The Montrose Democrat. (Montrose, Pa.) 1849-1876, December 11, 1866, Image 1

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A. J. GERRITSON, Publipherj
Predden ,
Fellow fitizem of the &tale-and Foteie,,Rf-
Repreientitteiv3: r- = Z.. , c`.
After a brief • interval the Congress of
the United States resumes its annual leg
islative labors. - M - Allpwise and merciful
p r ovidence has abated the
. pestilence
which visited our shores, leaving its ca
lamitous traces upon some portions of
o ar eountry l - fteetprderitranquilit y and
civil authiiritY fiirniadysdeclar
ed to exist throughout the whole of the
United tati s .,-_,..fn ,of_thp ptake,
iluperided - thrtfOorcililif
arms, and the . people, by their voluntary
action, are maintaign4g their Governments
in full activity and complete operation.
The enforcement of the laws is no longer
obstructed:in , :aoy State by. combine
dons too powerful to be suppressed by
the ordinary coursi), of judicial_ prpceed7
Inge' and .the amincTsit'es efigeridered by
the war are rapidly yielding to the benefi
cent influences of our free institutions,
and to the kindly effects of anresti icted
social and commercial ,„intercourse. An
entire restoration of fraternal feeling must
be the earnest wish of every patriotic
heart; and we will have accomplished our
grandest national achievement when, for
getting the sad events of the-, past, and
retnem bering only their instructive les
•0138, we resume our, onward career as a
free, prosperous and united people.
In my message of the 4th of December,
iz‘63, Congress was informed of the meas
ures which had b'eCn instituted by the
executive with a view to • the gradual res
toration of the States, in which the insur
rection occurred, to their relations with
the Getieral GOVeriiiaiieilt.". - Provisional
Governors had been appointed, Conven
tions called, Governors elected, Legisla
tures assembled, and Senators and repro
ientatives chosen to the Congress of the
United States Courts bad been opened for
she enforeetnetit of lawsforfir 2beyitice:
The blockade had been removed, custom
houses re established, and - the 'lnternal'
Revenue laws put in force, in order that
the people might contribute to themation
ai income. Postal operations had been
renewed, and efforts were being made to
c -store them to their former conditicnPf
efficiency. The States themselves bad
been asked to Lake part in, the hi g h time
tons of amending the Constitution,- and
of thus sanctioning Ithe extinction of Af
r,can shivery as one of the leitimate re
of'our internecine struggle.
Having progressed thus far, the Execn
ilve Department found that it. had accorr.-
I , ll.lied nearly all that was within the
,cape of its constitational.autbority,. One
thing, however, yet remained to be done
before the work of restoration could be
vmpleted, and that was the admission to
Congress of loyal Senators and Represen
tatives froni the States.igrhoie people had
rebelled against the lawful authority of
the General Government. This question
devolved upon the respective Houses,
which, by the Constitution, are made the
. Iwiges of the elections, returns and quali
nizions of their own members; and its
c , )nsideratiou at, once engaged the atten
tion of Congress.
In the meantime, - the Executive De
partment—no other plan having been-pro
j.ced by Congress—continued its efforts
to perfect, as far as practicable, the res
toration of the proper. _relations het weed
the citizens of the respective States, the
States, and the Federal Government, ex
tending, from time to time, as the public
Interests seemed to require, the judicial,
revenue, and postal systems of, the coun
try. With the advice and consent of the
Senate, the necessary. officers were ap
pointed, and appropriations made byCon
cress for the payment of their salaries.
The proposition . to amend the Federal
Constitution, so as to prevent the exis
tence of slavery within the United States
or any place subject to their jurisdiction;
was ratified by the requisite number of
States; and on the Mtb day of December,
1865 , it- was officially declared to have be
come valid as a part of the Constitution
of the United States.
All ofihe States in which the insurrec
tion had existed promptly amended'their
Constitutions, so as to make them con
form to the.great change thus „eflectid
the organic law he:,landrileolered
and void all'orditiane:ei and lowa oeseeei-
Son ; repudiated r all„, pretended, debts and
obligations:eriated for the revolutionary
purposes of;the insurrection; and proceed: -
ed in goat; faith-to:the epactmentof meas
ures for Proteetion and / .anielieration
of the condition Of the colored race. Con
gress, however, yet betitated to admit any
of these, repiesentationi and-it
was not until 'the - close of the eighth
month of the - session - that an= "exception
was madoin favor of• Tennesime, , ,by the
admission of bar Senators , and representa
I deeta it. a subject a_ p s ioronna regret
that Col:lvrea has thus far failed to .. tidmit
to seats royil Senators and :Iteprlelitt4.
