The Scranton tribune. (Scranton, Pa.) 1891-1910, February 08, 1896, Page 4, Image 4

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f&cxantott CrtBune
DaUjaad Weakly. Wo Sunday WlUott.
Fubllaket M Senttaa. I . b TIM TrlbuM Fab-
llaalnc Uonipanjr.
Kaw Trk Mcc TriiHJiw Hulldlax, Fnuk m.
Ury, Maufar.
P. KINOSSUHV. , Oaa'l ta.
C. M. RIPPLE, ! T.
W. W. DAVIS. BuaiaiM Mtuata.
W. W. YOUNGS, Aav. Mn'h.
FrlDtaia' Hkj" ta feonltc Journal fe Ir
Uatf. nIM T cMTea TaiBimiiuUMhMt
Mvtrtltlr.f nMllura In KorlbaMtaru numylv-
faa Wukiy TuBirit k, lmod Evarr Saturday.
Contain. Tn.lva Handsome Vitvt, wlili an Almii
Caac of Nm, rieiloa. and Well-Butted Jllwet
lany. For Tune Who Cumiot Take Thk Kaii.y
Tatar-, Ine Weekly In Itacorainended e the
Bmi Wert" Uolof. Only tl a Year, iu Advance,
ITaian la for Sal rally at Uu D., L. and V
Station at Iiobokan,
l or Meyor-. U. HIPPI-E.
ForTruror-HANir.l. WII.I.IAM
for ControlUr-F. J. W IKMAYKR.
I or AaaeMOra-CIIAKI.r: FOWI.I-H.
riiKisr i ii:kI s,
Flection Pay, Feb. 18.
It la worth noticing by self-respectlnc:
Democrats that the Democratic cam
paign manuiteis have takon the ex
Ropubllcan Benedict ArnolUM to their
bosoms, ami now upeak of them an part
of their party. There isn't much doubt
that there are many Democrats who
will not care to assoc iate with or be un
der obligations to traitors.
Hla Own Master.
To defend a man of Kzra 11. Ripple
character and standing from the
charge, repeatedly madu against him
by opponents In the mayoralty fight,
that when elected he would In some
manner be "controlled," 'that In other
words he would not be free to act in all
emergencies as his ripe Judgment ami
Bound conscience would prompt, woulil
be to offer insult both to him and to his
friends. We prefer to think that the
people of Bcranton, through their many
years of active and Intimate associa
tion with Colonel Ripple, have come
to know him too well to give attention
to these artful political poisons In
stilled into the canvass by grudge
bearers and envenomed enemies. We
prefer to think that in the manly char
acter which he has built up in this
community. In the reputation which he
has made for unostentatious generos
ity, energetic liberality and Indomitable
public enterprise, there Is something
firmly proof ngalnst the busy tonguea
of slander and the malicious breaths of
misrepresentation which r.ow try to
asaall him for belnsr loyal to his life
long friend and business assoclute,
William Connell.
It bespeaks the utter cowardice of
these attacks that they do not meet
their object manfully in the open, but
instead skulk behind the thing of
straw which factional malevolence has
set up for the deceiving of voters and
labeled "Connellism." Contrust this
treacherous bushwhacking, this foot-pad-ln-the-nlght
method of attempted
vicarious assassination .with the hon
orable tactics invariably pursued by
Colonel Ripple in meeting his adver
saries face to face, and you have a
first-class example of the difference
between sneaks and men. ' This may be
plain speaking; but it is precisely In
accord with the character of the Re
publican candidate for mayor of this
city, who would prefer defeat a thou
sand times over rather than to seem
In an attitude of wishing to go back
on a friend.
There is, however, no possible danger
that defeat will be his portion because
of his cordial and iiimate relationship
with one of the makers of the city of
Scranton. The futility of the hue and
cry against "Connellism" among
thinking voters has been established
upon occasions which lacked some of
the elements that give strength to the
present Republican campaign; and it
will be again demonstrated, one week
from Tuesday, in a. manner likely to
prove Instructive to those who make
personal vilification their sole stock in
One of the Interesting developments
Of the present campaign is the activity
of the Democratic papers, especially
the West Side editorial writer for the
Times, In trying to tell Republicans
how to vote at the approaching elec
tion. We fear that if Republicans
made a practice of going to the enemy
for advice, they would be constantly
Pensions for Teachers.
