The Scranton tribune. (Scranton, Pa.) 1891-1910, December 04, 1900, Page 6, Image 6

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g-'n-ll I I I -- - I I ITH I I-JI-J-I.JU-JZE1IXJ-J-I-LJ--1-I-GZD-LLUJJ-I II I I I II ill, IIM I I i I I I i I VI i I ii ', I I I M I I I I I I I .I..U..I..I. I II I I I I I VI I I I I I I I I I I I M I I IT
afMT im -, -
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$To (lie Ronufo unit House of Iteprescti-
'H A T 'r,I,'! OUTUOINU of the old nnd
MA the hu'oinliiR of the ni-w century
fj you bi'Kln the hint hossIoii of the
jKirty-slxtJi cntnrrenfl with evidences on
y every hand of Indlvlduul nnd imtloniil
'pfOHperlly und with proof of the rtow
4liiB sttx'iiKtli nnd IncronRtnir power for
jfJKood of republican Institution.. Your
countrymen will join with you In
yfcllblttttlon that Amerlcnn liberty Is
Etnnie llrmly established than ever be
iVfme, and that love for It nnd the de
termination to preserve It are more
J; universal than at any former nerlod
Jjof our history.
U The Kupubllo was iiever so Htiiimr.
"JhrraiiMP novor ho Rtrotiixly Intrenched In
ftthe hearts jC the people its now. The
St '(institution, wllh few amendments,
rexHts as It left the hands of Its uuth
jjorfs. The additions which have been
hiiiuik to lr proclaim turner freedom and
Hmoie, fiite'iidrd citizenship. J'opulnr
nQovfi'iiiixJif -has demonstrated In Its
fi'inc. hundred nnd twenty-roiir years of
Ktrln heio lis stability and security, and
pits efth'lenoy as the best Instrument of
niitluiml i!o)L'lopnr.-'nt and the best
"AwfeRimriV to huintm rights.
, When the Sixth cotiKiess assembled
'Kin November, 1S00. the population of
:;ibe fulled Slates was r.,3n8,4S3. It Is
Know 7ii.:W1.":9. Then we hud sixteen
relates. Now we have forty-live. Then
Tour teirltory consisted of n09,0.'iL) suuaro
'"miles. It Is now 3,8t,r!f.- square mlUs.
lOduciitlon, lellRlon, and morality have
wept pace with our advancement in
'other directions, and while extcndltiR
"Its power the Kovernment has adhered
to its-fouiubithm principles and abated
Jiit'ino of them In dealing with our new
peoples and possessions. A nation so
'preserved and blessed elves reverent
."thanks to Hod and Invokes Ills culd
Vnnee and the continuance of His care
'and favor.
The Chinese Problem.
IN Ol'lt foieigii intenoursp the dominant ques
tinn has been the ticaliucnt of the rhineso
IHi.tilun. Apart from this our ldatfona with H13
puvvri halo linn li.ipl'i.
The recent tumbles in 'liiu.i -pi Inn firaii tko
."nll.foiflmi agitation which '"'' ""' tat tlirc('
jean has gained slionglh In tlic northern pio
ibices. Their origin lies deep in tlir character
(if the ( 'lihic-c late .mil In the traditions of their
government. The Taiping ltbclllon ami Urn open
ing of tho cliinc-c polls to foreign trade nnd
settlement ili-ttnlel alike the homogeneity and
the scclu-inn of China,
Meanwhile foieigii activity nude itself felt ill
all quartcis, not alone on the coast, hut alom?
the Ricat iher aiteries and In the remoter dh
lrit. (.uijinsr new ideJS and intiodueinc new
n.nei.itlons .iiiiuiik a primitlu- people which had
pmiiei for lentmies a national poliey of isola
(Ion. The telegraph and the ullnjy -pre.uIinK ovir
thiir I mil, the -tramepi pljiiis on their -water-w.i.-,,
I lie men and the mi-sion.iry penotial
Itipt .1 by j ear f.uthcr to the inteiior, hee.inio
to the ( hine-e mind tjpei of ini li''n invasion,
IijiikIih; the oni.-e of their national life and
fraught with mibih1 forehodiniH of dia-ter to
tlieit lielicN and tlieir -elf-iontrol.
r I'nr -eeial jeart tiefoie the pieent tiouldes .ill
the re-niiriei of (oitinn diplomaey, hacked liy
mural ileinon.stralions of the plij skill foue of
'Heit- and aim-, haw been needed to semrc duo
le-pei t lor the treaty riclit of torclKiirrH and to
iMjIii sitM.ietiim from the respon-ihle nuthoii.
lie- fui the spoiailh initinKts upon the per-oni
and propel Ij of iiniitToiiilliif; -ojonrner, which
fiom time to lime ciccuirtil at widely Kepaiated
liiiinN in the nnitlirrn imiiincc-, as in the ine
id the outlireal.s in Sp-c linen and Shan-linnr.
I'o-limc of anthfoieiRii placards became a dailv
imiirience, wlileli the icpeated lepiuliition of
the Impciial powei failed tn iheck or piini-h.
'Ihe-e intlamiiialnry appraN to the isnorante and
super-itition of the nuses. mendacious and ab-uid
in Iheir Htdi-athuii and deeply ho-tlle in their
-piiil, t , .iilil nnt lint wink cumulative hirni.
They aimed at no ila-. of foielfrueo;
thev iie iinpiltlal in attaikiui; eier.Mhlni; foi
. It-n.
. ii nuiliieak in .-han-tuni;. in which (teiman
liil-ihinaiies wue f-lain. was the tun nalmal
ii'iilt of lliee inaleiolint teaching. The po-t-ini;
uf seditious, i liui tin' tn the lit tt r
ih-tiuetiou of fpiciKUcts and of eieiy foiei;n
thins, inutinuid uuiehuked. Wo-lilc drmoii-tra.
linns fdw.nil llii1 -tianKr ualnrd -tieut;lh by o.
The Boxers.
'the -eit, uiiituiimlc sl,led the Bnxei-. devel
opid Eie.itl.1 in the pioiinces north of t lie Yam.'-I'-c.
.mil wllh the lollu-iun of niauj nulahle o(h
ti.iN, imhidiii): Mime of the immuilate lonucils
of I tic liiioiie llilf, beianie .il.illnilil.v ai;ii.
-hi. No fun Iioiit'i. life, nutsiile of (he pro
IiiIhI Ileal, pints, was U: u fnielvn till 1 1 -ii
as .nun' from -puliation.
'I he iliplomatii 11 pie-iuttitbe- uf the poweis in
Pi l.iu .-tiuvc in ain tu thuk this nincimiit,
Piulif-t was lulluweil b.i dcniaud and ikmand
by i iiicu ill piniiM, In be met with perfunctmy
i ilk I- hum Ihe palaic and eia-ie and futile
J iir-ilitf- limn Ihe iMiiiisdl-jMini'ti., The iliile
ut Ihe ItuM'r inllui'iKe luiioneil aboui I'ekiu,
and while ii.uiilii illy -lluiualied a- sedition-, it
wa; fill that Its -.pit it penuih-il the c.ipil.ll it-M-ll,
that Ihe Impel ill finer.- wele Imbued with
lis dm nine- anil that III" Immullile couii-ilois
ut Ihe Kmpre-s IMwajrer weir ill full sympathy
wllh Ihe .iiili'fuit'iRii miiM'iiieiit.
'the Iihh.i-Iiik Kl.lUl.l of the culldlliolM In
I lilu.i und Ihe ImiulniiKc of peril to our own
iloci-lthil luttnsl- in the empire, as well as to
Iho-e uf all the other tiealy irineiumenls, wcio
soon nppreeiatcil by tin- iroieinincnt, cauliiK it
piofuuud Mihcltuilc. The I'lilted States flulil the
i.iilli'hi ihw nf fouk;u inleiciiiiine with Clilm
hail fulluwcd a poliey of peaie, ninillliiu no nc-i.i-linis
in le-lllj piod will, to fuither the exten-
iuii of lawful tiade, to le.-pect the soinelcnly
uf it- iimcinmcut. and In in.llie by all leitllliuate
and l.lmlh but caine-t means the fulkat mea
me of piiitedlou lor Ihe Hies anil propeily of
mil. law'-ahlilluif lillen- and fni the cu'rcUn t(
llielrjljcjtttiiiiit calliuiss auioni; 1 , ( lilne-e peo.
