The Scranton tribune. (Scranton, Pa.) 1891-1910, April 15, 1896, Page 6, Image 6
Y THE SCBANTON . TBIBTJNE "WEDNESDAY HOHKING APBIL 15, 1836. CClchtlSL RECIPROCITY A Coitiaclag Statement of tic Mer its of Reciprocal Trade. HOW TO WIDEN OUR MARKETS The President of tho Katloaal Asaoela tloa of Maasfactarers Makaa aa Ef fective PUa for the Restoration of Baelproaal Trad Treaties. President Theodora O. Search, of Philadelphia. In behalf of the National Association of Manufacturers, has Is sued a Ktrikln plea for the restoration of thetreaties of commercial reciproc ity abrogated by the Wilson tariff bill. He says: The treaties of commercial reciproc ity which were negotiated under the act of 1890 were baaed upon the very .simple- principle of demanding some thing In return for that which we had to give. We had a market in this country for certain commodities which were produced In the West indies, in Central America and in South America, but we were not dependent solely upon those sources of supply. On the other hand, those countries had need of many products of our agriculture and indus try, but we could claim no monopoly of the supply of those articles. The trea ties of commercial reciprocity which were negotiated under the customs law of 1890 simply secured the admission of our products to the southern coun tries more freely without making any sacrifice of our own home markets. Thia was accomplished, not by making further concessions to those countries, but by demanding from them the granting of privileges in return for the advantages which they had long en joyed in our own markets. j( require um t uiamc . dltlons under which the treaties of commercial reciprocity were negotiat ed to reveal how much was gained by this country and how little was given In return. By permitting the continu ance upon the free list of three com modities upon which duties had not been Imposed for many years and by conditionally placing two addi tional items upon our. free list, con cessions were obtained from a dosen foreign countries which either wholly removed or largely reduced the duties Imposed by those nations on over two thousand articles of American produc tion or manufacture. Tea, coffee and hides were already on the free list had been there since 1873 and the duty was removed from sugar and molasses by the act of 1890. The ery simple prov vlslons of the reciprocity clause of this act authorised the imposition of duties upon all of these commodities when Im ported from countries to which Ameri can goods could not enter as freely as the goods of other nations. It was not by the extension of the free list of our customs law that favors were obtained from other nations; It was by the threat of the imiiosition of duties upon the products of countries which dis criminated against us that American merchants were secured equal rights with their competitors in foreign mar ket" OOOD STROKE OP BUSINESS. This was at once an act of Justice and a good stroke of business. We were buying annually from Brazil from 150,000,000 to 160,000,000 worth of mer chandise, the larger part of which was coffee, upon which no duty had been charged since 1873, although Brazil im posed onerous customs dues upon the principal articles of export from the United States, with the result that the shipment of American goods to Brazil amounted In 1890 to only $11,972,214, or less than one-fifth of the value of our imports from Brazil. The demand that Brazil should reduce the duties on American products under penalty of the imposition of a duty of three cents per pound on coffee, was fully justified up on business grounds if by no other reason. The effect of the more favor able conditions which followed the ne gotiations of a reciprocal treaty were a still greater Justification of the demand that had been made, for there was an Immediate Increase in the trade be tween the T 'nited States and Brazil. The new treaty with Brazil which went into operation on April 1, 1891, placed wheat, corn, flour, cottonseed oil, coal, machinery, tools, railway ma terials and many other articles upon the Brazilian free list, while a reduc tion of 25 per cent, was made In the duties Imposed upon lard, bacon, hams, canned goods, leather goods, lumber and manufactures of wood and sever al other articles. The effect upon our trade with that country was felt at once, The following statement shows our exports of Hour to Brazil during six fiscal years two years prior to the negotiation of the reciprocal treaty, three years during the operation of that treaty and one year after ita re peal. Tears. Barrel. Values. lHt ; t7.342 ' H,:u,w) ISSlt 722,309 3,KtS,!l JW3 H18.M7 4,72,IU9 JS! 837,(S 3.V47.2M IK 20;86 3.638,871 1896 775,425 2,683,918 THE CASE OP CUBA". It Is In our dealings with Cuba, how ever, that the benefits of reciprocity huve been most . strikingly shown. Sugar, which formed the largest Item in our Imports from Cuba, was placed upon the free list by the tariff act of 1S90, but Its free entry was made condi tional upon the reasonable treat rrfst of American products in those countries Horn which sugar was. imported Into the United States. There was resk-ved the. privilege of Imposing duties at ab(Mt one-half the-foi mer- rates-upon sugar and molasses when Imported from countries which discriminated against the United States In their cus toms laws. Under normal trade con ditions Cuba would have looked to the United States for her supply of bread' tuffs, provisions, and in fact nearly everything needed that could not be produoed