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THE SCRAXTON TRIBUNE-SATCJRDAT MORNING. OCTOBER G 1894.
WAX FIGURE MAKING
THE SLOW CREATION OF HAIR, EYES,
WRINKLES AND POflES.
Jt Require Considerable Intelligence and
Skill to Color id Tone a Dummy Cor
rectly or to Provide It with Clothe As
Nearly every one bas at some tirue seen
It collection of good wax works; peruupM at
tbe Eden Mimee in New York or at Mme.
TiiRsaml's hi London orlhe Mnsee Greviu
In Paris. Yet to how many lias it occurred
that the making of thfse figures requires
a very largo amount of time, labor, atid
artistic skill? Tbe process of making wax
ligures is much uioro complicated than
one would at first sight imagine. Take,
for iustauce, tbe group of Lincoln liberat
ing the Degrees.
Suppose such a croup has been decided
upon and tbe Rcuc.ral arrangement ell
oralwl, perhis witJi tbe aid of some pencil
sketches. Then tbe first step Ls to model
the figures in clay, which is very necessary
in ordtir that tbe presence of the body may
1hi felt under the clothes, which otherwise
as in poor wax works wriukle and flap
round the body in a most unnatural way.
Tbe first class musenm keeps a regular
sculptor, usually a very clever artist, who
works on a sabiTy und is kept busy enough
iu a large and well i.ppoiiitcil studio. When
lie bas finished bis figure Abraham Lin
coln in this case in clay, a plaster mold
is made. Then it is ready to be reproduced
in wax that is, tbe bead and bauds, but
Cot the body.
Right hero we learn a curious fact.
Very little of the "wax figure" is really
made of wax. The exposed portions of tho
body, bead and hands are, hut those cov
ered by clothes are not. The latter uro
mado of carton picrre, which consists of
Ftrips of paper and linen pressed alternate
ly into tbe plastvr mold, the inner side of
tiic latter being lined iu this manner to a
thickness of about a quarter of an inch.
This layer is then pressed down by a thin
coating of plaster, and when the carton
thus funned is dry and ready to be taken
out it is as hard as sUme. If Indians, Af
ricans or other savages are to appear in ft
group their lightly clad bodies are cast in
plaster, painted over with tbe colorot their
Dut to return to wax work proper. Pres
ident Lincoln's body, we see, is hciug re
produced in carton as rapidly as the lively
plump Frenchwoman to whom the work
is intrusted can get the paper and linen
into tho mold. The mold of the head
meanwhile goes to tho room of the wax
worker or ciricr, as he is called, for the
Trench produce the cleverest work in this
line. Here it is filled with hot wax, and
when the wax nearest tho outside lias
cooled and hardened, clinging to the inner
sido of the mold, the rest, still warm, is
poured off, so that the wax bead is hollow
when it is taken out of the mold.
It would he difficult at this stage to dis
cover much resemblance to President Lin
coln, for the head hairless, eyeless and
colorless looks exceedingly ghastly. It
is now that the cirier must show his skill,
fmd put the appennineo of life into this
corpselike face. His tools are of the sim
plesta spatula and sonic blunted needles
eet iu small pieces of wood or matches
but with these he works wonders. Hair
nml beard, eyelashes aud eyebrows are first
put on, a mot, laborious task. r in a care
fully and well made head eacn individual
hair is pushed into the wax with tbe
After this a bole is punched through
each eye aud a ball, set ou the end of a
curved rod so that it will pass into the
ltead from below, is heated and pressed
ngainst the eye from the inside. This pro
duces a hollow into which glass eyes are
set. Finally the heated spatula is used to
trace wrinkles and crow's feet, produce
pimplrs, and the cracks iu tbe lips, and to
form teeth and tongue if tbe mouth ap
pears half open. The pores in the skin are
produced by drawing lines ou the face
across each other by means of a number of
blunt needles set in a wooden handle. The
ibaven portions of the face are well indi
cted by dots of color pushed in with the
jeedle, while for a bristly beard of recent
growth short hairs ore used. Lastly the
lips are covered with colored wax, teeth,
tongue and finger nails being indicated in
the same way.
bo wo see that thero is work enough in
the mere making of a wax figure, ami that
the work increases in proportion as moro
care and artisticskill is employed. Furth
ermore, when a large group is to be made
like that of Columbus before Ferdinand
und Isabella at tbe Eden Mu-sefi the com
position (that is the relative position of the
various figures) has to be carefully con
sidered. For thu purpose pencil sketches
ore first made, and these are usually re
peated in a clay sketch, that is, a small
bas-relief in clay. This, though rough in
execution, "blocked out" as tbe sculptor
days, nevertheless gives thu artist a good
idejv of the arrangement and general etf eet
of the group. Only then, after careful con
sideration, is the modeling of the figures
When tbe figures are finished there is
still enough to be done. The ligures must
be dressed, furniture and other accessories
must be selected and placed with care, t he
background prepared, the matter of effect
ive lighting carefully considered, and with
all this tho arrangement aud color effect
of Uie whole must be always kept in view.
