The Jeffersonian. (Stroudsburg, Pa.) 1853-1911, December 15, 1853, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    H)cu0tcJr to 3oiitics, literature, Agriculture 0ricncc, JHorqJitij, anb (Enteral Intciligcrfcc.
VOL. 14.
Head in the two Houses of Congress, Dec. 6,
1853. ' '
TPcllow-citizens of the Senate and House of
The interest, with which the people of the
Hepublic anticipate the assembling of Con
gress, and the fulfilment, on that occasion, of
the duty imposed upon a new President, is
one of the best evidence of their capacity to
realize the hopes of the founders of a politi
cal system, at once complex and symmetrical.
"While the different branches of the govern
ment arc, to a certain extent, independent of
of each other, the duties or all, alike, have
direct reference to the source of power. For
tunately, under this system no man is so high,
and none so humble, in the scale' of public
station as to escape from the scrutiny or to
be exempt from the responsibility, with all
official functions imply.
Upon the justice and intelligence of the
masses, in a government thus organized, is
the sole reliance of the confederacy, and the J
only security for honest ami earnest devotion
to its iritersests, against the usurpations and
encroachments of power on the one hand and
the assaults of personal ambition on the other.
The interest, of which I have spoken, is
inseperable from an inquiring, self-governing
community, but stimulated, doubtless, at the
present time, by the unsettled condition of
our relations with several foreign powers; by
the new obligations resulting from a sudden
extension of the field of enterprise; by the
spirit with which that field has been entered,
and the amazing energy with which its re
sources fdr meeting the demands of humanity
have been developed.
Although disease assuming at one time the
characteristics of a wide-spread and devasta
ting pestilence, has left its sad traces upon
some portions of our country, we have still
the most abundant cause for reverent thank
fulness to God for an accumulation of signal
mercies- showered upon us as a nation. It is
well that a consciousness of rapid advance
ment and increasing strength be habitually
associated with an abiding sense of depend
ence npon Hin who holds in his hands the des
tiny of men and of nations.
Recognising the wisdom of the broad.prin
ciple of absolute religious toleration proclaim
ed in our fundamental law, and rejoicing in
benign influence which it has exerted upon
our social and political institutions, I should
shrink fiom a clear duty, did I fail to express
my deepest conviction, that we can place no
secure reliances upon any apparent progress,
if it be not sustained by national integrity,
resting upon the great truths affirmed and
illustrated by divine revelation. In the
midst of our sorrow for the afflicted and
suffering, it has been consoling to see how
promptly disaster made true neighbors of
districts and cities scperatcd widely from
each other and cheering to watch the
strength of that common bond of brother
hood, which unites all hearts, in all parts of
this Union, when danger threatens from
abroad or calamity impends over us at home.
Our Diplomatic relations with foreign pow
er havendergone no essential change since
the adjournment of the last Congress. With
some of them, questions of a disturbing char
acter are still pending, but there are good
reasons to belcive that these may all be ami
cable adjusted.
For some years past, Great Britain has so
construed the first article of the convention of
the 20th of April, 1818, in "regard to the
fisheries on the northeastern coast, as to ex
clude our citizens from some of the fishing
grounds to which they freely resorted for
nearly a quarter of a century subsequent
to the date of that treat'. The United
States have never acquiesed in this construc
f.tion but have always claimed for their fisher
men all the rights which they had so long en
joyed without molestation. With a view to
remove all difficulties on the subject, to ex-'
tend the rights of our fishermen leyond the 1
limits fixed by the convention" of- ISIS, and J
to regulate trade between the United States j
anrt thfi nntiRh !nrrh A mpnrn nrnvinpps
a negotiation has been opened, with a fair j
prospect of a favorable result. To nrotect
our fishermenin the enjoymentof their rights,
and prevent collision between them aud Brit
ish fishermen, I deemed it expedient to sta
tion a naval force in that quarter during the
fishing season.
