The Scranton tribune. (Scranton, Pa.) 1891-1910, July 06, 1895, Page 8, Image 8

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AmMsing Errors
Of Noted Writers.
Some of the Slips of Famous Pens That
Impress One as Exceedingly Funny.
In the course of an Interesting article
n the pronenese of great authors to err
m minor details and to accept a true
the errors or Imaginings of tlhelr prede
cessors, a contributor to the St Louis
Globe-Democrat says:
In this way a thousand myths, which
bad but the remotest basis of truth, if
any, for a foundation, have been indus
triously repeated and conscientiously
believed by thousands. Thus the yarn
about George Washington and his little
hatchet, which was originally a pure
fabrication, Is aa religiously 'believed by
young Americans as was 'the story
bout Homulus and Remus being
suckled by a wolf by 'the young Romans
couple of thousand years ago. So also
la England it Is the fashion to believe
that, a the battle of Waterloo, the Iron
Duke said "Up, guards, and at them."
though -the Dukw himself testified that
he said nothing of the kind, being too
busy praying that Bluoher or night
might come before Napoleon thrashed
his army all to pieces. The idea, that
George III. was a cruel, blood-thirsty
tyrant, who went about his palace with
Fee-Foo-Fum aspect, snltting the
blood of Americans, ww sedulously in
culcated toy the declaration of Inde
pendence, when, on the contrary, he
was mild-mannered old gentleman,
who would not have hurt anybody's
feelings for the world, and who would
turn over tn his grave did he but know
how grossly he had been misrepresent
ed on this side of the water. But his
tory la full of just sudh blunders, and
lo spite of the fact that Curtius did not
leap into tlve gulf, nor did Mucius Scae
vola plunge his hand into the Are. nor
the Honatil put up the gallant fight
credited to them, nor did 'Nero fiddle
while Itome was iburnlng, nor the priest
of Louis XVI. say, "Son of St. Louts,
ascend to heaven," people win go on be
lieving these things, though they be
disproved hundred times, simply be
cause tfcf historians have got into the
fashion of telling them, anil they look
pretty when put in type.
Novelists' Blunders.
If blunders like these are perpetuated
fat history simply by dint of the public
stupidity, greater accuracy In matters
of statement and closer adherence to
ho probabilities are not to be expected
f the novelist. The writer of Action
creates his own history, for, to him, the
characters he presents are as real as
any that ever lived; the scenes he de
picts are, for the moment, as true as
any that ever appeared on the stage of
life's action. He is, tn fact, writing
history as it should toe; but as he is
tinder the necessity of manufacturing
It as he goes, it is not wonderful that
lapses f memory should here and there
occur and his pictures be blurred by his
own forgetfulness. Of all sinners in
this) respect, Thackeray confesses him
self to be the chief. In writing on the
subject, lite owns up to a score of delin
quencies. He said: "As sure as I read
a page of my own composition, I find a
fault or two, half a dozen. Jones is
called Brown. Brown, who is dead, is'
brought to life. Aghast, and months
after the number was printed, I saw I
had called Philip Firmln, Cllve New
come. Now, Cllve Newcome Is the hero
of another story by the reader's most
obedient servant. The two men are as
different in my mind's eye as Lord Pal
merston and Mr. Disraeli."
Scientific Mistakes.
When novelists make such blunders
In dealing with the creatures of their
own brains. It Is not wonderful that
when scientific accuracy Is demanded
they should err even more egreglously.
The catastrophe In the "Mill on the
Floss" la brought on by a scientific
blunder. The gifted author gives her
readers to understand that the boat In
which the heroine and her brother were
floating was overwhelmed by a huge
mass of debris which was traveling
down stream at a more rapid rate than
the frail craft. Of course, then, it over
took th boat and sank it by the force
f the eolation. The Incident is dra
matic aneugh to satisfy the most criti
cal, but sotontlflcally It Is an absurdity,
for If the two were borne along by the
nine stream the pile of wreckage went
as fast as the boat, and not a whit
'tr, no matter what might be the
needo of the situation. Equally open to
set entitle criticism Is that appalling
oene In "Bleak House," where the un
fentunate drunkard died a horrible
death from spontaneous combustion.
No doubt he deserved to get out of the
world in some such dreadful fashion,
and Dickens, having read of cases of
drunkards who went to bedYin a normal
condition and were found a few hours
later a pile of charred flesh and cinders,
considered that he had accomplished
master stroke In bringing- about such
result In the case of his own partic
ular drunkard, but the fact remains
that no matter how rum-soaked a hu
man being may become, no one ever
died of spontaneous combustion, and,
so Ions; as the human system Is more
than three-fourths water, no one ever
Novelists sad Astronomy.
