would reduce the amount of revenue expected to enter upon the mail service be
below that collected under the act of 1842, and tween Pnnnmn mul fWrrnn nnd ibo intoro.
um . uua.,.. ...u .uu, i diate ports, on the first ot January next, and a
penty of the country, have not been verihed. W ith fourth httg hoen engaged by him for the ser-
an increased and increasing revenue, the finances vice between Havaaa and Chagres, so that a
are in a highly flourishing- condiUou. Agriculture, rern,lar monthlv mail will T kpnt ,,n r.
commerce, and navigation, are prosperous; the
prices of manufactured fabrics, and of other pro
ducts, are much less injurioesly atl'ocujd than was
to have been anticipated, from the unprecedented
revulsions, which during the last and the present
year, have overwhelmed the industry and naruly
xcd the credit and commerce of so many great and
enlightened nations of Euroc.
Several commercial revulsions abroad huve
always heretofore operated to depress, nnd
often to affect disastrously, almost every
bruncn ot American industry, the tempora
ry depression of a portion of our maiiufactur
lug interests is the c-i.cct ot foreign causes,
and is far less severe than has prevailed on
an loimer similar occasions.
It is believed that, looking to the great ag
gregate of all our interests, the whole country
was never more prosperous than at the pre
sent period, and never more rapidly advanc
ing in wealth and population. Neither, the
foreign war in which we have been involved,
nor tne loans wmcn nave absorbed so larce
portion of our capital, nor the commercial re
vulsions in Great Britain in 1847, nor the pa
ralysis of credit and commerce throughout
Europe in 1848, have affected injuriously to
any considerable extent any ot the creat in
terests of the country, or arrested our onward
marcn to greatness, wealtn and power.
u., tho ..i,o., ; u,.
red, our commerce would undoubtedly have
been stiU more extended and would have ad-
ded still more to the national wealth and pub-
ho prosperity. But notwithstanding these
disturbances, the operations of the revenue
system established by the tariff act of 1846 JUU,,U "UK1 Br M scheme ot internal im
hava been so srenerallv beneficial to tha . Pro.vett?rils. The several branches of this
ernment and the business of the country, that fx T . i"ay?' era M ntlmtely blended
no change in its provisions is demanded by a T t! 1 J" he' OP8110" acl sustain
wise publio policy, and none is recommended. flJ!.- ,trenB,hened the others. Their joint
The Constitutional or Sub-Treasury, is
highly lauded. Under its extensive operations
not dollar ha been lost, notwithstanding
the revulsions in Em-one. lis M,,iin,,.n
In my message of the sixth of July last,
transmitting to Congress the tatified treaty of
commendation. I refer you to the considera
" presented in mat message in its support,
The publio debt, including that authorized to
be negotiated, in pursuance of existing laws,
and including treasury notes, amounted at
mai ume io od,i78,45u uols.. and 41 cents.
Funded stock of the United States, amount
ing to about half a million of dollars, has been
purchased, as authorized by law. since that
period, ana tne publio debt has thus been re
3 I . ,1 r t i .,,
auced ; the details of which will be presented
m me anuuai repori oi ine secretary oi me
.i--- . .!.,.. ......
The estimates of expenditures for the next
fiscal year, submitted by the Secretary of the
ireasury, u js ueiieveu win ue nmpie iur an
necessary Purposes. If the appropriations
will be sufficient to defray all the expenses
of the government ; to pay off the next in-
stalment of three millions ot dollars to mexi
co, which will fall due on the 3Utn ot jxiay
next : and still a considerable surplus will re
main, which should be applied tc the further
purchase ol the public stocK and tne reduc
tion ot the debt.
f A branch Mint is again recommended at
New York as well ns the reduction of the
price of the unsold public lands.
Our present Military establishment is con
sidered sufficient as long as our peaceful rela
tions are disturbed. J
the .military contributions collected in
Mexico exceeds $1,100,000.
Our Indian relations are presented in a
most favorable view in the report from the
War Department. The wisdom of our policy
in regard to the tribes within our limits, is
clearly manifested by their improved and
rapidly improving condition.