A . i
f 1 . il r .
jcimuarrassing questions nave -also arisen
between the two governments in regard to !
Central America. Great. Britaiu has pro
posed to settle them by an amicable arrange
ment, and our minister at Loudon is instruc
ted to enter into negotiations on that sub
ject. A commission .for adjusting the cla.ims of
our citizens agaiust Great Britain, and those
of British subjects against4he United.States,
organized under the convention of the 8th of
February last is now sitting in London for commissioner io inai country wno nas oeen
the transaction of business. i cenOy appointed, is instructed to avail him-
Itis in many respects .disirabie that the !self on a? occasions to open and extend our
boundary line between the United States and I commercial relations not only with the empire
the British provinces in the northwest, as . of ,hut with other Asiatic nations,
desisted m the convention of the 15th of I lf2 au expedition was sent to.Tapan,
tIJ 186 am? facially that part, which .nnathe command of Commodore Perry,
!f the icrT'toiy of Washington from r th purpose of opening commercial inter
geperates.uie tcuulJ & course with that island. Intelligence has been
the British possession oi, J'e - a t rccicved ofIjis arrival there aud of his hav-
u& ifulcu wtu uiarMJu. j- wieiy i- .
thesnbject to your notice. '
jruufruuwuui cmwu is cuuuuuu uu iu -
most friendly Tooting. The .extensive .corn
merce between the United States
r -1.., nMcMr i.Aofrif;rt,,0 rt i,Q ;
lroin some unnecessary Tcsuncuons, xo ine i
mutual advantage of both parties. With a
view to this object, some .progress has been
made in negotiating a treaty of commerce
and navigation.
Independently of our valuable trade with
Spain, we have important political relations
with her, grp.wjn
to the islauds of
OssPJ"' -S -,r. " ;.'l nliiin . A fnniry n itmnrr, An i i n -.1 TjlU nA ' C hU If.U wlftMl if II O snMlCOll f mill (triit X1( PL, nf&j A
am happy to announce, that since the last
Congress no attempts have been made, by
unauthorized expeditions within the United
States, ajgainst either of these colonies.
Should any movement be manifested within
our limits, all the means at my command will
be vigerously exerted to repress it. sever -
'al annqying occurrences have taken place at
xiavana, or in the vicinity or tne island oi;
Cuba, between our citizens and Spanish au
thorities. Considering the proximity of that
island to our shores lying, as jt does, in
the track of trade between some of our prin
cipal cities and the suspecious vigilance
with which foreign, intercoursej particularly
that with the United States, is there guarded
a repetition of such occurrences may well be
apprehended. As no diplomatic intercourse
is allowed between our counsul at Havana
and the Captain-General of Cuba, ready ex
planation cannot be made, or prompt redress
afforded, where injury has resulted. All com
plaint on the part of our citizens, under the
present arrangement, must be, in the first
place, presented to this government, and then
refcred to Spain.
Spain again refers it to her local authori-
! ties in Cuba for investigation, and postpones
I an answer till she has heard from those au
j tborities. To avoid these irriating and vex
atious delays, a proposition has been made to
provide for a direct appeal for redress to the
Captain General by Our consul, in behalf of
our injurjed!citizens. Hitherto,the government
of Spain has declined to enter into such an
arrangment. This course on her part is deeply
regretted; for, without some arrangement of
this kind, the good understanding between
the two countries may be exposed to occa
sional interruption. Our minister at Madrid
is instructed to renew the proposition, and to
press it again upon the consideration of her
Catholic Majesty's government.
For several years Spain has been calling
the attention of this government to a claim
for losses, by some of her subjects, in the case
of the schooner Amistad. This claim is be
lieved to rest on the obligation imposed by
our existing treaty with that country. Its
justice was admitted, in our diplomatic cor
respondence with the Spanish government,
as early as March, 1847; and one of my pre
decessors in his annual message of that vear,
reccommended that provission should be made
for its payment. In January last it was a
gaiu submitted to congress bv the Executive
It has received a favorable sonsideratiou by
committees of both branches, but as yet there
lias been no nnal action upon it. 1 conceive
that good faith requires its prompt adjust
ment, and I present it to your early and fa
vorable consideration.
