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SCRANTON, PA., SATURDAY MORNING, NOVEMBER 15, 1002.
the First Session of Anthracll
Operators' Side Devotes Its Energies Almost Exclusively to
Assailing: Mitchell's Laudation of the Union Inter
esting: Contest Between a Big Corporation
Lawyer and the Miners' Leader.
That tvlto and generally true adage
.hat It is the unexpected which happens
.vns Illustrated forcibly in the Jlrst
day's session of the mine strike com
mission. All the operators declared that the
matter of recognizing the United Mine
"Workers of America was not a subject
for the consideration of the commission,
and several of them. In their formal
answers, explicitly stated they were un
willing to have the question of the pro
priety or necessity of an agreement with
the union submitted for investigation
or adjudication by the commission.
Despite tills, President Mitchell In
sisted on injecting it into the hearing;
In fact, he made It the most prominent
feature of his opening .statement, and
In tin; surprise of those not in the coun
cils of the companies, the operators,
with evident eagerness, picked up the
gauntlet and proceeded to give battle
where the enemy invited.
The Delaware and Hudson company,
In Its answer to the miners' statement,
was particularly emphatic In excepting
to the miners being allowed to inject
the question of the advisability of the
recognition of the union being consid
ered lij" the cdinmfssIo"h, asserting. In'
common with the other companies, that
the proposition under which the,com
inlssion was created and is supposed to
work, eliminated this as an Issue.
Yet, in the face of this, the vice-president
and general counsel of the Dela
waie and Hudson company, David "Wil
cox, took up the cross-examination of
Mr. Mitchell and never by so much as
a single query sought to elicit anything
except answers bearing on the desira
bility of a trade agreement with the
"Tniled Mine Workers.
For the three hours of the day that
remained for cross-examination. At
torney Wilcox plied Mr. Mitchell with
questions tending to bring out admis
sions corroborate of the operators' alle
gations against the miners' union. Some
of his questions put the witness to his
wit's end for .an answer that would not
he a downright evasion or palpable
Attitude of Union.
Seemingly contradictory declarations
of President Mitchell on the one side
and the constitution of the miners'
union on the other anent sympathetic
strikes; the assertions of the union that
it discountenanced lawlessness and the
absence of any active, or at all events
nggressive, endeavors to prevent it; the
inadvlsabillty of the anthracite oper
ators dealing with a union which can
lie controlled by the miners of the bitu
minous region, and various other of
the points on which the operators re
sist the contention of the miners that
the union should be recognized, were
made subjects of Mr. Mitchell's cross
examination. The miners' leader was several times
put in what might be termed tight cor
ners, but euch time he squirmed out
with more or less success and grace.
Ho fought every inch of tiie ground,
and seldom made an answer to even
the simplest question without exercis
ing his prerogative of modifying by ex
planation. The instances In which ho
contented himself with a "yes" or "no"
r"sponso were rare indeed, Ho admitted
nothing that was not favorable to his
cause and, not infrequently, when some
thing of almost universal knowledge
was. proposed for discussion, he would,
If a discussion was not to his liking,
take refuge behind a plea that he, "could
not recall," or was "not personally
nwuro" of It.
Thu cross-examination was a tense,
Olid exceedingly Interesting battle be
tween two brainy men, and will doubt
less long llvo In the memory of those
who witnessed It.
With the exception of the unexpected
turn the Jlrst day's testimony took, the
programme was as forecast in Tho Tri
bune. There was a brief discussion, at
the opening, as. to procedure; then Mr,
Mitchell read his opening statement
outlining wha the miners' side pro
posed to show, mid after that he went
on the stand t give general testimony
ns to the conditions in the region, tho
merits of the grievances whlili the
miners want redressed, nnd (.'specially
(he recognition of the union as the pr
mal panacea for the Ills complained of.
He was still on tlte staijd under cross
examination when tho commission rose
at i o'clock.
Court Room Crowded.
The court room was Jammed during
I he two sessions, and hundreds were un
able to gain admittance. The lawyers,
company officials, miners' representa
tives, and newspaper men filled the bar
enclosure. Witnesses and spectators
crowded the space outside the enclos
ure, a good part of tha onlookers being
members of the local bap, who were
elven preference by the door-tenders at
the behest of the commission.
The day passed oft without the sent-
in Proceedifc-Js of
MADE AN ISSUE
bianco of an acrimonious exchange. In
fact, there was hardly an instance of
what might fairly be called an inter
ruption of the one side by the other. It
was the lntenscness of all the partici
pants and the rapt attention of the on
lookers that mainly told of the mo
mentous war that was being waged.
OPENING OF SESSIONS.
As early as 9.30 o'clock, there was a
crowd massed against, the doors of tho
superior court room, anxiously and
eagerly bent on getting within to wit
ness the opening scene of the epoch
making event In the history of the re
lations of capital and labor to be eye
witnesses of an event to which the at
tention of the whole world Is attracted.
