The Scranton tribune. (Scranton, Pa.) 1891-1910, December 18, 1894, PART 2, Page 18, Image 18

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Superior Discipline of the Japanese
Troops Is Vividly Illustrated.
KcvW. W, Show, M. A., of Archbald, Pa.,
Graphically Describes Some Personal
Impressions of China, from Which
lie Has Recently Returned.
' "Out of sight, out of mind," Is an old
ndage, and a true one. If Instead of
China and iJapan, 'Canada and the
United States, or even England and
France, were at war, a much keener In
terest would be taken In the struggle.
Hut It Is hard for one to be deeply In
terested in that which is going on at the
other side of the world, between two
comparatively unknown nations, and
in an unknown country. True it is,
one-half of the world knows little of
the other half.
The present war arose on account of
Korea. China declared she had an au
thority, dating back many centuries,
over Korean affairs; but this Japan dis
puted. The "Hermit nation," as Korea
was called, has latterly been opening to
outside influences; and Japan, amongst
others, has taken advantage of this to
enlarge her trade. China, however,
with her stolid conservatism and over
weening conceit, objected to Japan's
advances, and constant friction led to
open rupture. Lying between the Kor
ean peninsular and the northern part of
China Is Manchuria. Under this name
are comprised three provinces Feng
ttenor Shlng-KIng in the south, Klrin in
the middle, end Tsltslhap in the north.
For many centuries the southern prov
ince, Fengtien, has been subject to Chi
nese control; and since 1644, when the
Manchus gained the upper hand in
China, -all Manchuria has come directly
under the government of Pekln; and
any outward difference there is between
it and any part of China proper is being
rapidly lost.
It Is a Populous Province.
The population of Manchuria, accord
ing to the latest estimate, is about 20,
000,000, more than half of this being in
Fengtien, the southern province; while
the area is aver 300,000 square miles.
On the east Fengtien is bounded by the
river Yalee, which divides Manchuria
from Korea; on the south by the Gulf of
Llao-Tung; on the north by the prov
ince of Klrin, and on the west by Mon
golia, except at Shan-hal-Kuan, where
the Great Wall ends, and China proper
begins. The capital of the province
of Fengtien is Moukden, a large double
walled city, with a population of over
250,000. Next to Pekln, this is In some
respects the most important city In the
Chinese empire, from the fact that it
was the original home of the reigning
dynasty. - Every state document in
Pekln must have a duplicate deposited
in the archives at Moukden. One of
the only public roads of which China
can boast is the great highway from
Moukden to Pekln; a distance of COO
miles. " .
It will then be seen that if Japan were
t to advanoe overland from Korea
v towards Pekin,' her first' object would
be to occupy Port Arthur, and then pro
ceed against Moukden. and thence nlnnir
the great highway to Pekln. The first
is now an accomplished fact. After a
stubborn resistance, Port Arthur has
.' .
AND 112
fallen. Inasmuch as it was the strong
est naval port of China, this is an im
mense blow to the Chinese, and its loss
may be the means of bringing them to
sue for peace. If terms of peace are
not agreed upon, it is probable that the
Japanese forces will march upon Mouk
den about 300 miles from Port Arthur
and having captured that city ad
vance towards Pekln.
Facts About LI Hung Chang.
Li Hung Chang', tho Bismarck of
China, placed great reliance on Port
Arthur, or Lee-Shem-Kow as the Chin
ese name it. Immense sums had been
spent in making it a second Gibraltar
in appearance. Unfortunately for the
Chinese, the details of their defences
would not always bear close scrutiny.
Sand for powder, and balls of mud and
coal dust for cannon balls are not at all
unknown. Hence when the critical
moment comes, the defence breaks
down. And as such subterfuges and
trickery are well known to both officers
and privates, there is a mutual lack of
confidence, which has deplorable re
sults when they are face to face with
an enemy. If that enemy be well drilled
and, well armed, the average Chinese
soldier is apt to think of the battlefield
that distance would undoubtedly lend
encharitirient to its view; and he hur
ries off to seek such enchantment.
And one can hardly blame him.