,,,,,'fc.-' s ,
.,,, t .The Open Door,
Miitllfijl. i;( tliti iPiwas fell tu be appioptUili
thai f(jnupuie- hhouhl lie piniiouneed in fa,
or at jjiihjtoiijH' .L- would liisten imllul action
of tlij.V-lrrt at I'ekln tu proniutu the admluls
trathKiJi forms in greatly medul for (tienuthen.
Ini'lle ljiiH'il,i( k'.iMM mill nt and in.ilntnlnlii?
the' IntrKrify' Af lllna, in which lie helleieil
lluPMKIAtweiilMii uoihl to be alike uilueineil,
Tnf (lU-)V 11111I& 1 I allied tn bo adillcs-ed tn the
-eitji-al iuwirs ortupjlns terrltoiy and main
lalilK,'(iphces ol Inlhience in China the ilriu.
'".IVfllfH41" "' W1' I'"!""!! horn them dec la.
rations of tlulr luleiiuons und ilcws as tn 1,11c
ileslrubillty of the adoption of measures itibiir.
ini; 'iljq benefits uf equality of treatment of all
torcuyri 'trade tliruiiK'liuut I'liliu,
Ulrti"Kratlf,vlnif unanimity the irpoue 10.
I milled In-, llilj (ommoii poliey, eiiahliiiK me
to Iin,liutk blico 61-ful tcimlnatlon of thi'e lie
liuUititfin,inoof of the frieiully tplilt which anN
uailni(ailmit powti. Intnented In the mi
tiaunjitjlul Jk'ii'h'l'niiiit uf ioiiiiiktiu nnd Indus.
tiyju, Iho ChliiiM1 I'liiplni as .1 touice of at
lifiiellc'W Ihe whole 101n1u11tl.1l world.
IiiMfds foiicluloii, which 1 had the uralltlca
(ion laij-iiiiniucu as a cuuipleted eiigagrincnt to
thclidcierftid powers on Maidi til), ItW, I liope.
fully (dUri'KHil a, potential, factor for the abate
mcnt(yl(,tjjj!rilltinst of,(orelgn purpooM which
'or -VRVf' llMi' '"I aupearnl (n iiupiio the po.
ley.flfjtlw impjilal (ruicimuciit, and for (he. cf.
fccllxi eurtlon by It of power and authority to
iucll tho critical antl-forckrn inoieiuent In the
northern proiimca most Immediately InlluenceU
by thcMunchu ienllment.
Sec;diu ,Ju testify tonHdoncc in the ullllnv
m.aul uhilltv ut tlic Impciial administration
to rrilress the wroint and prneut the niU wo,
m Iter ixl 'and feaied, tho nuiii.e Ruaril, wlikli hjd
iKcun'm p. i-t',in iii.nie aiiiuniu 9( j)9 ur tlm
)ri)ki.lftin t of ,the kgalloii, wa wlthdrjiwn ut
Ihe ratllest praitliiihle niomenl, nnd nil pendlnif
iiieslloiit weic 11 milled, ns far in ivi1 were cute
terneil, In th,. nnllniry ieort? of illploinalle
Chinese Government Inefficient.
The (,'IiIiicm- iroicrmnrnt prmeil, howeier, I'll
aide tu check the tMtiu: stieiitlt nf the Hover
anil appealed to be 11 piey to Internal dli-cie
lnns. In Hie lliKipml eonlesl the antldoli l;n III
lluenees soon iriilned the nsiinilaney iimhr the
leadership nf 1'ilnie T11.111. tlnta'uln d aimlm of
lloem, with which the Imperial furies alllllatid,
held Hie couiilty belwreli I'eklll nnd Ihe,
penetratril Into Minthiirla up In tlm ltuslan
borders, and tlirnuicli their rmlsirles tluealemd
a lllte rlsliiR throughout northern t'hlna.
Attaclis upon forelancrs, de-lrucllon of their
property, nnd Klnuirlitcr of natlie iuneils wire
rrported from all sides. The tutidl-.imcii, al
ready pcrmealed with hostile jmpalhle, (ould
inalip no pffi'Ltlip ieionse tn the appeals of the
lenatloiis, At this irltlial Juncluie, in the early
spring nf this jear, 11 prupostl was mule by the
other powers that .1 combined lint ehouhl be as
semhled in Chlnise waters as 11 luoial demnn-llit.
thill, tinder coicr nf whlih In csact nf the t lib
nee Kowrnmenl rept for foielfn lieaty HkIiN
and the supprcviltiii of Iho Hour-.
Ihe I'lilted States, while not partltlpatiiiR In
Ihe Joint demonstration, pruinptlj miiI ft iuii Ihe
Philippines nil -hips that could be pni for
sen Ice on the Chinese cuast. A mull tone of
Purines woe liuded at Taku and suit to I'ekln
for the protection nf the .nniican hiiallon.
Other powers took similar nitioti, until some
four hundred nun were u-t tulilcil in the (
as (citation nuanK
Still the peril liicie.i-.cil. The leK.itions te
poileil the ileielopment of the -editions mole
luent In I'ekln and the need nf Inciea-ed proil
flnn fur defense nirjinst it. While pieptiatimn
weie in pi oki ess fui a l.nmr espeditlnn, In
strengthen Hie leRiitlnn piards and l.up the i.ilb
WJ" "pi n altimpt nf the foielKii ships to
make 11 liiiiillnir at Taku.i was nut b.i a flip fiom
Ihe Chlne-e roils. 1. forts wile theieupon
shelled hy tho fuuiitn es-els. Ihe American ad
mlral taking no part In Ihe altailc, on the kioiiuiI
that wo were mil ut war with ( lilu.i and tint .1
ho-tile demoiisd.ition mldhl eonsolldilo the anli
foien elements and sliimrthen Ihe llmers '0
oppose the lelieiini' poliiuni.
Two days later the Takn forts were ( iplnred
after a -jtie;titii.ny eonllkt. Seiiiaiuo nf com-
nmnicatlor. with I'ekln followed, and a com
bined force of additionil ,-u.nils width was
advanelmr to I'ekln by the i'el-llo, was cheeked
at Lnnerf.uifr. The Isolation of the leitatlons was
Siege of Legations.
The slew and the relief nf tho Ii(.Mtions has
p.ib-ed into unil.iiuir lii-lmy. In all the Stir
ling chapter which recuuls the hcioton of tho
dcioted liand, e linxini; lo hope in the f.u e of
despair, and the undaunted spirit that led their
lelieiers llin.iiL'li tut tic and sullerinj; to the it is a niemoiy of which my counlijmii!
may be ju-tly pioud tluf Ihe honor of nui Hjk
was maintained alike in the -icKu and the re.-cue,
and lint stout American hearts haie aitaln sit
IiIkIi, in fencnt emulation with tine men of oth
er race and lansuaKc, Hie indoinit,ible louraue
H1.1t eier stiiies for Ihe eau-e of tight and
My June ID the IcK-itions were tut off. An
Identical note fiom the .1.11m u oidcied eaih
minl-ter to lpaco I'ekln, under a pimm-cil e-init,
within twenty-four limns. To K-iin lime they
rrplled, askimr pinlonsation of the time-, whiiii
was nfterwaieK Riantcil. and leepie-lliiK an intei
liew with the tsumi-li-yamen on Ihe followiiiK
day. .Vi, reply IiehiK leeciwd, nil the liinnilui;
of the 20th tho (ierniau mini-tet, llainii Von
Ketteler, set out for the j mi to obtain a to-
spon-e, nnd nu the way was murdeieil
An attempt hy the h-Kation Kuaul to ni-uiir lila
body was foiled by the- Chim.-e, Aimed foiic-i
luineil out iiKabisl the ku-aliou-. 'Hit 11 quitteis
weie surrounded and attacked. 'Hie mi ion compound-
weie aluniloued. Iheir inmates taking
refiiKC in the llriti-h leK.itloii, wheie all the
other leKalious and ituanls fr.illit ifil for mote
effeLtiip defin-e. l'mir hiiuihtd pn-ons wue
eiowiled in it- niiiuw eompi-. Two Ihou-iud
natlie conveils were .iN-cmhled in a near-by pal
ace under piotection of the foi chine 1 s. l.liies of
defense were .eiiKthcned, tienche- din;, bini
e'ailes rai-etl, and piep.iralions made to -land a
siiKC, which nt once licfrau.