The matter of cbitlies presents not a few
diUiculties, even iu figures of modern peo
ple. Fashions change rapidly, and to bo
correct Lincoln must be dressed in tho
particular style of loose coat and huggy
trousers which was worn while he was
president, nor would it do to put the Vir
ginia militiamen who are guardingJohn
15rown ou his way to executiou into tho
uniform of a United tate.s regular of to
day. lUit Biicb costumes are not always
easy to get, and foreign uniforms, even of
the present time, are usually made iu Eu
rope and imported. And even then errors
will creep iu. For that group of the Em
peror William II of tJermany, his wife the
empress, and the little crown prince, the
uniforms wer marie by the emperor's own
tailor the hofschiieider. And then there
are all those paraphernalia belts, sashes,
epaulets, ornaments, decorations, medals
and all sorts of t rappings which are also
generally Imught abroad, so as to make
sure that they are correct. New York
Hard to Undcratuna.
Little I3oy-jI shu'd think these "thou
an leg" bugs would sturve or sometbin.
"They've got to hunt for things to eat,'
lame as other bugs, haveu't theyf"
"Well, I don't see bow they can keep all
those legs goin an think of any tiling else."
A strange story comes from Wellsville,
Mo., where a stroke of lightning about six
years ago is stud to have left on the ceiling
of a church an imago of a human face.
Noliody dared todisiurb it, aud it remained
tint il the recent removal of the church.
A soft rubber tube passed through tbe
now into the esophagus, or gullet, and at
tached to a funnel, forms a good method of
forced feeding when that becomes ueces
suxy. During the Eleventh century a fashion of
tmbmiriuring tbe initials of the name and
the family arms on the garments begun in
Italy and spread all over Europe.
It Is not a waste to bavo your coats and
trousers, gowns and jackets well mode, for
they will wear much longer.
FRIENDSHIPS MADE ON STEAMERS, i
Just How Far tho Acquaintanceship Made
. on Ocean Linen Coea.
Among the steerage passengers on a
steamer which arrived here recently was a
young man, apparently twenty-seven to
thirty years old, who had plainly enough
seen better days.
As be leaned over tbe side of the steamer,
about tbe moment the gangplank was be
ing pushed aboard, he peered intently along
the line of openings in the shed, as if hop
ing yet fearing that somebody would rec
There was jnst enough leisure after the
tide of wealth, fame and fashion, which
came first class, bad made its exit from
customs corral, for a reporter to bespeak
an interview with tbe young man.
He proved reticent at first, but thawed
out after an expressman had removed the
valise, which seemed to constitute his sole
worldly possessions and cares.
"This is not tho first time I have been iu
San Francisco," he said.
"If you have been here longer than four
years aud have ever boarded a Panama
steamer we have surely met.
"I am the victim of that illusion which
is a disease, as homesickness is a disease.
Tho doctors call homesickness nostalgia
and prescribe for it. But my disease is
the result of what every traveler ought to
know a 'steamer friendship.'
"Let me explain. Five years ago I came
here by sea from New York city with about
J1.800 or JU.OOO in my purse.
"Of course I made friends on board.
"Hefore wo reached the Ilattcras, three
days out, I had got into the good graces of
two or throe gentlemen, who kindly taught
me to play poker and generously allowed
ine to pay fur the drinks.
"Theu I obtained the easiest kind of an
introduction to a young lady, who pro
fessed great intercut iu tho first glimpse of
rlie Southern cross as we passed dowu
through the liahamos amid balmy breezes
and tranquil nights following sunsets that
1 love to think of now.
"I met, too, a California somimillion
aire, who professed the greatest interest in
me, aud who paid for wine about once in
twenty times when it was passed around.
"A lady of doubtful ago talked Neo
platonism and transcendental philosophy
to me, and asked if I knew Boston.
"Keally I felt quite a warm friendship
springing up iu my heart for all these peo
ple, and as usually happens, 1 believe, the
friendship became tropical with the cli
mate. On the way upon this side I sub
mitted with the best grace to t lie whims
and caprices of the young lady, who in
sisted on landiug at every port, aud of
course I had to foot the bills.
'Everything was perfectly respectable.
"When we reached this city I bad a
pocketful of addresses of my steamer
"It is true that their acquaintance had
cost me about $WX) up to date, and that I
had been compelled to plead poverty to
save further demands.
