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or by way of payment. It may precede
T follow the service, supply or other object of expen
diture—Either will equally fatisfy the words, " in con
sequence of," which are not words of ftriit import,
but may be taken in several fenfes—ln one sense, that is
" in consequence of" a thing, which, being bottomed
tipon it, follows it in order of time.
A difcurfement mull be either as advance or antici
pation of a payment —'Tis not presumable, that the
Con dilution meant to diflinguifh between these two
v V modes of difbarfement—lt mult have iiiiendecTtcjleave
this matter wholly to convenience
The design of the Constitution in this provision was,
as I conceive, to secure these important ends, that the
purpose, the limit and the fund of every expenditure
fliauld be ascertained by a previous law. The public
security is complete in this particular if no money can
be expended but for an object to an extent and out of
a fund, which the laws have prescribed.
"Even in eaies, which efFeil only individual interests,
if the terms-os a law will bear several meanings, that
' s to be preferred which will belt accord with conve
nience. In cases which concern the public, this rule \
is applicable ftifl greater latitude—-Publie con- ,
venieac* is to be promoted, public inconvenience to
be avoided. The bufmefs of administration requires |
accommodation to so great a variety of clrcumitances,
that a narrow eonftruition would in countlefi instances j
arrest the wheels of Government.
Ithas been fliewn, that the conftruitioo wljicfy has '
been adopted at the Treasury is in many cases eflen- (
tial in praitice—This inclines the scale in favour of it (
—the words "in confeiutnce of" admitting of various r
The prailice of the Legislature, as to appropria- j
tion-laws, favours this conftruition.
These laws are generally diflinit from those which
create the caui'i»of expenditure. Thus the ail which
declares that the President shall be allowed at the rate a
of twenty five thou find Dollars pr. annum, that which a
declares that each Senator and Representative shall be j
entitled to so much pr. day, that which determines .
that each Officer and soldier shall have so much pr. Jl
mouth, &c.—neither of these aits is an aA of appro- V
priation. The Treasury-has not conceived itfelf au- £
thorifed to expend a single cent upon the basis of any
such ail ; regarding it merely as conflituting a claim J
upon the government for a certain compensation,
but requiring prior to an aaual dilburfement for such
claim, that a law be palled authorising the dilburfement P
out of a special fund. This is what is considered as the '!
law, by which the appropriation is made ; from which
rel'utts to the public a double security. "
Hence every year a particular aft (sometimes more
than one) ispafl";d appropriating certain sums for the
various branches of the public service, and indicating
the funds from whjch the monies are to be drawn— ri
The obj eft, the sum and the fund are all that are to be I 1>
fount! in these ails —They are commonly, if not ufti- j 3
rerfally silent as to any thing further. *
Tliis I regard as eonftrudtive of the clause in the '
constitution. The appropriation laws are in execution
of that provision, and fulfil all its purposes. And they
are silent as to the diftinition between anticipation and Bl
payment in other words as to the manner of disburse- tl
, ment ' . ' fu
Hence I conclude that if there exist a law appropri- t |
ating a certain sum for the salary of the President, an
advance upon that sum in anticipation of the service, is
as constitutional as a payment after the service has been re
performed: in other words that the advance of a quar- cr
ter's salary at the beginning of a quarter is as much T
warranted by the Constitution as the payment 'of it at it
the end of a quarter. t0
It is in this sense that the present Secretary of the •
Treasury has affirmed, that not one dollar has at any j"
time been advanced for the us« of the President for .
which there was not an existing appropriation. Iledid "<
not fay that no money had been advanced in 3**
tioit of the service ; for the fail i» "6ut~no- ari
thing Is muic 11 uc than that the sums disbursed were
within the limits of the sums appropriated. If there
was an excels at the end of one year, there had been r
a previous appropriation for a succeeding year, upon , et
which that excels was an advance.