Orders had been given through As
sistant Recorder Mosely to the three
police olllecrs and two tipstaves at tho
door, to admit only those Identified by
him as having business at the hearings.
After these for whom places had been
reserved within the bar exclusive and
the witness seats had been passed
through, tho general public was al
lowed to enter, the lawyers being given
preference. In a few moments the
spectators seats and all the available
standing room was occupied. There
was some coming and going as the
morning progressed, but as a general
rule those who were fortunate enough
to gain entrance held their places till
Tho arrangement of tables and seats
for counsel, parties in interest and
newspapermen, was found to be em
inently satisfactory. Mr. Mitchell and
his attorneys sat at the table on the
Washington avenue side of the room.
In the center were the attorneys for
the big companies. At the easterly side
of the room were the attorneys for the
Independent operators and non-union
The newspapermen were accommo
dated with seats in the jury box or im
mediately adjacent thereto. There were
thirty newspapermen present, including
representatives of Chicago, New York,
Philadelphia, Washington and .Wllkes
Barre papers, and the three press asso
ciations. Prominent Mine Workers.
Sea led near their counsel's table were
prominent members of the United Mine
Workers. Among them were District
Presidents T. D. Nicholls, Thos. Duffy
nnd John Fuliy. Miss R. C. Morris,
private secretary to President Mitchell;
District Vice President Adam P.y-
.-cavage, Boii.nl Members Michael Ilea
ley, Henry Celling, John Kearney,
Stephen Keap. Dr. Woyi, of NewYork;
r.ev, Peter Itoberts, of Mahonoy City,
and James Marwlek, of New York, who
have assisted in the preparation of the
miners' case also sat nearby.
Among the otllclals of the big com
panies seated convenient to their at
torney's table were: Vice President K.
M. Luomls, general manager of the
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western
company; Reese A. Phillips, general
superintendent of the Delaware, Lack
awanna and Western company; A. I.
Culver, comptroller of the Delaware
and Hudson company; S. U. Tiiorne,
general manager of the Temple Iron
company; C. C. Ko.se, general superin
tendent of the Delaware and Hudson
compaiiy; John It. Ilryden, general
manager of the Serantou Coal com
pany ami Klk Hill Coal and Iron com
pany! W. A. May, general manager of
the Pennsylvania Coal company, Hill
side Coal and Iron company and Now
York, Susquehanna and Western com
pany. Near the Independent operators' table
were ee.itei' "Recorder W. I. Connell,
president and general manager of tho
Green Ridge Coal company and Knter
pilse Coal company; J, L. Crawford,
president of the People's Coal coin
pany; Dr, J. N. Rice, U. 15. Reynolds,
John II, Brooks uud AY. H. Genrhnrt,
who are interested In different Individ
c. ix Simpson, partner of Commis
sioner Watklns; Rey, James Mcl.eod,
D, IX, pastonof the First Presbyterian
church; Mine Inspector 13d ward Rod
erick, and W, H. Taylor were a few
prominent Scrantimlaus who were given
seats within the enclosure.
Local Judges Present.
President Judge H. M. Edwards and
Judge John .P. Kelly sat near the com
mlssloners for an hour or so of the
morning sesalon at the commissioners'
invitation. Judge A. A, Yosburg
dropped In for a little while, but sat
among the spectators. Rev. J, V, Moy
lun, of Holy Rosary church, North
Scranton, was also nn onlooker from
the ppectalorn' chairs for a few hours.
A rhdoyrapher had set up h Urge
camera and flash light apparatus In the
rear of the room, with the intention of
"snapping" tho commissioners before
they rose for the noon recess, but tho
commissioners did not wait to be
"snapped," and tho camera man went
it was 10.03 when the commissioners
entered from the consulting room nt
the rear. As they appeared, Assistant
Recorder Mosely announced, "The An
thracite Mit.e Strike Commission!" and
everybody stood nnd remained standing
uilll the commissioners took their
Judge Ciray, president of the commis
sion, took the middle seat. On his right,
In tho order named were seated Re
corder Wright, Mr. Clark and Mr. Wat
klns, and on his left, General Wilson,
tJis'iop Upa'ding- and Mr. Parker. This
Is the same order in which they sat
at their first meeting In Washington.
Judge Gray opened tho session by
simply nnnounclng that tho commission
was reassembling pursuant to an ad
journment to give the parties oppor
tunity to prepare their cases and were
now ready to proceed. As had been
understood, the miners' side would be
heard first.. They might present their
case, he said, in their own way.
Raised New Issues.
Attorney Darrow waa the first of the
attorneys to speak. Ho called attention
to the fact that some of the answers to
the miners' statement raised or sought
to raise some new Issues, nnd ns the
last of the answers had been received
onjy the day before, the miners would
like to have an opportunity to make
replication next Monday.