Antiquated bows and arrows, the glng
all an ancient muzzle-loading blunder
buss, which it takes two men to carry,
a miscellaneous assortment of muskets
and Enfield rifles, discarded by western
nations, with spears, such form their
weapons of defense. And their field ar
tillery Is in keeping. With the exception
of a few batteries, nearly all of their
guns are of the old muzzle-loading style,
useless in modern warfare. And to add
to their inefficiency, a large proportion
of the soldiers is employed carrying
huge banners, which float gaily enough
on the breeze, but do not perceptibly In
crease their fighting powers. I have
seen regiments marohlng along the
highway with aa many bannermen as
riflemen. They make a fine show un
der review, with their many colored
gigantic banners, it takes a man's
whole strength to hold one Hut flags
are a poor thing to lean upon in a fight.
An Unappreciated Statesman.
LI Hung Chang, backed by a few of
the most liberal-minded of his country
men, has done what he could to bring
the Chinese army up to the modern
standard; but lthas been rglgantlc and
well-nigh hopeless task. For one thing
he has arrayed against him a powerful
combination, backed by thellterati.that
powerful class over the country, which
opposes these foreign innovations; and
amongst the rank and file of the army
Itself there is a deep Ingrained spirit of
conservatism, which Belzes every oppor
tunity to draw them back to the old
ways and methods. As an officer in the
British army, the late Captain Gill, R
E., wrote: "Prompt action, readiness
of resource, ability to seize on the
smallest advantage or to neutralize a
misfortune, and the power to evolve
fresh combinations, these are the quali
ties which make a Boldler, and these are
the very qualities that cannot co-exist
with Chinese -want of originality and
reverence for antiquity."
Supposing the Japanese forces now
to advanoe from Port Arthur to Mouk
den, what kind of country would they
have ,to pass through?. For the first
part of the way, it would be rocky,
hilly and barren; the road winding in
and out of the mountain defiles, crosfl'
lng chasms, and over bleak stretches
bare of everything save stones. At this
time of ' the year, ' too, , there would
UITABIvE GIFTS will evidently be
the order of the day this year, and
you can do no better than inspect our
stock of General Merchandise. You
will find many serviceable articles
from which to choose.
probably be a foot or two of Bnow on
the hills, making "traveling all the
more difficult. For in the sea-board
province Fengtien the winters are se
vere; though milder than in the north
ern part of Manchuria. By Christmas
time at Moukden, the thermometer will
go below zero daily, registering any
where down to twenty degrees Fahr
enheit, though further north it goes as
low as forty-five degrees. The atmo
sphere is intensely dry; and, when the
wind does not blow, most healthful
and exhilarating. , When the north
wind does blow, however, as one re
marked, "the less said about it the
better." I have walked along the
banks of the Llao at Newchwang the
port of Manchuria clad in furs from
head to foot, both inclusive and al
most felt the wind whistle through my
bones. The river Llao about 600 yards
wide at Newchwang Is closed to navi
gation from the third week in Novem
ber till towards the beginning of the
following April. When the winter has
set In the lee on the river is about
three feet thick.
AChlncso Winter.
The only advantage, therefore, which
the Japanese army would have in
marching through the enemy's country
in winter would be that the rivers and
creeks would all be frozen over, and
the country bare, so that, when no
mountains intervened, they could make
a bee line for their destination. Trees
near the coast and for miles inland are
conspicuous by their absence; a few
stunted willows being the sole repre
sentatives of their kind. One reason
of the this is the fact that tho land
has gradually risen, and Is still rising,
along the northern shore of the gulf.
Haicheng, a large walled city, forty
miles northeast of Newchwang, means
"City of the Sea;" and about three cen
turies ago was a flourishing seaport.
Now it is forty miles from the sea-
coast. Having been thus reclaimed
from the ocean, the soil is salt, nnd
trees will nut flourish, nor, Indeed,
other vegetation to any extent.
"Live and let live," is their motto. On
the whole I believe they would as soon
see a Japanese as a Chinese army
march through their country. For u
large part of the Chinese army is re
cruited from Honan and other distant
provinces, and to the unsophisticated
countryman In Manchuria these sol
diers are almost like foreigners. The
dialect they speak is about as different
from the Mandarin spoken in Man
churia as French is from English. More
than once I have acted as Interpreter
between a native of Shanghai and a
Chinaman from the north; they could
only communicate by signs, " I
Once across this barren stretch, tho
country improves, farms are plentiful,
and mountains clothed with forest, add
to its beauty. Immediately In the
neighborhood of Moukden the country
Is comparatively flat, tho nearest hills
being a day's journey away. The roads
through this district or what do duty
for such are simply tracks, good or
bad according to the ground they pass
over, the bad decidedly predominating.