at home; but in order to con trol the trade of her West India col onies Spain imposed a duty of nearly u.M) per barrel upon American flour. or considerably more than the flour was worth at the port of shipment In this country. Under the reciprocity treaty which Secretary Blaine nego tiated with Spain and which went Into , effect on Sept. 1, 1891, the duty on flour was reduced to $1 per 220 pounds, large reauctions were made in the duties on other breadstuffs, the duties on fifteen leading commodities were reduced one. half, and about forty items were added xo me tree nut. The more favorable conditions crent ed by thla treaty gave an immediate Impetus to our trade with Cuba, the extent of which is strikingly ahown by the following statement of our ex ports to and imports from Cuba during mo uvo nscai years given below: jean. Exports. Imports. 1890 .......$1S,064.415 $53,801,591 1W1 12,224 888 . 61.714,395 1W2 17,953,470 77.931,071 1893 24,167,698 78,706,506 U94 20,126,321 75.678,261 uunnjr the ten years nrecedina the tariff act of 1890 our exports to Cuba remained practically stationary, while our imports irom uuDa during the same ten years decreased over $10,000,000. But under three years of reciprocity vur iraav wiui uuDa reacnea tne nigh est point ever touched, showing an in crease of $8,000,000 in exports and $14, M0.0M in imports. . FLOUR FOR EXAMPLE. ) ' . To take a slgle item from our trade with Cuba, flour shows how sharply the influence' of the reciprocity treaty w leu. xne exports or nour from the United States to Cuba, .which amounted to 114,447 barrels In the fiscal year ended June 30 1891, increased to I3,17S barrels In 1892 the first year unng wmcn tne reciprocal treaty was In operation to 618.406 barrels in 1898 uHt , varrsis in uh, tne last year of the treaty of reciprocity with Spain. Upon the passage of the customs law of 1&4, which compelled the abrogation of this treaty, Spain immediately re taliated by increasing the duty on Hour from $1 to $4.75 per 220 pounds, with the result that the exports of American Hour to Cuba fell to 379.854 barrels in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1893. So great was the outcry of the Cubans against the enormous duty on Ameri can Hour that the Spanish government was forced to reduce the rate from $4.73 to $4 per 220 pounds, still four times the duty charged under the reciprocity treaty. I wish to give particular emphasis to the importance of our relations with Cuba under the reciprocal treaty, be cause that Island is our nearest and best customer to the southward. Not' only has the abrogation of the recip rocity treaty caused great direct loss to this country, but it has imposed great hardship upon the people of Cuba. With the advantages enjoyed under re ciprocity treaty the United States was assured the practical control of the Cuban trade and the conditions were equally satisfactory to the people of Cuba and this country. When Senator Washburn, of Minnesota, went down to Havana for a week In the early part of 1894, he found abundant evidence of the satisfactory workings of the treaty then in force. Speaking about what he saw. Senator Washburn said: "In conversation with American mer chants and' others doing business in Cuba I learned that the effects of the commercial relations created by this arrangement had been really remark able, and were Increasing in Importance and magnitude day by day. The Amer icans doing business there are more than satisfied with the results. The Cubans are satisfied, and everyone is satisfied excepting Spain itself and the representatives of Germany, France and other Continental countries, who see the trade of the island gradually slipping away from them and finding themselves supplanted by the products of the American farmer and the wares of the American workshop." WHAT CUBANS THINK. For another view of the' commercial relations between Cuba and the United States let me present these few lines from a memorial presented to the Span ish parliament by the sugar manufac turers and planters in Cuba on Septem ber 30, 1894, one month after the Wilson bill had become a law: "Upon the abrogation of the reciproc ity treaty with the United States, the monstrous tariff of the year 1892 was unmercifully renewed and applied to the Imports from all foreign countries one of the first effects having been to Increase the price of provisions Im ported from the United States, there by raising the expense of living on this people, besides increasing tne cost al-. most to the point of prohibition of the importation of machinery and other products of foreign countries essential to the preservation and development or its industries, the effects of which are shown In the Increased cost of produc tion, and in abandonment of necessary repairs." It is not necessary to rehearse the conditions under which reciprocity treaties were negotiated with other countries, nor need I show what they accomplished, or how their abroga tion has Injured our foreign trade. I desire only to point out a few specific reasons for such legislative enactments as will permit the restoration of trea ties of commercial reciprocity wltn those nations with which they were es tablished under the act of 1890 and the negotiation of similar treaties with other countries with which more free dom In our trade relations Is desirable. First Reciprocity commends Itself to business men who have given the subject careful consideration as a Bound and Judicious business principle. Second As applied under the act of 1890, reciprocity