Marftn Koszta a Hungarian by birth, came
to this country in 1850. and declared his
intention in due form of law, to become a
citizen of the United States. After remain
ing here nearly two years, he visited Turkey.
While at Smyrna, he was forcibly seized, ta
ken on board an Austrian brig of war, then
lying in the harbor of that place, and there
confined m irons with the avowed design to
take him into the dominions of Austra. Our
consul at Smyrna and legatiom at Constanti
nople interposed for his release, but their
efforts were ineffectual. hue thus imprisen
ed, Commander Ingraham with the United
States ship of war St. Louis, arrived at Smyr
na, and after inquiring into the circumstances
of the case, came to the conclusion that Kos
zta was entitled to the protection of this gov
ernment, and took energetic and prompt
measures for his release under an arrange
ment between the agents of the United States
and of Austria, he was transferred to the
custody of the French consul-general at Smy
rna, there to remain until he should be dis
posed of by the mutual agreement of the con
suls of the respective government at that
place. , Pursuant to that agreement he has
been released and is now on his way to the
United States. The Emperor of Austria
has made the conduct of our officers who took
part in this transaction a subject of grave
complaint. Regarding Koszta as still his
subject, and claiming a right to seize him
within the limits of the Turkish empire, he
has demanded ofthis government its consent
l surrender of the prisoner, a disavowal
of tbe acts of lts agents, and satisfaction for
tne alleged outrage. Alter a carelul con:
elusion that Koszta was seized without legal
authority at Smyrna; that he was wrongfully
detained on board of the Austrian brig of
war, that, at the time of his seizure, he was
clothed with the nationality of the United
ti i j 1 r ,1 i - " nr
states; and tnat tne act oi our oincers, un-
der the circumstances of the case, were iusti
! liable, and their conduct has been fully ap-
I proved by me, and the compliance with the
several demands of the Emperior of Austria
has beeiL.declincd.
The condition of Chiua,at this time,renders
it probable that some important changes will
occur in that vast empire, which will lead to
a m0P unrestricted intercourse with it. The
made known to the .Emperor of Japan the .
- viiect of this visit; but it is not yet ascertain-'
rlY the Emperor will bo disposed to
ave .com- abandoll jjjg restrictive policy, and open that j versaljy seen and admitted to hare been wise
and that lous c0.jntry to a commercial intercourse jjn policy, jhsfe in character, aud a great ele
released 1-1-. i . -. m . I. i,n -. a -.. t ....
with the United estates
th the United fctates.
It has been my earnest desire to maintain
With Mexico, a dispute has arisen as to the
true boundary bne between pur territory or
inenoiy intercourse wilu me guvuiiuum.ijwii uvm, . jiuoyvn.j, nun i uHijhumo,
ii i j T J.1- - r,4-r mvrr 1 Iaiii hi' nVAunnvilt' riitsl i Itinmnncp
this continent, and to aid them in preserving Thirteen btates iiave grown to. thirty-.
Aw- ArRTipnHivriitnjMftvinnri Rtnfp of ( n m- uam deopiyscnsii) oioMhe immenscirespon-.
ant tojthe treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,made
a serious mistake in determiding the initial
poiut on the Rio Grande; but inasmuch as
his decision was clearly a departure from the
directions for tracing the boundary contained
in the treat, and was not concurred in by the
j surveyor appointed on the part of the United
States, whose concurrence was necessary to
give validity to that decision, this govern-
ment is not concluded thereby: but that of
Mexico takes a different view of the subject.
There arc also other questions of considerable
magnitude pending between the two repub
lics. Our minister in Mexico has ample in
structions to adjust them. Negotiations have
been opened, but sufficient progress has not
been made therein to enable meto speak of the
probable result. Impressed with the impor
tance or maintaining amicable relations with
that republic, and of yielding with liberality
to all her just claims, it is reasonable to ex
pect that an arrangement mutually satisfac
tory to both countries may be concluded, and
a lasting friendship between them confirmed
and perpetuated.