A most important treaty with the Menom-
onies has been recently negotiated by the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs in person, by
which all their land in the blate ot Wiscon
sin being about four millions of acres has
been ceeded to the United States. This
treaty will be submitted to the Senate for
ratification at an early period of your present
session. c.
Within the last four years, eight important
treaties have been negotiated with different
Indian tribes, nnd at a cost of 1,842,000 dols.;
Indian lands to the amount of more than
18,500,000 acres have been ceded to the Uni
ted Stales, and provision has been made tor
settling in the country west of the Mississippi
the tribes which occupied this large extent of
tho public domain. The title to all the Indi
an lands within the several States of our Uni.
on, with the exception of a few small reser
vations, is now extinguished, and a vast re
gion opened for settlement and cultivation.
Iholteportot the Secretary ot tne invy
gives a satisfactory exhibit of tho operations
and condition of that branch of the publio
The contract for the transportation of the mail
in steamships convertible into war steamers, pro.
misc to realize nil the benefits to our commerce and
to the navy which were anticipated. The first
steamer thus secured to tho Government was
launched in Jnnuary 1847. There ore now scv
en i nnd in another year there will, probably, be no
less than seventeen afloat. While this great na
tional advantage is secured, our social and com
mercial intercourse is increased and promoted with
Germany, Great Britain, and other parts of Eu-
roiie, with all the countries on tho YV est Const of
our continent, especially with Oregon and Califor
nia and between the northern and southern sec.
tions of tho United States. Considerable revenues
may 1 expected from postages; but tho connec
ted line ffom New York to Chagros, nnd thence
across the isthmus to Oregon, cannot fail to exert
a liencficinl influence, not now to be estimated, on
the interests of Ihe manufacturers, commerce, nav.
igation and currency of the United States. As au
important part of the n stein, I recommend to your
fuvorsblc consideration the establishment of the
proposed line of steamers between New Orleans
id era Cruz. It promises tho most happy rc
suits in cementing friendship lictween the two re
publics, and in extending reciprocal benefits to the
trade and manufacturers of both.
The report of tho Postmaster General will make
known to you the oiwrutions of that department
lor tne past year.
It is gratifying to nnd the revenues of the dc
pnrtment rapidly increasing. The gross amount
of postages during the last fiscal year amounted to
4,371,077 dols., exceeding the annual average re
ceived for the nine years immediately preceding
the passage ot the act af the 3. of March, 1815, by
the sum of 7,453 dols., and exceeding the amount
received for the year ending the 13. of June, 1847,
by the sura of 425,184 dols.
i he expenditures for the year, excluding the
sum of 94,672 dols. allowed by Congress at its
session to individual claimants, and including the
sum of one hundred thousand five hundred dollars
paid for the services of the line of steamers be
tween Bremen and New York, amounted to 4,.
198,845 dols., which is loss than the anuuai aver
ago for the nine years previous to the act of 1845,
by 300,748 dols.
J he increase of mad transportation, in three
years, has been over 3 millions of miles, sta reduc
tion of expense or 15 per cciit.
During the past year there have been era
ployed, under contracts with the Post Office
Department, two ocean steamers in convey.
ing the mails monthly betweeu New York
and Bremen and one, since October last,
performing semi-monthly service between
I Charleston and Havana ; and a contract has
- Under the authority given to the Secretary
nf the Navv. three ocean steamers have lww
constructed and sent to the Pacific, and are
ter that time between tho United States and
our territories on the Pacific.
Notwithstanding this great increase in the
mail service, should the revenue continue to
increase the present year as it did in the last,
there will be received near 450,000 dollars
more than the expenditures.
These considerations have satisfied the
Postmaster General that, with certain modifi
cations of the act of 1845, the revenue may
be still further increased, and a reduction of
postages made to a uniform rate of fire eenls,
without an interference with the principle,
which has been constantly and properly en
forced, of making that department sustain
A well-digested cheap postage system is
the best means of diffusing intelligence among
the people, and is of so much importance in
a country so extensive as that of the United
btates, that I recommend to your favorable
consideration the suggestions of Jhe Postmas
ter General for its improvement.