1'ioin June M until July IT, wiiles Minl-lcr
Conger, "theie was siatiely an hour dining
which thru- was not In lug upon some p.ut nf
our lint's and intu some ut the legalinn-, ai.lug
fiom .1 single shot lo a geneial and continuum
attack along the whole line." Ait ilk 1.1 was
placed around the legitlons and nil tin' mor
looking palacu wall-, and thou-inds ot ti-iite h
shot and she'll were filed, nane build
lugs nnd damaging all. So ipilckly did the
balls lain tint, when the ammunition of Ihe
he-iegul 1:111 low, tiw ipiait- nf Cliiuc-e bulkls
weie gatheied in an hnur in one compound and
Incentlinry Attempts.
Altcniils weie mule to hum the legations In,
setting ntighhoiitig hou-e- on Hie, but the lianas
weie Miece-.-fi.lly fought oil, allhuii.-li the An
tii.111, llelgi It.illai d lluteh kgition- were
then and suhseijiunlli binned. With the aid
uf Ihe n.illw ennui!-, iliieitcil by Hi.- nu lun
atics, lo whu.e helpful e o-opciatiun Mr t'ongcr
awaids unstintisl pt.i-e, Ihe lliiti-h legation
wa- made a iciilable loitie . 'Ihe lllltisli
mlni-ler, Sir ( lamle M.u Duiuld, was cho-en gen. toimuauihr m the elifen-e, with the sei
let.ny of the American legation, .Mi, II, (J,
Sipiiei.-, as iliiif of siail
To sale lifj and uiiiltiou tlic- bislegcd -ial-
Iiisb ictiiiiiiil Ihe iiiii.sF.ini tin- nf th Chliu-e
siildieiy, lighting only to lepell attack or nuke
an ntea-ional -mic till smile fur sliateaii nd-
lantage, such as tint of llflj-fice Ameiicau, Hilt-ti-h,
and Itii-slan maiines led In I'ant.ilii Me..,
of the fulfil statin .Maiine fenp-, which re-ulted
In Ihe captuic of a fuimidalde baiiicaile on Ihe
wall that giaiely menaced the Aniulcait .o-ition
II was held to the la-t, and pmwd an iutalua
ble aiqiii-itluii, beciu-e romnMiidlinr Iho watir
gatp which Ihe lelkl milium iiilcicd.
liming the shgo the defindeis lo-t -Kt)-llie
klllul, lit j woimd.d, and -eienty bj dl-ea-e Ihu
l.i-t all ihildien,
Communications Opened.
On July llth the be-ieged had thin lu-l mm.
inimkatlon with the Tsung-li Ljinen. 110111
whom a tnv--s.ige came Iuiltlug tn a miiiciencc,
which mm chillncd. Ceiiie-iiondeuce, l.nweMl,
en-ued anil 11 sou of aimUtltc was aguccl upon,
which slopped Hie liombaiilmeiit und le.-cmcl
Ihe rifle tin- for a time. Iltcn tin 11 no piotec
tion Was glicn, sain lo scud lo the legations .1
amall supply of Unit and thice- sacks nf Mom.
Indeed, tin, only cuuiiuuiiliatiuii had wltli the
Chinese goicinment iclalid tn the occasional de
Ih 1-1. v or dispalih of 11 tilegiam or to Ihe ik
iimiiiN ol the Tung-li annn tor the withih.iwal
of tho legations to the coast uudei c-coit, .Nut
only are the polcslaliiui.s nt the Chinese goicru.
luent that it prutectecl and succored the hga.
Ilmis pn,ltliy mnliailittid, but liiesistible
plool nceumtilates that Ihe attacks uputi th, in
mill made by luipciial lioops, icguhtly
iiulfoiuied, aimed ami ollkiicd and In-longing
to the louuiund of Jung l.u, the Impt-t mm
inauder in chief. Deciecs ciicouiagimr ihe lln.
crs, oigauUlug them under pioiuluent Impi'iial
ollkera, pioi I. loning thim, und urn gi.inting
llnm large bums in the name of the laupicss
Dmiagcr, ure known to exi-t. Jkiuhei in the
'IViing-li Vatuiu who connickd protiillon of tho
foiclguera weie beheaded, s Hm-ii in tho distant
pruilnccs iiicu siu-pcctcd of foreign sympathy
werci put to death, prominent among lheo being
Chung Viiihooii, lufimily Chinese mluUlcr In
With tho negotiation uf the paillal aimUIke
of July lttli, a piocecdiug which was doubtless
pionioti'd by the icpiem'iitntloni of Ihu Clilnoc
imoy in W.uliluglon, Hie way was up. ned or
the comejancc tu Jit, Conger of a trl luewugu
sent by the sccielaiy of state thiough the kind
oltices of Minister Wu Tlng-faug. Jli, Cungei'n
reply, "Ulspatched from Peking on July 1Mb
through the same chauiul, nlfnided to tiie out
side woild tho Hut tiding that Iho lunula nf
the liKatlons weie tlll alive and liupln,' for sue.
Joint Belief Expedition.
'llil pewit klimulatid the puiuiatloua for a
Joint relief expedition 111 iiuiiiln-rs sullkient to
nieifomc I lie resistance which fur a mouth ha I
been orgaulziug between Tuku and the capital.
ltviufoiirintuU sent by all the 10-opcratiiig gov
crnmi'iits weie min,tjnlly auiilng. 'Iho Unitrd
Stales contingent, lustily nnnhteit from the
Philippines or dispatched from this euimlry,
iimnutitcil to imno S,000 mill, under the able
lomm.itiil flrt of ihp lamenlril Colonel Mscuni
and iitlcrunid of (lencral ChalTec.
Toward the end ot Julv the niovetiint began.
A sewiv rotifllit follnwed at Tlenlsln, In which
Colonel l.lseum was killed. The illy was
stormed and parly ilentro.iecl, It rapture nf
forded the base of operations from which to
make the mbance, which began In the (list of August, the expedition being made up
nf Japanese, ltusslati, llrltlsh, and American
troops at the outset.
Another battlo was fought and won nt Vatig
tsuii. Thereafter the disheartened Chinese
troops offered little pIiow nf re.slstniu r, A few
days Idler the Important position of llo-sl-won
was taken. A rapid march brought tins united
foncii to the populous city ol Tung Chow, which
i.ipltnliled without n contest,
Legations Believed.
On Aug. lllh, the capital was readied. After
.1 brief inntllct beneath the walls tlic lelief mi
nimi entered and the le-gatlons wele saicd. The
I'lilted States soldiers, sallois, and purines, of.
Hi cm and men alike, In tho-e distant climes and
uimsiiil surroundings, showed Ihe same alor,
dl-elpllue, and good conduct and gale pioof of
the Hiiue high degree of IntelllireniT nnd elil
1 ieney which hale ill-llngul-hcd them In cvciy
The buHrhil family and the goiciinucnt had
lied n few 1I.1.11 hefoic. The tlty was without
visible control. The remaining Impciial sol-
tilery had made on the night nf the l"th a last
attempt to eteimln.ite the be-leged, which whs
gallantly rcpellcel. It fell to the ncctipjlng
fones lo re-tore order and organize a proiislonal
Happily the acute disturbances weie confined
lo Ihe northern pioiinces. It is a lellif to re
call and a pleasure to record the loyal conduct
of the viceroys and local authoiiticri of the
houthein and eastern pioiinces. Their cITorls
were continuously dlieeted to the pailflc innlrol
of the last populations under tlieir rule and to
the scrupulous obscnancp of foreign tieaty
rights. At critical moments they did not hesi
tate lo ineinoilalie the Thlone, inging the pio
tection of the legations, the restoration of com
munication, and the assertion of the Imperial
aulhoilty ngain-l the sulnerslu- elements. They
maintained excellent relations with the ofKeial
leptesentntiics of foreign powers. To tlieir
kindly disposition is largely clue- the success of
the con-iils in reiuoilu many of the mls-lonarics
fiom the- inteiior lo places of safety. In this
relation the- at lion of the consuls should lip
highly commended. In Shangtung and eastern
ea-tein fhi-li the In-k was dililcult, but, thanks
to their encigy and the cn-operatlon of American
and foil it'll 1111.1I e 0111111. nidi iv, hundreds of fot
elgneis, including tho-e of other nationalities
than 0111.-, weie lescued fiom imminent peril.