Congress having provided for a full mission
to the States of Central America, a minister
was sent thither in July last. As yet he has
had time to visit only one of these States,
(Nicaragua,) where lie was received in the
most friendly manner. It is hoped that his
presence and good offices will have a benign
effect in composing thedissensions which pre
vail among them, and in establishing still
more intimate and friendly relations between
them respectively, and between each of them
and the United States.
Considering the vast regions of this conti
nent, and the number of States which would
be made accessible by the free navigation of
the river Amazon, particular attention has
been given to this subject. Brazil, throngh
whose territories it passes into the ocean, has
hitherto persisted in a policy so restrictive,
in regard to the use of this river, as to ob-
struct and nearly exclude, foreigu commer
cial intercourse with the States which lie up
on its tributaries and upper branches. Our
minister to that country is instructed to ob
tain a relation of that policy, and to use his
efforts to induce the Brazilian government to
open to common use, under proper safeguards,
this great natural highway for international
Several of the South American States
are deeply interested in this attempt to
secure the tree navigation of the Amazon, ! Neither as to the sources of the public trca
and it is reasonable to expect their co-cpera-' snre, nor as to the manner of keeping and
tion in the measure. As the advantages of managing it, does any grave controversy
free commercial intercourse among nations ; now prevail, there being a general acquies
are better understood, more liberal views are ' encc in the wisdom of the present system,
generally entertained as to the common rights The report of the Secretary of the Treasury
of all to the free use of those means which will exhibit in detail, the state of the public
nature has provided for internal communica- J finances, and the condition of the various
tion; To these more liberal and enlightened branches of the public service administered
views, it is hoped that Brazil will conform
ner poncy, and remove all unnecessary re
i i? -i ii
strictions upon the free use of a river, which
traverses so many states and so large a part
of the continent. I am happy to inform vou
that the republic of Paraguay and the Ar
gentine Confederation have yeilded to the,
liberal policy still resisted by Brazil, in re
gard to the navigable rivers within their re
spective territories. Treaties embracing tills
subject among others have been negotiated
with these governments, which sub
mitted to the seuate at the present session.
A new branch of commerce, important to
the agricultural iuterests of the U. S., has, ' from customs, and two millions four hundred
wilhiu a few years past, l)cen opened with j and five thousand seven hundred and eight
Perue. Notwithstanding the inexhaustible J dollars from public lands and other niiscella
deposits of guano upon the island of that : neous sources, amounting together to sixty
couutry considerable difficulties are experi-; one millions three hundred and thirty-seven
euced in obtaining the requisite supply. Mca- ; thousand five hundred and seventy-four dol
sures have been taken to remove these diffi- ' lars: while the public expenditures for the
culties, aud secure a more abundant impor-
tation ot the article. Unfortunately, there
has been a serious collissiou between our cit
izens, who have resorted to the Chincha
island for it,-and the Paruvian authorities
stationed there. Redress for the outrages,
committed by the latter, was promptly de
manded by our minister at Lima. This sub
ject is now under consideration, and there is
reason to believe that Peru is disposed to of
fer adequate indemnity to the aggrieved
parties. ,
We are thus not only at peace with all fo
reign countries, but in regard to political af
fairs; are exempt from any cause of serious
disquietude in domestic relations.
The controversies, winch have agitated
ll. i- I. i f . "it
me uouiiu) nereioiore, are passing away wun
the causes which produced ' them and the
passions which they had awakened; or, if
any trace of then; remains, it may be reason-
ably hoped that it. will only be pcrceived-in
the zealous rivalry of all good citizens to
testify their respect for the rights of the
States, their devotion to the Union, aiid their
common determination that each one of the
States, its institutions, its domestic peace
shall be held alike- secure under the sacred
aigis of the constitution.