"I suppose I bad tl.OOO still on hand
when I went around to pay respects to my
"Perhaps they did not know it or I might
have been diflereutly treated.
"Tbe cold shoulder is a mild term.' I
got the cold, cruel shake. Mind you, I had
not been a fool, a pure unadulterated fool,
fori had traveled a bit before. But when
I went over to Australia I consoled myself
with the reflection that among all my
steamer friends I left not one to regret.
"Since then I have traveled largely over
southern seas, and it has always been the
"There is nothing so ephemeral as a
"Even iu the steerage aud I came that
way for a change it is the same. I am
not as rich us I was, but I like San Fran
cisco better than any place I have seen iu
four years of constant travel.
"But if a man talks friendship to yon on
a steamer, don't be deceived. He may
mean no hurmnd you may not suffer iu
purse as I have done.
"As for women, I ln-lieve they form
Bteamer friendships to pass away tbe
time." San Francisco Call.
Among the bnshelmen employed by a
large Murket street clothing firm there is
one who is a wonder iu the repairing branch
of tho business. An example of bis skill
with the needle was furnished recently
which astonished oven those familiar witli
liis work. A gentleman came into the
place with a dress coat, almost new in cp
earance, but whieli the moths bad gotten
into and gutted a bole as large as a silver
quarter in tho back. Since there was not
another coat in thu place which would fit
the owner, and he was extremely anxious
to huvu it by evening, it wus sent to the
workrooms and a consultation held.
The workman in question asserted that
be could mend tho place in a way to defy
detection, aud he was told to go ahead.
First cutting a piece of cloth to lit the
bole he went to a black haired young
woman, and by her permission pulled sev
eral hairs from her bead. With these he
stitched tbe edges of the patch, and when
the work was done not a salesman in the
establishment could detect the mend. The
customer was so much pleased that he
sent the workman a neat present. Phila
Uariy I'uper Mulling.
InUlman.StronH'r's time paper was a rare
material, litllu used, and only to bo found
in the offices of tbe learned, of scribes and
of officers. Tbe supply of Germany and of
all northern Europe was brought from
Italy and Spain movt of it from the facto
ries of FuMiuno, in Italy, where paper
mills existed in the Twelfth century, while
a lively paper industry flourished in Spaiii,
with its principal seat at San Felipe in
Valencia, as early as 1130.
The paper making art was introduced
into both of these lands by the Arabs, who
learned it in Samarcuud und spread it
through Europe. It was introduced into
Samureand in 751 by Chinese prisoners
from their country, where it had been car
ried ou from extremely ancient times.
Eduard Urossc iu Popular Soienee Monthly.
Kuther Hard to Suit.
Two delightfully typical maiden ladies
In a little eastern village recently lout the
services of a buxom Irish girl, who had re
mained in tln ir employ but n few weeks.
"Why did you leave thu Misses L ?"
asked her next would Ke mistress.
"Sure," replied tlie'glrl, with a twinklo
of her merry blue eye, "Miss Est her wanted
all the pots in the closet set northeasterly,
aud Miss Judith must havo them south
westerly, an I couldn't please, both, you
know. "-Her Point of View in New York
Queer Party Got any barometers?
Salesman No; this is a book store.
"Eft use me, but I notice in the weather
reports that tho barometer is sometimes
stationery." Texan Sittings.
How "The Lost Chord" Waa Composed.
Under very remarkable circumstances
was "The lwt Chord'' composed by that
gifted musician, Sir Arthur Sullivan. One
night he was in the room next to that in
which his brother was dying. Ho bad
been watching at the bedside of the dying
man and was thoroughly tired out. Sit
ting down before an organ that was by
chance In the room, he found the noble
words before him. He did not rise from
bis scat until he bnd composed the nmsie
which has since thrilled the people. Lon
It is interesting to learn that the horse Is
unknown in the island ot the New Ue-
hrMML .. ... - .
MANY WILD BEASTS.
A HAMBURG FIRM THAT IS READY
TO SUPPLY ANY ANIMAL
A City to Which Merchants All Over Uie
World Go for Wild Animal Supplle
and Roving Seamen llring Their Strange
Captures Hunting Expeditions.
