The Scranton tribune. (Scranton, Pa.) 1891-1910, April 15, 1896, Page 6, Image 6

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A Coitiaclag Statement of tic Mer
its of Reciprocal Trade.
The President of tho Katloaal Asaoela
tloa of Maasfactarers Makaa aa Ef
fective PUa for the Restoration of
Baelproaal Trad Treaties.
President Theodora O. Search, of
Philadelphia. In behalf of the National
Association of Manufacturers, has Is
sued a Ktrikln plea for the restoration
of thetreaties of commercial reciproc
ity abrogated by the Wilson tariff bill.
He says:
The treaties of commercial reciproc
ity which were negotiated under the
act of 1890 were baaed upon the very
.simple- principle of demanding some
thing In return for that which we had
to give. We had a market in this
country for certain commodities which
were produced In the West indies, in
Central America and in South America,
but we were not dependent solely upon
those sources of supply. On the other
hand, those countries had need of many
products of our agriculture and indus
try, but we could claim no monopoly of
the supply of those articles. The trea
ties of commercial reciprocity which
were negotiated under the customs law
of 1890 simply secured the admission
of our products to the southern coun
tries more freely without making any
sacrifice of our own home markets.
Thia was accomplished, not by making
further concessions to those countries,
but by demanding from them the
granting of privileges in return for the
advantages which they had long en
joyed in our own markets.
j( require um t uiamc .
dltlons under which the treaties of
commercial reciprocity were negotiat
ed to reveal how much was gained by
this country and how little was given
In return. By permitting the continu
ance upon the free list of three com
modities upon which duties had not
been Imposed for many years and by
conditionally placing two addi
tional items upon our. free list, con
cessions were obtained from a dosen
foreign countries which either wholly
removed or largely reduced the duties
Imposed by those nations on over two
thousand articles of American produc
tion or manufacture. Tea, coffee and
hides were already on the free list had
been there since 1873 and the duty was
removed from sugar and molasses by
the act of 1890. The ery simple prov
vlslons of the reciprocity clause of this
act authorised the imposition of duties
upon all of these commodities when Im
ported from countries to which Ameri
can goods could not enter as freely as
the goods of other nations. It was not
by the extension of the free list of our
customs law that favors were obtained
from other nations; It was by the
threat of the imiiosition of duties upon
the products of countries which dis
criminated against us that American
merchants were secured equal rights
with their competitors in foreign mar
This was at once an act of Justice
and a good stroke of business. We
were buying annually from Brazil from
150,000,000 to 160,000,000 worth of mer
chandise, the larger part of which was
coffee, upon which no duty had been
charged since 1873, although Brazil im
posed onerous customs dues upon the
principal articles of export from the
United States, with the result that the
shipment of American goods to Brazil
amounted In 1890 to only $11,972,214, or
less than one-fifth of the value of our
imports from Brazil. The demand that
Brazil should reduce the duties on
American products under penalty of the
imposition of a duty of three cents per
pound on coffee, was fully justified up
on business grounds if by no other
reason. The effect of the more favor
able conditions which followed the ne
gotiations of a reciprocal treaty were a
still greater Justification of the demand
that had been made, for there was an
Immediate Increase in the trade be
tween the T 'nited States and Brazil.
The new treaty with Brazil which
went into operation on April 1, 1891,
placed wheat, corn, flour, cottonseed
oil, coal, machinery, tools, railway ma
terials and many other articles upon
the Brazilian free list, while a reduc
tion of 25 per cent, was made In the
duties Imposed upon lard, bacon, hams,
canned goods, leather goods, lumber
and manufactures of wood and sever
al other articles. The effect upon our
trade with that country was felt at
once, The following statement shows
our exports of Hour to Brazil during
six fiscal years two years prior to the
negotiation of the reciprocal treaty,
three years during the operation of
that treaty and one year after ita re
peal. Tears. Barrel. Values.
lHt ; t7.342 ' H,:u,w)
ISSlt 722,309 3,KtS,!l
JW3 H18.M7 4,72,IU9
JS! 837,(S 3.V47.2M
IK 20;86 3.638,871
1896 775,425 2,683,918
It Is In our dealings with Cuba, how
ever, that the benefits of reciprocity
huve been most . strikingly shown.
Sugar, which formed the largest Item
in our Imports from Cuba, was placed
upon the free list by the tariff act of
1S90, but Its free entry was made condi
tional upon the reasonable treat rrfst of
American products in those countries
Horn which sugar was. imported Into
the United States. There was resk-ved
the. privilege of Imposing duties at
ab(Mt one-half the-foi mer- rates-upon
sugar and molasses when Imported
from countries which discriminated
against the United States In their cus
toms laws. Under normal trade con
ditions Cuba would have looked to the
United States for her supply of bread'
tuffs, provisions, and in fact nearly
everything needed that could not be
produoed at home; but in order to con
trol the trade of her West India col
onies Spain imposed a duty of nearly
u.M) per barrel upon American flour.
or considerably more than the flour
was worth at the port of shipment In
this country. Under the reciprocity
treaty which Secretary Blaine nego
tiated with Spain and which went Into
, effect on Sept. 1, 1891, the duty on flour
was reduced to $1 per 220 pounds, large
reauctions were made in the duties on
other breadstuffs, the duties on fifteen
leading commodities were reduced one.
half, and about forty items were added
xo me tree nut.