One of the subjects which may at
any time be expected to arise for legis
lative attention In this state ia that of
providing state pensions for faithful
school teachers incapacitated in the
Una of long service. The subject has
already come before many bodies of
teachers, and the sentiment In favor of
pensions Is clearly growing with much
rapidity. In Philadelphia It may be
said to have reached the dignity of an
active propaganda; and when we re
member that It has been seriously pro
posed in this state to pension common
pleas Judges, each of whom receives
from $4,000 to J7.000 a year salary, the
right of the Ill-paid Instructor in our
public schools, whose work In at the
- base of all true progress, to Btrlve for
at least equal recognition will be diffi
cult to question.
In this collection some Inte'restlng
figures have recently been presented
by A. Tolman Smith, of the United
States bureau of education. From an
article by him It appears that by a law
passed seventeen years before the es
tablishment of ths present republic the
French civil pension list was extended
to Include teachers. The pension is
available) for teachers 60 years of age.
who have given thirty years' service.
Under some circumstances It is avail
able at 65 years of age, after twenty
Ave years of service. Special provi
sions are made for those incapacitated J
from si nice by accident, severe Ill
ness ami similar ruuneH. The slate re- :
UIi:h live per cent, of the suiury eat h j
month, and nlxo one-twelfth of the
first year's salary, and of endi sulme
fl tic nt augmentation toward the pen
sion fund. The amount of the pension
Is calculated at one-sixtieth of the
mean salary of the last six years for
each year of service, a rating which
gives as n maximum annual pension
one-half of the mean annual saluiy.
The ircncral regulations In Prussia re
specting pensions for teachers are
summed up by Mr. Smith as follows:
Twenty-five per cent, of salary after
20 years' service; 60 per cent, after 30
years; "5 per cent, after 40 years, and
the full salary after 50 years. The state
requires all teachers to pay an annual
premium Into the pension fund, rated
at 1 per cent, of a salary of $400, at IVi
per cent, of salaries from $400 to $1,000,
and 2 per cent, of all higher salaries.
It frequently happens that the city or
commune pays the premium for the
teachers, and also adds to the amount
of tho legal pension.
In both France and Germany the
lis II " ?JBj jo uoisujcI w.Joqooii
least, may be continued after his death
to his widow and minor children. In
the other German states, und ulso In
Holland, Uelgium, Denmark, Austria
and Russia, where the pension usually
ranges between $200 and $100, the pen
sion is a feature of the educational
system. Turning to the Scandinavian
peninsula, Mr. Smith finds the office
of teacher held in htsh esteem.
Tlie average Hilary of adult workmen Is
placed ut crowiiM a week, which
would give an atmuul waste tor steady
work at J73.W. Against this we tllitl liui
lowest animal sulury for regular teacu
era to Ije $lii.ViU, benlde holme. Hie, Har
den and feed for u cow. After live year
lhl sularv must be raised to liSH.OU. lit
late town annual xulariea ratine trout
fZH to $.'.1! for men. ami from fcsio for wo
men rlHlng l:i Stockholm us Mail as
$i.o0 for men and for women.
The state eo-ojierutes with the coniniui.i.
ties to maintain u pension fund which re
cures to retired leuchers utter thirty
veurs of service ail annual income of
about three-fourths of the mean salary.
In Japan the directors und regular teach
ers In normal, public secondary schools
and the teachers who have been In of
fice more than tlfleen years receive ll!i
pensions when they have been ordered to
retire after having attained til) years, or
have retired owing to physical disability
or because of the closing or reornanlzin
of schools.
It Is proposed by the teachers of Phil
adelphia to establish a pension fund
Independent of state legislation, by
taking a Hmall percentage from the
salary of each annually and placing It
In a fund under the control of a board
of trustees composed, say, of a repre
sentation from the board of education,
from councils and from the teachers
themselves. The fact is cited that in
Detroit such a system is already In
successful opeiAtlon. By a law of the
state of Michigan, a deduction from the
annual salary equivalent to one per
cent, may be made from the teachers'
sularles, and to this may be added the
sums deducted from the teachers' sala
ries because of absence from any cause.