When dealing with technical subjects,
novelists are peculiarly liable to go as
tray, not Only from the fact that they
generally have no scientific special
training, but also because they do not
possess that peouUar quality of mind
that predisposes man towards scien
tific research. For It Is true that there
Is a scientific cast of mini, just as there
is an imaginative or critical or a rever
ential type. The novelist is not a
scientist, and rarely can he become so,
and not Infrequently, hi tho effort to
rnakh his science lit the story, he per
petrates the most outrageous mistakes.
The late Professor Proctor devoted a
long article to a curious blunder made
by Charles Reade when the latter un
dertook, in "Foul Play," to describe
the proper method of computing longi
tude. After showing how grossly at
fault was the description of the novel
fct, Proctor lamented the tendency
among writers of fiction to attempt to
deal with scientific processes with which
they were unfamiliar, for, as he says,
It Is remarkable that people who pay
no attention to a scientific description
when given In a treatise on the subject
will remember even the minutest de
tail when they happen to encounter It
In a story, and the author, by a lack of
accuracy, thus becomes responsible for
no end of misinformation In the mind
of the general public.
Mooa Blunders. '
Jly reoalls astronomy, and this sug
gests the reflection that the moon is the
aMtisBSB sra aTlAM 4k1linr1M bmausi k.
lists than any other one object In
nature. In spits of the fact that some
ICMirtodgs of the main features of the
moon's changes Is bound, in these days,
to percolate through every human skull,
there Is enough Ignorance still left to
occasion some very laughable blunders.
It Is Coleridge, who, in the "Ancient
Mariner," makes a new moon to rise
In the east. He says:
Ciomb above the eastern bar
The horned moon, with one bright star
within the nether tip.
With an ordinary poet the demands of
rhyme and meter might have been
pleaded In extenuation of so marvelous
a blunder as that of causing a new
moon to climb the eastern sky, but
Coleridge was no ordinary poet; he was
never at a loss, either for rhyme or
meter, and such a bull as this must be
placed to the account of sheer forget
fulness. But Dlokens was no better,
for he tells of the new moon in the east
at twilight, and Walter Itesant la worse,
for in the "Children of Olbeon," he
makes a new moon rise In the east at
1 or 2 o'clock In the morning. Vet each
one of these writers, had he but given
the subject a moment's thought, would
have seen how absurd and nonsensical
his idea was and how laughable it must
appear to people who have even a
cursory knowledge of the habits of the
Sir Walter Scott.
Scott wrote In such a hurry, rarely
pausing even to verify the most im
portant statement or citation, that no
wonder can be felt at his falling Into
dozens of mistakes, and so he dues. He
makes Wilfred of lvanhoe ride live
courses on a hot sultry day with one
horse, a thing that no steed outside a
novel could possibly have done, and yet
Scott himself was a horseman and
knew, as well as anybody, how much a
horse could endure. His seal of com
position overleaps the bounds both of
time and space, for he makes one of the
knights of the days of Richard I. con
verse with William the Conqueror, who
lived more than a century before, and
in another place causes a mass to be
celebrated in the afternoon, when only
In the morning Is such a service held.
Scott has a worthy imitator In the elder
Dumas, who apparently wrote for effect
and did not care a straw for all the
probabilities in the world. His "Monte
Crlsto" is a magnificent piece of color
painting, but full, from beginning to
end, of blunders. Inconsistencies and
downright absurdities. Not the least
apparent Is the marvelous blunder he
makes about Monte Crlsto's fortune.
Endowing him in the first place with
$4,000,000, Dumas makes his hero scatter
right and lefJt with the prodigality of a
lunatic, and after this process has been
kept up for years, gravely declares that
he has only $10,000,000 left. A glance
over the proof sheets would have saved
the author, but this was too much
trouble, so he blunders along, from
sheer laziness and inattention, into mis
takes that a tyro should avoid.
Geographical Errors.
(Many a novelist, as well as historian,
has come to grief by not taking the
pains to consult a geography or atlas
when dealing with some particular in
hla story that demanded more than
a general knowledge. Charles Lever,
to "Charles CMalley," speaks of An
dalusia aa a province of Portugal and
puts Valencia on the wrong side of
Spain, while Dean Swift, in writing of
Pennsylvania, declares that the cold
winds from Hudson's Bay blow directly
down upon kt and render It one of the
most Inhospitable regions on the globe.
This, however, is but a trifle In Ignor
ance compared to that shown by Ame
lia B. Edwards, author of "Hand and
Glove," who compares one of her char
acters to "an overseer on a Massachu
setts cotton plantation." It should not
be forgotten, howover, that the densest
Ignorance in regard to American geo
graphy, politics and matters In general
Is very English, even Thackeray, who
really liked America and Americans,
making some exceedingly comical blun
ders when dealing with American top
ics, placing Close together cities that
are separated- by a distance of hun
dreds of miles. But when the descent
is made from, the great writers to the
small fry of literature, the density of
ignorance becomes appalling. One has
his hero take a run on the railroad train
from New Tork to. Chicago in one after
noon, as though the two were as close
togather as London and Margate, while
another evidently believes New Or
leans ito be a suburb of Washington,
and still another makes the Mississippi
flow past the national capital Into the
Atlantic Ooean. These are the well-informed;
those who do not pretend to
knowledge of American topics dilate
on the danger of the unwary being
scalped by the Indians, If, too venture
some, they go out of sight of the stock
ades of Boston, and make their heroes
hunt tigers in the Jungles of Delaware.