The American Policy.
'the policy uf the Tutted States IIuoukIi all
this lining period was ideally announced and
siiupulnnsly cauied out. A circular note to
the poweis ditcil July : pioclalincd our atti
tude. Treating the condition in the nnith m
one of anarchy, in which ttie great pio
iinces of t lie south and loutlici-t had no shale,
we leganled the local authorities In the latter
quarteis as lepie-entiug the-Chine-e peode with
whom we sought In remain In peace and friend
ship. Our deelaied aims iniobed no war ugain-t
the Ckine-p nation. We ndhereel lo ttie legiti
mate utile i- ol it-cuing Ihe imperiled legation,
obtaining udirss for wrongs already suffered,
sec in lug wheiecer possible Hie safety of Alueri
can life and property in China, and pievcntlng
a -plead 01 the ili-ordets of their lecurrcuce.
As was (hen said, '"Ihe policy of the goccrn
nieiil of the t'nllcd Slates is to seek .1 solution
which may In lug about peiuuuciit safety and
peace to China, pie-ene Chinese teiriloiial and
admini-ti.itiie entity, piotoct all riglils gtiaran
iced to fiicndly powers by tiealy and interna
tional law, and sjfcgiiaiel foi the woihl the
ptiniiple of eipial and impartial Undo with all
pins of the Chinese euipiic.'"
railhfiil to Iho-e profe lous wliith. as it
proicd. retlec ted the liews nnd inipo-cs of the
othir co-opuating goecinments, all our eltorlfl
hie been clheited towaid euillug the .inomalou-i
situation in China by negotiations for 11 settle
ment at the cat Host possible moment. As soon
a- the sacred duty of relict ing our legations and
its dependents was accomplished we witlidiew
fiom .11 Hie hn-tilitlcs, leaiing our legation under
an ailiipute giiaul in I'ekln as a channel of nc
gutiitions and settlement a lour-e adopted br
others of the iuteie-lcd power-. Overtures nf
the cmpowcicd representntiies of the Chinese
iiiipeior hae been eonshleiably entertained.
Will Insist on Justice.
The Hit Ian piopo-itlon looking to the re-torn-Hull
of the impciial power in I'ekin lias been
act opted a- In full eon-onance wllh our own de-.-lie-,
for we bale held and hold that effective
repiration for wiongs -utTercd nnd an enduring
settlement thai will make their rei-iinenip Im
possible tan be-t be brought about under an an
ihoiity which the Chluc-e nation reverences and
obejs. While -o doing we fotego no Jot of our
uuilouhled right lo exact exemphny and deter
lent puni-lnmut of the re-pon-ihle aiilliors and
ahettois nf the ciimiual acts wheieby we nnd
other nitions hive sulleieil griclun.s injury.
Tor the leal culprit-, Ihe evil louu-elnis who
havi: ml-led the luiptnal judgment and tilt cited
the sovcieigu aulhoilty to their own guilty cncN,
full expiation becomes imperative within the ra
tional limits ot retilbutive Ju-tiee. Ilegarillng
this as the initial condition of an acceptable set
lliiiu ill between Chlni and the powers, I said
In my me age ol Oet, IS tu the Chinese em
peioi ;
"I tiu-t Ihat 111 gotlat ions may begin so soon
a- we and the other oflcnded governments skill
be elfectlvcly satl-lkd of .vour nialesly's ability
ami power lo with just steiue-.s the priu olfendeis, wko aie doubly culpable, not
alone tuwatd the foieigncts, hut toward your
majesty, under who-e rule the pmpue of China
to dwell in concord with the woild had hither
to found expression In the welcome and piotcc
turn aimd to strangers."
Tallin?, as a point of depuituie, the Imperial
tditt appointing Kail 1.1 Hung Chang and Prince
Ching plenipotentiaries to arrange a settlement,
and the edict of Sept. 25, whereby certain high
olllcials wcip designated for punishment, thU
goveimuent has moved, in tonieit with the other
pnwi'iH, towaul tho opining of negotiation:,
whhh Mr, Conger, ii-sl-ted by Mr, Itockhill, Ins
been authoilzcil to conduit nu behalf nf the
I'lilted Stale-,
Workine' Toward p. Settlement.
(.ciieral lnses of negotiation foinuilated by
the govcinmcut of the I'linili republic hav'ii
been acieplid with ccttalii reservations as to
details, made ucccssaiy by mil own 1 ileum.
stautes, but, like similar le-eivatlnns hy other
poweis, open to discu-slon In the progtcns of the
negotlatloiw. The cllsposltlon of the emperor'-i
goveiumeiit to niimit lummy lor wiongs done
to foieigii goveinimiitb and their lutiiiiuls, and
to act upon such additional designation ol Ihe
guilty pcmoiib as tho foreign inlul-tc'is at I'ekin
may he In a position to make, glvrs hope of a
eoniplclo settlement uf all ipiestloni involved,
u-iuiiig foreign lights of residence and Inter
I'outse on terms nf tiii.ility for all the world.
I regard as one of the essential factors of it
double adjustment the soiiuemeiit of adequate
guaranties for llbcrly o faith, since Insecurity
of those natives who may embiacp alien creeds
is 11 scauely lcs etreilual axilla upon the
rlglits of foreign woiship ami teaching than
would be tlm direct invasion theicof.
The matter ol indemiilty for nut w longed cltl
zeiLs Is n iiittion of grave concern. .Measured
In money alone, a sunk lent icparatloii may provo
In bo be; mill the ability ol China tu meet. All
the power inncur In einphatlo dUclalmers of
any purpusu of aggiaudizcmcnt thiough tho ill,
mcmbcriiient of the empire. I am disposed to
think tint due compensation may he nude in
patt by Increased gtijiantec of security for foi,
eigu right and Immunities, and, most finpoilant
ol all, hy the opening of China to the equal torn
mcicu of all the woild. 'these view have been
and will be eame-tly advocated by our rcpre
bintiHii'i. 'Iho government ot Hula lias put forward a
suggestion, that in the event ot protracted di
vergence of view In rcgaul to' Indemnities the
matter may be lelegatcd to the court ol aiLil
tratlon ut The Hague. I favorably Incline in
till.1, bclicvlug that lllll tllVuu'l iviuld uat full
lo reach a solution no less conduelie lo the sta
bility nnd enlarged prosperity nf China Itself
than Immediately beneficial to the powers.
Other Foreign Relations.
Till! I'ltKHtnCNT levlows at lenglh tlic for
eign relillons ot the United States, lie
tells of the exchange on June 2 nf ratifications;
of 11 trcnly of extradition with the Argentine re
public; of representations made to the Austro
Hungarian government against Hip unduly oner
ous treatment ot naturalised American cltb.ens!
of his cordial sympathy with the International
elTort lo regulate the liquor trade In Africa ntul
his hope that restriction of this trnflle may be
extended over all iiiiclvlilrrd peoples! nf a con
ference lo bo held at Urussel Dec. It to further
international protection nf trade-marks and pat
ents! of the piogrcss tn'iilc In enlarging postal
facilities In South America! of efforts made to
secure fair play for American goods In Hip mar
kets of llrazil; of a number of minor South and
Central American negotiations; and on the sub
ject nt the Paris exposition he sajt:
Despite ihavvhaiks the contribution of the
United States wns not only Hip largest foreign
display, hut was among the earliest In place
and the most orderly In nirangeinent. Our ex
hibits were shown in one hundred nnd one out
of one hundred and twenty-one ilasses, and
more completely covered Ihe entire chi-slilcatlon
than those of any other nation. In total num
ber they ranked next after tho-e of Trance, and
the attractive form in which they weie presented
secured general attention, A ctllerlon nf the ex
tent and success of our paitlcipatlnu and of Hie
thoioiighitess with which our exhibits were or
gnnired is seen In the awards gianted to Ameri
can exhibitors hy the International jiuy, namely,
gland prizes, 210; gold medals, .1(17 ; silver med
als, 77(1; hronre medals, fill, and honorable men
tions, 3222,471) in all, being the gientest total
number given to the exhibit of any exhibiting na
tion, as-well as the largest number in each
grade. This significant lecognlllon of merit In
competition with the eliosi'n exhibits of all other
nations and at the hands of juries almost wholly
niadp tip of representative of frame and other
competing countiies is not only most gratifying,
hut is especially valuihle, since It sets us to
the front in International questions of supply
and demand, while the large pioportion of
awanls in the classes of ait and attlsllc manu
factures alToulcd unexpected proof of thu
stimulation of national ciiltme by Ihe prosperity
thai flows from nattual prnduelivcnc-s joined to
itidu-ttial excellent p.