The teachers, after twenty-five years
of service, may be retired on a pension,
which is not to exceed $100. While this
sum Is not a bonanza, and Is almost
ridiculously small as compared with
the state pension proposed for Judges,
It Is an agreeable lift toward pecuniary
independence after the limit of wage
earning capacity shall have been
It is noteworthy that most of the
politicians who have been tor are yet
"on tile inside" in state politics, scout
the idea that Senator Cameron is
permanently out of the senatorial race,
It strikes us that this is significant.
An Iridescent Dream.
A number of Chicago gentlemen,
eminent In public affairs and actuated
by the purest motives, have joined In
an uppeal to the public asking it to
Improve the occasion of Washington's
birthday on the 22d Inst, by holding
meetings In all parts of the land and
passing resolutions urging that here
after all differences among the Knglish
speaklng races be settled, not by war,
but by arbitration.. It Is their wish
that resolutions embodying the desire
of the American people for peace and
Christianized methods of adjudication
may be forwarded to President Cleve
land and Queen Victoria. The address
which these gentlemen have Issued In
explanation of their purpose ia beauti
ful and eloquent. It says:
The suddenness with which the possibil
ity of hostilities broke upon the whole
people of the United St.ites and Great
Uritalti, wholly unexpected, profoundly
disturbing, fraught with peril tij th en
lightened character of both nations, to
civilization, prosperity, property and hu
man life. Is sufficient reason why the peo
ple of both countries should employ their
strength, not In preparations to destroy
each other, but In assuring peace between
the two nations upon eternal and Immova
ble foundation. On the 22d of February
the people of the I'nitecl t talcs will eele.
brute the birth of George Washinpton.
Let the people make that clay even more
arlorious by lnauc;urattnK a movement for
rrementing all the Knglixh-speaklng people
of the world in peace und fraternal
With the purpose of this movement
every intelligent man must be In
hearty sympathy. Its aim Is in the
highest degree philanthropic and un
selfish. At the same time, It is the
simple truth to say that an era of war
less arbitration is only an Iridescent
dream, the rapt contemplation of which
may give both pleasure and profit, but
the realization of which will never be
seen this side of the millenlum. The
spread of education and religion may
In the long run tend to reduce the
number of wars, by discountenancing
those which have their origin In
sheer bravado or territorial greed.
This at least Is open to hope, if not as
yet to presumptive proof. But mote
than this Is quite out of the question.
War is a necessary evil; with certain
ciualllicationn. It Is even a desirable
wll. It cleanses the body politic,
tones up the political system, casts out
Impurities which propogate in peace
and is, upon occasions, a mighty whole
some thing.
At the same time, it should be the
last resort. 1
There Is a good deal of the Spanish
Idea of war news In the local Demo
cratic press these days.
Railroads vs. Canals.
Senator Quay's resolution authoriz
ing the appointment of a commission
to determine the cost of procuring for
the federal government control by
purchase of certain interior water
ways, notably those between New York
harbor and the Delaware river, be
tween the Delaware river and Chesa
peake bay, and between the Chesa
peake and Albemarle sou rid, is under
stood to be the first step in a general
programme of .roMi.--d Internal l:n- j
ptovcineiits. f')r which the senator
wants cuncfrcss t'i appropriate a cer
tain sum of money yearly for a period
of years. To this end he has linollielal-
ly suggested the levying of a duty on i
sugar sutllcient to provide special reve
nue amounting to not less than $1-
000.000 a year.
Should these canals be bought by tho
government. Senator Quay's plan con
templates their deepening and widen
ing so as to accommodate our vessels
of war, thus enabling their transfer
without venturing upon the open sea.
Apart from that, the advantages of
the plan to general commerce are self-
evident. With the great lukes con
nected by canals with the Mississippi
river, and this in turn connected by
waterway with the Atlantic seaboard,
there would, it Is believed, be such a
quickening of Internal commerce and
such a growth of hitherto undeveloped
sections as would soon more than re-
pay every cent of the first cost.