was a thoroughly American principle, inasmuch as it pro vided for the protection of our com mercial Interests, not only at home but abroad. Third As ft principle that has been earnestly advocated by both Republi cans and Democrats, reciprocity ought to be considered upon a strictly non partisan, non-political basts. Fourth The practical application of reciprocity under the provisions of the act of 1890 demonstrated beyond ques tion the ability of such treaties to ex tend and enlarge our foreign trade un der exceedingly favorable conditions. Fifth Apart from those results which can be measured In money val ues, the reciprocity treaties rendered valuable service in effeit'ng more cor dial relations between the United States and other nations. Sixth From a protectionist stand point, reciprocity is not open to objec tions, as it Involves no sacrifice of the principles of protection. The treaties which were negotiated under the act of 1890 added nothing to the free list that was not already there. Seventh Those who advocate free trade ought not to object to reciprocal commercial treaties, as their whole ef fect Is to lessen the restrictions upon International trade. Eighth Treaties of commercial reci procity with other nations, particularly the Latin-American countries, are nec essary an a matter of self-protection, for treaties of this character are being or have been negotiated between Euro pean governments and nations to the south of us to the detriment of our commercial Interests abroad. In behalf of the enormous Industrial Interests represented by this associa tion. I desire to urge with all possible emphasis the necessity for such treaty relations with foreign nations as shall insure the utmost possible favor to American products in the markets of the world. WHAT RECIPROCITY DID. . Under section 3 of act of Oct. 1. 1890, treaties of commercial reciprocity were negotiated" "with the following Latin American countries, taking effect upon the dates mentioned: Brazil, April 1. 1891. Spain, for Cuba and Porto Rico, Sept. 1, 1891. Santo Domingo, Seipt. 1,1891. Salvador, Feb. 1, 1892. British West Indies and British Guiana, Feb. 1. 1892. . . Nicaragua, March 12, 1892. Honduras, May 2S, 1892. Guatemala, May 30, 1892, The effect of these treaties may be best judged, perhaps, by comparing the trade between the United States and these countries before and during the operation of these agreements. For this purpose the year ended June 30. 1890, has been chosen as a period when the foreign trade was in a normal con dition, Just prior to the negotiation of these treaties, while the year ended June 30, 1893, was a period In which the treaties of reciprocity were all In opera' tlon, although still far from showing the full measure of their beneficial ef fects. : . The Imports from and exports to the Latin-American countries with which reciprocity treaties were In force, were as follows during the years ended June 30, 1890 and 1893: - IMPORTS. 1890. ' vsa. Brazil $ 69,318.766 $76,222,138 Cuba 63,801,691 78.70(1,506 Porto Rico , 4,053,026 4,008,623 Ban uomingo j.sm.ui.i z,!6,is Salvador 1,453,958 1,355,730 Nicaragua ............. 1,665.690 1,400,236 British West Indies... 14.865,018 16,788.438 British Guiana 4,326,975 6,029,178 Honduras 984.404 684.912 Guatemala 2,281,681 2,554,710 Total J144.702.712 $189,146,786 EXTORTS. 1890. Brazil $ 11,972,214 Cuba ............... 13,084,415 Porto Rico 3,297,638 San Domingo 950,217 Salvador 899,546 Nicaragua ... .1,373,019 British West Indies?... 8,288,786 British Guiana 2,106,345 Honduras 652,024 Guatemala ...... ...... 1,345,719 1893. $12,388,124 iI4.1u7.ti!!l 2,610,607 1,143,479 1,138,430 937,859 9.006.U62 2,000,675 471,605 1.763, m Total ..$42,809,823 $55,619,391 The Nickel Plate Road Is the shortest line between Buffalo and Chicago, IRON AND STEEL PRICES. The Following Table, Compiled by Dun, Will Prove Valuable t. c i I o e -j " S o a si 2 ' J c A fll'Sl i S2if 1 DAT z-z 5 E ts!feS S 5 S . ct $Z1 2 is &c ts Is Se s se a jo. j a p s a "w '95, Jan. 1 " Keb. 8 , " Men. S " " 26 ,., " Apr. 3 " May 1 " June 1 " July I , Aug. I " Sept. 3 , " " 17 ' Oct. 1 Nov. 1 " Dec. 4 " " 31 , 96. Jan. 7 " 14 2 ttm jig " Feb. 4.1'.'.'."!! " " 11 '..., " " 18 " " 25 " Moh. 4 " Men. 11 " Men. 18 " Apr. 1 " Apr. 8 12 l: 12.00! .25 U.UUI 12.00) 12.00' 12.001 12.001 I:, 1 151.2a h i sr. 15 1.25 1511.35 20i!.50 ,50 1.70 50 l .SU ,452. ,45 2.00 13.00 1375 13.75 14.50! 14.50 14.5o 14.001 40:1.80 .SO 13.00 13.001 13.501 1S.3H 13.501 13.50 .30 n .an.37a 301. IS SOil.45 .SO 1.45 .25 1.45 113.501 i 13.50 '13.50 113.50 113.50 13.50 113.25! 13.25 ,25 1.45 .251.45 .25 .25 1.45 .201.40 .15 1.46 .15,1.45 BUSINESS BREVITIES. BRITISH TRADE. The British Board of Trade returns for the tlrst quarter of the present year show that the Imports nave amounted to 112,5,342 ($561,461,476,710), BKalnxt 100,837.860 (t5O4.lNf.300) for 1895. The exports for the nret quarter of 1896 were 01, 233.043 ($3116,165,215), aKalnst 52,720.361 ($263,601,805) for last year at the same time. II II II BTRIKB IV GREAT RRITA1X. In Oreat Ilr uh and Ire anil, from 1 1889 to 1893 in clusive, some 4.526 strikes occurred. They affeeted l,852,103persons. The suceewful strikes affected 44.5 per rent, of this total number: tne partially suecessiui, w. per vent,, and the unsuccessful, 21.6 per cent. IRON AND STEEL, IN FRANCE. The metallurgical production In France during 1895 does not show any notable increase UDon that of the nrevlous year, rig-iron amounted to 2,005,889 tons, as compared with 