The more favorable conditions crent
ed by thla treaty gave an immediate
Impetus to our trade with Cuba, the
extent of which is strikingly ahown
by the following statement of our ex
ports to and imports from Cuba during
mo uvo nscai years given below:
jean. Exports. Imports.
1890 .......$1S,064.415 $53,801,591
1W1 12,224 888 . 61.714,395
1W2 17,953,470 77.931,071
1893 24,167,698 78,706,506
U94 20,126,321 75.678,261
uunnjr the ten years nrecedina the
tariff act of 1890 our exports to Cuba
remained practically stationary, while
our imports irom uuDa during the same
ten years decreased over $10,000,000.
But under three years of reciprocity
vur iraav wiui uuDa reacnea tne nigh
est point ever touched, showing an in
crease of $8,000,000 in exports and $14,
M0.0M in imports. .
To take a slgle item from our trade
with Cuba, flour shows how sharply
the influence' of the reciprocity treaty
w leu. xne exports or nour from
the United States to Cuba, .which
amounted to 114,447 barrels In the fiscal
year ended June 30 1891, increased to
I3,17S barrels In 1892 the first year
unng wmcn tne reciprocal treaty was
In operation to 618.406 barrels in 1898
uHt , varrsis in uh, tne last year
of the treaty of reciprocity with Spain.
Upon the passage of the customs law
of 1&4, which compelled the abrogation
of this treaty, Spain immediately re
taliated by increasing the duty on Hour
from $1 to $4.75 per 220 pounds, with
the result that the exports of American
Hour to Cuba fell to 379.854 barrels in the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1893. So
great was the outcry of the Cubans
against the enormous duty on Ameri
can Hour that the Spanish government
was forced to reduce the rate from $4.73
to $4 per 220 pounds, still four times the
duty charged under the reciprocity
I wish to give particular emphasis to
the importance of our relations with
Cuba under the reciprocal treaty, be
cause that Island is our nearest and
best customer to the southward. Not'
only has the abrogation of the recip
rocity treaty caused great direct loss
to this country, but it has imposed
great hardship upon the people of Cuba.
With the advantages enjoyed under re
ciprocity treaty the United States was
assured the practical control of the
Cuban trade and the conditions were
equally satisfactory to the people of
Cuba and this country. When Senator
Washburn, of Minnesota, went down
to Havana for a week In the early part
of 1894, he found abundant evidence
of the satisfactory workings of the
treaty then in force. Speaking about
what he saw. Senator Washburn said:
"In conversation with American mer
chants and' others doing business in
Cuba I learned that the effects of the
commercial relations created by this
arrangement had been really remark
able, and were Increasing in Importance
and magnitude day by day. The Amer
icans doing business there are more
than satisfied with the results. The
Cubans are satisfied, and everyone is
satisfied excepting Spain itself and the
representatives of Germany, France
and other Continental countries, who
see the trade of the island gradually
slipping away from them and finding
themselves supplanted by the products
of the American farmer and the wares
of the American workshop."
For another view of the' commercial
relations between Cuba and the United
States let me present these few lines
from a memorial presented to the Span
ish parliament by the sugar manufac
turers and planters in Cuba on Septem
ber 30, 1894, one month after the Wilson
bill had become a law:
"Upon the abrogation of the reciproc
ity treaty with the United States, the
monstrous tariff of the year 1892 was
unmercifully renewed and applied to
the Imports from all foreign countries
one of the first effects having been to
Increase the price of provisions Im
ported from the United States, there
by raising the expense of living on this
people, besides increasing tne cost al-.
most to the point of prohibition of the
importation of machinery and other
products of foreign countries essential
to the preservation and development or
its industries, the effects of which are
shown In the Increased cost of produc
tion, and in abandonment of necessary
It is not necessary to rehearse the
conditions under which reciprocity
treaties were negotiated with other
countries, nor need I show what they
accomplished, or how their abroga
tion has Injured our foreign trade. I
desire only to point out a few specific
reasons for such legislative enactments
as will permit the restoration of trea
ties of commercial reciprocity wltn
those nations with which they were es
tablished under the act of 1890 and the
negotiation of similar treaties with
other countries with which more free
dom In our trade relations Is desirable.
First Reciprocity commends Itself
to business men who have given the
subject careful consideration as a
Bound and Judicious business principle.
Second As applied under the act of
1890, reciprocity was a thoroughly
American principle, inasmuch as it pro
vided for the protection of our com
mercial Interests, not only at home but
Third As ft principle that has been
earnestly advocated by both Republi
cans and Democrats, reciprocity ought
to be considered upon a strictly non
partisan, non-political basts.
Fourth The practical application of
reciprocity under the provisions of the
act of 1890 demonstrated beyond ques
tion the ability of such treaties to ex
tend and enlarge our foreign trade un
der exceedingly favorable conditions.
Fifth Apart from those results
which can be measured In money val
ues, the reciprocity treaties rendered
valuable service in effeit'ng more cor
dial relations between the United
States and other nations.