This new league of amity and of mutual
confidence and support, into which the peo
ple of the republic, have entered, happily af
fords inducement and opportunity for the a
doptioh of a more comprehensive said unem
barrassed line of policy and action, as to the
great material interests of the country
whether regarded in themselves or in con
nexion with the powers of the civilized world.
The Uk States have continved gradually
and steadily to expand, thrpugh acquisitions
of territory, which, how much soever some of
them mayiiave been questioned, are now uili
jnent in the advancement ot our
in free-
and, with it, of the human race,
side, and on the other to the distant realms
oi i.sia.
themselves. with relations reaching to Europe on the
of its interests, devolves upon me: the alle-
viation of which, so far as relates to the im-
mediate conduct ot the public business is,
first, in my reliance on the wisdom and pat
riotism of the two Houses of Congress; and,
secondly, in the directions afforded me bv the
principles of public polity, affirmed by our sums ot outstanding arrears due to tue govern
fathers of the epoch of 1798, sanctioned by ment, and .of other reforms in the administra
Iong experience, and consecrated anew by tive action of his department, which are indi
the overwhelming voice of the people of the catcjd by the Secretary; as also to the pro-
united States.
Recurring to these principles, which con
stitute the organic basis of union, we per
ceive that, vast as are-the functions and du
ties of the federal government, vested in, or
entrusted to, its. three great dep'artments,
the legislative, executive and judicial, yet the
substantive power, the popular force, and the
popular force, and the large capacities for
social and material developement, exist in
the respective States, which all being of
themselves well constituted republics, as they
preceded, so they alone are capable of main
taining and perpetuating the American U
nion. The federal government has its ap
propriate line of action in the specific and
limited powers conferred on it by the consti
tution, chiejly as to those things in which the
States have a common interest in their rela
tions to one another? and to foreign govern
ments; while the great mass of interests which
t . . t..- ,1 " 1 I
belong to cultivated men,, the ordinary busi-
ness of life, the springs of industry, all the modihcation, to adapt it to the present extcn
divcrsificd personal and domestic affairs of ded limits k frontier relations of the country,
society, rest securely upon the general reser-
ved powers ot the people ot the several
Stales. There is the effective democracy of
the nation, aud the vital essence of its being
and its greatness.
Of the practical conseqnences "which flow
from the nature of the federal government,
the primary one is the duty of administering
with integrity and hdelitv the high trust re
posed in it by the constitution, especially the
people, and appropriated to specific objects
by Congress, nappily I have no occasion
to suggest any radical changes in the finan
cial policy of the government. Ours is al
most, if not absolutely, the solitary power
! of Christendom
having a
surplus revenue.
j drawn immediately
from imports on com
mercc, and therefore measured by an indi
rcct relation to agriculture, manufactures,
and the products of the earth and sea, as to
violate no coiistitutionol doctrine, and yet
. vigorously promote the general welfare.
! by that department of the government.
The revenue of the country levied almost
insensibly to the tax payer, goes on from
' year to year increasing beyond either
interests or
the prospective wants of
At the close of the fiscal year ending June
30, 1852, there remained in the Treasury a
balance of fourteen millions six hundred and
thirty-two thousand one hundred and thirty
six dollars. The public revenue for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1853, amounted to fifty
eight millions nine hundred and thirtv-onn
thousand eight hundred and sixty-five dollars
same period, exclusive of payments on account
of the public debt, amounted to forty-three
millions five hundred aud fifty-four thousand
two hundred and sixty-two dollars; leaving
a ballance of thirty-two millions four hundred
and twenty-five thousand four hundred aud
forty-seven dollars of receipts above expendi
tures. This fact, of increasing surplus in the trea
sury, became the subject of anxious consider
ations at a very early period of my adminis
tration, and the path of duty in regard to it
seemed to me obvious and clear, namely: first,
to apply the surplus revenue to the discharge,
of the public debt, so far as it could judicious-"
ly be done; and.secondly, to devise means for
! the gradual reduction of the revenue to
i i -I T -P il 11" i f
standard oi me puuuc exigencies
Of these obiects, the first has beea in the
course of accomplishment in a manner and to
a degree highly satisfactory. The amount of
the public debts of all classes, was, on the 4th
.of March, 1853, sixty-nine million one hun
dred and ninety thousand and thirty-seven
dollars; payments on account of which have
been-made, since that period, to the amount!