Judge Gray looked quizzically at the
counsel for the other parties and no
objections being forthcoming declared
that there were no objections to this
request and It was granted.
Hon. Wayne McVeagh, of counsel for
the Krle company, suggested that the
names of the parties to the controversy
bo called that their respective attor
neys might announce their appear
ances. Tills suggestion was adopted by
tho commissioners and responses were
made as follows:
For the Miners Clarence S. Darrow,
of Chicago; H. V. Lloyd, of Now York;
John J. Murphy, of Scranton: James
Lenahan, John P. Shea, James ir. Shea,
of Wllkes-Tfcirrc. Mr. Darrow also an
nounced that John Mitchell would appear
generally for the miners' side.
Philadelphia and Rending Hon. Simon
P. "Wolvcrlon, of Sunbiiry; II. T. New
comb, of New York, nnd J. F. Whnlcn.
Krlo Companies Hon. Wnynn Mc
Vcash, of Philadelphia; George E. Brow
ncll, of New York, and Major Kverett
Warren. oC Scranton.
Delaware. Lackawanna and Western
W. W. Ross, of New York, and John R.
Wilson, of Scranton.
Ontario and Western Companies John
U. Kerr, of New York; ex-Justice Alfred
Hand and J. K. Burr, of Scranton.
Delaware and Hudson David Wilcox,
of New York, and James II, Torrcy," of
Lehigh Valley Coal Company Francis
I. Gowan, of Philadelphia, and Wlllard,
Warren & Knupp. of Scranton.
Lehigh anil Wllkes-Barrc Do Forrest
Brothers, of New York, and A. II. Me
Cllnlock, of Wllkes-Barre.
Independent Operators If. C. Reynolds
and f. IT. Burns, of Scrantun.
Other attorneys who will come into
the case later are George R. Bedford,
of Wilkes-Barre, representing Markle
and Co.; II. A. Fuller, of Wilkes-Barre,
representing the Independent operators.
The Non-union Men.
John T. Lenahan, of Wilkes-Barre,
and Joseph O'Brien, of this city, were
present 1n the Interests of the non
union men, and when Recorder Wright
failed to call the names of their party,
Mr. Lenahan arose and stated that him
self and Mr. O'Brien represented the
non-union men, so called, and would
like to know something of the proced
ure that they might be prepared to
present their clients' case.
Judge Gray said: "They are not for
mal parties to this controversy, Mr.
"Any party appearing here." suggest
ed Attorney Darrow, "should file a
statement that we may know who are
before the commission."
Judge Gray asserted that some state
ment should be tiled. The commission,
he said, would consider the matter.
This motion being temporarily dis
posed of the miners offered their case by
introducing President Mitchell to read
his statement. He began at 10.17 and
concluded at just U o'clock. Tho state
ment was (1,000 words in length. A
synopsis of it prepared at tho Mine
Workers' headquarters Is given hero:
Of the 1 I7,ooo men and boys employed
In and around tho mines, stripping,
wnsherios and breakers In tho anthracite
coal fields, iil.072. or IS per cent, are em
ployed on contract, or piece work; tho
remaining M.OiKl, or C7 per cent, aro em
ployed by tho hour, day, week or month.
Of thu 1,072 contract men, :J7,S0I are
miners and 2C.2(!S are miners' laborers.
Tho work of a contract miner require
an unitbually high degree of skill. The
work of a miner and a miners' laborer Is
extremely hazardous; In fact, It Is more
dangerous than employment In any other
Important Industry In thei world. The
number of persons killed and Injured per
duo thousands employed Is greater than
In any other Industry, Koch day the an
thruclto coal mines are In operation, two
and six-tenth persons lose their lives and
three times as many are maimed, and
yet these men receive less wages an
nually than are received by men per
forming precisely similar work In other
fields under more favorably and less
Tim number of years a man inn relnln
his health and strength In this occupn.
Man Is limited, If ho escapes death or
injury by fulls ot rock or coal, he can
not escape attacks of miners' asthma.
There Is scarcely a mlno worker who Iiub
not contracted this malady. The miners
nro compelled to work lit powder smoke,
In foul air, many of them In water, and
their work Itself Is ditllcult and very ex
hausting. Reputable Insurance com
pantos will not Issue policies to this class
of workmen the risks are so great tluit
the premiums would bo prohibitive to
men whoso earnings ure so low. The en
tire twenty per cent, which they demand
as an increase in their wages would not
suffice to carry an lusurancu of one
Reduction of Hours.
In supporting the demand for the
reduction of the hours of day laborers,
Mr. Mitchell showed that It amounted
practically to a demand for 20 per cent.
Increase of compensation for 83,000
men, or G7 per cent, of all mine em
ployes. Continuing, he said:
The eight-hour day Is tho standard
working day In the mining Industry.