Sixth From a protectionist stand
point, reciprocity is not open to objec
tions, as it Involves no sacrifice of the
principles of protection. The treaties
which were negotiated under the act
of 1890 added nothing to the free list
that was not already there.
Seventh Those who advocate free
trade ought not to object to reciprocal
commercial treaties, as their whole ef
fect Is to lessen the restrictions upon
International trade.
Eighth Treaties of commercial reci
procity with other nations, particularly
the Latin-American countries, are nec
essary an a matter of self-protection,
for treaties of this character are being
or have been negotiated between Euro
pean governments and nations to the
south of us to the detriment of our
commercial Interests abroad.
In behalf of the enormous Industrial
Interests represented by this associa
tion. I desire to urge with all possible
emphasis the necessity for such treaty
relations with foreign nations as shall
insure the utmost possible favor to
American products in the markets of
the world.
Under section 3 of act of Oct. 1. 1890,
treaties of commercial reciprocity were
negotiated" "with the following Latin
American countries, taking effect upon
the dates mentioned:
Brazil, April 1. 1891.
Spain, for Cuba and Porto Rico, Sept. 1,
Santo Domingo, Seipt. 1,1891.
Salvador, Feb. 1, 1892.
British West Indies and British Guiana,
Feb. 1. 1892. . .
Nicaragua, March 12, 1892.
Honduras, May 2S, 1892.
Guatemala, May 30, 1892,
The effect of these treaties may be
best judged, perhaps, by comparing the
trade between the United States and
these countries before and during the
operation of these agreements. For
this purpose the year ended June 30.
1890, has been chosen as a period when
the foreign trade was in a normal con
dition, Just prior to the negotiation of
these treaties, while the year ended
June 30, 1893, was a period In which the
treaties of reciprocity were all In opera'
tlon, although still far from showing
the full measure of their beneficial ef
fects. : .
The Imports from and exports to the
Latin-American countries with which
reciprocity treaties were In force, were
as follows during the years ended
June 30, 1890 and 1893: -
1890. ' vsa.
Brazil $ 69,318.766 $76,222,138
Cuba 63,801,691 78.70(1,506
Porto Rico , 4,053,026 4,008,623
Ban uomingo z,!6,is
Salvador 1,453,958 1,355,730
Nicaragua ............. 1,665.690 1,400,236
British West Indies... 14.865,018 16,788.438
British Guiana 4,326,975 6,029,178
Honduras 984.404 684.912
Guatemala 2,281,681 2,554,710
Total J144.702.712
Brazil $ 11,972,214
Cuba ............... 13,084,415
Porto Rico 3,297,638
San Domingo 950,217
Salvador 899,546
Nicaragua ... .1,373,019
British West Indies?... 8,288,786
British Guiana 2,106,345
Honduras 652,024
Guatemala ...... ...... 1,345,719
1.763, m
Total ..$42,809,823 $55,619,391
The Nickel Plate Road Is the shortest
line between Buffalo and Chicago,
The Following Table, Compiled by Dun, Will Prove
t. c i
I o e -j
" S o a si 2 ' J c
A fll'Sl i S2if 1
DAT z-z 5 E ts!feS S 5 S
. ct $Z1 2 is &c ts Is Se s se
a jo. j a p s a "w
'95, Jan. 1
" Keb. 8 ,
" Men. S
" " 26 ,.,
" Apr. 3
" May 1
" June 1
" July I ,
Aug. I
" Sept. 3 ,
" " 17
' Oct. 1
Nov. 1
" Dec. 4
" " 31 ,
96. Jan. 7
" 14
2 ttm
" Feb. 4.1'.'.'."!!
" " 11 '...,
" " 18
" " 25
" Moh. 4
" Men. 11
" Men. 18
" Apr. 1
" Apr. 8
12 l:
I:, 1
h i sr.
15 1.25
,50 1.70
50 l .SU
,45 2.00
301. IS
.SO 1.45
.25 1.45
i 13.50
,25 1.45
.25 1.45
.15 1.46
BRITISH TRADE. The British Board
of Trade returns for the tlrst quarter of the
present year show that the Imports nave
amounted to 112,5,342 ($561,461,476,710),
BKalnxt 100,837.860 (t5O4.lNf.300) for 1895. The
exports for the nret quarter of 1896 were
01, 233.043 ($3116,165,215), aKalnst 52,720.361
($263,601,805) for last year at the same time.
Ilr uh and Ire anil, from 1 1889 to 1893 in
clusive, some 4.526 strikes occurred. They
affeeted l,852,103persons. The suceewful
strikes affected 44.5 per rent, of this total
number: tne partially suecessiui, w. per
vent,, and the unsuccessful, 21.6 per cent.
metallurgical production In France during
1895 does not show any notable increase
UDon that of the nrevlous year, rig-iron
amounted to 2,005,889 tons, as compared
with 2,069,714 tons In 1894: rolled Iron, 743,
671 tons, as compared with 786,781 tons; and
manuractureti steel, 7l,Kll, as compareu
With 674,180 tons.
TION. The European Economist pub
lishes facts with regard to the growth of
population In the various countries of Eu
rope durlna- the decennial period 1885-95,
The aggregate increase was 29.922.M0.