of twelve million seven hundred and three
thousand three hundred and twenty-nine
dollars, leaving unpaid, and4h the continuous
course of liquidation, the sum of fifty-six mil
lion four hundred and., eicrhtv-six thousand
seven hundred and eight dollars. These pay-
ments, although made at the market price of 1
the respective classes of stocks, have been J
effected readily, and to the general advantage
of the treasury, and have at the same time
proved Of signal utility in the relief they have
incidentally afforded to the money market and
to the industrial and commercial pursuits off
the country,
The second of the above-mentioned objects,,
that-of the reduction of the turiff, is of great?
importance, and the plan suggested bv tho
Secretary of the Treasury, which is to reduce!
tho duties on certain articles, and to add to
the free list many articles now taxed, audi
especially such as enter into manufactures,
and are not largely, or at all, produced in the
country, is commended
candid uml
careful consideration.
You will find in the report qfitlieecretary
ofthe Treasury;, also nbundauKprjpolff of tho
entirjQadequaoy. of the.prescntlfis.c'alystoni
loiiiicet'iliatliefrjcqinfcmenta ot thefublie
service, and that, while properly administer-
eel, it operates to the advantage 01 tne com-
munuy m ordinary business relations.
I respectfully -ask your attention to sundry
suggestions of improvements in the settlement
i 1 1
of accounts, especially as regards the large
gress made is the construction of marine hos-
pitais, custom-nouses, and ot a new mint in
California and assay office in the city of New
York, heretofore provided for bv Congress;
and also to the eminently successful progress
of the Coast Survey, and of the Light-house
Among the objects meriting your attention
will be important recommendations from the
Secretaries of War and Navy. I am fully
satisfied that, the navy of the United Ssates
is not in a condition of strength and effici
ency commensurate with the magnitude of
our commercial aud other interests; and
commend to your especial attention the
suggestions on this subject, made by the
Secretary of the Navy. I respectfully sub
mit that the army, which, under our system,
must always be regarded with the highest
interest, as a nucleus around which the
volunteer forces of the nation gather in
the hour ol danger, requires augmentation or
j . - , . ...
and tne condition ot the. Jndian tribes m the
interior of. .the continent: the necessity of
which will appear in the communications of
the Secretaries of War and the Interior.
In the administration of the Post Office'
Department for the fiscal year ending June
30, 18s3, the gross expenditure was $7,982,
156 00; and the gross receipts, during the
same period, $5,942,734: 00; showing that
the current revenue failed to meet the cur
rent expenses of the department by the sum
of $2,042,032. The causes which, under the
present postal system and laws, led inevita
bly to this result, are fully explained by the
r.eport of the Postmaster General; one great
cause being the cnormons rates the depart
ment has been compelled to pay for mail ser
vice rendered by railroad companies.
The exhibit in the report of the Postmas
ter General of the income and expenditures
by mail steamers will be found peculiarly in
teresting, and-of a character to demand the
immediate action of Congress.