It is objeitcd to this praitise, that the deatti of the m<
party between the advance to him and the expiration of
®f an equivalent term of service, by fuperceding the w?
objeil of the advance, would render it a mifexpendi- [ 0
ture of so much money, and therefore a yiolation of the
Constitution. ' J
I answer, thiit the fame cafuality might hava the
ftmeeffeit in other cases, in which it would be against a '_
common sense to suppose that an advance might not be wl
made with legality and propriety. oel
Suppose for example a law was to be pasTed direct- mc
ing a given quantity of powder to be pui-chafed for *j' r
public use, and appropriating a definite'fum for the •
purchase and suppose intelligence brought to the Secre
tary of the, Treasury, that the quantity required could .
be procured for prompt payment at Bolton. It can- lts
not in such a calit ne doubted, that the full sum ap- mij
propriated might be legally advanced to an agent to ati<
proceed to Boston to make the purchafe-r-yet that v ic
Agent might die, and the money never be applied ac
cording to its deftinaticfti, or the defirci quantity might i
be procured for ale sfum and a balance remain in his <' '. a
In either cafe, there would be money drawn from a "t
the Treasury, which not applied to the objeil of tioi
the law—in the latt cafe there is pu final object for the ver
dilburfement, because tKe balance is a ftrplus. This f ,n
---proves rhat the pollibility of a failure or falling ffiort v , 1
of the object, for whi. h an advance is made, is not an
ohjeftion to its legality. Indeed the confeq'ience t0 '
is a possible one in of an anticipation, wheth- '
er to contradlors or to other public Agents, for a de- the
terminate or an indrtenViinate purpose. " '
The consequence is, that the sum unapplied niuft „; 3
he accounted for and refunded—This d'.ftinCli&n here | n
again is between an advance and a pnym'-tt- More J
cannot certainly be finally pa:tl than iS_ equal to the ' e .
nbjeift of an appropriation, though the sum appropri- w,t
ated exceed the sum recefiary. But more may be ad- Utl
vanced to the full extent of the appropriation,, than ]
may be ultimatefy exhausted by the ohjeil of the ex- low
penditure, on the condition, which always attends an th,.
advance, of accounting for the application and refund- .•
inganexcef*. This is a direst anfwer'to tin queflion,
whether more can be paid than is neceflnry to fatisfy '
theobjeil of an appreciation. More cannot be paid, c
hut more may be advanced, on the accountability of
to whom it is advanced. d|- ;a
The cSl'e Rated by way of example is also conclusive r \
tothc point that money maybe drav.nfrom the Trea- to t
fury in apticipation-of the Of expenditure.
But risk of lofi to the public may attend the prin
ciple J this is true, but it is as true in all the cales of
advanees'to contradlors &c. as in those of advances upon J
salaries andcompmfations—nor dOesthis point ot risk the
affect the question of legality—it touches merely that tive
of the prudent e.vrcife of diliretion. When lai ge. by
sums.are advanced, it is ufnil to obtain feorritv for
their due application or for indemnification. This j
security is greater or lefj, according to the circumflan
ces of the parties to who'/n the advances are made.— " lte
when small sums are advanced, efpecialjy if for pur- 'he
• poles quickly fulfilled, and to pcrfons, who are them- com
fdves adecpiate sureties, no collateral ftcuritv it de-
mandtd —The head of the department is refpoufiblc *
so to the government for observing proper mcafure the ~
and taking proper precautions. If he iAs so as to in- but "i
car justly the charge of improvidence or profyfiou, he veloj
:ede miybedifmiffedor punished according to the nature
»en- of his milconiudl.