Some states have advanced greatly, tor
tro-Hungary, 3,502,200; Great Britain, 2,
example, Ruxsla added 12,510,800 to her ex
isting population; Germany, 4,522,600; Aus
452,400; Turkey, 1,100,000, and France, 67,
100. II II II
FALLING PRICES. Bradstreefs has an
Interesting article on the price of commo
dities during the past three years. A list
comprlHing 108 staple articles of manufac
tures, products of the soil and mine, cat
tle, meats, shows that only beef carcasses,
bricks and ground lime were higher on
April 1, 1896, than on Jan. 1, 1896, and
April 1, 1894. The following table of prices
In March, 1891, and March, 1896, was made
up with great care;
1891. 1896.
1 barrel flour $ 5 00
$ 3 85
1 26
1 L5
1 21
1 00
2 60
25 pounds granulated sugar ... 1 78
6 pounds crenmery butter .... l i-
6 doxen eggs 1 60
6 pounds prunes 80
1 bushel potatoes 1 25
3 cans tomatoes 30
3 cans peaches 78
10 pounds roller oats 45
6 pounds lard 60
1 gallon vinegar 25
10 pounds rolled oats 45
2 pounds evaporated apricots. 50
1 ham (eleven pounds) 1 32
1 pound black pepper 18
3 pounds Java & Mocha coffee 1 04
1 gallon maple syrup 1 10
1 box soap 3 15
C pounds raisins (4 crown) ... 80
5 pounds currrants 40
1 peck navy beans 65
7 pounds starch 42
2 pounds soda crackers 16
Totals $24 43 $16 71
These figures show a decrease of 31.8 per
cent. In the price of the articles men
tioned. II II II
OTJ.R DAIRY PRODUCT9.-Few persons,
says the Lancanter New Era, have an idea
of the extent the dairy interests in this
country have reached. The department
of agriculture has just sent out, a small
pamphlet which deals with this question,
and which serves to show the vast pro
portions and relative importance the dairy
of the United States has attained In re
cent years. We learn from this report
that nt the close of the year 1895 the cows
which may properly be regarded as dairy
animals constitute about one-third of all
the neat cattle In the United States, and
are about 17,000,000 in number. Dividing
these roughly according to their princi
pal products, it may be considered that.
11,000,000 cows are primarily butter pro
ducers, 1,000,000 cows produce all our
cheese, and the milk from 6,000,000 cows
Is consumed by the families of their own
ers, or on the farms where produced.
These 11,000,000 animals produced an aver
age of 125 pounds of butter, or 1,375,000,000
in the aggregate, and worth about $250,000,
000. The cheese product was about 280
pounds per cow, or 280,000.000 In all, worth
8 cents per pound, or $22,400,000. The 6,000...
000 given to milk .production yielded an av
erage of 350 gallons each, or 1,750,000,000 gal
lons, worth $157,500,000. This gives the
grand total value of the dairy products of
the country as $454,900,000. If to this be
added the skim milk, butermllk and whey
at their proper feeding value, and the
calves yearly dropped, the annual aggro
gate value of the products of our dairy
cows exceeds $500,000,01X1. This is regarded
as a conservative estimate, and does not
include the manure product, which has a
very lurge, bur quite uncertain, value.
The average yield of American cows is
n4y-abou t -3,uo pound-of-ml I k per year;
when' It could easily - be raised to 5,000
pounds. So, too, with the butter. In
stead of an average of 125 pounds per row,
it can by judicious breeding be Increased
to 200 or 225 pounds. It is urged that ev
J (From the Chicago Times-Herald.
t.85 9.251
10.10 .00
10.15 9.001
10.35 .tNS
10.651 9.25)
10.75! .25
II. 66110.401
12.90' 10. 8W
III. 90. 13.40
16.00' 13.25!
1.25 l.W .901 M
1.20 1.05 .90 .80
1.20 1.05 .90 .V
1.201 l.OO .90 .SO
1.20 1.05 .tOI .80
1.20 l.lo) .85 .75
1.25 1.10 1.15 1.'J
1.3i 1.25 1.55 1.30
1.50 1.40) 2.-05 1.K0
1.60 1.50 2.25 l.W
1.60 1.50 2.25 2 00
1.60 1.50 2.25 1. 00
1.60 1.50 2.25 2 00
1.00 1.40 2.25 2.01)
1.50 1.35 1 25 2.0t
1.50 1.301 2.25 2.00
1.50 1.30 2.25 2.00
1.50 1.25 2.25 2.00
1.50 1.30 2.25 2.00
1.50 1.30 2.25 2.00
1.50 1.30 2.25 2.00
1.40 1.25 2.25 2.O0
1.40 1.25 2.25 2.00
1.45 1.25 2.40 2.15
1.45 1.25 2.40 2.15
1.45 1.25 2.40 2.15
1.45 1.251 2.40 2.13
1.45 1.35, 2.40 2.15
28. W
i tr.