2,069,714 tons In 1894: rolled Iron, 743, 671 tons, as compared with 786,781 tons; and manuractureti steel, 7l,Kll, as compareu With 674,180 tons. OROWTH OF IWkoPBAN POPULA TION. The European Economist pub lishes facts with regard to the growth of population In the various countries of Eu rope durlna- the decennial period 1885-95, The aggregate increase was 29.922.M0. Some states have advanced greatly, tor tro-Hungary, 3,502,200; Great Britain, 2, example, Ruxsla added 12,510,800 to her ex isting population; Germany, 4,522,600; Aus 452,400; Turkey, 1,100,000, and France, 67, 100. II II II FALLING PRICES. Bradstreefs has an Interesting article on the price of commo dities during the past three years. A list comprlHing 108 staple articles of manufac tures, products of the soil and mine, cat tle, meats, shows that only beef carcasses, bricks and ground lime were higher on April 1, 1896, than on Jan. 1, 1896, and April 1, 1894. The following table of prices In March, 1891, and March, 1896, was made up with great care; March. 1891. 1896. 1 barrel flour $ 5 00 $ 3 85 1 26 1 L5 60 fO 25 21 61 25 5 18 25 28 1 21 12 1 00 80 2 60 30 35 25 25 14 25 pounds granulated sugar ... 1 78 6 pounds crenmery butter .... l i- 6 doxen eggs 1 60 6 pounds prunes 80 1 bushel potatoes 1 25 3 cans tomatoes 30 3 cans peaches 78 10 pounds roller oats 45 6 pounds lard 60 1 gallon vinegar 25 10 pounds rolled oats 45 2 pounds evaporated apricots. 50 1 ham (eleven pounds) 1 32 1 pound black pepper 18 3 pounds Java & Mocha coffee 1 04 1 gallon maple syrup 1 10 1 box soap 3 15 C pounds raisins (4 crown) ... 80 5 pounds currrants 40 1 peck navy beans 65 7 pounds starch 42 2 pounds soda crackers 16 Totals $24 43 $16 71 These figures show a decrease of 31.8 per cent. In the price of the articles men tioned. II II II OTJ.R DAIRY PRODUCT9.-Few persons, says the Lancanter New Era, have an idea of the extent the dairy interests in this country have reached. The department of agriculture has just sent out, a small pamphlet which deals with this question, and which serves to show the vast pro portions and relative importance the dairy of the United States has attained In re cent years. We learn from this report that nt the close of the year 1895 the cows which may properly be regarded as dairy animals constitute about one-third of all the neat cattle In the United States, and are about 17,000,000 in number. Dividing these roughly according to their princi pal products, it may be considered that. 11,000,000 cows are primarily butter pro ducers, 1,000,000 cows produce all our cheese, and the milk from 6,000,000 cows Is consumed by the families of their own ers, or on the farms where produced. These 11,000,000 animals produced an aver age of 125 pounds of butter, or 1,375,000,000 in the aggregate, and worth about $250,000, 000. The cheese product was about 280 pounds per cow, or 280,000.000 In all, worth 8 cents per pound, or $22,400,000. The 6,000... 000 given to milk .production yielded an av erage of 350 gallons each, or 1,750,000,000 gal lons, worth $157,500,000. This gives the grand total value of the dairy products of the country as $454,900,000. If to this be added the skim milk, butermllk and whey at their proper feeding value, and the calves yearly dropped, the annual aggro gate value of the products of our dairy cows exceeds $500,000,01X1. This is regarded as a conservative estimate, and does not include the manure product, which has a very lurge, bur quite uncertain, value. The average yield of American cows is n4y-abou t -3,uo pound-of-ml I k per year; when' It could easily - be raised to 5,000 pounds. So, too, with the butter. In stead of an average of 125 pounds per row, it can by judicious breeding be Increased to 200 or 225 pounds. It is urged that ev THE MARQUIS OF DUFFERIN, BRITAIN'S AMBASSADOR TO FRANCE. J (From the Chicago Times-Herald. Reference. 1J 22.00 122.00, 22.00 22.00 22.00 32.00 t.85 9.251 10.10 .00 10.15 9.001 10.35 .tNS 10.651 9.25) 10.75! .25 II. 66110.401 12.90' 10. 8W 14.35,11.40) 17.2513.l( III. 90. 13.40 16.00' 13.25! 15.50112.75 12.45112.25 .901 .90 .95 .90 .95 1.00 1.00 1.15 1.20 l.X 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.25 1.15 1.15 1.10 1.10 l.loi 1.10 1.10 l.lo' 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.25 l.W .901 M 1.20 1.05 .90 .80 1.20 1.05 .90 .V 1.201 l.OO .90 .SO 1.20 1.05 .tOI .80 1.20 l.lo) .85 .75 1.25 1.10 1.15 1.'J 1.3i 1.25 1.55 1.30 1.50 1.40) 2.-05 1.K0 1.60 1.50 2.25 l.W 1.60 1.50 2.25 2 00 1.60 1.50 2.25 1. 00 1.60 1.50 2.25 2 00 1.00 1.40 2.25 2.01) 1.50 1.35 1 25 2.0t 1.50 1.301 2.25 2.00 1.50 1.30 2.25 2.00 1.50 1.25 2.25 2.00 1.50 1.30 2.25 2.00 1.50 1.30 2.25 2.00 1.50 1.30 2.25 2.00 1.40 1.25 2.25 2.O0 1.40 1.25 2.25 2.00 1.45 1.25 2.40 2.15 1.45 1.25 2.40 2.15 1.45 1.25 2.40 2.15 1.45 1.251 2.40 2.13 1.45 1.35, 2.40 2.15 1.25 '22.00" 24.UV 24.00 24.00 28.00! 2S.0O! 28. W 2S.0Oi 1.50 1.50 i tr. 28.001 10.75ilO.5o 28.00. 11.25'IO.SOI 12.00:10.751 1 3. 00 11.50; 13.0011.00 12.75 11.00 28.00. 1 28.00 28.09 28.00! 28.00 28.00 28.0O' 28.00, 28.00 28.IO 28.00' 28.00 188.8.131.52 12.60;11.00 12.50ilO.75l I 40 10.751 12.2510.75 1.45 12. 