Numerous and flagrant frauds upon the
Pension Bureau have been brought to light
the last year, and, in some instances, merited
the punishments inflicted; but, unfortunate
ly, in others, guilty parties have escaped, not
through the want of sufficient evidence to
warrant a conviction, but in consequence of
the provision of limitation m the
From the nature of these claims, the re-
moteness of the tribunals tf pass them, aud which have been devised, with the largo
the mode in which the proof is, of necessity, experience furnished within the last few
furnished, temptations to crime have been i years in relation to the nature and treat
greatly stimulated by the obvious difficulties j ment of the disease, that it will prove an
of dection. The defects in the law upon this ' asylum indeed to this most helpless and
subject are so apparent, and so fatal to the j afflicted class of sufferers, and stand as a
ends of justice, that your early action relat- i. nolle monument of wisdom and mercy,
ing to it is most desirable. " Under the acts of Congress of August
During the last fiscal year, 9,819,411 acres 31, 1852, and of March 3, 1853, designed
of the public lands have been surveyed, and ' to secure for the cities of Washington and
10,363,891 acres brought into market . Georgetown an abundant supply of good
Within the'same period, the sales by public and wholesome water, it became my duty
purchase and private e'ntry amoniited to 1,- ' to examine the report and plans of the
083,495 acres; located under military boun-1 engineer who had charce of tbe surveys
Lji Hum MUHillU--, U,.,OUU U CI US', iUCUlCU
under other certificates, 9,427 acres; ceded
to the States as -swamp lands, 10,084,253
acres; selected for railroad and other objects,
under acts of Congress, 1,447, 45G acres.
Total amount of lands disposed of within
the fiscal year, 25,345,992 acres; which is an
increase in quantity sold, and located under
land warrants and grants, of 12,231, SI 8
acres over the fiscal year immediately pre
ceding. The quantity of land sold during the
4 ... i .. A n i io onn 1 i
second and third quarters of 1852, was 334,-
451 acres. The amouut received ther
was $023,GS7. The quantity sold the second
and third nuarters ot t in vonr is.v? wns i
1,609,919 arrcs; and the amount received
therefor, $2,22fi,8 7 6. j
MM"ifl r i i v K-.. -." 1 1 ! 1
j-xic h uui uumuui ui liuiu wun anus issued
niifW-nvicHm.- Wo i, n. onn,
temberlast. wis 266 0 1-2. nrwIuVhtlVnu-L
outstanding, at that date, 60,947. Thequau-
- ' J 1 J - 1 w waawavs 1 J
tity ot land required to satisfy these outstan
ding warrants, is 4,778,120 acres.
Warrants have been issued to 30th Sep
nber last, under the act of 11th February
1847, calling for 12,S79,280 acres; under
acts of Sept ember 29,JS50, and March 2S,
1852, calling for 12,505,001) acres; making
a total of 25,3S4,640 acres. '
It is believed that experience has verified
the wisdom and justice of the present 'system
with regard to the public domain, in .most
essential particulars.
You will perceive, from the report of the
Secretary of the Interior, the opinions, which
have often been expressed in relation to the
operation of the land system, as not being a
source of rovenne to the federal treasury,
were erroneous. The net profits' from the
sale of the public lands to June 30 1853,
amounted to the sum of $53,289,465.
1 recommend the extension of the land
i r t y t i
.system over the TcrritbricVof Utah aud New
Mexico, with' such mo'dications as their pc
culiaritics may require.
llegarding our public domain as chiefly
valuable to provide homes for the industri
ous aiuLen'teprisintr. I am not : prepared to
recommend any essential change m tho land I
i. i
system, except by modifications in fnyor of I
the actual settler, and an extension of the
'pre - emption principles in certain cases, for
.reasons, and on grounds which will be fully
aeveiopcu in i.uiii, tu uuniui ueiorc you.
-t i .n ; .. - i.,. i i. i . i i
Congress, representing the proprietors
oi tne territorial domain, and oharceuc$- , iected
peciauy witn-power to disposer territory 'ijione:
bQloumng"totlroj:Unit6dv- States! -haf, for BCitted '
a-lcfcoupsc'j5f yojtrbflSirininV.htird',?l 5 '
administration of Mr. Jefferson, exercised
the power to construct, roads within the
territories; and there are so many and
obvious distinctions between this exercise
of power and that of making road3 with
in the States, that the former has never
been considered subject to such objections
as apply to the latter, and such may now
be considered the settled construction of
the power of the federal government up
on the subject.