1 3. 00 11.50;
12.75 11.00
1 28.00
I 40 10.751
12. 25110.751
ery possible influence should be exercised
to Induce dairy farmers to weed out their
herds and keep fewer cows and better
ones. Compared with the dairy Interests
of certain European countries we find that
our rate of product both in milk and but
ter falls much below theirs. Denmark
and Holland show a far larger average
yield per cow, both of milk and butter,
than the United States. The price of the
butter product in those countries also
greatly exceeds our own. We are improv
ing, but we still have much to learn be
fore we reach their standard.
bles prepared by the treasury depart
ment bureau of statistics afford an in
teresting showing of government ex
pense past and present. It appears that
the per capita cost of the government
has varied much, with a steady high av
erage since 1891. In 1870 It was $3.70, and
eight years later it was only $1.80. In 1883
It was $4.68, dropping to $2.46 in 1885. The
1891 mark was $4.60, and in 1892 it was
$4.95, the highest on record. In 1893 It was
$4.66, In 1894 $4.67 and In 1895 $4.33, and the
appropriations for 1896 call for $4.11 per
capita. These figures nre Independent of
the Interest charge and the provision for
the sinking fund. In the last quarter of
a century there has been little variation
in the cost of the legislative, executive
and Judicial departments, 1873 showing a
total of $18,500,000, against $21,800,000 for
the present year. The sundry civil ex
penses have Increased from $20,000,000 to
$27,000,000. The army expenses have fallen
about $5,000,000, while the naval expenses
have increased about $11,000,000. Little
change Is noted In the consular service.
The agricultural department once cost
only $250,000 a year; now It calls for $3,300,
000. In 1893 pensions required $30,000,000.
In 1880 $56,000,000 was reached, and In 1894
$166,000,000. For the present year the total
Is $141,000,000. Twenty-five years ago the
river and harbor appropriations did not
average more than $0,000,000 yearly. With
In the last few years they have touched
$23,000,000. The District of Columbia now
Involves a cost of $5,750,000, against $3,500,
000 for 1873. It will be seen that while
the government expenses In the aggregate,
are large, divided among the people, they
would be borne with comparative ease,
even if assessed directly. But all are In
direct, and no small portion is paid by for
eigners for the privilege of selling their
goods in United States markets. Troy
Important Statistics Showing Their Re
lation in Franco and America.
In the course of a report recently sub
mitted to the state department by Mr.
C. W. Chancellor, United States consul
at Havre. France, he gives some im
portant statistics in reference to the re
lation of alcoholism and Insanity. He
"In Prance It has been found that In
sanity has Increased pari passu with
the increase of drunkenness. It Is com
puted that, In 1884, the number of In
sane persons In France had Increased
to 133 per 100,000 Inhabitants; in 1885 the
number had Increased to 136, and It is
fair to assume that the Increase has
progressed with an equal step since
then, so that the number of insane In
France at this time may be reckoned at
1C6 per 100,000 of population, the In
crease being, It Is said, in a direct ratio
to the increased production and con
sumption of alcoholic drinks.
"Comparing statistics, we are led to
Infer, U like causes produce like effects,
that alcoholism is on the Increase In
other countries besides France. In 1883
Italy contained sixty-seven and Ger
many eighty-two insane persons, re
spectively, for every 100,000 of popula
tiona noticeable increase over pre
vious years. The United States In 1850,
with a population of 23.000,000 Inhabit
ants, had 15.610 Insane; In 1860, with 31,
000,000 Inhabitants, there were 24.042 in
sane: In 1870,with 38,500,000 Inhabitants.
there were 37,432 Insane; In 1880, with a
population of 50,000,000, there were 91,
997 Insane. Thus It will be seen that
while the population of the United
States from 1850 to 1S80 had only a little
more than doubled, the number of In
sane had sextupled, and In the follow
ing ten years from 1880 to 1890 for an
Increase of thirty per cent of inhabi
tants there tins been an augmentation
of 155 per cent of insane.
"But it Is Illogical to attribute this
alarming Increase of Insanity in the
United states solely to the Increased
consumption of alcoholic drinks. There
are In the United States contributing.
causes winch do not operate to the
same extent In other countries, and
one which has no existence In any other
country, we nave, in common with
other countries.morphinlsin, cocalnlsm,
By the Cotrtwy of H. H. Koblsist)
rhlo rails m. chloroform! -.ra. the ever
growing fontlh-ts between labor and
capital, and the excessive thirst for
wealth which exists in the United
States, ani which tends to enfeeble the
mind and dethrone the reason. The
effects of our great war have also add
ed materially to the Insanity percent
age. The theory of the French moral
ists that alcoholic liquors are alone
responsible for the Increase of Insanity
In France, ran not, therefore, properly
oe wnoiiy applied to tne united States,
where there are other potential condi
tions at work to produce similar re
"Undoubtedly It would be a great de-'
sideratum to effect a modification of
the use ot alcoholic drinks In the United
States, and to substitute for them
cheap wines, as It Is proposed shall be
done in France, botn as to brandy and
absinthe; but the question Is, how can
It be accomplished?"
The Maa la the Press Salt Becomes Com-
imcatiei m Explaining Matters.
From the Chicago Post.
Ik. H,U,H nm I
..... iti-".,i i ma arc v
minute to chat with the man in the
k. n V. V. .