25110.751 '13.25:11.00 13.25.11.001 ery possible influence should be exercised to Induce dairy farmers to weed out their herds and keep fewer cows and better ones. Compared with the dairy Interests of certain European countries we find that our rate of product both in milk and but ter falls much below theirs. Denmark and Holland show a far larger average yield per cow, both of milk and butter, than the United States. The price of the butter product in those countries also greatly exceeds our own. We are improv ing, but we still have much to learn be fore we reach their standard. COST OF THE GOVERNMENT. Ta bles prepared by the treasury depart ment bureau of statistics afford an in teresting showing of government ex pense past and present. It appears that the per capita cost of the government has varied much, with a steady high av erage since 1891. In 1870 It was $3.70, and eight years later it was only $1.80. In 1883 It was $4.68, dropping to $2.46 in 1885. The 1891 mark was $4.60, and in 1892 it was $4.95, the highest on record. In 1893 It was $4.66, In 1894 $4.67 and In 1895 $4.33, and the appropriations for 1896 call for $4.11 per capita. These figures nre Independent of the Interest charge and the provision for the sinking fund. In the last quarter of a century there has been little variation in the cost of the legislative, executive and Judicial departments, 1873 showing a total of $18,500,000, against $21,800,000 for the present year. The sundry civil ex penses have Increased from $20,000,000 to $27,000,000. The army expenses have fallen about $5,000,000, while the naval expenses have increased about $11,000,000. Little change Is noted In the consular service. The agricultural department once cost only $250,000 a year; now It calls for $3,300, 000. In 1893 pensions required $30,000,000. In 1880 $56,000,000 was reached, and In 1894 $166,000,000. For the present year the total Is $141,000,000. Twenty-five years ago the river and harbor appropriations did not average more than $0,000,000 yearly. With In the last few years they have touched $23,000,000. The District of Columbia now Involves a cost of $5,750,000, against $3,500, 000 for 1873. It will be seen that while the government expenses In the aggregate, are large, divided among the people, they would be borne with comparative ease, even if assessed directly. But all are In direct, and no small portion is paid by for eigners for the privilege of selling their goods in United States markets. Troy Times. ALCOHOLISM AND INSANITY. Important Statistics Showing Their Re lation in Franco and America. In the course of a report recently sub mitted to the state department by Mr. C. W. Chancellor, United States consul at Havre. France, he gives some im portant statistics in reference to the re lation of alcoholism and Insanity. He says: "In Prance It has been found that In sanity has Increased pari passu with the increase of drunkenness. It Is com puted that, In 1884, the number of In sane persons In France had Increased to 133 per 100,000 Inhabitants; in 1885 the number had Increased to 136, and It is fair to assume that the Increase has progressed with an equal step since then, so that the number of insane In France at this time may be reckoned at 1C6 per 100,000 of population, the In crease being, It Is said, in a direct ratio to the increased production and con sumption of alcoholic drinks. "Comparing statistics, we are led to Infer, U like causes produce like effects, that alcoholism is on the Increase In other countries besides France. In 1883 Italy contained sixty-seven and Ger many eighty-two insane persons, re spectively, for every 100,000 of popula tiona noticeable increase over pre vious years. The United States In 1850, with a population of 23.000,000 Inhabit ants, had 15.610 Insane; In 1860, with 31, 000,000 Inhabitants, there were 24.042 in sane: In 1870,with 38,500,000 Inhabitants. there were 37,432 Insane; In 1880, with a population of 50,000,000, there were 91, 997 Insane. Thus It will be seen that while the population of the United States from 1850 to 1S80 had only a little more than doubled, the number of In sane had sextupled, and In the follow ing ten years from 1880 to 1890 for an Increase of thirty per cent of inhabi tants there tins been an augmentation of 155 per cent of insane. IN THE UNITED STATES. "But it Is Illogical to attribute this alarming Increase of Insanity in the United states solely to the Increased consumption of alcoholic drinks. There are In the United States contributing. causes winch do not operate to the same extent In other countries, and one which has no existence In any other country, we nave, in common with other countries.morphinlsin, cocalnlsm, By the Cotrtwy of H. H. Koblsist) rhlo rails m. chloroform! -.ra. the ever growing fontlh-ts between labor and capital, and the excessive thirst for wealth which exists in the United States, ani which tends to enfeeble the mind and dethrone the reason. The effects of our great war have also add ed materially to the Insanity percent age. The theory of the French moral ists that alcoholic liquors are alone responsible for the Increase of Insanity In France, ran not, therefore, properly oe wnoiiy applied to tne united States, where there are other potential condi tions at work to produce similar re sults. "Undoubtedly It would be a great de-' sideratum to effect a modification of the use ot alcoholic drinks In the United States, and to substitute for them cheap wines, as It Is proposed shall be done in France, botn as to brandy and absinthe; but the question Is, how can It be accomplished?" WIIY 1113 WIFE WAS NOT THERE. The Maa la the Press Salt Becomes Com- imcatiei m Explaining Matters. From the Chicago Post. Ik. H,U,H nm I ..... iti-".,i i ma arc v minute to chat with the man in the k. n V. V. . 