The President says, the present cciidilion
our country is similar in some, respects to
that which existed immediately after the close
of the war with Great Britain in 1815, when
there was a departure from the earlier policy
of our government, in the enlargement its
powers uy construction. Tha Prol,lnt thn
-""" '"ng aisquisition ot several co.
. J?.0," the VK efleoU reu"'n& from ,n
es,aDll8hment of the old U.S. Bank, which
" .T?VU!Te?. ' "8 question of a protective
'ne.astribution of the proceeds of the
a . n D"r(e"i
i?...Bl.ld. t0 eno"rae largely inoi eased and
w P!n'1'"r ot tne public-money. J
. l""Bm n say. oeiioeraiea ten
i signed the bill.
actually prepared for him & veto, as found a-
invito mo iTjuuisun papers.! ,
The President then ooncludes with an ela
borate argument, of several columns, in de
fence of the veto power, which power he av
he has exercised three times. The last limn
on the River and Harbor bill.
The President then finally concludes as fol
lows : It may indeed be truly said that my
administration has fallen upon eventfui times.
I have felt most sensibly the weight of the
responsibilities devolved upon me. With no
other obiect than the publio good, the endu
ring fame, and permanent prosperity of my
country, I have pursued the convictionsof my
own best judgment. jAmiws r.. ruL.n.
Washington, December o, i4B.
II. B. MASjSER, Editor and Proprietor.
E.W. CARR. Evani' Ruilriiiw. ThiM tr. onnowte
the Phitndeliihia KxctiAnire. iBretrnlurlv authorized to receive
advertisements and subscriptions fur this paper, and receipt
iui mc mii u v.
tU" We call the attention of our readers
to a well written communication on our
first page, from a friend and correspondent
at Philadelphia, on the subject of the late
Revolutions in Europe.
117s" The President's Message this week
prevents uh giving the usual amount of edi
torial and other matter.
The great length of the message prevents
us publishing the whole. We therefore
lay before our readers this week, the most
important portions, entire. The less impor
tant parts in brackets, we have conden
sed, so that our readers can have the sub
stance of the whole. It is a well written
document. Its arguments in favor of the
free trade policy, though elaborate and in
genious, are not convincing.
CP" In another column our readers will
find the proceedings of the Taylor festival
held at this place last week, which we pub
lish at the request of several of our Taylor
friends. The proceedings are characterised
with moderation, and the toasts, with some
few exceptions are such as might be re
sponded to by any good democrat.
tEF" Postage. The President recom
mends a uniform rate of 5 cents postage on
all letters. We trust the law allowing
newspapers tJ be carried free under 30
miles will also be passed without delay.
K7 IIoo Raising. There has been
great rivalry of late years among many of
our citizens on the subject of raising large
and fat hogs. Some of the good people, in
that line, in Hog street (sometimes vulgarly
called Fawn street,) have, we understand,
formed themselves into an association, to
promote the business. No man can become
a member unless, within three years past,
he has raised a hog weighing not less than
300 p&unds. We cant come it this year
yet. Persons are requested to report the
weight of their pork to the President.
"Spumous Democracy. The Sunbury A
merican, and Evening Bulletin, in the ab
sence of anything else to say, are out against
Gen. Bowman's letter to Gov. Johnston.1'
The above is irom our magnanimous
friend Col. Tate of the Bloomsburg Demo
crat, who like all peace loving military
heroes, is exceedingly thin skinned on all
subjects connected with military titles.-
We said nothing against our friend Gen.