Numerous applications have been, and
no doubt will continue to be, made for
grants of land, in aid of the construction
of railways. It is not believed to bo
within the intent and
of the
Constitution, that the power to dispose of
il 11 T l 1 .1
tne puttiic cioraain, snouia do usca otner
wiBe than might be expected from a pru
dent proprietor, and, therefore, that grants
of land to aid in the construction of roads
should be restricted to cases where it
would be for the interest of a proprietor
under like circumstances, thus to contrib
ute to the construction of these works.
For the practical operation of such grants
thus far, in advancing the interests of
the States in which the works are located,
and at the same time the substantial in
terests of all the other States, by en
hancing the value and promoting the rap
id sale of the public domain, I refer you
to the report of the Secretary of the In
terior. A careful examination, however,
will show that this experience is the re
sult of a just discrimination, and will be
far from affording encouragement to a
reckless or indiscriminate extension of
the principle.
I commend to your favorable consid
eration the men of genius of our country,
who, by their inventions and discoveries
in science and art, have contributed
largely to the improvements of the age,
without, in many intances, securing for
themselves anything like an adequate re
ward. . For many interesting details upon
this subject I refer you to the appropriate
reports, and especially urge upon your
early attention . the apparently slight, but
really important, modifications of exist
ing laws therein suggested.
The liberal spirit which has so long
marked the action of Congress in rela
tion to the District of Columbia will, I
have no doubt, continue to be manifested.
The erection of an asylum for the in
sane of the District of Columbia, and of
the army and navy of the Unted States,
has been somewhat retarded, by the great
demand for materials and labor during
the past summer; but full preparation for
the reception of patients, before the re
turn of another winter, is anticipatedjand
there is the best reason to believe, from
the plan and contemplated arrangements
" .
under the
act first named. The best, if
i not the only plan, calculated to secure
! permanently the object sought, was that
which contemplates takingtho water
j from the Great Falls of the Potomac,and,
consequently, I gave to it my approval,
j For the progress and present condition
j of this important work, and for its de
i mands, so far as appropriations are con
cerned, I refer you to the report of the
. Secretary of War.
; The present judicial system of the Uni
! ted States has now been in operation for"
so long a period ot time and has in ita
j general theory and much of its details,
become so iamiliar to the country, and
acquired so entirely the public Confidence,
lua6 " muumeu m any ru-pci,, it suoum
ii. . .T?r?j ; i ii
onl? be ln tboso Particulars which may
f "1 i - ,
adapt it to
the increased extent, popula-
tion, and
legal business of the United
otates. in tnis relation tne orcaniza-
In this relation the
tion of the courts is now confessedly in
adequate tothe duties to be performed'
by' them; inconsequence of which the;
States of Florida, "Wisconsin, Iowa,Texa3E
and California, and districts of othe
States, are in efFect excluded from tho
tun benefits ot the general system, by the;
functions of the circuit court beiug devol
ved on the district judges in all thosb
States, or parts of States.
The spirit of the constitution and ynjf
duo regard to justice require that all tnov
J States of the Union should be placed on
the same footing m regard to the judicial
tribunals. I thereforo commend to your
consideration this important- subject,
which, in my judgment, demands tho
speedy action of Congross. I will pre- 1
sent to you, if deemed desirafble, a plan
which I am prepared to recommend, for
tho enlargement of tho present judicial .
The act of Congress establishing tho t
Smithsonian Institution provided that the -President
of tho United States, and oth
er persons therein designated, should con- )
stitutc an "establishment" by that name,
and that the members should hold stated
j and special meetings for the supervision
j of the n-ffairs of the Institution. The or-
1 . . ... ..
ganization not having taken place, it
seemed to me proper that it should bo of- i
without delay,. This lias beea1
and an occasion was hereby nro
trtn-inpnnnfini thfl''nAnHii . V ll,,-
jvnviusioii on jourin
i fourth page.")