:on- But the principle which is set up would, it is said,
ort, he productive of confulion difirefs and brankruptcya!
it is the Treasury ; since the appropriation for the fup
oed port 0/ government is made payable out or the accruing
duties of each year, and a« established right in the of
tici- ficcrs of government to claim their compensations,
the either on the firfi day of the jrear, or on the firfi day
two of a quarter before the fervjees w ere rendered, would
ave create a demand at a time when there might and pos
sibly there would not be a fingie shilling in the Treasury
ras > arifmg out of that appropriatioa to fatisfy it. *
t,ie It unot pretended, that theA; is an ejtablifhed right
ure in the officers to claim their salaries by anticipation, at ;
ollc the beginning of 1 yejr, or at the beg nnisg of a quar- j
can ter: No futli right exists.- The performance of the I
f °f service must precede the right to demand payment.;
But it dees not follow that because there is no right j
'^ s > in the officer to dwnanJ payment, it may not be allow- !
at abl» for the Treasury to advance upon account for j
,c " good reasons. A discretion »f th>« fort in the Ht ad of !
u ' e the Department can at leajt iuvolve rto embarriffment
3n " to the treasury, none of the forinid Ale evils indicated,
to for the officer who makes the advance being himfelf |
res the judge whethet there is a competent land, and ' j
;s ' whether it can be.made with convcnirnee to tlic Trea- j
ces fury—he will only make it, when he perceives that 110
evil will ensue.
la ® Let me recur to the example of advances to con- I
: n " traitors for supplying the army. Suppose that in the '
11 terms of contra it certain advances were stipulated and ' c
>us made; but it turned out nevertheleis, that the con-,- 1
traitor, disappointed in the funds on which he had re-1 y
la " lied, could not execute his without furthers j
advances. Here there would be us right 011 his part
c . to demand fucn further advances, but there would be j
C 1 a. discretion in the Treasury to make them. This is e
Ij' an example of a discretion to do what there is not a h
ij e right to demand. Theexillence of this |jicretion can f
do n> harm, because the head ot the 1 reafury will f,
* judge whether the state of it permits the required ad- p
, o ' vances. -"But it is eflential, that the discretion should v
u extft, because otherwise there might be a failure of ,
fuppiies, which 110 plan tkat could be substituted might
J be able to avert.
Yet the discretion is in neither cafe an arbitrary one I
—It is one which the head ef the Department is res-, p
nt ponifibie to exercise with a careful eye to the public n
interest and fafety. The abuse of it, in other words, j r
the ess and wanton exercise of it would be j
a caule of dismission for incapacity or of punifliment
re for mal-conduil.
le Thus advances on account of f?H r ies, or to con- a
,j tractors for procuring public fuppliet, might be car- Pried
—ried so far, and so improvidtntly managed, as to ''
t>e be highly culpable and iullly punifliable ; but this
"" is a diftintl quetyioa ftom the violation of constitu
tion or law. ' li
In all the safes, it is a complete anfwtr to the ct
, v abjeftioM of embarraflment to the Tieafury, that
1 j not the will of the parties, but the judgment of
e- the head of the department, is tj»e rule and mea ' a
ftire of the advances, which he may make, within er
7 ~ the bounds of the funis appropiiated by law. ¥'
■ s I consider the law, which has been cited with
n re g»rd to the pay of the army, as a legislative re
cognition of the rule of practice at the Tieafury.
h The Legiilature could not have been ignorarit that
it it was impracticable at certain seasons of the year
to convey the money to the army, to fulfil their in- 03
: juniflian, without an advance from the Treasury °f
before the pay became due. Thjj. pr*fuppofe a f o>
j n'glit to mnke this advance, «t»d enjoin that the
. ttaops ft..!! n9T Uc left m»r« ltian two monllu 77i
- arrear. -I'
e The origin of this law enforces the observation.
c It is known that it passed in confeqncnce of irepre-
J fentations, that the pay of the aimy was left too m<
long rn arrear, a.id it was intcuded to quicken the Wa
e measures of payment. No perfoa in cither hjufe rCC
1 of the Legislature, I believe, doubted that there mt
t was power to preeede the service by advances, so as
■ to render the payment eveu more puniStual than was on
c enjoined. ' en
Indeed such advances, when the army operated " a 1
[ at a diftanct, w:re neceiTary to fulfil the »ontradl ' eB
■ with it. Its pay became due monthly, and in drift- am
ness of contract was te be made at the end of each
■ month, a thing impofiible unlcfs advanced from the t '" !