The productiveness of what was once
known as the "great American desert"
has become such as to overtax In ordin
ary times the best facilities of the com
mon carriers by rail. The rates, too.
of long haulage by rail act as a Bcrious
Impediment to that free and unreittrlct
ed Internal commerce which la neces
sary to the fullest welfare of our peo
ple. Many persons believe that the so
lution of these and kindred problems
of Increasing gravity Is ultimately to
be found In recourse to the canal sys
tem of haulage which was unwisely
obscured a generation or so a3 by tho
tinli of speculative capital into trans
continental railways. i
While we might have known better
than to expect otherwise In a cam
paign In which Its whole stock of argu
ment Is abuse? nnd misrepresentation,
we have nevertheless been surprised
at the Scranton Times' gratuitoilV re
flections on Senator Vaughan. Kven
If the Times has no scruples about tra
ducing an opponent, we should think It
would have political Judgment enough
to cause it to refrain from issuing a
wholesale! challenge to his many Dem
ocratic friends to show their confidence
In his Integrity by repudiating at the
polls the Democratic campaign organ's
unwarranted slanders upon him.
The decision of Judge Mayham de
clining trf grant "Uat" Shea, the slayer
of Robert Ross, a new trial, on-account
of McGough's fake confession, la a
notification to Senators Murphy and
Hill that with respect to the independ
ence of the Empire state judiciary from
political pressure or control, "things
are different now."
The surprise of London bankers at
the success of our popular loan will
probably be followed In due season by
other surprises of similar import. The
United States has played second fiddle
to the bankers of Europe long enough
to know better.
The decision of the Democrats In the
house to vote against censuring Bay
ard Is a sorry Illustration of the follies
of blind partisanship. Bayard's speech
was a national insult, damaging to
Democrats no less than to Republicans.
Ex-Collector Cooper nominates Sena
tor Quay for the presidency. The sen
ator will probably prefer to remain
quietly In the senate and keep on good
terms with the next president.
i "
An apology from Dunravsn Is neces
sary only on his own account.
W. I-cC. Stevens, In Troy Times.
Several weeks have now elapsed since
tlit. announcement of Professor Roent
gen's discovery at Wnrtzbiug that un
der appropriate conditions a photograph
may he taken by utilizing rays that pass
through media which to tho eye arc per
fectly opuqitB. While It cannot yet lie
said that the explanation is posesd even
by Roentgen himself, it is possible now
to give an account that is less mysterious
than what was first afforded In the col
umns of the daily press.
A familiar lecture room experiment is
that of sending an Intermittent electric
current through a nearly vacuous tube,
Into the ends of which metallic elec
trndes have been sealed. Prom one of
these conductors, called the kathode, col
ored rays pais In straight hues to tho
other electrode and to the glass of tha
tube. Thefce kathode rays ore readily vis.
Ible. and are easily deflected from their
original course by a inuunet. I'p to u
short time ago It was not known that any
of the energy from these rays Is fcc
tually transmitted through, tne ula?a
otherwise than as light of short wave
length, affecting the eye or tho photo
araphlc plate like any other light requlr
Ing a transparent meditm for trans,
mission. There are certain solids and
liquids, such as canary t;hiss, quinine so
lution and kerosene oil, which ore caused
by this llirht to shine with beautiful col
ors. Such bodies are said to ha fluores
cent. The well-known Oelssier- vacuum
tubes are often made to include various
fluorencent substances, which afford ut.
tractive spectacular rtfecis when lllu.
mlnnted bv electric illsebnrges from an
Induction coll. These have iec-n lanilllar
phenomena during the last thirty or forty
year, rne luminous kuiii-i Mjn iimjr
be reflected from a mirror or conveyed by
a lens or stopped by un opaque body or
rcRlsitred on the photographer's sensitized
A short lime !tgo, while producing kath
ode ruys in u highly vacuous tube which
was covered during the dls'-hnrrf. Pro
fessor Roentgen noticed that an effect
was produced upon a phato,tr:tphi-- plate
that happened to be near. Tills caused
him to tesi the efficacy of a variety of pro
tecting screws, and to establish the fact
that a peculiar and hitherto unknown spe
cies of energy came through the vacuum
tube and the protecting screen that was
perfectly ffllclcnt In cutting off llitht.
Borne years hko llerz. the brilliant youtia;
physicist, whose luvcstiK.ilions In rela
tion to electric waves made him Worid
famous, discovered that kathode rays
could be transmitted through cpn'iue
metal films, and subsequently ills nsit
ant. Irftiarci. has published many experi
ments on this subject. Roentgen's discov
ery, therefor, while entirely orlKinai,
cannot be called wholly new. Ho has at
tained success far greater, however, than
any of his predecessors. His results have
been already confirmed by several physi
cists In Austria. Germany and hn.tnd,
and he has received a decoration from ths
Ucrmun emperor.