Bight hours constitutes a day's work In
tho coal mines of Oreul Britain, In all
tho silver, gold and copper mines, nnd
In the bituminous coal mines In the
stntes ot Arkiuwis, Kansas, Missouri,
Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan,
Kentucky, Tennessee, In Western Penn
sylvania nnd tho Indian Territory.
The reports of tho United States Geo
logical Survey demonstrate that more
coal hns boon produced annually slnco
tho Inauguration of tho elght-huur work
day than in any preceding year. Each
miner produced mora coal per working
day in eight hours than ho formerly pro
duced In ten hours, and there is no rea
son why tho same results would not ob
tain In tho anthracite field.
Tho bituminous workers receive, in
many instances, from 20 to 10 per cent,
higher wages for eight hours' work. A
comparison of tho wages paid In skilled
workmen In fifty of our largest cities
shows, than machinists, carpenters,
electricians, engineers and firemen re
ceive from 20 to 50 per cent, higher wages
than nro paid theso classes of workmen
In the anthracite, mines, while the hours
of laborer from two to four less In the
Defending the third demand, that
coal shall be weighed and paid for by
weight, and that 2,210 pounds shall
constitute a ton, Mr. Mitchell said:
Tho present method of measuring the
ronl produced by tho miners In tho
Lackawanna, Wyoming and Lehigh re
gions hns boon the source ot more dis
content than any other of tho many in
justices Imposed upon the miners, and
there can be no contentment among there
workers until an honest system has been
adopted. Paying for coal by the car or
by a ton weighing from 2,710 to 3,100
pounds Is a flagrant Injustice. The cms
have been made, lurger, moro topping Is
required, nnd there has been no corres
ponding lncrcaso in tho amount paid per
car or per ton, Tho miners have been
forced to produce a constantly increas
ing amount of coal, for which they re
ceive no additional compensation.
Basis of Pay.
The miners should bo paid for every
pound of coal he mines that is sold by
the operator. If 2,240 pounds constitute
a ton when coal is sold to tho consumer;
If 2,210 pounds constitute a ton when
royalties are paid: If 2,240 pounds consti
tute a ton when railroad companies nro
paid for transporting coal to market,
what justice can there be In denying thn
minor the right to bo paid for Ills labor
upon the imo basis?
A largo amount of coal has "been ship
tied and sold hi excess of the amount
for whlcji the miners are puld: anil,
while we are willing to be fair nnd oven
generous wo are not willing to mine coal
gratuitously. AVe do not believe that the
consumers of anthracite coal wish tho
miners to produce any portion of It for
The anthracite companies, not satisfied
with an extra legal ton of from 2710 to
"190 pounds, have a system ot docking,
through which they appropriate addi
tional part of the minors' earnings. A
miner Is docked all tho way from WK) to
1,000 pounds upon a car, ns a penalty for
loading Impurities, for which ho has ul
rendy been penalized to the extent of
from 700 to 900 pounds in excess measure
or weight; in othor words, he Is punished
twice for tho same offense. A system
somewhat similar, but less unjust, ob
tained in a portion of tho bituminous coal
field many years ago, but the miners are
now paid by weight upon the basis of a
legal ton: they nro not only permitted,
but nro encouraged, by the operators to
employ check-weighmen to sco that tho
product of their labor U properly
weighed and a correct record niado
Mr. Mitchell then took up the fourth
demand of the miners for a trade
agreement, with the necessary machin
ery for the adjustment of local griev
ances. He outlined tho history and
policy of the United Mine Workers of
America, and explained that by Its con
stitution the anthracite and bitumin
ous mine workers had home rule for
the local government of local affnlrs.
Responsibility of Union.
Tho only manner In which the national
organization as such is permitted to in
terfere is that, before a strike Is In
augurated by the district organization,
tho approval of the president of the na
tional union must bo obtained; but tho
president of tho national organization has
no authority to Inaugurate a strike.
Thus tho coal mine operators are a (lord
ed a greater measure of protection
against strikes than they would have un
der a separate and Independent organ
ization. The United Mlno Workers ot
America Is affiliated with the American
Federation of Labor; It Is formed upon
precisely the same lines and for tho
same purposes as other trade unions: It
Is numerically the strongest single trado
organization in the world.