Relations with Germany.
Cooil will pievails in our illations wltli the
Ceiman empire. An amicable adjustment o!
Ihe long-pel. dlrg cpiestinii of I in- aihui-sion of
our life-insurance companies to do business in
Prussia has been reached. One- of Hie principal
companies has alicnely been leadmlttcd and t lie
way is opened for the otlieis to share the privi
lege. An Impciial meat-iiispettioii law- has been
enacted for Germany. While it may simplify
the inspections, it piohlhits certain pioducts
heiotofore admitted. Theie is still gicat un
certainty as to whether our well-nigh extin
guished Cerman tiade in meat pioducts can re
vive under its new burdens. Much will depend
upon regulations not .vet promulgated, which
we confidently hope will he free from the dis
ci imlnations which atleiided the ctifoicement uf
the old statutes.
The lemainiiig link in the new line- of dirct
icdegtaphio communication between the United
Slates and Iho Cerman empne li.ts lecently been
completed, iitfoidlng a gritifjing occn-ion for ex
change of fiicndly cnngiatulations with the Her
man cinpetor.
With Great Britain.
llur fiicndly leLitiou- with Rieat Uiilaiu con
tinue. The war in Southern Africa utioduced
important questions. A condition unu-ual in
international wars was presented in that while
one belligerent had conliol of the seas, the other
had no ports, shipping, or direct trade, but
was only accessible through Hie territory of .1
ncutial. Vexatious questions aiosc through
Cleat Uritaiu's action in respect to neutral car.
goes, not cont1.1b.1nd in their own liatme, shipped
to I'oituguc-e South Afiica, on the score of
prubable or -u-pected ultimate destination tu the
lloer States.
Such t oiusignments in Riiti-h ships, by which
alone direct tiade i kepi up between mil ports
and .Southern Africa, weie seized in application
of .1 municipal law piohibitiug 111 iti-!i vc-sels
from hating with the pnemy without iigard to
any cbntrahaud character of the goods, while
cargoes shipped to Dolagoa Hay in neutral bot
toms weto nricstcd on the ground of alleged ele
t luatinn to (ticmy's country. Appropriate lep-le-entations
on our p.ut resulted in the Dtitish
government agreeing to purchase outright nil
-uih good- shown tu be the actual piopcrty of
American citizens, tints closing the incident to
the satisfaction of the immediately interested
patties, although, imforlunatelj , without a
broad settlement of Hip question of a neutral's
light to scud goods nnl coutiabaud per -e lo a
neutral poit adjacent to a belllgcienl area.
Alaskan Boundary.
Tlic wink of maiking certain bound
ary points, for conicnicnce of admim-liation,
aiouiul the head of I.vnn canal, in aetortlancu
with the teuipoiary arrangement of October, lsati,
was completed hy a joint survey in July last.
The modus xivcncll has so far worked without
flic lion, and Ike Dominion government has pro
vided lulcs and tegulatlnns for seeming to our
eitlens (he benefit of the teclprocal stipulation
that the cillrens or subjects of either power
found by that airaugement within the tcmpui.iiy
Jurisdiction of the other shall sutler no diminu
tion of Hie lights and prli lieges they have hith
eito enjoieil. Hut however nece-saiy such an
expedient may have been lo tide over the grave
emergencies of the situation, it is at best hut an
unsatisfactory uuke-lilft, which should not be
sulTeied to delay die speedy and complete estab
lishment of the fiontler line to which we ntu
entitled under tho llusso-Ameilcan tieaty for Hie
cession of Alaska.
In this relation I may icfer again tn the need
of definitely ijiaiklng the Alaskan hotmdaiy wheio
it follows tho one hundred and forty-first nieii
(Han. A convention to that end has been before
the senate for some two years, but as no action
has been taken I contemplate negotiating a new
convention for a joint determination of the meri
dian by telegraphic observations.
Lynchings of Foreigners.
In my lat message I referred at considetable
length to Ihe hitching of live Italians at T.tllu
lab, Notwithstanding Ihe ettoit of tlic Federal
government, the pioduetloii of evidence tending
to Inculpate the authors of this grievcuu otfente
agalu-t our clvillalion, and the lepealed in
iiie,t set nu fuot by the authorities of the state
of Loul-dana, no pimishtueul have followed, Suc
cessive grand jiuies have failed to luillet, Ihe
icpirscntallons of the Italian goveimuent in tho
face of this mUrarilagu have been most temper-
ntn and lust.
Setting the pilnclple at I-ue high alioie all
consideration of merely pecunlaty Indemnification,
buck as this govttnment made In the Huee pie
x ions casen, Italy has solemnly Invoked the
pledges of existing treaty and asked that the
justice to which slio is entitled shall he meted
in icgaril to her unfortunate roiiutiymeii in our
tcrritoiy with the same full incasiue she heiself
would give to any American weto his icilprocal
treaty rigid cuuti'munl.
I Knew the urgent icconunendatlnni I made
last year that Hie congress appioptlately confer
upon the Icdcu! court Jurisdiction in tills class
of intern itlonal cash where tho ultimate respon
sibility of the Federal government may be In
olved, and I invito action upon tho bill to
accomplish this which were introduced in tho
senate and house. It I incumbent upon us to
remedy the statutoiy omission which ha let),
and may again lead, to such untoward results.
I have pointed out the necessity and the prece
dent for legislation of this iliaiactcr. Its enact
ment Is a simplo measiim ol provisory Justice
towaid the nations with which wo a a sovereign
equal making treaties lequliu reciprocal observ
ance. While the Italian goveimuent naturally lejanl
such action a the primary and, Indeed, the
most essential element in the disposal of the
Tallulah incident, I advlso that, in accordance
with precedent, and In view of the improbability
of that particular eue being reached by the
bill now pending, congress make gracious provl-
ttlon for Indemnity to the Italian sufferers In Ihe
Mine form and piopnrllon as heretofore.
In my Inaugural address I referred to the gen
eral subject of Ijnehlng In thefo words; "Lynch
ing must not bp tolerated In a great and rlvlb
Isrd country like the United Stales; tottrls, hot
mobs, must pxcchIp the penalties of the law.
'Hip irerrrntltn of nhlhkiirdrr, the right ot
di-tusslou, the Integrity ol cotirlt, and the or
derly administration nf justice must miilliui'
forevrr the rock of safety upon which our gov
ernment securely rests," This I most urgently
ti iterate and again Invite Hip nttenllou of my
count r.v men tu this icproach upon our civiliza
Rolntions with Japan.
The 1 losing jear I111 nil nested a decided
strengthening of Japan's relations to other states.
The tletelopincnt of her Independent Judicial and
administrative functions under Hip treaties wn.ih
took effect July l7i,1tVn( has prorccded without friction, showing the competence
of the Japanese to hold a foremost place among
modern peoples,
In the tieatment of the illlllriilt Chinese piob
Ictus .lap 111 his acted in harmonious concert
with the oilier powers, and her generous co-operation
materially aided in the joint relief of the
beleaguered relations in I'ekln and In bringing
about an uudei standing preliminary lt a settle
ment of the Issues between Ihe powers and China.