At this season of the year, however,
this would not matter so much, as
once the crops are all cleared away, the
traveller is allowed to strike out cross
country, quite Independent of the usual
route. There - being no stone walls,
barbed wire or any other kind of fence,'
this Is not so difficult as it might seem.
The Chinese in the north as a rule
never fence In their land. A mnn
counts his fields by so many furrows,
these being of the same breadth from
time immemorial. Cattle . ere not
raised for their milk, a with us, and
but little for food; and those that ore
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kept for draught purposes are allowed
to graze where they please. A China
man never touches milk, and will only
milk his cattle when some "foreign
devil" will buy the milk. They are
also largely vegetarian in their
diet: strict Buddhists being entire
ly so. And when they do depart
from vegetarian principles, they prefer
pork to either beef or mutton. One
great feature of the country is the pig;
large, black and uncomely to a degree;
and the scavenger of the neighborhood.
Chinese pork is not a delicacy likely
to tempt the foreigner. In spite of
Charles Lamb's deliverances on tho
The people of this district are kindly,
hospitable, and of a peaceful disposi
tion; for the most pnrt agriculturists,
an unenviable reputation all over China
as being desperadoes, with whom tho
less one had to do the better. Even
their officers at times are powerless to
control them. To show, the spirit of
these men, let me recount an incident.
In the winter of 'SO a large number of
these southern soldiers was disbanded
at Newchwang. Their pay being ns
usual in arrears, and their homes over
1,500 miles away, they became desper
ate, and applied their energies to thiev
ing. Three of them attacked a house
one night close to where I was living,
but meeting with unexpected resistance
they had to beat a retreat. Two suc
cessfully jumped through the window,
but the third man, in attempting to fol
low tho others, was caught by his feet
by the men of the house. A tug of war
immediately followed, the two soldiers
trying to drag out their comrade by
the arms, while his legs were held by
those within. Seeing that those inside
were too many for them, on the prin
ciple that "dead men tell no tales," one
of the two outside, with one of the long
knives they always carry, quickly se
vered the head of his comrade from his
body, and then made ofli with his com'
panlon in the darkness. Contrary to
what generally happens, these two were
caught later and beheaded, not for the
murder of their comrade, but for the
attempted robbery; and for some days
afterward their heads adorned the en
trance gate of tho city, as a warning to
all would-be thieves. ,
Tho Japanese as Soldiers.
While, therefore, the Chinese soldiery
are often brutal and utterly without
discipline witness the murder of tho
Rev. J. A. Wylle last August In a city
forty miles from Moukden, the soldiers
of the Mikado have" been trained more
In accordance with civilized nations;
nnd are less likely to harm either coun
try or people as they pnss through,
than would the same number of Chinese
troops. There are no mountuln passes
between Port Arthur rand Moukden
which could easily be held against
them; and If the Chinese attempt to
stop their advances it would be more
In the nature of guerilla warfare than
anything else. Between Moukden and
Pekln there are many points at which
a few well directed troops might do
much tifward stopping a whole army.
Before, however, the Japanese forces
get so far, China may have had her
eyes effectually opened and her pride
humbled; and peace been concluded.
That the war may Boon be ended can
not but be the wish of everyone; for
war in any shape or form seems but a
rella of barbarism.
W. W. Shaw.
A Natural Hcsult.
Superintendent (moodily) We will have
to abandon our trolley to Branehvllle.
President What's the matter?
Superintendent No passengers. The
peoplo living along the line huve all been
killed. New York Weekly,
DECEMBER 18. 1894.
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HouJ to Prepare
Eellenf Bread
iMrs. Rorcr's Tracheal Talk at the
Philadelphia Pood Exposition.
Dyspepsia and Insanity Are in Many
Cases Caused by Had llrcad, Mrs. Ho
rcr Says-Kcccipts That She Gave
tier liccoraincndatlon.
Mrs. Rorer delivered the following ad
dress, recently, on bread .making at
the Philadelphia Food Exposition:
"Housework," she said, "Is the euslest
work in the world when thoroughly
understood, and any woman wllo has
no more than ten or twelve people to
cook for,has her lines cast In very pleas
ant places, but I do not mean a cook
who does not mix brains with cooking
and runs down cellar fifteen times to
make one article. To make Boston
brown bread take one cup of cornmeal,
one cup of rye meal and one cup of
whole wheat flour. Mix all together
and add one teaspoonful of salt. Mix
half a cup of molasses and two cups
of either sour milk or buttermilk, and
dissolve one tablespoonful of soda in
two tablespoonfuls of water.