Tbe animal importers have their head
quarters in that part of Hamburg known
to tourists and others as "St. Paul's," an
ill reputed suburb of tbe old II ansa town
where sailors of all countries meet. Here
the big building is situated, and from the
exterior one gets the view of a structure
which looks more like a storehouse far cot
ton, oil und general merchandise than it
does like anything else. It is a plain build
ing, but within there is enough to occupy
one's attention for months, that is if he be
possessed of animal instructs. Within the
four walls is a mammoth yard or garden,
and this is divided into WO or TOO smaller
yards or pens, which are occupied by ani
mals from all zones and countries, crowded
together. The strong, ferocious gorilla
from the primeval wood of Africa, tho
"cotton tails" from San Gabriel valley,
California, as well as the boM, soaring con
dor from tbo highest mountain peaks of
the Andes are represented by many speci
mens. Ordinarily only purchasers known or in
troduced to the firm are allowed to inspect
tho garden, but a limited number of cards
of admission are issued every month and
presented to thoso who wish them. Ou
entering onto passes tbe office, where are
employed forty clerks or more, of whom
several are occupied iu keeping account
of the arrival and departure of animals, as
these only stay there a few days before
leaving for their final destination. In the
garden there is an energetic corps of men
who, armed with sharp knives and pistols,
are willing to dare most any duuger. Many
of the keepers have been there ten years or
mure, and aro accordingly acquainted with
all the peculiarities of the profession. They
are, or ought to be for their own safety, ex
cellent marksmen, acquainted with the life
of an explorer, they being sent as assist
ants in the searches for animals iu ult parts
of the world. Not a few of these men have
been to South America, where they have
been seut to capture ostriches. There they
were compel led to spend days und some
times weeks upon the llanos, the hottest
places on earth, and on horseback chaso
the lleet monsters and throw the bola at
Six, seven and eight expeditious are seut
out every year, but these are not made tip
wholly of experieuced men. They general
ly consist of a few ot the old hands, a few
apprentices and volunteers, mostly ama
teur sportsmen, under the direction of a
stall officer. They start out maybe for
the plains of America, jungles of Africa,
Tasmania or Alauka, aud when they ar
rive at their destination they employ as
many natives as they think necessary and
phn the work of capturing certain ani
mals in that district. There is some dif
ference between catching tigers and ele
phants olive aud shooting quail or squir
rels, and if a naturalist wants to have fun
and a thrilling experience he should send
in his application to accompany the next
expedition iu search of gorillas or grizzly
bears or some other animal known to be
no respecter of persons or anything else.
Through the lurge menagerie of the
bouse of Hagenbeck are leug rows of
cages, which vary from small woodeuoncs,
built one above tbe other, for birds and
other small animals, to high cages formed
of heavy bars of iron, some of the bars of
which are two inches thick, running at the
top and bottom ou small wheel or ball
bearings. Every cage or pen is marked iu
Latin. The keeper said it was a great
sight to behold some wild quadrupeds ac
customed to unlimited freedom confined
in cages or dens in which they could not
stretch their legs, much more turnaround.
A few mouths seems to break many of
their savage habits, but they are never too
good to claw at a piece of human flesh
when within reach of their cages, and the
majority of the keepers there can exhibit
marks of claws as well as those of teeth
upon their bands and arms made by a
ferocious tiger, perhaps a Tasmunian wolf
or some other species of the cut family.
The tamer animals are merely fenced in,
as it were, in small yards, and hero and
there are groups of Japanese chamois,
Chilian alpacas, autelopcs, deer, zebras
and the like.
The firm has no little difficulty iu get
ting Asiatic elephants since the govern
ment passed a bill for tbeirprotectiou. But
there are their African brothers on hand
all the time, and occasionally a visitor
there may see a herd of a score or more of
well cared for elephants. The expeditions
find it no easy matter chasing these mon
sters in the jungles, aud it's only by sharp
games and traps that elephuuts are cap
tured. They can tight as no other animal
can, and one blow of an elephant's trunk
has laid many a sportsman low. Tlie same
hardships are experienced in getting croco
diles from tho Amuzon and upper Nile.
The firm's expedition sent out for them
knows of nosueh word us "impossible," and
when it returns to the garden it carries
crocodiles some thirty feet long with it.
It cannot be said tbut all of thu animals
are secured by such excdilioiis; for in
stance, the dromedaries are simply ordered
from Crimen, while a large number of
other animuls fall into the concern's htuids
by chance. Everything in the line of rare
aud peculiarly formed creatures of the for
est. Held and seas is bought by the Hagen
liecks, and people who devote time to trap
ping are aware of this fact. The German
city is a good place for bargains, as nearly
every deep sea vessel carries something to
that port which the firm is anxious to get
and for which it is willing to pay good
prices. Every sailor is armed with some
fine specimen from the tropics or arctic re
gions, and from these rare and unlocked
for quadrupeds are sometimes secured,
1'rafcMor Holrtun's View of Mart.