Shakespeare's Mistakes.
The worst blunderer along every line
was the great dramatist whose name is
at the heaAof every list of creative and
imaginative writers, and one of the
chief argument against the theory of
the Baconian original of the Immortal
plays ought to be that it was Impossible
for a scholar like Bacon to make as
many blunders aa are found In the
writings credited to Shakespeare.
Among othertthlngs, he alludes to can
non In the reign of King John, whereas
these deadly Implements did not come
Into use until 150 years after John had
succumbed to the distress caused by
the loss of Ms money and baggage dur
ing the war with the barons: he puts
printing as early as the reign of Henry
II, and speaks of a striking clock In the
days of Julius Caesar. His ' Hector Is
familiar with the writings of Aristotle,
and hie orlolanus refers to Cato and
incidentally also to Alexander. He fits
op Cleopatra's palace with a billiard ta
ble, makes Bohemia a country with a
seacomst and marine commerce; he re
gards Delphos as an Island, and places
Naples and Tunis so far apart that
none but a madman would attempt the
voyage f rdtn one to tfbe other. It Is true
that some freedom should be allowed a
dramatist, and Shakespeare should not,
therefore, be held to the same rigid ac
countability as) a novelist of equal rank,
If there were such a one, but when a
playwright, like Lee, speaks of Hanni
bal's men playing cards, or, like D'Ur
fey, makes the ancient Britons ridicule
the Puritans, It seems as though a line
ought to be drawn somewhere, even if
the play had to be cut.
'. Soiae"nad flrssks." '
But there are worse blunderers than
these tdbe found on the pages, even of
authors of high repute. No writer In
our literature stahds higher than Chau
cer, and yet.Nln rie tale of Trollus, a
narrative of ari"f vsnt supposed to take
place at xne siege pi irvj, ruwu,
ona of ths characters, rsfsrs to Robin
Hood as to an Individual perfectly well
known by those to whom he is speak
ing. So stupendous an anachronism
seems Impossible of occurrence, and yet
It la but one of many like it, to be
found on the pages of our earliest great
poet. The temptation to work into a
poem or Imaginative narrative allu
sions to more recent times Is almost
Irresistible. There are. Indeed, few
Imaginative writers who take the trou
ble necessary to put themselves back
In the time in which the tale they are
contriving Is supposed to happen, and.
Indeed, no little research Is necessary
In order to avoid such blunders as that
Just mentioned of Chaucer. Had as tthls
Is. however, one made by Fletcher In
his rellgio-heruic poem, "Christ's Vic
tory," is worse, for he describes the
tempter as approaching the Redeemer
In the garb of a monk, telling his l aJ j
and reciting his prayers aa he slowly
paced along. The plays of the lust
quarter of line seventeenth century are
full of such 'blunders. In one. Dido
speaks to Aeneas of a London cockney.
In another Alexander the tlreat, In a
battle with the Persians, laments the
fact that his artillery did not arrive in
time tor t'he engagement.
Stuge Anachronism.
The same period presents on the Btago
a number and variety of anachronisms
that would make a scholar turn pale.
Blunders of history and geography are
too .numerous to be noted, nor did tlht-y
probably attract the least attention
from the audience, for If the latter
could tolerate the Incongruities In cos
tume that were constantly thrust on
their notice, mistakes In historical mat
ters could be easily overlooked. Hut
t'he audiences of those days were far
from critical; Indeed, at even a much
later uge, the construing of the stage
characters was a matter In which little
or no attention was paid to antiquity,
:ie actors wearing what they thought
proper, and the audience being satisfied
to abide by the judgment of the stage
people In the matter of dress as in
everything else. So when an actor
played the part of Aeneas In a cocked
hat and knee breeches, or when Cleo
patra appeared on the stage In enor
mous hoop?, or Coriolanus caine In,
dressed In a red coat and plumed hel
met, when Hannibal's army, arrayed
as French soldiers, annihilated tlhe Ro
mans dressed In a nondescript military
costume, by the help of an old field
piece borrowed from the Junk yard for
the evening, no one felt or seemed to
feel any surprise whatever. In the
matter of scenery, the playwrights of
those days left much to the Imagina
tion of the audience, and so far as cos
tume was concerned, when the people
had been informed that the half dozen
men on the stage represented an army,
nothing more was deemed necessary.
Imaginative Artists.