'Why ah the ah the fact U h naVPr tvs tit thoaa riilL.lsas. sV la explained the man In the shabby dress U II. "Now you speak of It." said the floor m Nnttlm. " f on. Mmlnrf. nt V. f aft that I never did see her at one of our ,. "Quite right," replied the man In the shabby dress suit with evident relief. diit never anenas mem. the floor manager, "she always attends the Informal entertainments, while I don't recall that I ever saw you at one of them." "That'fl rlflrM 4nrt " AmtOI man In the shabby dress suit, shifting un easily from one foot to the other. "You see, we were lacking in foresight this year, and It haa been rather awkward, but next year we expect to appear to- Buiutrr again. The floor manager looked puxxled and the man In the shabby dress suit ap peared ill at ease. "I don't believe I quite understand," said the floor manager at last. "No?" "No." The man in the shabby dress suit nulled IK. flnni. manna...- . II...- side, where they couldn't be overheard. wue nuns we ougni to be rep resented in society," he said, "but we made an .rrnr In mi .!-.- nr. ...... 1.1 -- 1 - - - - ... iiiuiia, , c LUUIU only afford one suit for each of us, and one Eui a gown iur aiternoon teas and SUch thlno-fl. Urhlla T n.K Amm suit. Her gown is out of place where I can wear my suit, and I can't wear my I . ... .V . ... nun wnere ner gown is tne proper ca- Der. Wb mllst tnolra. Ik. kul . I. , k.1 vear. but next year we Intend to try iu a wio me same class." AN ELECTIONEERING TRIC. The Campaign Orator Was Promptly Tskea I'p by His Opponent. Prom the Century. A few years asu a Plain conntrv doc. tor and a Mr. May, who was fond of jeweiry and wore a valuable diamond stud In his shirt bosom, was runnlg for the legislature in one of our counties. The race was close and hot. At one speaking the doctor made the folowlng fierce and dangerous thrust at his op ponent: "Fellow citizens, don't you want an honest man In the lee-lalature? Of course you do. Now, what sort of a man is my opponent? Why. a-entlemen. look at the magnificent diamond he wears: it IS almost as bis- and brlaht as the headlight of a locomotive. Tour eyes can hardly stand Its glare.. It Is worth hundreds maybe thousands of dollars. At which valuation do you suppose he has put It for taxation In his return to the state assessor? Why, at tne pitiful sum og- $20 " The crowd yelled for the doctor. Three days later tne two met again in Joint debate. Again the doctor took up his telling theme and held forth eloquently and passionately In denunciation of dishon esty and diamonds and false assess ments, and then he again told of May's raise return to the assessor. "Look at the gorgeous pin, gentlemen! My eyes can nanny endure its dazzling rays, Solemn In all his glory . " "Hold on there, doctor," said May. "Do you mean to say this pin is worth more than 120?" "Yes, 1 do twenty times or fifty times "Would you give $20 for it doctor?" "Of course I would." "Well you can have It for that." "All right." said the doctor, and he hurriedly counted out the money and 100K ine pin. xnen May rose to speak and tne crowd cheered him. He was un. doubtedly "game" and honest. He was willing to take what he said the pin was worth. He waa elected. A week after the election he called on the doc. tor and said: "Doctor I don't want to rob you of your money. Here's your 120. That Pin. you bought was paste. I got It In Louisville after your first speech. Here Is my real diamond. If I can serve you let me know." There is no change of cars of any class between New York and Chicago via the West Shore and Nickel Plate Roads. Theory snd Practice. "Mistress Mercy on me, what a kitchen! Every pot, pan and dish Is dirty, the table looks like a junk shop why. It will take you a week to get things cleaned up! What have you been doing? Servant Shure, mum, the young leddles has Just been down here showing me how they roast a potato In the cooking school. mew tui'K weeny. Mold Preventive. - -Preserves may be-kept-from becoming moldy by putting a few drops of glycer ine around the edges of the jar before screwing on the cover a simple but sure preventive. Echange, T11E GAME OF LIFE. This life Is but a game of cards, which mortals have to learn. Each shuffles, cuts and deals the pack, and each a trump must turn; Some bring a high card to the top, and others bring a low. Some hold a hand quite flush of trumps, while others none can show. Some shuffle with a practiced hand, and pack their cards with care. That they may know, when they are dealt, where all the leaders are; Thus fools are made the dupes of rogues, while rogues each other cheat, And he is very wise Indeed, who never meets defeat. When playing some throw out the ace, Some play the deuce, and some the ten, but many play the knave. Some play for money, some for fun, and some for worldly fame, But not until the hand's played out, can they count up their game. When hearts are trumps we play for love, and pleasure rules the hour, No thoughts of sorrow check our joy In 'beauty's rosy bower; We sing, we dance, sweet verses make, our cards at random play. And while our trump remains on top, our game's a holiday. When diamonds chance to crown the pack, the players stake their gold, And heavy sums are lost and won by gamblers young and old; Intent on winning, each his game doth watch with eager eye, How he may see his neighbor's cards, and beat him on 'the sly. When clubs are trumps look out for war, on ocean and on land; For direful horrors always come when clubs are held In hand, Then lives are staked Instead of gold, the dogs of war are f reed In our dear country every time the clubs obtain the lead. Last game of all Is when the spade Is turned by the hand of time; He always deals the closing hand in every age and clime No matter bow much each man wins, or how much each man save, The spade will finish up the game, and dig the players' graves, Exchangt. ' !" - .r 1 t llt-.