Treasury before it became due. No fpeeial autho
rity ever gives for this purpose to the ?"
Treasury, but it appea Ito have betn left to take eC *
its course on the principle, that the disbursement tlle
; might take jjace as fuoii as there was an ap"j>ropri- UC
ation, though in anticipation of the terra of ser
vice. P ni
The foregoing obferv3tions vindicate, I trull '
the conftruftion of the Treafuty as to the power 1° .
of in iking diftiurfements in anticipation of fcrviccs ™ t!
and fuppiies, if there has been a .previous appropria. '
tion by lav. for the object, and if the advanecs ne
rer exoecd the amount appropriated ; an d at the
fame time evince, that this practice involves no '
vfoUtion of the ranftitutional proviiiou with respect f %C
to appropriations. " e
I proceed to examine that claufe,which refpefts
the pay of the President. It is in these words : tUni
" The Prudent shall at stated times receive'f.>r
nis services a compensation, which ilia 11 neither be
increased nor diminiiliedduring the petiod for which T"
he shall have been eledcd, and he shall not receive ,
within that period any other emolument from the
United States or any of them." UnC
1 understand this clause as equivalent to the sol- f' (
lowing : " There .lull be t.tablifhed by law for r
the services of the President a periodical com ten fa- 1
tnn, which shall not be increased >ior diminished
during the term for which be shall have Ween elcd- T
ed, and neither the United States nor any (late (hall C
allow him any emolument i 0 addition to his pcrio
di:al tompenfation." va "'
This will, I think, at firfi fight appear foreign pL * d
to the qucftion of a prouifional advance by the , **
Treasury, onaccount of tire compensation periodi- '
cally ellablidied by law for his fervites. ' •
The manifeft objea of the provision is to «uars / 8
the independence o£ the President from the kgifla-T t <:
ttve controul of the United States or of ar.y itate r"
by the ability to withhold, lcffcn, or incrcafe hii r '
compensation. lur y
It requires that the law shall aftijrn him a deft- T''
nite compensation for a definite time'; It prohibits
the Legislature from increasing or dimimfliing this
compensation, during any term of his deftion U" r
* These ideas with regard to the adminiflration of —
the fund appropriated, are very crude and incorrect • +
°" »»•'«»>»« 4
future and it prohibits every slate from granting him an
. additional emolument. .This it all that the cUufe
■ fiu J imports.
Vup- Ir i s therefore fatisfied as to the United States,
riji>.g vrJ,Crt the Legifiature has provide*. that the President
,e of", (hall be allowed a certain sum for a certain term of
tions, time,—and f» long as it refrains from making an
i day alteration in the provision. All beyond this is ex
v o 11! d t ran eons to the fubjeft.
alury The Legiflattto e having done this, an advance by
J the Trcafury in anticipation of the fewice eannpt
right ' he 3 breach of the provision—'Tis in no sense an
n, at additional allowance by the United States. 'Tis a
quar- ; mere advance upon account of the eftabtifhed peri
ls t!le ' odical compensation. Will legal ideas or common
\ parlance warrant the giving the denomination of
il'ifw- "dd'iiioual csmpenfation to the mere anticipation of
t tor tbe term of an established allowance ? If they will i
id oi ! not, tis plain fi.it*h an advance, is no breach of this i
nent j part of the cunflitution. ,
ited, j .If the clause is t» be «inderftood literally, it leads t
nlel | •to anabfmdity. The termsare The President t
Vta atjlatd times receive, &c. And again: "he I
tno " la " " ot recel ' tte within that period," See.