Wrhether that was the era of ana
chronism or not, R Is certain that the
artists of that time were as fond of
blundering as the poets or the drama
tists. But, for that matter, the paint
era of almost every age have been
given to blundering, and many great
pictures are defaced by the presence
of some grotesque mistake. Even so
great a genius as Michael Angclo did
not escape; In hla "Last Judgment"
Charon and his boat appear, a comical
mixture of the pagan and Christian
that edified his own and amused every
subsequent age. Brengeli, the great
Dutch painter, conceived a really beau
tiful painting representing the visit
of the Magi, but in carrying it out was
so unfortunate as to dress up one of
the kings in the costume of a Dutch
cavalier and place In his hand for a
present a model of a Dutch man-of-war.
Then there was Tintoret. who painted
a spirted picture of the Israelites gath
ering manna In the wilderness, and. In
order to protect themselves from possi
ble foes, carrying blunderbusses of the
old-time comlc-plcture pattern; and
there was Veronsse, who, in the paint
ing of the marriage at Cana of Galilee,
introduced half a dozen Benedictine
monks, probably because he had never
seen a marriage where there were not
monks, and did not believe that such
an event could occur without monkish
assistance. The list might be Indefinite
ly extended, for every antique picture
gallery abounds with such absurdities,
and every old European church has
monuments whose details are full of
The curtain had risen on the third ant,
and the momentary hush that preceded
the resumption of the performance on
the stage was broken by a stentorian
voice from the rear of the auditorium:
"Is Dr. Hlgglnspiker in the house?" A
tall, heavily-whiskered man, occupying
a front sent rose up. "If Dr. Hlggin
splker Is In the house," resumed the sten
torian voice, "he told me I was to oomo
here and call him out at 10 o'clock."
Whereupon Dr. Hlgglnspiker, looking very
red, picked up his hut and cane and walked
down the aisle, amid loud and enthusiastic
applause. Chicago Tribune.
Tho l.lfo of a Keeper of One of Uncle
Hntn's Famous Lighthouses Soma
Popular Misconceptions ss tn the Ap
pearance of tho "Watchman on the
Correspondence of The Tribune.
Slasconset, Mass., July 6. Sankaty
Head Light Is one of the best known, if
not most Important, of Uncle Sam's
lighthouses. Situated on a high bluff.
It commands a view not only of the sea
for miles around, but of all Nantucket
Island. Its steady light can be seen
for twenty miles, and Its flash for forty.
It Is additionally Interesting, In that It
Is the first light seen by returning
ocean liners, and is known among sea
faring men as the "Morning Star."
During the day, the lighthouse may be
known by Its three stripes one red be
tween two white and by night Is
known by Its flash, .which occurs regu
larly every minute.
It Is interesting to note the way In
Which this flash Is caused. The lamp,
which Is itself about 120 feet above the
sea, Is comparatively small, the chim
ney being scarcely larger than an or
dinary lamp chimney, although from
six to ten quarts of the most refined oil
are consumed every night. But the
strength of the light is found in the
glass surrounding' the lamp. Above
and below the light are powerful re
flectors of glass, three-eighths of an
Inch thick. One of these, of course,
throws the light down, while the other
throws It up, so that Its greatest power
cannot be seen near at hand. Between
these reflectors are the lenses, caused
to revolve by a weight of 100 pounds,
slowly dropping to the foot of the tow
er. These lenses are eight In number,
revolving In exactly eight minutes,
thus making a flash to occur once a
minute. .
The keeper Of the Light.
The work of the two lighthouse keep
era, although not the moat difficult, de
mands the utmost regularity, and, there
tors, "the keepers seldom venture far
from home. Late In the afternoon; the
watch takes his place In tht tower, and
sits down to a newspaper or monotony,
unless a party of summer visitors Is
bold enough to walk to the lighthouse
and ascend the tower. Then, of course,
he goes through a stereotyped history,
description and explanation of the
light; receives his customary fee, aud
returns to hla aforesaid newspaper or
At sunset the light must blase out;
and sbotttly before that time the keeper
prepares for it. Carefully he dusts
every Inch of glass, removes the cur
tains which have protected It from the
sun during the day, examines the oil
and wick and waits for the moment of
sunset, when the light, faithful as the
sun Itself, biases out. About this time
the wutch la relieved, and goes down
ready for a hearty meal and an early
retlrtnutit. In the meantime the sec
ond watch It engaged similarly us was
the tirn:, until he, in turn, is relieved
(it midnight. Precisely at sunrise, the
Hghlt is extinguished. Then the lamp
Is refilled, the glass covered and every
thing gis on. just as it did the day be
fore. Not Isolated In Summer.
In Dme respects, it will be seen, the
lives of tha two keepers of -the light are
etmtwhait uneventful. Most people
think of a lighthouse keeper us a gray
haired, klnd-fa.'ed, atooping old man,
living on a rock in mld-o-an, wllth
only the sea os a companion. They
never think that a lighthouse keeper
may be young and lKimlsome, or be
married and have a family, as in the
present cae.