----.-.--.J.J.--.- 3 1 II Grand OF 11 an (NEW) CARRIAGE i FACTORY REPOSITORY can in 11 415, 417, 419 LINDEN ItliMRTNMIIIMNNNIIUHtUim COST OF ENTERING SOCIETY By Rattier Conservative Estimate It Is About $60,000. VARIOUS DETAILS DESCRIBED This, of Coarse, Kefors to the Bringing Oat of a Bad lm the Very Smartest of the Sweet Clreles of Gothsm. From the New York World. It is getting more and more expensive every year to be a rich man. The wor shiper of Mammon must be lavish in deed to keep In the ultra-fashionable swim. He must "go" his neighbors one better In the case of every investment, and not the least costly of these is his daughter. The education of a modern girl In the smart set involves an array of figures that would mean an independent for tune to the average professional man. The education that satisfied our stately grandmothersTreadlng, writing and arithmetic, a few tottering accomplish ments, a sufficient knowledge ,of French to pussle out a sentimental novel, and an ability to darn neatly and fashion both life and garments after one fixed pattern has all vanished Into the past together with the dear old lady's ob solete theories that it was lady-like to lace her waist, pinch her feet and avoid all physical exercise as she would a pestilence. Today Dame Fashion de crees that the sum expended upon the bringing up of a daughter of the swell set shall In many cases equal the dot, or marriage portion, which places a financial halo about the maidens of the French and British nobility. The American girl as a rule regards her finely developed mind and magnificent physique a sufficient marriage portion, but where a title is concerned the "dot" has occasionally been added In defer ence to foreign prejudice. When one sees a pretty debutante embowered In flowers, exquisitely gowned, mind and body developed to the last degree of cultivation, as high bred and faultlessly groomed as the most critical culture could demand, it Is hard to balance her against common, everyday dollars and cents and to real ise that so much perfection has been obtained from so much cash, mentally ticketing her as follows: "One fine rose bud, $80,000." A MODEST ESTIMATE. The general estimate of $60,000 Is a moderate one. It does not include a college course, which would cost a rich girl at least $8,000 more. Much less does It Include a trip abroad, which can be made to run up Into jUBt as many thousands as the bank account can stand. At first glance $60,000 seems rather a large sum, but It soon dwindles Into an Insignificant amount after a careful survey of the details ot the cultivation necessary to bring a single rosebud to perfection. The mere dressing of the aristocratic miss from the time her dainty layette Is worn out until she is 18 and properly equipped for the fray Involves an expenditure of at least $18,000. This need not Indi cate that Bhe is elaborately dressed or permitted a single piece of Jewelry. It means only plenty of good school and unvi Hmaaes: fine but not fancy un- dprwearBrettyapproprlataJials andl plain, strong shoes, with, ot course, a riding habit, a gymnasium suit anu dainty dancing frocks included, but all made In the most childish, simple fashion in the world. This, however, for sixteen or eighteen years, consumes easily $18,000. To dress children In the elaborato fashion employed by people who have recently acquired money would cost twice the amount mentioned above. The orders for clothing for these regal ly dressed little tots which are some times received by fashionable houses Kollof Hlvtv flnllarn ail; aiuivfl, " v. .... was the price recentlyrpald for a half- dozen tiny BKiris tor one 01 tnese opul ently clad babies, while a white sum- mnM tin t rr th. noma llttla rinmp had a $50 mark Inside the fine silk lining. However, altnougn sucn extravagant orders are not uncommon, they are not ........ 1 1 . . .nnaliro,! fivim nonnla U'llrt hnvp upuanj it,.. nutii " - - been accustomed to the use of a check book for several generations, -rne m- u a.1,.1 n.hn la halnir hrrmirhr lin for the modest sum of $60,000 would not have over $&o spent on an tne nats sne wuuiu wear In a year. SCHOOL EXPENSES. After observing the cost of clothing the rosebud from the cradle to the "coming-out" tea, the next Item that catches the eye Is the somewhat heavy expense of keeping her In her right mind. The cultivation of her 200,000 brain cells for the modern girl insists that she has exactly the same number of cells which the scientist allows her brother If done in a properly fashioned way, will exhaust $15,000, and Is cap able of making Inroads on a much larger sum If a loophole Is desired for a superfluous Income. If the 200,000 cells have been sent from out of town to be enlarged, their owner must have a pret ty front room at one of the most fash ionable Fifth avenue schools, which with board and tuition means any where from $1,200 to $1,600 for the school year. This amount does not Include an Innumerable array of "extras" In the shape of car fares, stationery, music bills, rent for a church pew and tickets for operas, concerts and lectures, all of which the little green bud mUBt have If her culture Is to be of an up-to-date quality. For the city child the charges for Opening AND AND 421 STREET. tuition alone does not often