Professor Edward S. llolden, the as
tronomer aud director of the Lick observa
tory iu California, is not very hopeful
uhout the present investigations of tho
planet Mars. "When we come to an ex
amination o tho particularities of Mars'
surface we find dissimilarity and not like
ness to details of the earth's," be says in
The Forum. "Under thesooircumstauces,
and so long as such widely divergent views
can lie advocated by competent observers,
it appears to me that the wise course is if
reserve judgment and strive for more
Frances Willard claims tbut tbe amount
of force exerted at a given moment to com
press the waists of women by artificial
methods would, if aggregated, turn all tbe
mills bet ween Minneapolis and tbe Merri
mac, while the condensed force of their
tight shoes, if it could be applied, would
run many trains, Exchange.
What Curly le Wrote or iennyjon.
Tenuysou, iu his prime, was thus de
scribed by Thomas Carlyle to Ralph Waldo
Emerson ou' Aug. 5, 1844: "One of tbo fin
est looking men iu the world. A great
shock of rough, dusty dark hair; bright,
laughing, hazel eyes; massive aquiline face
most massive, yet most delicftte; of sal
low brown complexion, almost Indian look
ing; clothes cynically loose, free and easy;
smokes infinite tobacco. His voice is mu
sically metallic, lit for loud laughter and
piercing wall, and all that may lie be
tween; speech and speculation free nnd
plenteous. I do not meet iu these late dec
odes such company oyer a uipe." Jferf
A Cook in tho Time of Louis XVIII.
Louis XV had a genuiue pnssiou for
horticulture. He did not content himself
with perfecting a system of hothouses aud
of beating apparatuses for all his cha
teaux, but he gave impulsion also to the
growing of grain of all kinds, of vegeta
bles, and especially of new varieties of
trees, for which so many royal nurseries
were at that moment established.
But he was most at ease before a cooking
furnace, now overseeing his ccufs a la fa
natique, browned to a turu over a red hot
fire, now preparing in accordance with es
tablished rules a beverage called coffee,
just then coming into fashion, or concoc
ting one of those pies which he sent, care
fully wrapped up, to M. de BuiTon iu re
turn for a quarter of venison received from
that famous naturalist. At the same time
as bis father-in-law, Stanislas, Louis XV
invented tables which came iu without be
ing touched by human bauds to offertheir
contents to surfeited palates; but those of
the king of France came up from under
the floor, while thoso of the king of Polaud
desceudetl from the coiling.
One can almost imagine a monograph on
monurchs who were gourmands, and we
do recall Careme's witticism, "Is not the
science whivh nourishes the equal of the
one that kills?" a profound and sensible
thought from a chef of whom Louis XVIII
did not besitato to take lessons. That
king, who died afflicted with tbe gout for
having indulged too freoly in tbe pleasures
of the table, merited one day the praises
of the celebrated cbef whose counsels he
followed with docility.
A great lover of mussels, he gave Talley
rand the recipe for a snuco which added
greatly to the taste of that dish; and as
Talleyrand communicated to the king the
reflections of his head cook, tbe monarch
replied, "Caremc is right, but I very much
fear it will be a long time before I shall be
able to create a minister of the public
cuisine." Paris Intermedinirc.
A Cure for Baldness.
Is the human race in Uie near future to
be entirely bald on the top of its head,
where the hair ought to grow? is a ques
tion agitating tonsorial circles and tbe
manly victims thereof. Some people aro
born bald, some achieve baldness aud
others have it thrust upon them, and it is
with the latter class that the distressing
consequences of modern living have the
most to do. As everybody is cognizant,
the glory of man as well as woman is his
hair. Baldness is venerable, but it is not
ulways venerated, and then it is frightfully
inconvenient. In a woman art supplies
nature, but unlucky man has no such
remedy that cannot be detected, and how
ever indifferent to appearances he mude be,
it is not in his disposition to meekly sub
mit to the trouble it entails.
A wise parent afflicted by a loss of hair
should take a lesson in hirsute develop
ment from the lower classes in Europe and
give his offspring the benefit. Whoever
saw a bald workingman or shopkeeper iu
France? Whoever found among the peas
ants of Europe shining pates? The reason
for this natural thatching is a most simple
one; these people live outdoors, unbonnet
ed, and it is only when tftan becomes reck
less and superrefined iu his living that
the hair falls. So much for civilization.
But having discovered that civilization,
not to say dissipation, is at the root of fin
de siecle's hair falling, why not counter
act this difficulty by starting tbe little
chaps aright, not merely in tbe paths of
virtue, but by tuking away their huts and
cups and making tbem go bareheaded un
til they arc fully grown? One of these
days the wisdom of some of the Old World
I customs will Btrike home in America, and
it need not be called onglomania either.
Physicians Centuries Ago.