I His allawance is at the rate of 25,000 dollais I
con- P er annum, 6250 dollars quarter-yearly. Suppofa j
1 the at the end «f a year an arrear of 5000 dollars was i p
and due to him, which he omits to receive 'till some t;
con- time in the fuccecding year, and in the fncceeding t:
ther.' yfar a£lua "y rrceiv c s 'hat balance with his full fa- tl
part' h>J f ° r 'j' 6 last y car ; ' tls P lain t,lat llc not o
I be j ave ree " v '4 the whole more than he was allow- 3
is is led b y 'aw. and yet in theJlaledperiod of one year
iota! he would have received 30,000 dollars, five thou- T
can ! sand more than his salary for the year. In a literal so
w '" sense then the constitutional provision as to a3ual m
yfj Mment would not have been complied with • for ec
"of within the firft ot the flatedperiods he would not tli
[<>ht ave rece,ve( i 'he compensation alotted, and within it
the second of them he would have received more, ps
one I" a literal sense, it would b« necefiary to make the so
ret, payment at the precise day ; to the precise amount, ot
blic neither more nor iefs ; which as a general rule the
indispensable forms of the Treasury render impof- m,
cut '. • follows, rim actual receipt and payment wi
are uot the criterion—but the absolute definitive in
on- allowance by law. An advance beforehand or a br
:ar- payment afterwards, are equally confident with pn
,to the true spirit and meaning of this part of the con- so
his ft't»tion. du
tu- et " s now f ee 'f 'he con(lru£lion of the Trea
lury violates the law which establishes thePrefident's ed
t j le compensation. eo
| iat Ihe a& of the 24th of September, 1789, al- on
of lows to the. Prefidant at the rate of " 25,000 dol- ra
ea lats per annum, to commence from the time of his th
bin ente, ' n g on the duties of his office, and to he paid of
quarterly cut of th, Treasury of the United States."
ith hequeftion is, what is tobe nnderftood by tkefe m:
re- wordt : "to It paid quarterly out of the Treasury of it.
r y < the United States ?" v to
lat co "ception of the Treasury has been, that ha
car words, as uled in this and in the analagous dif
in- c '/ el >. v. ere meant to define the time when the right j vai
iry °f on individual to the compenfation,,earned became ab- Tl
i a f°' utc ; not as a command to the Treasury to iffut rie
} )t the money at the precift Jay and n » u t
"jn an arrangement between House and the
Treasury Department, the course adually purfu- tra
ed has been as follows :
rf _ Certain gross sums, ufuallyf at the commence- A "
00 ment of each feffioa and from time to time after,
wards, have been advanced from the Treasury at '
,f e request, to the Secretary of the Senate for the
re members of the Senate, to the Speaker of the House
a3 of Representatives for the members of that House, f or!
as on account and frequently in anticipation of their ao- fun
er.siug compenfa'ioru. The Secretary ef the Se
ed " ate ' . anci t,le S P faker of 'he House of Repre- pro
leatatives, disbursed the monies to the Individuals, Pre
and afterwards upon the close of each fefiion set- '
;h tied an account at the Treasury accompanied with and
ie the ceitificates requited by law, and the receipts of
q the members, which were examined, adjusted, and
)e p-.ffed as other public accounts. 1 hey also refund
■ e ed Treasury the monies which in the
n th#ir haDtiß tefpedh'vely beyond the compensations pri;
due to the members of the Senate and House of
r _ Representatives as will appear by referring to the
printed ftatemcntg annually laid before Congeefs. for „
" Whether therevvereany advances aftuKlly made to ?
;r r° . ti,C n ' es,be, - s > 'P anticipation of their compen- e d t
s was a point never discussed betweeli the I
Trcafuiy, and the Officers of the two Hoiifes, with Exc
_ whom the money w;s deposited ( but 1 underltand
c ! " at e «mples of such advances did exist in relation c A
(> to the House of Representatives. The fa£ is, how- ° r J
, t ever, immatenal to the point in iffiie—Tbat must t0 tl
be teli ed by the times of the advances from the prot
:s rwjury ; and it is also certain that these were ac
_ al "' y anticipation of compensations to grow A
r etue ; and it is also certain, that the course was **11 for 1
understood by both Houses of Cong.efs, and its T
exmbited by the accounts of the Treasurer laid be. I 7?
lore them in eaeh session. v a °
If advanc*. for the President w#re A
Onconrtitutional and il!ega)_thofe for both Houses ates
u ot Congress were equally so ; and if the President T
with a violation of the Conftithtidn, 1 79'!
ot the 1,w., and of his o«th of office, on account of thef
d extra advances to his Secretaries whether with or «
w.tho.t his pnvisy, the members of both Houses ate V!