"You use soda because molasses con
tains acid, but if the molasses should
be deficient In acid add a little baking
powder. A good baking powder is
nothing but an acid and an alkali, no
matter in what form it comes. Take a
brush and grease the Inside of the mould
carefully with melted butter and pour
In the batter. Put the lid on, tie it down,
put in boiling water and boll continu
ously for five hours. Let it stand in tho
water until cold. Warm In an oven be
fore using."
Importance of Details.
"To make a Vienna loaf, said Mrs.
Rorer, "take half a pint of boiling wa
ter and pour Into It half a pint of milk.
When lukewarm add half a teaspoonful
of salt and one yeast cake, dissolved.
It Is Important that the yeast should be
fresh and in perfect condition. To test
an yeast see that It Isquiteflrmand
and solid. It should be devoid of any
odor except that of yeast. A single
yeast taike contains 10,000 times as
many yeast germs as a cup of brewer's
or home made yeast. It is possible to
make eight or nine loaves of bread from
one cuke of yeast when it would require
several cupfuls of homo made yeast to
do the same work.
"As a rule.theyeast plant Is thorough
ly killed by baking, but it Is not always
so, and that accounts In a large measure
for flatulence and incipient symptoms
of dyspepsia sometimes felt after eating
a meal. It the yeast perms are not
killed. In the baking the bread is not a
healthy food. If the germs are not all
killed bread soaked In water and kept
In a warm place for twenty-four hours
will turn to yeast,"
How to Mnko It White
"Add sufficient flour to make a dough.
Knead the mass constantly until the
dough is soft and elastic. Use as little
flour as possible in the kneading, to
prevent the bread from becoming hard
and dry after baking. It is the knead
ing that it makes It soft and elastic. If
very white bread Is wanted, pounding
the dough while kneading It should be
resorted to, as a good pounding will
make the bread ten shades whiter. Put
Roots Mm m mwn
the dough in a greased bowl, cover with
a napkin and stand It away In a tem
perature of about 70 degrees for two
and a half to three hours. Divide it in
to two loaves and mould each into a
long round loaf. Put in a greased Vi
enna bread pan and stand in a moder
ately warm place for one hour; then
bake In a quick oven for thirty min
utes." "To make corn bread," said the lec
turer, "stir one cup of white corn flour
into half pint of boiling water. Add half
a teaeupful of milk and half a cup of cold
water, and beat with a paddle until
smooth. Add half a teaspoonful of salt
and one yeast cake, dissolved into two
tablespoonfuls of water. Add sufficient
wheat flour to make a dough; knead un
til softand elastic; then stand aside for
three hours until light Mould Into two
loaves and put into square pans that
have been greased, and let stand for one
and one-half hours, after which bake
for one hour."
Whito Bread Denounced.
The next recipe was for mnklng"whole
wheat bread." "Hyglc-nlsts," she said,
"dislike white bread, because It has
been robbed In large part of its nutri
tious qualities." She rather startled
her audience by declaring it was no
mean factor n producing Insanity.
White bread 'also makes people fat,
which is not a sign of health at all. It Is
away out of proportion, the starch and
gluten being In excess of the nitrogen.
White bread is beautiful to look at, but
It Is demoralizing to the brain and stom
ach. A diet of corn bread and whole
wheat bread is far preferable If you
care at all for your health or wish to
live long. White bread, as we have it,
Is not the "staff of life" the ancients
know, and does not contain the phos
phates necessary to Sustain prolonged
brain action. Our mad houses and luna
tic asylums are proof enough.
Continuing she said: "To make whole
wheat bread pour one pint of boiling
water into one pint of boiling milk,
dissolve one yeast cake into two table
spoonfuls of water, add to the liquid
and then add one teaspoonful of salt
and sulllclent whole wheat to make a
dough. Knead carefully until the dough
loses all of Its stickiness, then stand
aside for two and one-half hours until
It Is double its bulk, mould the dough
into four loaves and put them into
squaw greased pans, stand aside for
one hour and then bake for one hour in
a moderately hot oven.".
A Corporation Kindness.
From the Indianapolis Journal.
"I notice they are putting fenders In
front of tho trolley cars," said young Mr.
Fltts, as he sut down to dinner.