'Why ah the ah the fact U h
naVPr tvs tit thoaa riilL.lsas. sV la
explained the man In the shabby dress
"Now you speak of It." said the floor
m Nnttlm. " f on. Mmlnrf. nt V. f aft
that I never did see her at one of our
"Quite right," replied the man In the
shabby dress suit with evident relief.
diit never anenas mem.
the floor manager, "she always attends
the Informal entertainments, while I
don't recall that I ever saw you at one
of them."
"That'fl rlflrM 4nrt " AmtOI man
In the shabby dress suit, shifting un
easily from one foot to the other. "You
see, we were lacking in foresight this
year, and It haa been rather awkward,
but next year we expect to appear to-
Buiutrr again.
The floor manager looked puxxled and
the man In the shabby dress suit ap
peared ill at ease.
"I don't believe I quite understand,"
said the floor manager at last.
The man in the shabby dress suit
nulled IK. flnni. manna...- . II...-
side, where they couldn't be overheard.
wue nuns we ougni to be rep
resented in society," he said, "but we
made an .rrnr In mi .!-.- nr. ...... 1.1
-- 1 - - - - ... iiiuiia, , c LUUIU
only afford one suit for each of us, and
one Eui a gown iur aiternoon teas and
SUch thlno-fl. Urhlla T n.K Amm
suit. Her gown is out of place where I
can wear my suit, and I can't wear my
I . ... .V . ...
nun wnere ner gown is tne proper ca-
Der. Wb mllst tnolra. Ik. kul . I. , k.1
vear. but next year we Intend to try
iu a wio me same class."
The Campaign Orator Was Promptly
Tskea I'p by His Opponent.
Prom the Century.
A few years asu a Plain conntrv doc.
tor and a Mr. May, who was fond of
jeweiry and wore a valuable diamond
stud In his shirt bosom, was runnlg for
the legislature in one of our counties.
The race was close and hot. At one
speaking the doctor made the folowlng
fierce and dangerous thrust at his op
ponent: "Fellow citizens, don't you
want an honest man In the lee-lalature?
Of course you do. Now, what sort of a
man is my opponent? Why. a-entlemen.
look at the magnificent diamond he
wears: it IS almost as bis- and brlaht
as the headlight of a locomotive. Tour
eyes can hardly stand Its glare.. It Is
worth hundreds maybe thousands of
dollars. At which valuation do you
suppose he has put It for taxation In his
return to the state assessor? Why, at
tne pitiful sum og- $20 " The crowd
yelled for the doctor. Three days later
tne two met again in Joint debate.
Again the doctor took up his telling
theme and held forth eloquently and
passionately In denunciation of dishon
esty and diamonds and false assess
ments, and then he again told of May's
raise return to the assessor. "Look at
the gorgeous pin, gentlemen! My eyes
can nanny endure its dazzling rays,
Solemn In all his glory . "
"Hold on there, doctor," said May. "Do
you mean to say this pin is worth more
than 120?"
"Yes, 1 do twenty times or fifty times
"Would you give $20 for it doctor?"
"Of course I would."
"Well you can have It for that."
"All right." said the doctor, and he
hurriedly counted out the money and
100K ine pin. xnen May rose to speak
and tne crowd cheered him. He was un.
doubtedly "game" and honest. He was
willing to take what he said the pin
was worth. He waa elected. A week
after the election he called on the doc.
tor and said: "Doctor I don't want to
rob you of your money. Here's your
120. That Pin. you bought was paste.
I got It In Louisville after your first
speech. Here Is my real diamond. If
I can serve you let me know."
There is no change of cars of any class
between New York and Chicago via the
West Shore and Nickel Plate Roads.
Theory snd Practice.
"Mistress Mercy on me, what a kitchen!
Every pot, pan and dish Is dirty, the table
looks like a junk shop why. It will take
you a week to get things cleaned up!
What have you been doing?
Servant Shure, mum, the young leddles
has Just been down here showing me how
they roast a potato In the cooking school.
mew tui'K weeny.
Mold Preventive.
- -Preserves may be-kept-from becoming
moldy by putting a few drops of glycer
ine around the edges of the jar before
screwing on the cover a simple but sure
preventive. Echange,
This life Is but a game of cards, which
mortals have to learn.
Each shuffles, cuts and deals the pack,
and each a trump must turn;
Some bring a high card to the top, and
others bring a low.
Some hold a hand quite flush of trumps,
while others none can show.
Some shuffle with a practiced hand, and
pack their cards with care.
That they may know, when they are dealt,
where all the leaders are;
Thus fools are made the dupes of rogues,
while rogues each other cheat,
And he is very wise Indeed, who never
meets defeat.
When playing some throw out the ace,
Some play the deuce, and some the ten,
but many play the knave.
Some play for money, some for fun, and
some for worldly fame,
But not until the hand's played out, can
they count up their game.
When hearts are trumps we play for love,
and pleasure rules the hour,
No thoughts of sorrow check our joy In
'beauty's rosy bower;
We sing, we dance, sweet verses make,
our cards at random play.
And while our trump remains on top, our
game's a holiday.