Japan's declaration In favor of the lutrgilty of
the Chinese cmplie and Hip 1 ouiervatlon of open
woild trade Iheiewllh Imp been bank "and po.
live'. As 11 factor for promoting the general In
teiesls of peace, older and fair rommerce In the
Far Kast the influent p of Japan tan baldly be
The valuable aid and kindly courtesies extend
ed by the .la pa luxe government and naval officers
to the battleship Oregon nip gratefully appie
elated. I
Complain! was made la-t summer of lh dis
criminatory enforcement of a bubonic qiiliantitie
agnln-l Japine-o on the Pat Hie const and of
interference wllh their travel In California and
Colorado under the health laws ot those states
The latter ic-lrlcllons have been adjudged by a
Federal couit to lie unconstitutional. -Vo reiui
lence of cither cau-u of complaint is appichrndcd.
International Arbitration.
It is with fitl-fction tint am able to an
nounce the formal notification at The Hague,
on Sept. 4, of tlic deposit of the ratifications of
the Convention for tin- Pacific; Settlement of in
termtlonil Disputes between Sixteen Poweis,
namely, the United Stales, Austria, Belgium,
Denmark, England, France, Cermany. Italy, Per
sii, l'oitugal, noumania,. Russia, Slam, Spain,
Sweden and Norway and the Netherlands, .lap in
also has since ratified the convention.
The udmini-tr.itiic Council of the Peimanent
Court of Aribtiatlon has bc'1411 otganized and Ins
adopted tides of order and a constitution for the
Intcinitiond Arilitr.itlcn Bureau. In ac,co1llaucc,
with Aitlele XMII of the Convention iioiitling
for the appointment by etch signatory powei of
prisons of known competcne.v in qui-tions of in
tcrnatiouil law- as aibitratoi-, 1 ii.ue appointed
as mcmbeis of this couit, lion. Benjamin Hani
son, of Indiana, cx-pieshlent of Hie I'nited
States; Hon. Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois, thiol
justice of Hip United States; Hon. John W.
Criggs, of New Jersey, attorney geneial of the
United States; anil lion. Ceorge fiiay, of Dela
waie. a judge of the liicult court of Hie I'lilted
Interoceanic Canal.
The- all-Important mailer of an iulei-oteaiiiu
canal lias assumed a new phase, Adhciing to its
1efu-.1l lo re-open the question of the forfcittue
nf the couttact of the Maritime Canal company,
which was teiniinated by the alleged non-execution
in October, 18U0, the government of Nicar
agua lias since supplemented that action by de
claring the so-st)Iecl Fyre-Cr.iglu option void
for non-payment of Hie stipulated adiance. Pio-
tp-ts in relation to these acts haie been tiled
in the state department and aie under consider
ation. Deeming itself relieved from existing en
gagements, the Nlcaraguan goveimuent shows a
disposition to deal freely with the canal question
either in the way of negotiations with the United
States or by taking incasiue to promote the
Overtutes for a. 1 oil vent ion to effect the build
ing of .1 canal under the auspices of the United
Stales aie under con-Idciatlon. In the meantime,
the views of congie-s upon the general subject,
in the light of the icport of the commission
appointed to examine the comparatlip merit
of the- various trans-Isthmian shlp-caual piojects,
may be awaited.
I commend to the oily attention of Ihe senate
the convention with Gloat Britain to facilitate
the cnustiuctinii uf such a canal and to remove
anv objection which might nii-c out of the
convention commonly pallet! the Clavton-llulvver
Relations with Spain.
Katisfnrtoiy progie-s hns been made towaid the
conclusion of a geneial tiealy of frlend-hlp and
iiitcrrouisc with Spain in leplacement of the
old tieaty, which pawed into abeyance by reason
of the late war. A new convention of extradi
tion is appto.ichlug completion, und I should be
much plca-ed weie 11 airaugement
to follow. I feel that we should not suffer to
piss any opportunity to rc-alllrm tho cordial tits
that cxi-led between 11s and Spain from the time
of our earlie-t independence, nnd to enhance
the mutual benefits nf that commercial inlrr
ionise which is natural hct,uetu the two coun
tries By the teuns of Hie Tieaty of Peace the line
bounding the ceded Philippine group In the
southwest failed to Include several small island
lying westward of tho Stilus, which have always
been recognised as under Spanish control. Tho
occupation of Sibutii and Cagnjan S11I11 by our
naval fniccs elicited a claim on the patt of
Spain, Hie essential equity of which could not be
gain-aid. In older to cute the defect of tho
tieaty by removing all po-ihle ground for fultira
mUuiideistandliig lc-pecting the intcrpictation
of its third article, I directed the negotiation
of .1 supplemental y tieaty, which will he forth
with laid befou- the senate, wheteby Spain
quits all tltlo and claim of title lo the Islands
named, 11s well as In any and all islands belong,
big to the Philippine Aichlpclago lying outside
the lines de-tiibcd In said third aitlele, and
ngiccs that all such islands shall be compichcnd.
ed in Ilia cession ot Hie archipelago as fully as
If they had been expressly included within thosa
lines. In consideration of this cession the United
States I- to pay Spain the turn of 5100,000.
A bill I- now pending to effect the rctouiuun
datioti made in my last annual messige that ap
propriate legislation be had to c.itry into execu
tion Aitlele VII of the Tieaty of Peace with
Spain, by width the United States assumed tho
paviucnl of ceilalu claims for Indemnity ol Its
eitlens against Spain, I ask that action he
taken to fulfill this obligation.
Claims Against Turkey.
We await the fulfillment of Hie proinl-e of the
Sultan to nnko lepiratlnii for tho iiijutles suf.
feted by AiuPilcau tltUens in Armenia and else
wheie in tho Turkish cmplie. UN Majcstv's good
disposition in this legaid has been evinced by
Hip is-uinco ot 1111 hade for lebullding Ihe Amer
ican college at llaipoot,
Reciprocity Treaties.
Tlie failuic of action hy tho sen tie at it- last
session upon tho touuueiclal e munitions then
submitted for ils consideration and appioval,
although caused by the great prcssuic of other
legislative luislnesi, has paused much disappoint
ment to Hie agricultural and industrial Intt ic.-ts
of the country, which hoped In profit by their
provisions. The lonventlonal pcilods fui' their
latltlcatlon having expired, it liecaino nucssaiy
lo sign additional at tides extending the limn
for that piirpesp. This was requested on our
part, and tho other gotriumeut ntciclnl have
com lined with the exception of one convention,
'u lespcet to wliith no format leply has bicn it
celvcd. Since my last communication tu cuugicss em
thi subject com1ne1cl.1l agreements un
der thu till id section of the lailfi ut t hive been
proclaimed ivIUi Portugal, with Italy, and with
(liijiuiiy, Commercial conventions under the
general limitations of the fuuith scclfoii of Iho
tamo act have been concluded with Mtaiagua,
wltli Fciiador, with the Dominican icpubllc,
with fiteat Biltalu on Lielull of the Island of
Trinidad, and wllh Denmark on behalf uf the
Island of St. Croix. These will he early coin,
niunlcuted to the senate. Negotiations with oth
er governments are In piogres tor the improve
ment and security of our commercial icla'.luna.
TIip policy nf teclproelly so manifestly rest
upon Hie principles of equity ntul
lias been xo repeatedly approved by the people
of the United State that there ought lo be no
hesitation In either branch nt congress In giving
lo It full effect, Thl government desires to
prcsene the niot Just ami amlrabte commercial
relation with all foreign countries, unmoved by
the Industrial rivalries necessarily developed in
the pxpntudon of International trade. It Is be
lieved that the foreign governments generally
entertain the same purpose, although In some
instance there arc clamorous demands upon them
for legislation specifically hostile to American
Interest. Shall these demand prevail I shall
communicate with the congress wltli the view of
advising sutli legislation a may be necessary
to meet the emergency.
Pan-American Exposition.
The exposition of the resources and pioducli
nf the Western hemisphere to be held at Buffalo
next jear ptomlse. Important results nnt only
for Hie United States, but for the other partici
pating countries. It is gratifying that Hie
batlii-Ainerlraii state have evinced the liveliest
Interest, and the fact that an International Amer
ican congress will be held in the City of Mexico
while the exposition is in progriss entourage the
hopp of a larger display at Buffalo thnn might
otherwise be practicable. The work of prepar
ing an exhibit of our national resources Is mak
ing satisfactory progress under tho direction o!
different official of the Federal government, and
the various state of the Union have shown a ilii
position towaid the mol liberal participation
In the etileiprlse.