But the nvost mistaken Idea Is that
he never sees anyone. Of course, that
muy 1 the cas? somewhere, but It Is
not at Sankuty, at least during ttv
summer. The keepers of this light are
wlthlm a 10-mlnute drive of a summer
reeurt, whre they can get mall and
supples; numerous summer visitors
como to the lighthouse, and there are
U'lthnlc communication with the
town of Nantucket, and with the llfe
ravlng ntatl"'n up the coast; and so. In
summer, at ltasi:, irhey see somewhat of
In winter, to be sun?, It Is a different
mai'ter. Tha village H deserted, cold,
and dro-ary. There are no visitors to
break the monotony, the wind Is fiirc!,
and ;lie tower cold. But the light
mutt 'be faithful, and not once do?s It
fall. And ro It g.xs, year after year
the same work nt h? same time; the.
wme line of visitors In summer, and
the same course of hardnhlps In win
ter. T1i'3 p.nne ns ever, faMhful old
Sinlitii'.y shines out, lighting the hart
of many a sailor homeward bound.
The two girls were talking.
As girls talk.
One. was of the Impetuous, Impuls'e
type, whose blood tiles to the cheok,
whose cyi's Knap, and whose tongue Is as
sharp as a ruzor.
The other wns ns the placid ocean; pro
found, solemn, silent, billowing deep far
out from shore and comlns In upon the
silver sands as noiseless as the dew falls
upon the (lowers at nlKht.
They were tulkln about men and their
ways a subject of uneeusiiiK Interest to
women In their teens or beyond.
The face of the IniTietuous one wns
flushed, and there was the 'inmlstakable
evidence of Indignation in her maner.
"Well," she exclaimed, with a warning
o'nd a threat In her tone, "I'd like to see a
man kiss me."
The eyes of the other one closed Boftly
against the dazzling flush of those of her
companion, and a gentle glow cume to her
"Yes," she nnswered, dreamily. "Well,
I don't care whether I see the man or not.
It la to perfectly lovely a;iy way thut 1
never think about tha condition." De
troit Free Press.
Those who witnessed Miss Rose
Coghlan's two performances In the
Frothlngham theater last season, and
particularly those who met the mem
bey of her gifted company during their
reception by the Scranton Elks, will
doubtless recall lllss .Maxlne Klllott,
whose personal beauty and superior In
tepretatlon of ingenue roles were nota
ble Incidents of that engaement. . A
splendid picture of Miss Klllott was
printed in iMunsey's for June; and It
was then announced that Mlse Elliott
had been selected by Augustln Daly to
take the roles In hla company formerly
assumed by Miss Ada Belian. Miss
Elliott la 25 years old; has been on the
stage only since her twentieth year;
and was successful almost from the
eitart. Esperts .rate her among the
dozen handsomest women on, tho Amer
ican stage; and the odd thing about it
Is that she Is even prettier off the stage
than on.
Kyrle Bollew Is 40 years old.
Charles Krohman Is bicycling In Tarls.
Charles H. Hoyt has written a new farce
called "A Satisfied Woman."
It Is stated that Kudyard Kipling will
write a play for Hnerbohm Tree.
Mailelalne Boitton will be Itobert 1111
llard's leading woman next season.
Koberf Muntell Is 41 years of age. Ho
was born In Scotland. Hnry E. Dlxey Is
Augustln Daly's company with Ada Ita
lian, Is now acting In Daly's theater, Lon
don. Tho entire tour of Frank Daniels In
"The Wizard of the Nile" for next season
tins been booked.
Ellen Terry had a benefit at the Lyce'im
theater, London, Thursday night of this
week, when "Much Ado About Nothing"
wns performed.
Edward Hnrrlgan says that local plays
of New York life, surh es his name Is as
sociated with, are no longer to the taste
of New York audiences.
Grace Kimball has been studying In Eng
land her role in "The Prisoner of Zendo,"
to piny with Mr. Hothern at the Lyceum
In the fall. She will spend July In Paris.
Cavnlnszl, wife of Colonel Mupleaon, for
merly the premier dancer at the opera in
New York, Is dancing In a spectacular
ballet called "Faust" at the Empire Music
hall, London.
A Home of Itest, "where tired actors
may recuperate," to be supported entirely
by the dramatic profession, has Just been
started In England with Beerbohm Tree
for Its first president.
One of the oldest actresses In the world
Is time, Plilster, who is go, and the other
day celebrated her sixtieth anniversary os
an actress. Her husband, whom she mar
ried In 1810, was also eminent as an actor.
Sir Henry Irving says that English
women are singularly undemonstrative.
Although women admire him greatly and
often form the larger part of his audiences,
he gets his applause almost entirely from
the men.