In some countries, where physicians did
not thrive, sick people were placed on the
roadside, that travelers who bad suffered
with like maladies might suggest reme
dies. Such crude efforts were supplanted at
Rome by shops in which various drugs
and medicines were sold. Then, us now,
quacks abounded, and the government, for
tho protection of tbe people, ordered that
ull remedies should bear a label declaring
the character of the medicine, the niuue of
its inventor, tbe sickness for which it was
prepared, with a list of its ingredients aud
full directions us to tho way in which it
should be taken.
For disorders of tho stomach a favorite
prescription was to the effect that the suf
ferer should read aloud in a clear, distinct
tone some book or speech and then take
Physicians were divided, as now, into
vorious classes of specialists doctors for
the eye, for tbo throat, etc. Even in those
old days women practiced medicine, al
though they did not reach prominence iu
Surgeons used various instruments, re
sembling in some measure those of today.
i They bad ear probes, syringes, instruments
for cutting bones, and tho like. Iu very
early times dentists came into notice, and
an ancient author refers to "gold fillings."
Professor A. P. Montague in Youth's
Where Mature licats Science.
A method of treating mother of penrl
shells consists in drawing upon them wit h
a brush and wax varnish any designs de
sired, after which they are placed in a bnlli
of weak muriatic acid. The latter ti'"s
away tbe outur coat wherever it is not pro
tected by the varnish, the result being a
lovely cameo with raised figures in white
ou u pearly ground. Nature, however,
beats art hollow at this sort of work.
Iu the cretaceous epoch, hundreds of
thousands of years ago, there lived certain,
cephalopods, since extinct, which science
calls "ammonites." The pearl they pro
duced was of wonderful beauty, and many
fossil ammonites dug up today have been
so operated upon by the process of decay
as to form elaborate patterns ou the shell
in pearl und white. English Mechanic.
Chinamen Who Are Not Chinese.
Thu British cousul in llal-Nuu says that
during the past year he has made two
journeys in that island, oue to certain
prominent hills near lloihow known as
the Hummocks, which lie fifteen miles to
the west on the road to Choug-Mai, the
other a gunboat cruise to Hansul bay.
The people at both these places, and pre
sumably all along the northwest coast,
though believing themselves Chinese,
speak a language which is not only not
Chinese, but has a large percentage of the
words exactly similar to Siamese, Shan
Laos or Muong. The type of the people,
too, is decidedly Shan, without tbe typical
(Chinese almond eye, At one time (1,000
years ago) the Al-lau or Nen-chau empire
of the Thai race extended from Yun-Nun
to t he sea, and the modern Muongs of Ton
quin, like the Slums of Quang-See prov
inces, the ancestors of both ot which
tribes belonged to that empire, probably
sent colonies over to Hai-Nun, or the
Chinese generals may have sent prisoners
of war over.
It is certain that soma at least of the
unlettered but by no means uncivilized
tribes in the central parts ot Hal-Nan
speak a type of language which is totally
different from that, spoken by the Shan
speaking tribes of tbe northwest coast.
Yet the Chinese indiscriminately call all
non-Chinese Hui-Nau dialects the LI lan
guage. London Nature.
How a Pretty Fashion Started.
In 1080 the Duchess da Fontanges had
the misfortune to have her hat blown off
at hunting party and tied her hair with
one of her ribbon garters., Hairdresslnfi
with ribbons remained a fashion for seven
tirfc-St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
DECIDING A BET.
Difficulties That an Editor Is Occasion
ally Called Upon to Answer.
"We've got a little bet," said two ex
cited callers, addressing an editor in the
sanctum, "and we have have come here to
decide it. We want to know whether there
was ever a regular United States ship ot
war that came up the Mississippi river."
"Cruiser, you remember," put in the
other man. "Ocean vessel. Belonging to
the regular United States navy. That's
what we're betting on."
"Certainly. Straight United States na
val vsssel. Ship of war. That's tbe bet.
I say there was."
"And I say there wasn't. Regular Unit
ed States cruiser, now. That's the point
we want settled."
They had raised their voices to a high
pitch already, and the man in the chair re
ferred tbera to the files, and said that if
they would consult the papers printed
about tbe middle of May, when the great
Memphis bridge was dedicated, they would
see that some kind ot naval vessel had
gone up the Mississippi river as far as
They pounced on the files with the eager
ness ot a boy digging fishvorms.
"Here it is!" exclaimed, aftce some
search, the one who had spoken first. "It's
in tho paper of May 8. 'Memphis' Great
Bridge.' 1 hat's the headline, tm let's
see. Here it is! I knew it! 'TbeCoucord,
gayly bedecked with stars and stripes,
moved down the stream.' That's the name
of the ship. The Concord! I remember it
perfectly. Satisfied now? I'll trouble you
for that live dollars."