When diamonds chance to crown the pack,
the players stake their gold,
And heavy sums are lost and won by
gamblers young and old;
Intent on winning, each his game doth
watch with eager eye,
How he may see his neighbor's cards, and
beat him on 'the sly.
When clubs are trumps look out for war,
on ocean and on land;
For direful horrors always come when
clubs are held In hand,
Then lives are staked Instead of gold, the
dogs of war are f reed
In our dear country every time the clubs
obtain the lead.
Last game of all Is when the spade Is
turned by the hand of time;
He always deals the closing hand in every
age and clime
No matter bow much each man wins, or
how much each man save,
The spade will finish up the game, and dig
the players' graves, Exchangt.
' !" - .r 1 t llt-.----.-.--.J.J.--.-
3 1 II
11 an
can in 11
415, 417, 419
By Rattier Conservative Estimate
It Is About $60,000.
This, of Coarse, Kefors to the Bringing
Oat of a Bad lm the Very
Smartest of the Sweet
Clreles of Gothsm.
From the New York World.
It is getting more and more expensive
every year to be a rich man. The wor
shiper of Mammon must be lavish in
deed to keep In the ultra-fashionable
swim. He must "go" his neighbors one
better In the case of every investment,
and not the least costly of these is his
The education of a modern girl In the
smart set involves an array of figures
that would mean an independent for
tune to the average professional man.
The education that satisfied our stately
grandmothersTreadlng, writing and
arithmetic, a few tottering accomplish
ments, a sufficient knowledge ,of French
to pussle out a sentimental novel, and
an ability to darn neatly and fashion
both life and garments after one fixed
pattern has all vanished Into the past
together with the dear old lady's ob
solete theories that it was lady-like to
lace her waist, pinch her feet and avoid
all physical exercise as she would a
pestilence. Today Dame Fashion de
crees that the sum expended upon the
bringing up of a daughter of the swell
set shall In many cases equal the dot,
or marriage portion, which places a
financial halo about the maidens of the
French and British nobility. The
American girl as a rule regards her
finely developed mind and magnificent
physique a sufficient marriage portion,
but where a title is concerned the "dot"
has occasionally been added In defer
ence to foreign prejudice.
When one sees a pretty debutante
embowered In flowers, exquisitely
gowned, mind and body developed to
the last degree of cultivation, as high
bred and faultlessly groomed as the
most critical culture could demand, it
Is hard to balance her against common,
everyday dollars and cents and to real
ise that so much perfection has been
obtained from so much cash, mentally
ticketing her as follows: "One fine rose
bud, $80,000."
The general estimate of $60,000 Is a
moderate one. It does not include a
college course, which would cost a rich
girl at least $8,000 more. Much less
does It Include a trip abroad, which
can be made to run up Into jUBt as
many thousands as the bank account
can stand. At first glance $60,000
seems rather a large sum, but It soon
dwindles Into an Insignificant amount
after a careful survey of the details ot
the cultivation necessary to bring a
single rosebud to perfection. The mere
dressing of the aristocratic miss from
the time her dainty layette Is worn out
until she is 18 and properly equipped
for the fray Involves an expenditure of
at least $18,000. This need not Indi
cate that Bhe is elaborately dressed or
permitted a single piece of Jewelry. It
means only plenty of good school and
unvi Hmaaes: fine but not fancy un-
dprwearBrettyapproprlataJials andl
plain, strong shoes, with, ot course, a
riding habit, a gymnasium suit anu
dainty dancing frocks included, but all
made In the most childish, simple
fashion in the world. This, however,
for sixteen or eighteen years, consumes
easily $18,000.
To dress children In the elaborato
fashion employed by people who have
recently acquired money would cost
twice the amount mentioned above.
The orders for clothing for these regal
ly dressed little tots which are some
times received by fashionable houses
Kollof Hlvtv flnllarn
ail; aiuivfl, " v. ....
was the price recentlyrpald for a half-
dozen tiny BKiris tor one 01 tnese opul
ently clad babies, while a white sum-
mnM tin t rr th. noma llttla rinmp had
a $50 mark Inside the fine silk lining.
However, altnougn sucn extravagant
orders are not uncommon, they are not
........ 1 1 . . .nnaliro,! fivim nonnla U'llrt hnvp
upuanj it,.. nutii " - -
been accustomed to the use of a check
book for several generations, -rne m-
u a.1,.1 la halnir hrrmirhr lin for the
modest sum of $60,000 would not have
over $&o spent on an tne nats sne wuuiu
wear In a year.
After observing the cost of clothing
the rosebud from the cradle to the
"coming-out" tea, the next Item that
catches the eye Is the somewhat heavy
expense of keeping her In her right
mind. The cultivation of her 200,000
brain cells for the modern girl insists
that she has exactly the same number
of cells which the scientist allows her
brother If done in a properly fashioned
way, will exhaust $15,000, and Is cap
able of making Inroads on a much
larger sum If a loophole Is desired for a
superfluous Income. If the 200,000 cells
have been sent from out of town to be
enlarged, their owner must have a pret
ty front room at one of the most fash
ionable Fifth avenue schools, which
with board and tuition means any
where from $1,200 to $1,600 for the school
year. This amount does not Include an
Innumerable array of "extras" In the
shape of car fares, stationery, music
bills, rent for a church pew and tickets
for operas, concerts and lectures, all of
which the little green bud mUBt have
If her culture Is to be of an up-to-date
For the city child the charges for
AND 421
tuition alone does not often exceed
$1,000. but the city child must have her
maid. Bhe is usually a well educated
French or German maid at 140 pep
month, who accompanies her charge to
school, to the riding class and the gym
naslum, and who aids her In her studies.