Consular Service,
The practical utility of the consular service
in obtaining a wide lange of infoiniatlou as to
tho Industrie nnd commerce of other counttle
and the opportunities thereby afforded for Intin
iluclng the sale of our goods IitCc Kept steadily
in advance of the notable expansion of our for
eign tratle, and abundant evidence has been fur
nished, both til home and abroad, of the f.i,l
that the con-nlar reports, including many Ironi
our diplontitle representatives, have lo a cou-lil-'
erable extent pointed nut vvas and means of
disposing nf a great variety of in.uiufac lured
goods which otheiwise might not have found silo
Testimony uf foieigii observers to the conuuer
clal efficiency of the consular cotps seems to Ire
conehi-lve, and our own manufacttuer- ami tx
poiteis highly appietiale the value- of the- ei
vices reiideirit not only in the printed lepcnts
but also in the luilividiiil cftoits of consular olll
reis to pioiuotQ American trade. An ineieaslng
part of the wink of the bin can of foreign com
merce, who.-e primary duty I lo tompile and
pi bit the tcptnts, is it, answer Inquliics from
tiade oigatiiation-, hu-iness houses, etc.. as lo
tonilitiins In various parts of the win hi, and,
notwithstanding Hie siuallncss of the force em
plo.ved, the wink has been so s.v led Hut
icspon-es nip made with such piomptltude and
accuracy as to elicit flattening encomiums. The
experiment of printing the consular leports daily
for immediate list- by tratle bodies, exportel-,
and Hie press, which was begun in January, lK,
continues- to give- satisfaction.
Internal Affairs.
TT IS GIIATIFYINC to to able lo state that the
1 surplus tevenucs for the fiscal tear ended
June .'10, 1900, weie 7!,527,00.18. For the six
preceding vears we had only deficits, the aggie
gate of which from lstll to IS')'), inclusive,
amounted to !-JS:i,0'22,!U)l.ll. The ietrlit fur
the jear from all boiutes, cxclti-lic of postal
revenues, nggiegaled 7,2, :nl expen
eliluic for all purposes, except for the adiiiin-i-tiation
of the postal tlepaitimnt, aggiegated
f 187,71.1,701. 71. The lecelpts from c-iislouis wile
s-2r.1,10l,, nu Increase over the piecediug
xear of fJ7,0.?rt,.'iS').ll. The reteipl, from inttt
nnl revenue weie -yi.VI27,W2U.7it, an Intieise nf
$2!, 800,70..21 over Ib'CJ. The receipts from mis
cellaneous sotnees weie .18,718,01.1.117, a- against
f.m,:t'll,!l70.U2 for the pievious year.
It is gratifying also to note that dining the
year .1 considerable teductioii is shown in Ihe
expenditures of the government. The wat de
partment cxpenclituies for the fiscal jiar 1CH)
were $131,774,7(17.78, .1 icductiou of r,'(ioil,4-il.ii9
over those of IStW. In the navy department Ihe
expenditmes were oj.!"iJ,077.7.J for the c.u
1000, as against -C.1,012,101.2.) for the pieceding
.vcai, a decica-e of $7,!is,),02ll.,1.1. In Iho expendi
tutcs on account of Indians then- was a deciea-e
in lliui over 1SW of 2,en,(M!.:!S: and in the
civil and ml-cellaneous t xpenscs for I'M) theie
was a 1 eduction of ?i:t,ll!-',0t.j.74.
Treasury Condition Strong.
Because of the execs- of leveuue- over cxprn
ditmes the secretary of the tica-tny was en
abled to apply bonds and other -etuiitic-s to
the sinking fund to the amount o! ,"i0,oll,j.'i0.(W.
The secutai.i nf Iho tieasuty estimates that the
receipt for the- ciinrnt fiscal year will aggiegale
s.l'-P.OOn.OOO and the expenditures .',lsl,il.00il,
leaving nu execs- of revenues over expi udituies
of Sso.OIO.On.i. The present condition ot the
ticisttiy is one uf undoubted sticngth. The
available crsh balance Nov. HO was l.'i,i,jn.l,7lll.jil.
Under tl.e form of statement puor tn the finan
cial law of Mai ch II la-l there would have
been included in the statement ot available cash
gold coin and bullion held for the itikmptiun
of United States notes.
If this foiui were puisiied, the i.i-li balance,
luc lulling Hie present gold tesciv,. ut isl jl.uOO.flnil,
would be ,i-2S'J,3ttl1',iil.,-sl. Such balinre, Nov,
:), J.vri, was 0tl, l'J,"i,.i01..1'. In the general
fund, which is who'ly sepirate from the if-eive
and trust tiituls, thcio wa- on Nov, .10, -TO.O'Mt,-1)7:1.1.1
in gold coin mid bullion, to which should
bo added 4.JJ,fl7,SOO In gold certificates subject
to iue, against which there is held in the
division of ledempticu gold coin ami bullion,
making .1 total holding ol tiee gold amounting to
It will be the duty a.- 1 am aiire Ii will bo
the disposition of the congiess to provide what,
ever further lcgl-latlou is needed to li,uic the
coiil Iniied parity under all conditions between
our two founs of metallic monei, silver and
Refunding Operations.
Our sin pi ii- li.ivo primltted toe sic
utnry of the in i-uiy since Hie close of Hie fiscal
,icar In tall In tho luniled loan of Ih'll continued
at 2 per cent, in Hie sum of If.'a,::0l,j00. To and
im lulling N'ov. MO, .JI.I.I-.llW of tbeso bonds
havo becen paid. This stun, together with the
amount which may accrue fiom futtlici- icdiiup
Hon under the call, will he applied to the
sinking (iiml,
The law- of Man Ii II, UW), piovicled foi re
funding intu J per cent, thirty-year bond;,
pavahlc, print Ipal and inkiest, in gold coin ol
the present sl.ilid.inl value, poll ion of tho
public debt rcptciiiitid by the 3 pir rent, bonds
of 1IHW, the I peiccnls of PUTT, and Hie .'1 per
mits of 1001, of which tlii'iu was oulstiiiiliug id
the il ilt ol said law $s:i'),ln,n,io, The holclei
of Iho ohl bonds pirsented Hit in for exchange
lelvvoccn March II and Nov. no to Hie amount
of $.ll0l.ll7.'O. Tho net saving to tho fcoveiu
incnl on theso transactions aggiegates j-'MOMli'',
Another effect ol the opeiutlon, as slated by
thu stcietaty, Is tr, inline Ihe 1 barge upon tho
lieasury for thu pailiienl of inteic-t bom the
il.ites of icfuudlng In Fib. I, ltslt, by Hie sum
ot .11010 Hum seven million dnllais annually.
Fiom Fel'. 1, 1D0I, lo duly I, I07, the annual
liilciot iharge will he red, ued by the sum cf
ii'cio than li'.o millions, and for thirteen month
eliding Aug. I, V)$, by about one million,
Banking Progress.
1 lis Lcntllelat edict of the financial att uf
Jfsjil, .. far as It ulatts to 11 modification of the
nitioiial banking act, Is alteacly appaunt. The
provi-lon for the inna pout ion of national hanks
with 1 capital of not icss than r,ono in placej
not exceeding thice thousand inhabitants ha.s
resulted in the extension of banking facilities
pi puny small ccaiiinuultli's hilhuto unable lo
piovide tluuuihis with b inking institutions
undei Ihe lulloiul svsttln. Theie weie oiguii
bed ficm the. enactment ol thu law up lo and
Ini lulling Nov. tl'l, 3o'.i national banks, of which
:'M were with capital e-.s than s-."JU0, and lat
with capital uf so 1,000 or moie,
II is vvoithy of mention Hut the giealtr litun
ber of banks bring nigaiilzcd inulei the, new law
aie in section wheie the need of banking facili
ties lias been most pronounced. Iowa stands
tjist. with "l hanks ot the suullit dies, while
Ti.xu, Oklahoma, Indian teirltory, an) the mid.
tile ami western sections ol the connlty liv
also nulled themselves largely ol the privileges
under tho new law.