"Hold on!" exclaimed tho other, begin- 1
ning now an investigation on his own ac
count. "Let's look a little further. Ah!
Here's a littlo more about it in the paper
of May 10. 'The United States steamship
Concord' that doesn't say it was an ocean
cruiser, does it? 'may visit Cairo aud St.
Louis.' Let's see 'draws seventeen feet'
do you call that a great war steamship?
'This will be the first naval vessel of any
description that has visited the upper
Mississippi since the war.' See? Nothing
but an old tub. Do you suppose"
"Going to get out of it that way, are
"Get out of what? Didn't wo agree to
"Do you mean to say I haven't proved
that a United Stutes war vessel came up
tho Mississippi? Hand over that"
"Hand it over yourself! Didn't' I bet
that no regular ocean cruiser"
"Isn't a cruiser a war vessel?"
"Yes, but a war vessel isn't necessarily
a cruiser. Just you stick to tbo bet!"
"You bet that no regular United States
ship of war ever came"
"And it draws seventeen feet! Call that
a regular United States ship of war? I
tell you no great oceun cruiser could get
over, tbe bar at the mouth of the Missis
sippi. There's less than twenty-two feet of
"If I'd lost a bet I'd own it."
"So would I. If I had bet that a govern
ment cruiser came up the river and it
turned out to be an old mud scow I think
"Well, I'll leave it to this man here."
"So will I. Only I want him to under
stand that I bet it was a"
"And I want him to remember that"
"Gentlemen," said the man in the chair.
"I think I understand fully the term of
your wager. Will you abide by what I
have to sav!"
" "We will."
"Well, one of tho rules of this office is
never to answer a question in order to de
cide a bet."
And they left tbe room and went down
the elcvutor still wrangling. Chicago
The possibilities of lightning stroke are
admirably summed up by Dr. J. L. Sulli
van, of Maiden, in a paper before the
Medico-Legal society, in these words:
"Lightning may heal as well as harm; it
may abolish sight, hearing and the power
of voluntary motion, or it may restore the
lost senses and cure paralysis. It may
atrip tbe body naked and consume the
clothing, while the wearer escapes un
hurt, or it may consume the individual
and leave his garments untouched. One
person who is fatally struck may be
hurled violently to a distance, while an
other is left in the precise attitude and
spot in which death surprised him. One
case may present extensive anatomical
changes, such as amputation of limbs,
rupture of the heart, fracture of the bones,
while iu another case no injury will be de
tected. "Oue autopsy will reveal softening of
bony structures, collapse of the lungs,
etc., while another will present precisely
opposite conditions. One thunder stricken
corpse may undergo rapid putrefaction,
while another will remain for days un
changed. ' There may be sudden burning
of the body, or it may be consumed slowly,
us if by spontuneous combustion, and only
gradually be reduced to ashes. Lastly, the
immediate disappearance of tbe stricken
person may occur without leaving a trace
of his body or any of its parts, thus sum
marily relieving tbe mcdicul examiner of
Thackeray's Facial Appearance.
In 1849 or lixM) Charlotte Bronte wrote of
Thackeray: "To me the broad brow sems
to express intellect. Certain lines about
! the nose and cheek betray tbe satirist and
I the cynic; the mouth indicates a childlike
simplicity perhaps even a degree of irrcso-
luteness in consistency weakness, in short,
I but a weakness not tinamiuble." And Mr.
Motley, writing to his wife in 1858, said:
"I believe you have never seen Thackeray.
He hus tbe appearance of a coJ&sal infant,
smooth, white, shining, ringlety hair,
flaxen, alas! with advancing years; u
roundish face with a little dab of a nose,
upon which it is a perpetual wonder how
he keeps his spectacles."
This broken nose was always a source of
amusement to Thackeray himself; he cari
catured it in his drawings, he frequently
alluded to it in his speech and in his let
ters, and he was fond of repeating Douglas
Jcrruld's remark to him when he was to
stand as godfather to a friend's son,
"Lord, Thackeray, I hope you won't pro
sent the child with your own mug!" Har
per's. Experiments with Bearings.
Experiments have been made iu England
to determine definitely the friction of lubri
cated bearings, and with the special appa
ratus employed iu this inquiry, the result
showed that with careful lubrication steel
shafts running iu gun metal bearings at
from fifty to 300 revolutions per minute
would seize with tho following loads: Col
lar bearings, 100 pounds per square inch;
footstep bearings, 200 pounds per square
inch; cylindrical bearings, 000 pounds per
square inch, while a pin working inter
mittently will stand about ten times the
above pressure without seizing. In all the
experiments tbe surface was taken as be
ing the diameter by the length. It appears
that iu the friction of solids it is directly
proportionate to the load, while with liquid
friction that is, with a perfect lubric-tion
where a film ot liquid intervenes between
the metallic surfaces tho friction is inde
pendent of load.