Bowman. All we did say was, that we
deemed his letter to Governor Johnston,
"uncourteous and in bad taste" and we think
so still. We have no very exalted idea of
paper heroes, who are sometimes exceedingly
valiant on paper, or on a pacing pony, not
exactly in the "tented field," but at a par
ade in a ten acre field, where every avenue
and bar post is guarded to prevent the
enemy's ingress.
fXF" The Credit System. As some of
our contemporaries are discussing the credit
system, that should be, among the corps
editorial, we will take occasion to remind
Friend Hutter of the, Lancaster Intelligen
cer, that he bas appropriated to his own
use without credit, an editorial article, en
titled "A Thought for Winter" from our
paper of the 18th ult. We would not be
so tenacious, but that the article was the
production of a young friend, who kindly
took charge of our editorial columns during
our absence.
IE?" Cholera. Seven cases are report
ed to have occurred in New York.
IT"" Thb Weather. Wednesday last
was as mild arl as pleasant as the best days
of September.
Reported for the Buulsuy Aiunuxm.
The friends of Taylor of the Borough of Sun
bury and of Rush, Upper and Lower Augusta
townships, met at the house of Captain Peter
Lazarus on Thursday, the 30th ult., and par
took of a sumptuous and delicious dinner, pre
pared in the choicest style by our worthy host,
whioh reflected the highest credit upon his
last and liberality as a caterer.
After the removal of tha cloth, the meeting
was organised by choosing Major WILLIAM
O. SCOTT, as President
William McCatt, Hugh Bsxlas, Esq.,
Col. Elisha Klivk, Peter OBEapoar, James
Forrester, James Campbell, Henrt Gulice,
and Charles Hollabach, Vioe Presidents.
Charles Bogar and Emanuel Katiffman. Sec
Major Scott, upon taking the head of tHrJ
table made a few brief and pertinent remark!
bpon the felicitous result of our late State anrj
National elections) and that as wa had met
for the purpose of interchanging congratula
tions upon the glorious triumph of Jtfferto-
nian Democratic principles, proposed tha fol
lowing sentiment:
Qovernor (Tilliam P. Johnston. Bv his ta
lents integrity and industry, he carried Penn
sylvania. Hugh Bellas, Esq., beinir called on addret-'
sed the meeting with great spirit and anima
tion, during which he was frequently inter
rupted with cheers and applause, upon con-"
eluding his remarks he offered the following:
The honet democrat!, who save broken the fett
ten of party and united in the support of Taylor
for the prosperity of our country.
The cheering having subsided William
McCarty, next entertained the meeting in i
speech replete with sound sentiment and
with "flashes of wit and merriment"
"That were wont to set the table on a roar"
and closed with the following :
Tim Whig Party The real Jeffersonisn Demo
The following are a few of the numerous
toasts which were responded to by the cheers
of the Company, amidst the deafening roars
of the cannon, command by that gallant vete
ran whig, Capt. Henry Brown of Upper Au
gusta township.
By Col.Elisha Klint-Tbe Taylor men of Upper
Augusta, when assured that their principles are.
right like their Patriot chief, "trill never turren
der." v
By Peter Oberdorf Governor Johnston A
statcman worthy of the chair he occupies, courte
ous and gentlemanly, honest and firm enough to
execute the high trust imposed upon him without
fear or favor.
By Jamet Forrester Pennsylvania, the bat
tle ground of the late Presidential contest, has no
bly secured the victory.
By James Campbell Hon. Jus. Pollock the
able and fearless advocate of American Industry
nigncr Honors await mm.
By Henry Gtc-The 13th with Joseph Casey
stands true to tho protective policy, despite of the-
Dos st ot untisn iree traders to rettrem it.
By Charles llollabncii Sehuullill County feel
ing the wide spread ruin of her interests under
the Taritrof '46, has arisen in her majesty and
proclaimed to the world that she is opposed to the
ice Jt'rcsiucnt s casting vote and m favor of pro
tecting American Industry and her great staple
By Cunt. Henry lirott-n The tint n dors of Tay
lor's cannon at Monterey and uent Via, awa
kened the A merican people jus sense of his
merits anil they have honored vm by an election
to the highest civil office in the world, and to be
commander-in-chief of her Army and Navy.
uy L-apt. Samuel tetter rennsylvania, a
northern volcano she has been laboring for years
too numerous to mention, under Loco-foco attend
ance, but in '48, she buret forth and was delivered
of her burden of sin.