All students of algebra are In the hiblt
of using X as the symbol for an unknown
quantity. Professor HoentfC'ii calls these
newly discovered rays X-rays. They
huve some properties In marked contrast
with common ruys of light an I even with
the typical kathode rsy from wMWi they
are derived. I.Ike the blue, violet and
ultra violet wave of common lixhl, lie y
affect the photographic film and excitu
fluorescence. A card covered with fluor
escent material was found by l'
Konntgen to shine in a room otherwise
dark when brought near the opaque csrd
broad tube that encased" his excited vacu
um tube, and this even when withdrawn to
a dis!ance of Fix or seven feet, l.'nllke
true kathode rays, the X-ravs are not
deflected by a magnet, l'nllke kathode
rays and common rays, they are not re
flected from a mirror refracted through
a lens. They arc transmitted to some
extent through nearly all opaque bodies,
If these ba in moderately thin masses,
such ns sheets of ebonite, carbon, copper,
aluminum and iron. Hut transmission Is
always accompanied with absorption, even
In the case of common llaht. The X-rays
pass easily through paper, exciting fluor
escence through n bound volume of a
thousand printed pases. The? are but lit
tle stopped by slab of wood, or of hard
rubber, an inch thick. Metals exert more
absorption than wood or other organic
bodies. A idktc of t.lumlmim must be
mora than bail' an Inch ml' k to stop th
X-rays, while a plate" of plminum only
one-hundredtho? an Inch thick li effective.
Hone is far !es ;iervioiia to ttienl lha.i Is
lle.-.i un.l blood. Tl", shadow of the ep-n
hand Is therefore u dark shadow of the
bones and a faint" shadow nf tne tissues.
To ubtaln a good shadow of th entire hu
man skeleton would not be ho easy, be
cause I he very ronilderahlc thickness of
the tissues would csuse Indistinctness. In
nil cases tho sharpness of the ahado.v
depends upon the thickness of the rtlffev
ent parts of lh object producing it. That
of n round M(ck is darker at the middle
than at the nlses: that of n metal ube
Is lUhter at the middle than nt the eilaes.
It makes no difference whether tho sur
face is roue it or smooth.
Vnder such", condition It i obviously
useless to expect elesr'y denned photo
graphic pictures bv use of X-rays. At
best the picture con be only a sdlhouotte
Quite possibly fractures a fid dlseasM of
the bones may be studied by means -.f
these rays, or the position of a buile.i
bullet may bo found. Hut it is too early
at present to mnxe onv confident predic
tions recnrfllng indust-tnl or surtrleal ap
plications of the new discovery. Theoret
ically this Is of the hlithest Importance,
practically there may be "no money in
It." - If so, we mcy expect our Oerma.i
friends to continue the invesUxatlon with
enthusiasm, while the majority of Anwr
icans will regard it with Indifference.
Editor of The Trlbure.
Sir: Please permit me a small space
In your valuable paper to express my .
views on t!ie coming viaduct. Briefly
stated, there are many reasons which I
consider Important that voters of this
progressive city should generally, Irre
spective of their choice of party anl can
dldates. vote for the viaduct. Any one of
ordinary Intelligence, who has had Of
casion to travel to anj from fhe West
Side. will, without ht-sltatli'i. decide mat
It is indispensable to the safety of lives;,
as well as a necessity to have an unim
peded roadway, so that the now often
times long delays at the railroad crossing
will be disposed of.
Further, the viaduct Is needed In order
to sustain the true established reputation
abroad, that this city Is one of ths most
progressive towns within the fulled
States. The rapid growth that lias taken
place here tlie last fifteen years is mar
velous and Instead of having :i city or
"villages," as Mr. Dickson recently re
marked, let us all In the city. Irrespective
of locality and partytsm, vote for the
vinduct, and make It a compact city
worthy of its name.
There Is no doubt In my mind that the
3tontphlng advancement of our city Is
largely clue to the members of the board
of trade, which Is composed of some of
our best citizens, who are always on the
ulert to advance the city's Interest, and
hence It iu Incumbent upon the voters gen
erally, now that the opportunity Is at
hand, to prove that we appreciate their
good work by doing our duty and voting
as they recommend, for the viaduct, there
by making this one solid, compact city,
Instead of a sectional city, as It now it.