As to tho responsibility of the mine
workers' organization, Mr. Mitchell
At tho present lime, tho United Minn
Workers of America has contracts with
the operators of fourteen states and dis
tricts, fixing tho amount the miners shall
receive per ton, tho amount tho various
classes of labor shall receive per day,
the number of hours which shall consti
tute a day's woik, and tho methods uud
machinery for the adjustment of local
grievances, by Joint conference with tho
mlno owners. Theso are mutual con
tracts which are advantageous tn both
miner and operator, and proteut the pub
llo against the cifeets of strikes or lock
ontx. The reports of tho United States
government upon strikes In the mining
Industry show tbnt tho number and dur
ation of strikes has been muteiially re
duced each year since the system of
joint conference ana mutual agreement
has been Introduced,
Wheni tho United Mine Workers of
America Is recognized und contracted
Willi, it assumes tho respoii.lblllty of dis
ciplining its members, The trado ngree
meu hits proved effective In rest raining
workmen from engaging lit local or gen
eral strikes. There have been no strikes
of any magnitude in any of tho coal min
ing states In which trado agreements
(uthit.' Wo seek to eitabllsh the same
method of adjusting wagu differences in
the unthraelto fluid.
We make this demand because we
know that permanent )eaoe und friendly
relations can be best maintained through
a trade agreement with the organization
which our people have elected to Join.
Fully ninety per cent, cf tho employes
of the anthracite coal mines nru mem
burs of It from cholcu; they desire to
retain their membership In It, It was tho
United Mlno Workers of America thut
conferred with the president of the
United States In relation to the kUbmls
slou of the Issues Involved In the coal
strlko to this commission; it was the
United Mine Workers ot America that
was requested by the president o end
tho strike: it was the Putted Mine
Workers of America that declared the
strike ut an end; It was the United Mine
Workers of America that sent thu men
back to work, and It is the United. Mine
Workers of America that .Is pledged to
accept the award of this commission.
Failure to recognize the organization
was tho cause of many of the local
strikes against which operators and mine
workers Jointly complain, There luivo
been many local ftrlkes during tho past
year, tho fault of whlcn pis Is upon the
operators and miners nllkc. Thn mhierp,
falling to secure redress for their wrongs
(tho companies having refused to treat
with llielr repicsentatlves) hnd no choice
hut to submit to Injustice or tnaligiualc
Recognition of Union.
Recognition of the union does not menu
dictation or Interference by tnnii not cm
ployed by the coiiipnnlo'i; it simply
means that officers selected by the
mine workers shall exercise su
pervision over the organization and
shall counsel with the mine workers
ns to how their trade affairs shull lie
conducted, Tho miners have, nt much
right to select spokesmen to act fur
them, to present their grievances, to
manago their affairs, as have the stock
holders ot any one of the anthracite coal
companies to elect otllcers to perform
Mr, Mitchell concluded with a plea
for the children. He sold:
Our llttlo boys should not bo forced
Into the niliici and breakers so early In
life: our little, girls should not be com
pelled to work In the mills and factories
at an ago when they should bo In school.
Theso children are tho future citizens of
our nation; their parents should be cn
nblcd to give them at least a common
xchnol education, so us to equip thorn to
bear the grave responsibilities which will
ultimately devolvo upon them. The
wealth and the future of tho nation aro
not to be measured by Its palaces and
millionaires, but rather by the enlight
ened contentment nnd prosperity of its
millions of citizens, who constitute tho
bone and sinew of our land.
After the counsel for all parties had
agreed with Judge Gray that the wit
nesses should be sworn, Mr. Mitchell
took the stand and subscribed to the
oath as administered by Clerk ot the
Fifty minutes ot the- first hour of the
afternoon session was taken up by Mr.
Wlllcox with the reading of exccTpts
from Mr. Mitchell's testimony before
tho Industrial commission in 1897. He
preceded the reading by asking Mr.
Mitchell to interrupt him and state if
he has changed any of his views ex
pressed at that time. Mr. Mitchell did
not interrupt him once.
In his testimony before the Industrial
commission, Mr. Mitchell declared the
sliding scale feasible, If the "minimum
scale was a living wage;" that restrict
ive immigration laws were desirable, as
many of the southern Europeans
brought here were undesirable from a
trades union standpoint, and that lie
opposed 'labor saving machinery when
It displaced men.
The commissioners werei not very at
tentive to Sir. Wlllcox's reading, evi
dently not fully approving its purpose.
It was 11.03 when Mr. Mitchell's direct
examination began and 12.12 when It
was concluded. Appended is tho testi
mony substantially In full.
After stating that he was 33 years of
age, and that lie had worked In the
bituminous mines in all positions, door
boy to miner, Mr. Mitchell proceeded to
answer questions, us follows:
Q. How many members are there of the
United Mine Workers of America? A,
There aro approximately 230.000 paid-up
members In the national organization.
Thero aro about 110.000 or 1 i:i,0(in In tho
anthracite field; the remaining l:iO,0uu or
133,000 are In the bltumlulus field. It Js
numerically stronger than any other sin
gle trade union. Q. How Is !t divldul as
to Its government? Toll us bilelly, so tlia
commission may understand what It Is. A.
It is divided into eighteen sepaiato dis
tricts, usually tho state linos define the
limi.ntlons of our district organizations,
except where the mining population is
very thick, nnd In that event wo form
districts ourselves within a state. There
are five districts In Pennsylvania. Q.