"Oh, how kind," twittered Mrs. Fltts.
"They will bo so nice for the poor motor
men to warm their feet on when the
weather gets cold, won't thpy?"
Ah, distinctly I remember it was In tho
chill November,
And each separate dying ombor wrought
a shadow on tho floor;
What I read of tho election party treason
and defection
Ground the Iron of dejection deeper in
my heart's red core;
So I rose up, loud exclaiming, all my soul
with passion flaming,
"Bird -,or beaRt, of what thy naming,
perching on my chamber door
Quail or buzzard, crow or turkey, roost
ing on my chamber door
I shall eat you", If you're living, for my
dinner next. Thanksgiving,
Shine or blizzard, bonus and gizzard, I
shall eut and call for more
Steeped In gall and hellebore from the
night's Plutonian shore"
Quoth tho raven; "Evermore!"
Chicago Record.
Fresh lard will remove tar.
To purify a cistern tie charcoal In a bag
and drop it In.
To effaco scratches on furniture rub
on some linseed oil, and then follow with
a little shellac, dissolved in alcohol.
A silk dress should always be brushed
with a soft camel's hair brush, as whisk
brooms are too harsh, and cut the silk.
Prevent your pretty new ginghams from
fading by letting them lie forseveral hours
in water in which has been dissolved a
goodly quantity of salt.
Tack little rolls of cotton batting, cov
ered with a dark cloth, under the rear
ends of the rockers of the chair that
makes a practice of "tipping over."
Try ironing nil lace and embroidery on
tho wrong side, and iron until perfectly
dry. Calicos that are opt to look too
"shiny" should be Ironed on the wrong
When anything has been spilled on tho
stove, or milk has boiled over, and a suffo
cating smoke arises, sprlnklo the spot
with a little salt, and it will quickly dis
appear. When cane-seated chair bottoms have
"sagged," you can often make them as
tight as ever by washing them with hot
soap suds and leaving them to dry In the
open air.
Wash teapots thoroughly with strong
soda and water, and then rinse well and
dry perfectly each day, If you would pre
vent the curious hay-like smell often no
ticed in a teapot.
Soiled black garments may be cleaned
by sponging with clear black coffee, with
an equal quantity of water added, and a .
teaspoonful of ammonia and alcohol for
each pint of the liquid.
To make excellent glue, cover pieces of
glue (as it comes In tho dry state) with
vinegor; keep In a warm place and shuke
occasionally until dissolved. For mucil
age, thin it with more vinegar.
When you are through with wash tubs
or wooden pails, turn them bottom side
up on the floor of the wood house or cellar,
and set a can of fresh water under them
to keep them from coming to pieces.
Delicate glasses may be prevented from
breaking when hot lemonade or other hot
drinks are poured In them, by standing
them, while they are being filled, on a
folded napkin, and placing a spoon In each
Brush the teeth up and down rather
than across from one tooth to another, as
tho particles to bo removed are generally
between the teeth. Tho lnsides and tops
of the teeth need brushing as much as the.
In these days of bacteria let the sunlight
have free access wherever Its poison
scattering rays can reach. In other places
use boiling water and copperas, or
chloride of lime where the water Is unde
nimble. A fine restorative Jelly is made by put
ting Into a Jar three ounces of isinglass,
two of gum arable, two of pure sugar
candy, and a pint bottle of sherry. Cover
closely and let it stand all night. In tho
morning set the jar in a sauce pan of
water and let It simmer until dissolved,
then Bet aside to harden.
If a hair mattress yields all the comfort
k that It Is capable of, It is quite necessary
that tho hair should come out of It and be
picked over and aired every two or thre
years at least. If It Is one that Is In con
stant use. As a matter of cleanliness, too,
tho mattresses need to be made over fre
quently, though not perhaps as often as
they are by the European peasant women,
who always make the work a part of their
yearly house cleaning.
Here l the recipe for cleaning delicate
laces, wnlch an old lacemaker, who ha
woven many a gossamer for the great
connoisseur and lover of laceB, Mme. Mo
djesko, gave to her pupil and patron:
Spread the lace out on paper, , cover with
calcined magnesia, place anothor papr
over it, and put it away between the
leaves of a book, or other pressure, for
two or three days. Then all It needs Is a
skillful Bhake to Bcatter the powder, and
ii a rtpiicntn thrniids are as fresh wid
clean as when first woven.-Phtla. Keeo(d.
1 1