From Harper's Magaslne.
Jones was absent-minded, and as he was
about to sail for the continent with his
wife and family, a friend came down to ree
him off and make sure all was right. The
friend was late; it was within twenty
minutes of sailing time, but he found
Jones am IK nor and happy.
"Hello, Jones!" he cried. "All right V
"Yes," nodded Jones, "trunks, tickets,
letter of credit, steamer chair everything.
Flatter myself that all Is right this time."
"That's ' good," was the answer.
"Where's Mrs Jones and the family 7 Have
to tel them adieu and hurry ashore."
"Jove!" cried Jones, sitting down sud
denly, "I think they're waiting at home
for ins." . ' . ' - .
Volunteers in the
Christian Warfare,
The history of the Christian En
deavor movement is an interesting nar
rative. H. T. Jenkins well tells it in
the Cleveland World. Fifteen years
ago, says he, the younger portion of the
community had little active part in the
church work. There was not organiza
tion witlilu the church which effectively
won and held the young people. About
this time the pastor of a Wllllston
church of Portland, Me., felt the need
of training and setting to work the
young people who had Just become con
verted. After much thought and
prayer, he Invited the recent converts
as well as the younger church mem
bers to his house on the evening of
Feb. 2, 1 SSI. and after an hour of social
intercourse, presented a constitution
which he had previously drawn up of
the Wllllston Younjr People of Chris
tian Endeavor. This constitution em
bodied the "prayer meeting pledge,"
which Is the link which binds the Chris
tian Endeavors together. This pledge
Is as follows:
Tructlng in the Lord Josus Christ for
strength. I promise Him that I will stiive
to do whatever He would like to have m
do; that I will make It a rule of my life
to pray and read the Bible every day, and
to support my own church In every way,
e.sp.'c'.ally by attending all her regular
tlunduy and mid-week services unless pre
vented by some reasons which I can con
scientiously give to iny Saviour, and thRt
Just so fur us I know how throughout my
whole life I will endeavor to lead a Chris
tian life. As an active member 1 promise
to be true to all my duties, to be present
at and to tuke some part, ald? from sing
ing, In every Christian Eruieuevor prayer
meeting unless hindered by some reason
which 1 can conscientiously give to my
I-ord and MusUr. If obliged to be absent
freni the monthly consecration meeting of
the society, I will, If possible, send at least
a Verse of Scripture to be read in response
to my name at roll-call.
The lather of the Movement.
Every great movement , In human
history hus Its beglr.ning In the heart
of some one man, and Rev. Francis K.
CJjik, pastor of the Wllllston church,
of Portland, Is the father of the Young
People's Society of Christian Endeavor.
The first knowledge of this experi
ment glvn to the world was contained
in an article published In a religious
paper of Iloston In August, 1SS1, en
titled "How One Church Cares for Its
Young People." This article resulted
In the establishment of similar socie
ties all over the country. The second
society was formed In Newburyport,
Mass.. by Rev. C. P. Mills In the same
year that the movement originated.
At first the Society of Christian En
deavor grew apparently by chance, for
little was done In a systematic and
organized way to establish branches.
One of the first developments of the
new work was In the line of annual
conventions. The first of these con
ferences were held June 2, 1SS2, In the
Wllllston church, Portland, Me. But
six societies were reresented, and the
total membership was only 481. The
next annual convention was held in
the Second Parish church of the same
city June 7, 18S3. At that date there
were 53 societies with 2,630 members.
The movement, however, was bound
to spread, and In 18S5, when the con
vention met at Ocean Park, a charm
ing seaside resort near Old Orchard
Beach, Me., the United Society of
Christian Endeavor was formed, a gen
eral secretary was provided for and
headquarters were opened In Boston.
There were then 253 societies, with
H.892 members, In all parts of the
world. At the Saratoga convention in
1887, Rev. Francis E. Clark, the origina
tor, was chosen president, which posi
tion he has held ever since.
Korly Opposition Overcome.
This movement, of coui-se, met with
opposition from many quarters. The
radical change which it worked In
many churches occasioned the enmity
of pastors. Some regarded It with sus
picion and distrust; others objected to
pushing forward the y.jung people,
believing that they e.hould "be seen
and not heard." However, the societies
doubled and the membership .multl
plied. In order to set Itself right In the
religious world, a platform of princi
ples was ndopted. It was asserted em
phatically that the Society of Christian
Endeavor was not an organization In
dependent of the church, but rather
the church nt work Tor and with the
young people and the young people at
work for and with the church. The so
cieties exist in every evangelical de
nomination, and this, In Itself, was a se
rious objection to many. The purely
religious features of the organization
arc paramount, although temperance
and all true moral reform work Is en
gaged In.