Although nowadays physical culture;
Is largely advertised In the curriculum
of every swell school, a very general
feeling prevails that It Is given mors
prominence In the catalogue than in
actual practice, and as the future de
butante must be physically as well aa
mentally perfect she must be taken two
afternoons In the week to some fash
lonable gymnasium, where she Is
taught for the really moderate sum
of $50 per season to use dumbbells and
wands, how to swing from ring to ring
and to balance on bars, as well as a
variety of head and throat movements
and graceful fancy steps, until every
portion of her little body is evenly de
veloped and made strong and flexible,
'And If the philosopher Imagines that
the coast Is now clear for the child to
play and for expenses to cease, he la
displaying an Ignorance that would
cause even the baby bud to smile. How
can she play when there are only four
afternoons left, one of which must ba
reserved for a concert or lecture and
the other three given up to her eques
trian lessons nt some fashionable rid
lng academy?
Nine-tenth of all the girls who attend
the swell city schools are taught ta
feel that their riding lessons are art
essential feature of their education, an
much so as music or mathematlc
And lessons at these academies from a
competent Instructor, usually aa lady,
rarely cost less than $3 a lesson, with
an additional expense of $2 for the usu
of a well-trained horse. Frequently
tho instruction is kept up for two sea
sons, and the riding in the park with
a teacher often continues for a third
and fourth year, making a net expensa
for this accomplishment alone of near
ly $2,000.
Of course, the properly trained child
also drives, rows and swims, but, as a
rule, these outdoor sports are acquired
and practiced at the country home,
under the guidance of either father rr
brother, which limltH the expense lit
this case to the price of a pet pony,
a dog cart and light boat, costing, per
haps, $500, although $1,000 can be ex
pended If the Income still continues to
be burdensome.
Omitting a college course and a trip
abroad, the last heavy expense before
the bud Is taken from the conservatory
and admitted to society's ilower show
Is the elaborate wardrobe prepared for
her as a debutante; a bride's trousseau
Is not more complete or expensive. Us
ually the entire outllt. from the theater
bonnet to the dancing slipper, is or
dered from Borne smart modiste, who
from lung experience understands bet
ter than the debutante herself what In
necessary. A Fifth avenue dressmak
er who makes a specialty of this sort ot
work, when questioned recently as to
the cost of such an outfit, said that
$5,000 would be a moderate sum for a
complete wardrobe for a season. ."Hats,
and gowns," she said, "are really the
least of the expense. A fashionable
debutante must have at leust two opera
wraps, one all white, to wear with any
colored costume, and a second lined
with rose, yellow or soft green, to lend
color to her pure white gowns, and
these cost from $150 up. Her under
wear must be of the finest; lawns and
Sims, ana trimmed with real Valen-
crennes Then niw nniat have boxoy vt
gloves at $:i0 nnd $40 per dozen. Boot:',
shoes and sllpyers of every style and
variety, and a 'party bag.' with Its per
fect arrangement of bruHh, comb, pow
der dish and button-hook, which can.
easily cost $50. Her ectuestriati habit
must be from the sweliest tailor, and
she must have at least two gowns from
Worth or Doucet. The furs In which a
delicately reared girl must be enswath
ed during the cold months will add from
$500 to $1,000 to the bill, and then, if she
be a very athletic woman, there is her
driving costume, which must be tailor
made and chic in the extreme, and, with
appropriate gloves, boots ami hat. It
can not possibly be had for less than
"A variety of pretty veils must not be
forgotten, nor dainty feather boas In
black and colors; beautiful handker
chiefs, plain and of fine lace, must also
be added to the list, and corsets, which
are from $5 to $25 apiece. Her Bilk um
brella, with enameled handle, and Jew
eled lorgnette nre usually gifts, and;
not to be used to swell the list. And,
as It stands $10,000 would bp a betteg
estimate than my first one of $5,000.
"Of course," madame continued, "it
Is possible for a girl In straitened cir
cumstances to make her debut with,
only $3,000, but that would Involve econ
omy and many sacrifices."
Result of tho Conforcnco not ween Em
pcror William and King llumbort,
Paris, April 14. A despatch to the.
Matin, from Venice, says that Emperor
William and King Humbert at their
conference on Snturday decided to pro
long the Drelbund until 11102, the pres
ent agreement including an offensive
as well as a defensive clause.
The correspondent also says that the
African situation was discussed, and
thut It was resolved to proceed with
the peace negotiations. In event of
their fatlure, al fresh expedition, com
manded by th duko of Aosta, brother
of King Humbert, 1b to be despatched
against the Abysslnlans In September.
Venice, April .13. King - Humbert,
Queen Margaret, and the crown prince,
Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples,
lunched on board the imperial yacht
Hohensollern today with the emperojD
and empress of Germany.