II C o"gtef» without exception have been guilt* of T
. the in cosfequence of the ex tra-ad- 179 j
* a ncei. with their privity to the officers of their res- y tir i
A diftinajgn may possibly bo attempted to be E T
" ,1. l" m \ W °" US from ,his c ' rc umTtance—that F* '
the law which allots the compensation ofthe mem- £
be,s nf the two Houses doe, not use the words » to
• „?r?7^r* while that To,a
, , r thePrefident's eempenfation does cea
1 r » tC T?" S 7!° bc P aid< l«i* r terly out ofthe Trea
ury. But mis diftindlion would be evidently a T * 1
cavil wh*, a law fixes the term of a compensation, ""?!
s uhe t'ier per day, per month, per quarter, or per t
i . t m .' um ' 11 nothing-more, it i, implied that iarly
. n 3y ? -J' larne fe»f« as if this was ex- on w
}>rc i.y aid. i his obfervution applies as well to harin
f ______ Th
tive« from ij to dojUri. P r «epta- vanct
man the man''-.ly pay of the Army as to the <J d ;j y ,
Ihe motive to thearrao~eir.err wl'' : '
was mace for the pay ment wastwo-A M
•atss, It was to obviate embawaffmciit 10 them by f, 'it '■
Kle.it fating and accelerating the rcccipt of ,ld
» »f penfations, and to avoid an Mfonvci*,*
>gan cation of adjuflments, entriei, " |
•"■ r n '" y*,°~7 " * •
as many Treasury settlements, entries war. ' H
•e by and payment*, each day as there were memb JB
nnpt botk Houles. ! \
ean Having examined the question as it Jbnds u »
man But previous to this Ift all take notice of 01 JI
, ( P °" K ab " l,t W'Hth there has been doubt, „.,d y.L ,1
wil m. o 7ke n'T ,yfett!edby
T f™ 0t ,ht Department until after the P.cfsden ', i
the lime' St Urye " S H rtlptcri ;
■ids clSarin commencement of the Prdident',
J comp.nlauon—The law refeis . '
lent the timeot h.s, entering uponthe do tics of his office t.
he but without defining that time.
When in a conditional and iepd sense, did tIJ i
I.' j Pr^ L dent e " ter «P°» 'he duties of his ~/W J 4
>oie ihe conttitmion enjoins tlftt before he enters u"j
-as p»n the execution of his office, he (hall take a cer'l
•me taio oath which .. prefenbed. This oath was Zt i' i
mg take,, till the 30,h of April, » 7 «9- If we dau!
(a- the entrance upon the duties off,is offi.e at the time I
not of taking this oath, it determines the epoch to b®
>w- 3orti of April 1789.
Car r,,. But L s room for another co.nftrua lon — 1
au- Ihe 4 th of March 1789 is the d,y when the t«, m . ,
Ta for * hlch thf President, Vice PreGdent, and the S
ual members of Congtefs, were firft eleded, was derm
for ed to commence. The conflitution declare. th«'t
"Ot the 1 resident (hall hold Ins office for four rears • *
*n , it „ prefumablc that the clatife refpefling hi#cm- '
re. penfation contemplates its being for the whole term
he for which he to hold hi. office. It's object may
it, otherwise be evaded. . \
he It is also, I believe, certain thai tfct J?r«£d«,t ■
oi- may execute his office and do valid afls as Prciident
nt previously taking the oath prescribed ; tho'
ve in so doing, if voluntary, he would be guilty of a I
a breach of the conltiuition and would be liable to
th pumfhment. The taking of the oath i. not there
n- fore nccefiarily, the Criterion of entering upon the
duties of office. r
a- On the strength of Ihefe facts, i, rr.ny he argd-
I s ed that by force of the cortflitution, datinjr The '
commencement of the Pfefident's term of f* rv ice
II on the 4 th of March 1789, the law relpeftino- hi 3
>1- e•mpenfation ought to be considered as referring to '
n» that period far a virtual entrance upon the duties
id or his office.