What proportion of tho Mine Workers of
Aiiit'iica niu members of your organiza
tion? Mr. Wolverlon: Mr. Chairman, it has
been sugesled by counsel for the re
spondents, at this time, that we should
stato to tho commlslsuu that the answeis
of some of those respondents deny tho
relevancy of this character of testimony.
We do not wish to bo considered ns waiv
ing that position by not statins' a formal
The Chairman: We nolo your exception.
Mr. Wilcox: You would not note our
exception, Mr. Chairman, btcauso thero
ari no exceptions.
The Chairman: I urdcisland; but we
will not bo particular about words. Wo
note what -Mr. Waiver on said,
A. There t are about 70 per cent, of all
the mine workers of the United Stntos
members of our local unions. I wish to
say that the paid-up nemborshlp and tho
actual membership a not tho same; to
account for wh.it ma.- appear to be a dis
crepancy in tho two itiitt'ineiitu I make,
The Chairman: t lid not hear that,
A. (Contlnulns). I said about 70 per
cent, of all tho mini workers in tin Unit
ed Stntes aro inenibns of the 'lilted .Mlno
Workers of Ameil'ii: but my statement
that two handled and lltty thousand
were paid up members would have to bo
explained, the two Hiiilenients me contra
dictory. Wo luive (i vc"v largo member
ships Unit we ha e no Vi-cord ut un niir
Have Some Dockers,
By Mr. Darrow i.'. Yo carry only
paid-up iiieinbt'is im your national boulis.'
A. V'es, We only carry the membership
that the local iuilns pay us up; in other
words, we liuvu in the labor movement
like yon have among property owners
some lax dodgers.
And that ai'i'iuinlH fur that. Now, .Mr.
Mitchell, how many orders or bodies aro
thero In thn anthracite coal field? How
many separate oigniilzntlons? A. There
are three district organizations and about
330 local unions. Q. Do you know about
whut proportion of coal mined In the
United Stutes Is mined hi Pennsylvania V
A. About rl per cent, of all the coal
mined in the I'nlted Stales, both uiitliraa-.
cite and bituminous,
Q. What proportion ut" the iinthraelte
mlno workers are members of your organ,
izatlou? A. About W per cent. Q, What
was the name of their organization up to
the time they rnmo Into the i'nlted .Mlno
Workers? A. It was Dlstiict las, Na
tlonal Trades assembly 133, Knights of
(J, Mr. Mitchell, in the bituminous coal
fields has your organization cuntiHcts
with thu owners? A, Yes, tdr. Q. In
what states? A. In Aikniisas, Kansas,
Missouri, lowu, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio
Western and Central Pennsylvania, Midi
Igan, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama,
parts of Indian territory and parts of
Q. When did you make your first con.
tracts witli mine operators In the bitum
ens region? A, Tho first Joint contracts
that weio made in recent years wero
made la the spring of JS9$. Q. ow long
since thero has been any general strike
or any extended strlko In the bitumin
ous region? A. In 1SP7 thero was a gen-
era! stillto through tho south coal fields.
Q. Has thero been tiny strike of any Im
portance since the contract has been
mado? A, Not In any stale wlicro con
tracts wero made. Thero may have been
some strikes of considerable magnitude
In plates where thero were no contracts.
Q. Kor how long have your contracts ex
isted? A. From year to year, one year at
a time. Q, What date do you innku them?
A. AYe make them between the first ot
l'Vlirunry and the first of April. They go
Into effect on tho first of Aorll. (1. Hy
Joint conference between the owners and
the organization? -A. Yes, sir. Q. Have
you hnd any difficulty with It slnco 1SOT?
A. Wo have never had any disagreements
except In the state of Michigan. At each
conference wo have made an ugrcement.
Q. What has been the effect of tho or
ganization and your joint contracts upon
tho wages of the miners in l.ho bitumin
ous region. A, The miners' wngos have
increased materially. Q. How much havo
they Increased since ISPS, roughly speak
ing. A An average of fifty per cent. Q.
What effect lias it had on hours. A.
There lias been a reduction of two hours
a day. Prom fen hours to eight hours.
Q. Is tho eight-hour day general in tho
bituminous region? A. With few excep
tions, that day rules in all tho states.
Q. Has it had any effect on the employ
ment of children. A Yes. Q. And tho
safety of mines? A. It has reduced the
number ot children employed, and
through the organization of miners, bet
tor mining laws havo been enacted and
tho laws more thotoughly enforced.
The Two Fields.
Q. As to mining, what is required ns to
skill and experience to mako a good
miner? A. In tho anthracite fields? Q.