Although Dr. Clark Is a Congrega
tionalism and the Wllllston church Is
a Congrcgntlonul church, tho Young
People's Society of Christian Endeavor
was taken up by other denominations,
and today one of the ireasons why it Is
so powerful and influential Is because
of the Interdenominational fellowship
which It has continually emphasized.
There are at present Christian En
deavor societies in all the evangelical
denominations, Including: African
Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, Christian
Church of God, Congregational, Dis
ciples of Christ, Lutheran, Methodist
Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant
Episcopal, Reformed Presbyterian,
United Presbyterian, United Brethren
and United Evangelical.
Rapid and I'niform Growth.
If the early history of the Christian
Endeavor movement Is surprising, the
later history Is most astonishing, for
the successive conventions grew larger
and larger, until Inst year at Cleve
land, during the big railroad strike,
there was an attendance of 40,000.
The Young People's Society of Chris
tton Endeavor has expanded in every
possible direction. In 1888 Dr. Clark
visited England and again In 1891, and,
as' a result the (Christian Endeavor
Idea was firmly planted In that country.
In 1893 Dr. Clark, with Mrs. CUark and
their son, Eugene, set out on a Journey
around the world, and everywhere he
went he was received with great en
thusiasm, and, as a result, Christian
Endeavor societies have sprung up In
every civilised country on the globe.
In Australia, where Dr. Clark spent
much of his time, a united society was
formed. There are now 700 branches In
the Island continent. Japan has had
societies for three years. At present
there1 Is a membership of over LOOO
members In the Chinese empire. A so
ciety was planted in China six years
ago, and this was only tha seed from
which many others sprang.
In Burmah, India Persia, Africa,
Madagascar, Turkey, Spain, France,
Scotland, Ireland and Germany, Mex
ico, South America, ths Hawaiian
History of the Founding and Growth
Of the Christian Endeavor Movement.
Islands, Samoa and Canada Christian
Endeavor societies flourish, and the
number Is rapidly Increasing.
Kindred Organisations Formed.
Not only has the movement spread
all over this terrestrial sphere, but
there have been formed In connection
with the young people's societies the
Junior societies, the Intermediate socie
ties and the mothers' societies. Life
savers along our sea and lake coasts
have been Interested In the work; there
is a commercial travelers' union, the
floating society for sailors, two socle
ties in prisons, three army branches,
Indian and Alaskan societies, and even
the Ntw York "coppers" have "clubbed
together In a Christian Endeavor to
free policemen from the shackles of
The total number of societies, ac
cording to the latest official statistics,
is 39,1-', with a membership of 2,347,
220. These societies are distributed as
follows: United States Young Peo
ple's, 24,4'6; junior, 7,422; Intermediate,
62; mothers', 34; senior, 14. Car.Uda
Young people's, 2,143; Junior, 309; par
ents', 2; mothers', 11. Foreign lands
Young People's, 4,202; junior, 182; seni
or. 4.
This, In brief, is the history of the
Christian Endeavor movement, and an
inspiring history it is!
Interesting Facts Gleaned from an
Antique Looking Pamphlet Comprising
tho Report of the Fnginccrs Who
Surveyed the Delaware ft Hudson
An antique looking pamphlet, In the
possession of W. S. Birdsall, gives an
Interesting view of some of the condi
tions existing upward of seventy years
ago. It is the "Report of Messrs. Ben
jamin Wright and J. L. Sullivan, en
gineers, engaged In the survey of the
route of the proposed canal from the
Hudson to the headwaters of the Lack
nwaxen river, accompanied by other
documents, etc.," made In January, 1S1I4,
with a map of the region embracing the
canal end the coal field it was de
signed to reach, and "Prefatory re
marks by the proprietors of the coal
This survey was made during the
year following the act of the Pennsyl
vania legislature of March 13, 1823, au
thorizing Maurice Whrts, his heirs and
assigns, ti Improve the navigation of
the Lackawaxen, and the act of the
New York legislature incorporating
"The president, managers and company
of the Delaware and Hudson Canal
company," and authorizing this cor
poration to "make, construct and for
ever maintain, a canal or slack water
navigation" from the Hudson to the
Delaware; and the report was ad
dressed to the commissioners named tn
the Incorporating act to receive sub
Forty ICsiltnatcs of Haulage.
The mine proprietors. In their "pre
fatory renuiks," refer to the supply of
coal sent from the Schuylkill and Le
high regions to Philadelphia, and add
that "A Supply of Stone Coal cannot
be an object of less importance to the
city of New York than it is to Philadel
phia;" and refer to the report as "dem
cnRtrut.'ng, as far as such a fact is sus
ceptible of demonstration," that New
York could be supplied through the pro
pose! canal. The original design was
to extend the canal to the foot of the
Moosic range and haul the coal to that
point by wagons; and an estimate of
the cost of hauling, assuming that "on
a turnpike road a 6-horse team will per
form two trips per day with a load of
three tons." fixed it at 69V4 cents a ton.