exceed $1,000. but the city child must have her maid. Bhe is usually a well educated French or German maid at 140 pep month, who accompanies her charge to school, to the riding class and the gym naslum, and who aids her In her studies. Although nowadays physical culture; Is largely advertised In the curriculum of every swell school, a very general feeling prevails that It Is given mors prominence In the catalogue than in actual practice, and as the future de butante must be physically as well aa mentally perfect she must be taken two afternoons In the week to some fash lonable gymnasium, where she Is taught for the really moderate sum of $50 per season to use dumbbells and wands, how to swing from ring to ring and to balance on bars, as well as a variety of head and throat movements and graceful fancy steps, until every portion of her little body is evenly de veloped and made strong and flexible, OTHER COSTS. 'And If the philosopher Imagines that the coast Is now clear for the child to play and for expenses to cease, he la displaying an Ignorance that would cause even the baby bud to smile. How can she play when there are only four afternoons left, one of which must ba reserved for a concert or lecture and the other three given up to her eques trian lessons nt some fashionable rid lng academy? Nine-tenth of all the girls who attend the swell city schools are taught ta feel that their riding lessons are art essential feature of their education, an much so as music or mathematlc And lessons at these academies from a competent Instructor, usually aa lady, rarely cost less than $3 a lesson, with an additional expense of $2 for the usu of a well-trained horse. Frequently tho instruction is kept up for two sea sons, and the riding in the park with a teacher often continues for a third and fourth year, making a net expensa for this accomplishment alone of near ly $2,000. Of course, the properly trained child also drives, rows and swims, but, as a rule, these outdoor sports are acquired and practiced at the country home, under the guidance of either father rr brother, which limltH the expense lit this case to the price of a pet pony, a dog cart and light boat, costing, per haps, $500, although $1,000 can be ex pended If the Income still continues to be burdensome. THEN THE WARDROBR. Omitting a college course and a trip abroad, the last heavy expense before the bud Is taken from the conservatory and admitted to society's ilower show Is the elaborate wardrobe prepared for her as a debutante; a bride's trousseau Is not more complete or expensive. Us ually the entire outllt. from the theater bonnet to the dancing slipper, is or dered from Borne smart modiste, who from lung experience understands bet ter than the debutante herself what In necessary. A Fifth avenue dressmak er who makes a specialty of this sort ot work, when questioned recently as to the cost of such an outfit, said that $5,000 would be a moderate sum for a complete wardrobe for a season. ."Hats, and gowns," she said, "are really the least of the expense. A fashionable debutante must have at leust two opera wraps, one all white, to wear with any colored costume, and a second lined with rose, yellow or soft green, to lend color to her pure white gowns, and these cost from $150 up. Her under wear must be of the finest; lawns and Sims, ana trimmed with real Valen- crennes Then niw nniat have boxoy vt gloves at $:i0 nnd $40 per dozen. Boot:', shoes and sllpyers of every style and variety, and a 'party bag.' with Its per fect arrangement of bruHh, comb, pow der dish and button-hook, which can. easily cost $50. Her ectuestriati habit must be from the sweliest tailor, and she must have at least two gowns from Worth or Doucet. The furs In which a delicately reared girl must be enswath ed during the cold months will add from $500 to $1,000 to the bill, and then, if she be a very athletic woman, there is her driving costume, which must be tailor made and chic in the extreme, and, with appropriate gloves, boots ami hat. It can not possibly be had for less than $250. "A variety of pretty veils must not be forgotten, nor dainty feather boas In black and colors; beautiful handker chiefs, plain and of fine lace, must also be added to the list, and corsets, which are from $5 to $25 apiece. Her Bilk um brella, with enameled handle, and Jew eled lorgnette nre usually gifts, and; not to be used to swell the list. And, as It stands $10,000 would bp a betteg estimate than my first one of $5,000. "Of course," madame continued, "it Is possible for a girl In straitened cir cumstances to make her debut with, only $3,000, but that would Involve econ omy and many sacrifices." TO PROLONG PREIBUND. Result of tho Conforcnco not ween Em pcror William and King llumbort, Paris, April 14. A despatch to the. Matin, from Venice, says that Emperor William and King Humbert at their conference on Snturday decided to pro long the Drelbund until 11102, the pres ent agreement including an offensive as well as a defensive clause. The correspondent also says that the African situation was discussed, and thut It was resolved to proceed with the peace negotiations. In event of their fatlure, al fresh expedition, com manded by th duko of Aosta, brother of King Humbert, 1b to be despatched against the Abysslnlans In September. Venice, April .13. King - Humbert, Queen Margaret, and the crown prince, Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples, lunched on board the imperial yacht Hohensollern today with the emperojD and empress of Germany.