In the anthracite fields? Q. Take both of
them. A. In the bituminous field it does'
not require a very high degree ot skill;
In fact, thero is no law in the bitumin
ous fieids that restrlcti tho employment
of men skilled as miners. A person who
has never worked In a mine may go into
a bituminous mine and start at onco to
mine coal. In tho anthracite fields, the
laws provide that an applicant for a posi
tion as miner must havo had two years'
experience as a mlno laborer. Ho N re
quired to answer a list of questions,
showing him to be a practical and ex
perienced man, having technical knowl
edge, etc. Q. Independent of the law,
Jlr. Mitchell, as a matter of fact, docs
it require experience and training to be
a miner? A., Tho anthracite miners all
tell me that it requires a great deal ot
skill, that It Is extremely hazardous and
requires a high degrco of skill.
Q. Generally speaking, what do you say
about the hazard of the mining business?
A. Tt is extremely hazardous; It la tho
most hazardous employment in the
United States In any Important industry.
Q. JIow is it ns to henltth? A. It Is ex
tremely unhealthy. Q. In what way does
IL nlfect the health of the miners? A.
Usually In attacks of miners' asthma
a illsca-e peculiar to men who work In
anthracite coal mines. Q. Do you know
anything about the statistics or reports
"upon tho question as to the number who
have miners' asthma? A. ro: i uuuer
sland that every miner has it to a
greater or less degree.
Q. Vim are not Informed as to tho
ratalllles? A. Tho report of the inspec
tor of the Pennsylvania Htireau of Mines
for the year 1W)0 shows: that 013 persons
were killed In the anthracite mines. Q.
And do you know about the accidents?
A, Twelve hundred non-fatnl accidents,
Q. Do you know the possibilities of ob
taining Insurance for miners? A. I have
made Inquiry. Q. Through what sources
have you made Inquiry? A. From tho
reputable insurance companies. Q. What
have you learned in that regard? A.
That reputable companies will not Insure
miners. Q. Where any insurance is
granted by any sorts of companies, what
aro tho. rates? A. They are very high.
One company would charge twenty-six
dollars for carrying an insurance policy
of five hundred dollars, which would
mean llfty-two dollars ii year to carry
ono thousand dollars' insurance. Tills
was an accident policy.
Not So Many Deaths.
O. Mr. Mitchell, Is thero any difference
In tho bituminous regions and tho hard
coal regions, as tn accidents? A. Yes,
sir. Tho number of deaths In the bit
uminous fields Is nut as great as it Is in
the anthracite tl( Ids in proportion to tho
number employed, Q, How about health?
A, Work In the bituminous mines Is not
as imheulthfiil as wink hi tho anthra
cite mines. Miners' asthma is not as
prevalent. Q. How do wages In the bit
uminous regions compare with tho wages
In the anthraclto regions generally .speak
ing? A. The wages In the bituminous
fields are geiiHinlly about .'.0 per cent,
higher from 40 to r,0 per cent, hlghor
than some classes of labor in tho iintlua
elto field, and 20 to 30 for oilier classes
ut labor. That Is particularly true ot
men employed by 11m day or by the hour'.
Tim wages of nun who work by contract
are, generally speaking, from 20 to 30 per
cent, higher in the bituminous fields than
they ure In tho anthracite fields. Q, The
mining in Hie bitumlmnis regions is douo
by the mlneis. by the piece or by tho tun
or car. is It. as a rule? A. In tho bitum
inous fields it Is performed by the tun.
in nil of tho slates wlicro coal is
consumed or shipped west, 2,000 pounds
constitute a ton. In those stntes ship
ping to lid" water. 2,210 pounds consu
late a ton. (J. Now nro you referring to
the ton for which the miner guts paid?
A. Yes, sir.
(J. I low does the general condition com
pute in the uuthrat'lti' and bituminous re.
glnns? A. The conditions : the bitumin
ous fields are, generally speaking, better
than In tho anthracite fields, Tho houses
are, on the whole, better. That Is espu
chilly true of houses owned by the coal
.. What was the oiigln of tho recent
strike. A. Failure or lefusal on tho part
of the companies to advance wages or im
prove conditions of employment, or re
fusal ti submit the Issues to n boaid of
arbitration. -) lit the first place, what I
mean is. your organization had some agi
tation in the way of theso gilcvniu'ca that
they ufterwaids furmulaicd? A. Yes, sir.
Tim anthracttii mine workers have been
constantly denmi'dlng lucrc.iseil wages
and Improved conditions of employment,
asking that their coil be weighed, and so
forth. () In a general way, this agita
tion was for Increased wages, either by
extra money or by shorter hours? A,
Yes, sir. Q. Hhiirters hours with the same
pay; and for a different .system of ascer
taining their compensation, by weighing?
A. Weighing their ccul, and some meth
od whereby tlio grievances that arose
from time to time might bo adjusted with
out forcing them to engage in strikes. Q.