In stating thisconftru&ion, however equitabl? it
fe may be deemed I mufl not be understood to adop'
of it. I acknowledge that the other as molt agreeable
to the mote familiar sense of the terms of°the law
at has appeared to me preferable, and it was accor
11s dingly eftablilhed, though not till after all the ad
ht vances, for the firll four years had been made —
b- The result in point of fact would however hartva
ut ried as the one or the other had been deemed the
I le.urn to . r ..f t^
t- An /^ m ' e statements which have hern pulilifhed, with
r _ lome iupplementary ones received from the Trejfj.
u r y ,J P on the occifion, exhibit the following refnlts:
ie p RESULT - The/umj advancedf<ir tlx nft of tbt
f e Pre f" irnt > Jrom tbt Trtafury, have never exceeded the
. r"' S P. rev ' ou Ar appropriated by /aw ; they have
sometimes exceeded, sometimes fallen short of, the
3- sums adlually due for services. Tl.isis thus explained:
- An aft of the 29th nf September, 1789, ap.
f, r °? r . iateti for P a y ,n £ l ' le compensation of the
s, • I resident, - . ,
T-1 r 1 - Dollars 2f*pCO
Tfee sums advanced to thegth of April, 1700'
], and charged to this appropriation, are - 15,000
d .Ar 2<! ) °£ thc 2fith M "ch, 1790, appropri
ates for the fame purpose, - 2 QG
' T hefum s »,! V an,ed from M ay 4 th, r 79o> to
n the JBth Feb. i 7? i, and charged to this apufo
s pnation, are . . 4J)QCO
e r °^ t ' le lll h P e h- I79'j appropriates
for the fame purpose, . . '2? 000
The sums advanced from the2BlhFcb.i?qi,
to the 28th Dec. in the fame year, and charg!
Ed to this appropriation, are 22,150
i Excess of appropriation beyend the advances, 2,850
1 rA? a ? of the 2 -~> d Dec - I 7» appropriates
tor the fame purpose, - . -at 000
" The sums advanced from the 3d. Jan. 1792, '
to the 15th" Jan. 1793, and charged to this ap
; P ro P na tlon, are . - 2J , 000
' r A " ai^ oft hf i"th Feb. 1793, appropriates
j for the fame purpose, - . 2 c 000
: The sums advanced from the.9th March, '
1 79 3> to the 27th December iit the ftme year' '
and charged to this appropriation, are ' - 25,000
; -^ n of the 14th March, 1794, appropri
, ate. for the fame purpose, . . 25 , 000
Ihe luma advanced from the 17th March,
1794, to the ift of Jan. 1795, and charged to
: the fame appropriation, are - . 25,000
An ad of the 2d January, 1795, appropri
• at "[ or the fame purpose, .. . , 0
The fwms advanced from the 12th January,
1795, and prior to ift of Oaober in the fime
year, and charged to this appropriation, are, 12,500
Ex.refs nf appropriation bevond advances c»
the irt of Oa.ber, 1795/ * . .
i-.xcels of appropriation on the of the nth
Feb. 1791, Z) a JO
•I otal excess of appropriations beyond advan
ces to the ift Odl. 1795, - . . IS , is o |
Thus it appears not «nly that the dilburfenrents have
never exceeded the appropriations; but, on the contra-,
ry, that the appropriations have exceeded the dilburfe
ments. An accurate attention to dates fh-ws particu
larly that there was always a pre-existing. appropriati
on which was never exceeded by the difuurfsmertts,
having regard to order of time.
The relidue'of the proposition is Uluftrated by the
quarterly i atement of salary and advances at foot.'
r . he Treasury never Las betu in »i
---vance for the Frejident beyor.d the 'sums a Jnally accru
ed, a,id due t» km for services t K the amount if IV