A largo Increase In nallonal-hank-nolc clrcu.
latlon bus resulted bom the provision of tlm
art which ptrmlts national nankii to issue ilr
ctilalbig note to the par value ol the UnllrH
Slates bonds dtpoMtcd a security Instead ot only
1)0 per cent, thereof, a heretofore, The uurcise
In circulating noles from Marrh II lo iv. "0
Ii $77,880,070.
Tho party In power la committed lo inch leg
blatlon a will better make the currency re
sponslic lo Hie varying need of business at ail
season and In all sections.
Foreign Trade.
Our totclgn trade shows a remarkable rcord
of commercial and Industrial progress. The total
of Import and exports for the first time In tin
history ol Iho country exceeded two billions ol
dollar. The exports ore greater than they ban
ever been before, the total for the fiical year
MOO being $l,Stll,ttsll,082, an Increase over 181
of -)1II7,45!),78&. an Incirase over 1808 of SKU,
000,782, over fRl? of -J.1 13,489,8211, and greater than
18IKI by ytl.870,114,
Tho growth nf nianiificlnrrs In the Hulled
States in evidenced by Hip diet that exporl
of nunufar lured exports largely exceed those of
any previous jear, their value for 1900 being
$433,831,7311, against $130,392,11(1 in 1W, an In
crease of 28 per cent.
Agricultural products ucic also exported during
1900 In greater volume than In 1800, the total
for Hie year being $?33,?,'i8,123, against $764,776,.
1 12 in IS:m. 1
The Imports for Ihe year amounted to $84ti,
'Hl.lSl, an Increase over 1S99 of $152,702,605.
Tills Ineiea-e is hugely in materials for maim
failure, ami Is in response to the iiipltl develop
ment of manufacturing In Iho United State.
While there was Imported for use In manufacture
in 1100 tnsteilal In Hip value of $70,708,972 In
excess of 18HO, it Is le-assurlng to observe that
Ihetp I a Icndeiuy toward decrease In the lm
poir.ilio'i of aitlcles manufactured ready for ton
sumption, which In tnoo foinied 13.17 per cent,
of the total impuits, agaln-t 13.3I per cent In
1S19 and 1.00 per cent in 18'K).
Revenue Reduction.
I recommend Hint the congiess at It present
session reduce the internal revenue taxes imposed
to meet the expense of Hie war with Spain in
the -mil of thirty millions of dollars. This re
duction should tic secured by the remission ot
those taxes which experience has shown to he
tin- nio-t burdensome lo the induslries of the
people. I especially urge that there be ini hide 1
in whatever reduction is made the legacy tax
bequests for public uses of a llleiaiy, educational,
or ehaiitable ehnactcr.
American Shipping.
American ve els chuiiig the just llnec jear
hale 1 allied about ! pel tint, of our r.xpoita
and Import'. Foreign ships should carry Hit
least, not the greatest, pjrt of American trade.
Tlic remarkable giovvth of our steel industries,
the piogrcss cf ship-building for Hip domestic
trade, and our steadilj miintalned expenditure
for the iia x y have cieulcd an opportunity to
place the I nited Stale's In the fmnt rank of corn
men ial til.11 il into povviis.
Ilesldc lealizing a pioper national aspiration
tills will mean Hip establishment and healthy
growth along all our coasts of a distinctive na
tional industry, expanding Ihe field for tho pro
fitable employment of laboi and capital. It will
inciea-e the facilities and leductt
freight chaiges on Hip vast volume of product
brought fiom the Inteiior to the scaboaid for
export, ami will stiengthen an aim of the na
tional defense upon which the founders of thu
government and their suc-cessoii have relied. In
again urging' immediate action ley congress on
measures to promote American shipping and for
eign tiade, I diiect attention to the recommen
dations nn the subject In previous messages, ami
paiticularly to the opinion expressed in the mes
sage of 1SJ9:
"I am sitisfied the judgment of Ihe country
favoi the polity lo aid our mei chant marine,
which will bioaden our commerce and market
and upbuild our sca-cairjing capacity for Ihe
pioducts of ogiiciilture and manufacture, which,
with the lm lease of our nai,y, means more work
and wages lo uur eounti.vmen, as well as a sife
gttai il to interests in every pirr of tho
In my la-t annual message to Hie congiess I
tailed attention to the nece-sitj' for early action
(0 lemedy sin ii evils as might be found to exist
ill connection with cnmljinstions of capital or
ganized into Iru-K and again invite attention
lo m.v discussion of the subject at lhat time,
which concluded with these words;
"tt I- apparent that uniformity of legislation
upon thin subject in Ihe several stales is much
lo be desired. It is to be hoped that such unl
formit.v, founded in a wise and just discrimination
between what is injurious and what is useful
and necessary in business npeiations, may he nb
tallied, and that means uiav be found for Hi
congress, within Hie limits of its constitutional
power, so to supplement an effective code of stale
legislation as to make ,1 complete sy-tem of
laws throughout the I'nited State adequate In
compel .1 general obseivance of the salutary rule
lo which 1 have lefeircd.
"The whole question is so iinpoitant and far
reaching that I am sine no pait of it will be
lightly con-idetcd, but eieiy phase of It will
have the studied delibeiation of Ihe congiess,
rc-ulting in wise and judicious action."
Restraint upon such combination as are In
jurious, and which ate within Fecleial jurisdic
tion, -iioultl he piompllj- applied hy the congiess.
The Philippines.
I.V MV LAST AVXUAIi .MCsSUilJ I dwelt at
some lenrth upon Hip condition of affairs in
the Philippines. While seeking tn impress upon
jou that Hip gravp responsibility of those island
tests wllh the congress ot tho United States, I
abstained fiom recommending at that time it
specific and final form of government for tn
tcriltcry actually held by the United States
traces and In which as long as insurrection con
tinues the inllitaty aim must necessarily ha
nipiemr. I stated my purpose, until the con
gress shall have made known the formal expres
sion ot it will, lo use the authority vested In
mo by Hip constitution and the statutes tn up
hold the sovereignty ot the t'nitrd Stale in
those distant islands as in all other places
where our flag tlghtfully floats, placing, 10 tint
end, at the dlsposilinf tin army and navy all
tho means which the Jiher.llitj- of the cotiRie-s
and Hip people have provided. No rontrarj ex.
plosion of th will of the eougirss having been
made, I have steadfastly pursued the pill pone -,,
declared, emplojing the civil arm as well to.
w.ud Hip accomplishment of pacification and Hit
institution of local guvrinrirnts. ivilhtu Ihe lines
of authority ami law.
Progress in tlm hoped-1 ji- durctlnn hai been
favorable. Our foices have, successfully con
trolled the greater patt of the isliudt, oveiconi.
big thu oiganUed lorces ot the Insurgent ami
canting older ntul administrative regularity to
nil quarters. What opposition lemilus u for the
1110ft part scattered, obejiug no conceited plan
n stnleglu ueton, opeiating only by the meth
ods common to the traditions of guerrilla w.11.
fare, which, while ineflrctivn tn alter the ftm
eial control now established, aiu still sullicicnt t
beget insecurity among Hie populations Hut
ham felt the good lesiills of our inutrjl and
thus delay the (oufeiiuriil upon them ol the
fuller measures of local self-government, of eon
cation, and of Indiulinl and agricultural devtl.
opiticut whhh lie stand irmly to give thnn.
Civil Commission Named.
'Ihe piislilcnt tells; in detail of his paining of
a cull lomiulssiuu and nt his Insttiicilons In
them, communicated Ihiough Hid sen clary of
war. Following is Ihe is-iiiilul pait of their
"Without hainpeiiii.' them hy too sprcilio
iiisUucticiis, they should in geneial be enjoined,
alter nuking tlie'.i'ches familiar with the condi
tions and need of the countr.v, tu devote their
attention in the first Instance (0 tlm establish,
luent of governments, In vhkli Hie
natives of the islands, both In flip ciics and
in the rural communities, shall he afforded the
opimitunlty to manage their uuii loed affairs
to the fullest extent ol which they are capable
ami bubject to the leant degree ol supervision
and contiol which a careful study ol their cap
(citiea and cbsenatlon ol the workings of nittv