D. M. Owent.
Hyde Park, Feb. 7.
Lyon's Patent
Quickest, Best
Most Durable.
Price 25 Cents.
"Will licat I to is r.Rg9
Perfectly and produce
wore Frosting.
It vill do ihorevorkond
do it IrUcr than ccny o0 etnt
or f I JlcoUr iHot'c.
Greatly Reduced Prices.
Csrscr Fraaklia Avcnss.
A Kid Qlove Offer in
One hundred dozen Ladies' 5-Button Scalloped Top Austrian Gloves, with tbres
rows of heavy black and self colored embroidery, iu all colors, such as white, pear!,1 lemon,
butter, tan and ox blood, ' ' . .
AT. 49 .CENT
In order to prevent dealers from buying them up we must limit each customer to 3 pairs.
Have jou seen it? It works
ttX Twelve Hundred
will be placed on special sale Saturday, February 15.
paper for further particulars. ;:
The second week of our Shoe Sale is now on. We were surprised at the result of our
first week's sales, far ahead of expectations. It only proves the public appreciates a good
thing and is anxious to take advantage of it.
Every pair of shoes in this immense, fine stock will be sold for less thaii cost.
We have a line of Gents' Fine Shoes, hand welt, kangaroo uppers, straight $5 shoes;
they are now marked $2.98.
Every $4 Shoe in the house is' now $2.48.
Children's Shoes 68c and 88c that were i and 11.25.
Don't miss this opportunity to buy shoes for less than
BANISTER'S, Corner Lackawanna and
la sometimes due to dcfectlre materials
or tools. Many a man spends un
necessary time lo office work when he
might save care and doctors' bills If
be got proper office necessaries. For
these "proper necessaries" we are
right up to date. If you cannot call
on its, we shall be pleased to call on
yon. We do ,
After February 15 will
remove to Hotel Jermyn,
Wyoming Avenue.
W r Hm1 quarter for Orator and
rahandlliif th
Celebrated Duck Rivers,
Lynn Havens, Key ports.
Mill Ponds; abw Shrew,
bury. Hockaways, Maurice
River Coves, Western
Snores and Blue Point.
WWi make Kpcaialtr ( cJ.llTtrinj
Bin Point en half hU ia carrier)
Wye. Ave,
Oal m4 ha nM 4 mm taw
VhM Plaawava fcaw tak "
wonders in cleaning silver, gold,
Besides, it is so cheap and so hand3
Pieces of Ladies' and Children's Muslin. Underwear
One of the features of the bicycle show
held at Madison Square Garden wa
the seven pound bieyle manufactured
by and exhibited by A. O. Spalding
& Bros, at their booth. Now we all
know that a wheel of seven pound will
not carry anyone; but they alio build
a twenty-two pound wheel that runs
easier and wilt outcoaat any ' other
wheel ever built and will carry three
hundred pound with perfect safety.
Can now be seen at
Wyoming Arsnaas.
Is Showing Them
326 Washing!, Af 3.,
copper or -any other metal.
Keep your eye' on this
than cost of makiug them.
Wyoming Avonuos
M1 jUNDER. '
A Chao lock ma rive a little tj rot op
tion from the curious, but nothine eh.
The extra ooMt of a Kood on Is nly a
trifle compared with the aecurity and sat.
lafactlon they afford. We have them foi
every place and purpono.
Do Yoii See fls Well
flsYoii Would Lik??
Consult our. Optician, Mr. 0. P.
Adams, who vill Gt your eyes
perfectly by scientific methods
charging nothing for fitting, fur
nishing Spectacles and Eyeglasses
in modern styles and best quali
ties at low price si
After April 1 at No. 132
Wyoming Avenue, Coal
are located the smut hin tad hantin
(ronadsin the world, beeeriptir books of
eppMcatioa. Ticket to all point la Maine
Canada aad Marltim ProTtae, Uinneapoll
B. Faat. CaaadUa and United Stat) Nert
treat. Vancouver. Beattl Taceaw. Portia,
Or, Sn Pranclaoo.
First-Class Sleeping and Dining Cars
- - - -W
avathw1 tt .11 ... t retinal Taalt f latt
mI1 hA 1U Wlli A eLisai aaamaft alsk
un MtBt w uvwii 1 um ' 1 ii - - w -m
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