By Col. J. H. PtirdyGeti. Taylor, the Presi
dent of the U. States. The "Rough and Kcady,"
of the people's choice the brave warrior the kind
hearted man the true Patriot and the workman's
By C. O. Baehman The Tariff of '42 The
corner stone of Pennsylvania's prosperity. Shame
and confusion awaits the enemies thereof.
By Peter S. Master Gen. Taylor, the Hero
of Bucna Vista and the conqueror of his country's
By Capt Samuel Huntet Pennsylvania
Honored and respected for her just laws and equal
rights her illustrious patriotism and unparalleled
bravery, may she ever sustain this exalted char
acter. By TI'i. S. Grant To tlio old man from Ba
ton Kouge may his name be remembered wheu
others shall be lost in a vortex of Revolution.
By linden l'tgely Pennsylvania by her late
decision at the ballot Box, has evinced a just sense
of her rights and interests, and that in understand
ing them, she mil maintain them.
By Jacob Painter Stanly county of North
Carolina she gave unanimous vote for General
By John Speeee Henry Clay the sage of
Ashland the Patriot and the stateman.-
By Christian Sower, Esa.
Success to Old Zack, and likewise to Scott
Who so gallantry fought on the line,
And with broad sword in hand,
Did so valiantly stand,
'Till they conquered that Devil,
Who ran like the Devil
I mean Old Suuta Anna,
By Jacob Seesholtz The perpetuity of the
By Edward M. Hall Gen. Taylor The peo
ple's President tlio Hero of Mexico the friend
of the Farmer, Mechanic and Laborer the scho
lar and statesman.
By Peter Hileman The glorious result of our
state and National elections prove that where true
interests of the country are made known and un
derstood Demagogues are permitted to retrace
their steps and take a back track on the Baltimore
By Wm. A. Fetter. Milliard Fillmore
staunch Whig, whose principles are firm & unwa
vering, The interests of the country will never be
betrayed by his casting vote.
By the Company Our esteemed fellow citiien
the Hon. Lewis Dewart may the blessings o
health and happiness attend hiin.
nil ' .1 i
Corrected weekly by Henry Manser.
Whsat. - .1(M
Ris. .... 5f
Coax. - . . 5(
Oats. .... 3(
Bi-TTia. . . It
Elms. ... 10
Pork. ....
Flsxssid. .... 12,'
Tallow. . . . If
Beeswax. - . JJ
Flax. - . t
Heckled Flax. 1(
Duiid ArriEs. . .7!
Do. Peaches. ... 2(K
Auditors JXotice.
THE undersigned appointed auditors by thi
Orphans' court of Northumberland county
in the matter of the Estate of Daniel Hollenbacr
dee'd. will attend to the duties of his appoint
nu'nt at the office of Dewart & Brunor, hi ounbu
ry on Saturday the 30th day of December 1848
When and where all persons interfiled can attend
WM. J. MARTIN, Auditor.
Sunbury, Dee. 9, 1818 3t
THE under.;-, jnj by ,he 0
Tinatis' Court of Northumberland Count;
to make distribution to and among the heirs
and legal representatives of Thomas Grant
deo'd ; hereby notifies all persons interested
in said matter, that be will attend to the du
ties of his appointment on Wednesday, th
27th of December, 1848, at 10 o'clock A. M
at the office of Dewart & Bruner, in the bo
rough of Sunbury. CHARLES J. BRUNER,
Sunbury, Deo. 9, 1848. 3t
PATENT Trusses of all kinds, Harrison'
writing and indellibl ink, Cotton yam am
laps, just received and for sole by
, , . 4. W. FALLING.
Bunbury, pc. X, 1848.
l AIWIIMH, currant, aLron,
cheese. fMtnn
IV sauna. 4V Fnr ..U k J. W FRII.IMSl
8uubury, Decs, 1848.
TEAS, from ths New York Canton and Pekii
Tea Company. For sale by
recommend 1 . oeor, ,19 glg
Mr. Madison, had
Bunbury, Dec Hit. '