The cost of loading Into boats was put
at' 10 cents a ton. Assuming that "a
boat carrying thirty tons will go to the
Hudson and return to the mines In ten
days," the cost of canal transporta
tion was fixed at 11.18 a ton. The cost
of towing from the Hudson to New
York was estimated at 19 cents a ton,
and the cost of unloading at 10 cents.
Thus, with the cost of "quarrying" the
coal, estimated at 3t cents a ton, the
cost of delivery at New York (exclusive
of tolls) was to be 12.64 a ton. The es
timate of equipment was as follows:
One hundred and one wagons and sets
of harness, 603 horses, and "tools for
the mines," at a cost of $67,140; 220 boats
at $300 each, and four steamboats for
towing, at $25,000 each; a total of $233,
140. An allowance of 10 per cent, for
repalis and renewals, with an Item of
$3,000 for "Coal yard and expense of
management," and $2,000 for "Agent at
the mines and his assistants," complet
ed the estimate.
When Coal Brought $8 a Ton.
The estimate contemplated the trans
portation of 100,000 tons of coal a year.
Among the "other documents" accom
panying the report Ib a communication
from Engineer Sullivan to the commis
sioners, relative to the use of coal in
other dtles, Hs cost, and the means of
suipply. This sets forth that Philadel
phia, during thevprecedlng year, had
been, supplied with 8,000 tons from the
Lehigh region, and a small quantity
from the Schuylkill region, which was
sold at $8 a ton. By a comparison of
the quantity used In various cities of
Great Britain, In proportion to their
population, It was shown that to sup
ply New York with onty one-half Its
fuel would require not less than 65,000
tons a year; while the demand In the
region adjacent to the Hudson, and the
Erie and Champlain canale, It was
thought, would prove sufficient to ex
haust the remaining 48,000 tons, which
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? tains In the back, loins or groins sod all
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MUNYON'S Nerve Cure earn nervous
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restores lost powers to weak and deblllto
tod turn. Pries $1.00...
No matter what ths disease Is or hot
many doctors bat failed to curs you, auk
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it was proposed to ship. In view of ths
estimated cost of reaching; ths market
(!2.4Vi. it was contended that coal
might be profitably sold at $5 a ton.
.With this view of projected methods,
and the anticipated magnitude of op
erations, the managers of the company
bought the lands of MUurlce. William
and John Wurts, with all the rights
and privileges granted them by the
legislature, for $40,000 In cash, and $200,
000 In corporate stock, and began the
construction of the canal; the first
ground being broken July "13, 1825, on
the "summit level," forty miles from
New York, by Philip Hone, president of
the company.
Original Plan Changed.
The plan for the work In Pennsyl
vania was subsequently changed. In
stead of making the Lackawaxen navi
gable by a slack water system, a canal
was built along Its bank; Its western
terminus being fixed at the "Forks of
the Dyberry," and named In honor of
President Hone. It was completed, and
the first cargo of coal, consisting of ten
tons, shipped, in October, 1828. The
expense of hauling from the mines to
the canal was found to be $2.20 a ton
by sled and $2.75 by wagon; and the
expense of boating to Now York so
much exceeded the estimate that ths
cost of the coal at that point was $5.25.
In 1829, a railroad, operated by gravity,
stationary engines and horse power,
took the place of the teams between
Honesdale and the mines; and on this
road, Aug. 8, 1829, the "Stoui'brldge
Lion" the first locomotive ever placed
on a track In the western hemisphere
was run. The locomotive, however,
was soon taken from the road, for some
reason not clearly understood at the
present day, probably because it was
thought too heavy for the track and
trestles. In 1829 only 7,000 tons of coal
were sent to market, and the anticipat
ed shipmc-iit of 100,000 tons was not
reached until 1833 the quantity sent
that year being 111,770 tons.
On the map accompanying the report,
Bethany and Mount Pleasant are the
only Wayne county towns that appear.
West of Wayne county, the only towns
are Carbondale, Plttston, Wlikes-Barre
and Montrose. The site of Scranton it
designated as "Slocum's," . and the
Lackawanna river appears as "Lack
le south
le thrse f
Wallen- )
wanock." In Pike county, on the south
bank of the Lackawaxen, some
miles below the mouth of the
paupack. Is seen "Mt. Maria Village.
The only towns shown between the Del
aware and the Shawangunk mountains
are Cochectou, Montlcello, Liberty and
In the house f
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it loni list of unpleMtnt tnnp:ouis and reja
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Standard instruments la every ssass of
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Btseptloaal la holding their original ts
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f Ingredients wstl-kaowa to alTli oaa do
applies to tin, gatvaniseo ho.
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i Ma, shoot Ires
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rvsio, ouao'io oriea swaiinn
prevent absolutely any crumb
i vent absolutely any orumbllas;, crack- :
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i It's soot dost not saeasd ono-hftl thai ,
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