Again, these experiments showed that
In bearing with the load applied above, as
iu rolling stock, there was an upward
pressure of more than 500 pounds, a hole
being bored in the crown of the journal
and a pressure Range inserted showing as
much as 000 pounds pressure per square
inch in a bearing four Inches in diameter
by six inches long, a total pressure ot up
ward of six tons being thus supported by
fluid pressure of the lubricant, (Safety
Valve. - -
Washburn -Cro3by Co. wish to assure their nany
patrons that they will this year hold to their usual
custonuof milling STRICTLY OLD WHEAT until the
new crop is fully cured. New whaat is now upon the
market, and owing to the excessively dry weather
many millers are of the opinion that it is already
cured, and in proper condition for milling. Wash
burn-Crosby Co. will take NO RISKS, and will allow
the new wheat fully three months to mature bafora
This careful attention to every datail of milling has
placed Washburn-Crosby Co.'s fiaur far above all
SHAW G-"J y IVIC EMERSON
SHAW ! IAIMUO EMERSON
J. Lawrence StelSe
FORMERLY STELLE & SEELEY, '
134 Wyoming Avanue, Scranton, Pa.
SHAW PIANOS to the front
EMERSON PIANOS, Old and Reliable.
F RICKS SATISFACTORY.
oio you raow?
That we will GIVE you beautiful now pat
terns of Sterling SILVER SPOONS and
FORKS for an equal weight, ounce for ounce,
of your silver dollars. All elegantly en
graved free. A large variety of new pat
terns to select from at
307 LACKAWAVA AVENCK
All Grades, Sizes and Kinds kept in stock.
Of every description ou hand. Prompt shipments guaranteed
Chains, Rivets, Bolts, Nuts, Washers, Turn
buckles, Bolt End3, Spikes and a full line of
BITTENBENDER & CO.
We have tha following supplies of Lumber secured, at
prices that warrant us in expecting a large
share of the trade.
Pacifle Coast Bed Cednr Shingles.
"Victor" and other Michicnn frauds of
White Pine aud WbiU Ctdar ShinifU,
Michigan White and Norway Pine Lum
ber and Bill Timber.
N'ortb Carolina Short and Long Leaf Yel
Miscellaneous stocks of Mine Eails, Mine Ties, Mme Fropa
and Mino Supplios in general.
RICHARDS LUMBER CO,
Commonwealth Building, Scranton Pa. ' v
Hiwln um of tobaoeo.
ir mini propyl, wun
..EftJWAIiUFTHUSING.iiou:"r? aEhvK SeEUCO.. Ma.rn.lo leu.pl. CJUCA0O.1U.
For Sale in Scranton, Pa., by H. C. SANDERSON, Druggist, cor. WaahlnftoD
and Soruce streets.
Ak for DR. KOTT'S MUTITYBOTJUi KIAS said take bo other.
m&raSS for cixZT, rtic 1.00 per box, Iwzm Cm S.0
liUU, MOTTS CHBH1CAL OCX, - Cleveland, Oluo.
For Sal by C. M. HAEHIS. DrorsLt.
Bc(lietiBineeaerHi.bla,nenthlr,roKnlaUnf nedtotn. Only btraUaunj
Ihepureatdrugatbeuldbenied. If you want lh bwl. got
Dr. Peal's Pennroal Pills
' Tiny are prompt, taf ti4
Foreal by JOHN H. PHELPS,
Spruce Street, Scranton, Pa.
Juniata County, Penwylreoia, White Oak.
SjlliTan County Hemlock Lumber and
Tioga County Dry Hemlock Stock Boarda.
Ilk County Dry Hemlock Joist and Study
Tbil w.drftll natil? f .M
.w.4 lo ni all mtv.u Ata
iiicih aa Wen Memory. Lomoi mam run , uv..o, "'---;
opium or .amnlnt& , whtoa irad u lunrmi ly, yn-
w ieanwui 'm"" - flZr-i
a ma ww ;'-r " rr, -fniii.
- ! 9 s Th only eafe nw ft
' ,.liahle Smivl TTT.T.
evor offered to Ladies,
Vfi ed to married Ladlo.
T l'nn Ar.nn.
certain In raaaU. The it!t,o (Dr. Pjal'a) aewr dlaae-
Pharmacist, cor. Wyoming Avenue and