And that latter meant something In the
the way of recogultlcii of tho union, per
hups, to put it that way? A. Yjes, sir,
they preferred to have that. Q. Or con.
trading with tho union? A. Yes, blr, Q,
IContinued on Pago U.J
The Piatt Amendment Is Entlrelu
Independent of the Present
MR. ELKINS OFFERS
West Virginia Senator Explains
That Purely Local Interest to Pre
vent Overhauling of Tariff Dic
tated His Stand at Last Ssssion.
Tixlty of Plntt Terms Clearly
Understood oth at "Washington
8y Inclusive Wire from The Associated Treat.
Washington, Nov. 14. The treaty
under negotiations between Cuba nndt
tile United States is a reciprocity treaty
pure and simple. It has nothing what
ever to do with the terms of the Plato
amcniMiirnt, and should It be carrleil
into eflect will be entirely independent
of a treaty which may be framed later
in accordance " with the conditions
which the Piatt amendment Imposes.
There seems to be a general mlsunderw
standing on tills point.
The Piatt amendment is already uf
part ot the fundamental law of Cuba.
Its adoption by the constitutional con
vention was the condition under which
the United States wlthdrewlts troops.
There can be no question about tho
framing of a treaty to carry its pro
vislon into effect. That is slmp'ly it
matter of detail, clearly understood In
Cuba as well as in the United States.
'There has been no correspondence
whatever between our government and
the Cuban government about It, and
there will be none until the reciprocity
treaty is out of the way. The adminis
tration is not worried about the fate
of the reciprocity treaty. The delay lit
completing it has beendue to several
causes. One of the principal of these
causes Is .the fact that the negotiations
have been entirely in the hands of Min
ister Squires at Havana and Minister
Quesada, in Washington, neither of
whom pretends any close -acquaintance
with tariff questions.
Importance of Negotiations.
Until very recently neither Secretary
Hay nor Secretary Root has paid very
much attention to tho matter. But
now, with congress) about to convene,
they realize the importance of 'hasten
ing the negotiations. It is for the pur
pose of bringing about a clearer under
standing that Gen. Taslcer H. Biles has
been ordered to Havana. The Cuban
leaders are apparently in dense Ignor
ance as to the operation of a tariff in
the raising of revenue. They have nn
conception beyond the crude idea that
the higher the rate of duty the greater
the revenue will be. It will be for Gen.
Bliss to show them' that this Is not
necessarily true, anil that in the case
of imports from the United States it"
may well happen that a lower duty, by
Increasing the volume of the imports,
will Increase the amount of money
turned into the treasury.
Another obstacle which has stood lir
the way of speedy action Is the atti
tude of President Palma, who Is anx
ious to negotiate in accordance with tho
wishes of the United States, but who Is
doubtful as to the length to which tho
Cuban people will permit him to go. Hu
Is not sure of his own position. A
stronger executive would probably havo
settled everything before this. General
miss will havo to convince the Cubans
that, in spite of plausible statements
by the diplomatic representatives of
other countries, the United States ik
Cuba's best friend, and thnt It Is great
ly tu the advantage of both countries
to enter Into reciprocal trade relations.
It is a peculiar development that the
question should now be raised In
Havana whether It will be to Cuba's
advantage to have reciprocity with tho
United Klu'jr. When the reciprocity
bill was before congress its passage was
urged chiefly on grounds of sentiment,
as a. duty tho United States owed to
Senator Elkins' Statement.
Senator Klklns, of West Virginia, said
"The whole secret of my fight against
Cuban reciprocity last session wus In
just one thing. I don't mind telling It
now. Lumber Is one of the great pro
ducts of my state. Lumber and coal
have added immensely to our resources.
The tariff of $12 a thousand tut lumber
Increased West Virginia's valuation
many millions probably between $35,
000,000 and $10,000,000.
"Tho northwest wants free lumber,
Had we started voting on Cuban reci
procity the way would have been clear
to vote for lower duties on many other
products. Amendments would have been
placed on the bill, There would have
been, efforts to lower the duty on steel.
When we were voting on steel, others
would luivo proposed a chnnge In the
wool schedule; still others would have
proposed lowering the duties on hides
and leather, and ev ntr.nlly the north
we5t would hay" 'lJ' '" reduce the
duty on lumber. T'-ai was what I
feared, I was willing to pay the run
ning expenses of the Cuban govern
ment fur ton years rather tit. n start
upon any such experiment us that reci
procity bill. I was willing to vote fo
a rebate. In my speeih on tho subjeck
I stated that I was willing tu vote ton
the treaty." ,j
-t ---f-r--f-' t-'',
-f WEATHER FORECAST.
-f AVashlugton. Nov. 14. Forecast 4j.
-f for Saturday uud .Sunday: Eastern V
i- Pennsylvania r'ab" and warmer fi
4- Saturday; Sunday fair; fresh touth- 4-
-f west winds. -f
1. 1. T it 1 1 t t. t..t t. 1 t t