Eves from the other States; Whose;
itents, with those of TennessixtEltuLerbr
gaged in tharebellimr.-'• Ten States, more
than one fourth of the whele'nuttiber, re=`
tiiaidlwithotit representatiou i. the` seats of
fifty niernbers in the Honks of Represen
tatives and twenty ilthe Senate'
are yet.vacant, not by their own eontietit,
not , by a failure of eleetion, but' by th'e're:
tusal of Congress to Yaieept their 'creden-'
tials.- Their 'adinisiiion it' he belitfi , 4 l
would have . rimomplished- MuchlOwardir
the renewal and stretigthbnitig dear rill'
lations as one people, and removed serious
cause for discontent .on the 'part of the in
habitants-of those States.' It would bare .
accorded with the great' principle enunci
ated itr•the•Declamtiori of ' American
'dependence, that no people ought to bear .
the burden .of taxation, and yet be denied'
the right of representation.
It would have be - en in consonance with
the cypress provisions of the Constitution,
that "each State shall have at least one
Representative," and " that. no . State,
without its consent, shall be'deprived of
its equal suffrage in the Senate." These
provisions were intended to secure to ev
ery State, and to the people of every state
the right-of representation in each-house
of Congress; and so important was it
deemed by the 'framers , of the Constitu
tion that the equality of the States in the
Senate should be, preserved, that not
even by an amendment of the Constitu
tion can any State, without its consent,
be denied a voice in that branch of the
National Legislature.
It is true, it has been assumed that the
existence of the States was terminated by
the rebellious acts of their inhabitants,
and that the insurrection having been
suppressed, they were ~thenceforward to
be considered merely as conquered terri.
tories. The Legislative, Executive and
Judicial Departments of the Government
have, however, with great distinctness
and uniform consistency, refused to sanc
tion an assumption so incompatible with
the nature of our republican system, and
with the professed objects of the war.
Throughout the recent legislation of Con
gress, the undeniable fact makes itself ap
parent, that these ten political communi
ties are nothing less than States of this
Union. At the very commencement of
the Rebellion, each House declared, with
a unanimity as remarkable as it was sig
nificant, that the war was not' waged,
nur_factr.t., ;I,
nor for any purpose of conquest or subju
gation, nor purpose of overthrowing or'
interfering with the rights or established
institutions of those States, but to defend
and maintain the supremacy of the Con
stitution and all laws made in pursuance
thereof, and to preserve the Union with
all the dignity, equality and rights of the
several States unimpaired ; and that as
soon as these objects" were " accomplish
ed the war ought to cease."
In some instances, Senators were per
mitted to continue their legislative func
tions, while in other instances Represen
tath es were elected and admitted to seats
, after their States had formally declared , '
their right to withdraw from thirUnion,
and were endeavoring to maintain that
i right by force of arms. All of the States
whose people were in insurrection,as
Stales were includedin the apportionment
of-the direct tax of twenty
dollars annually laid' upon the United S.
by the act approved sth of August, 1861.
Congress, by the act of March 4th, 1862,
and by the apportionment of representa
tion thereunder, also recognized their pres
ence as States in the Union; and they
have, for judicial purposes, been divided
into districts,as Slates alone can be divi
ded. The .same recognition appears in
the recent legislation in reference to Ten
nessee, which evidently rests upon the
fact that the functions of, the State were
not destroyed by the . rebellion, but mere
ly suspended; and that principle is, of
course, applicable to those States which,
like Tennessee, attempted to renounce
their places in the Union.
The action of the Executive Department
.of the Government upon this subject, has
been equally definite and uniform,and the
purpose of the war was specifically stated
in the Proclamation, issued by my prede
;oessor, on the 22d day of September;
1862. It was then solemnly proclaimed
and declared, that " hereafter, as hereto
fore; the tear will be prosecuted for the
.ohjec63f prolifically •restoring the consti
tutional relations between the United S.
and each - of the States, and. the people
zthereof,:in which - States , that relation:ls
or. may be suipended or disturbed."
The recognition of the . States by the
Judicial Department of the Government,
has also been clear and conclusive, in alt
prciceedings affecting item os States,- had
in the Supreme, and District
Courts. ~ ' • ,
• :EBB - cosonussuEN.
In the admission of Senators and Rep
resentatives frotl =Tend all , Spetes there. . na just `ground of apprehension
that persons , who are, ;:disloyal will be
clothed with the powers of legielation;,
furA,bis could not l tappen ',when the COn
.stitution.and laws are e - enforced by airigi
lent aiidfaithful. - CongreitC. Veit ilouse
is made , theii . A4r)udge of.the ~leotinne; Vie=
itiAtedatioinoitAtistwo math
, av o wal:01)4y; lwithoncurretp*t of. two,
thirds, expel a member." When a Sena-
'^'KR'~,h"Yk."~Y~_"/:~^.~.H'". - •• •.hS :. ~+At~L ' F3Ka6: -"- ~i2FL~iL'#~.T~a`ariLTN . L'!Sb'MW.eM.Y
I&ommosE , TDA 4 -;T • trEfs,D.Ax i , : mc 4 . , .. 1v1566
tor or Reptesentatiie Preitenta his 'Certiii- ,
cate of election, he plaint once bei admit
ted or rejected; or, should there ibe'any
question: as ,to _his eligibility . , :his creden
tials may be referred for investigation Ix),
the 'appropriate committee. If admitted,
to a seat, it must be: tipon_ evidence satis
factory to the House, :of which he thus'
becomes a member, that he possesses, the ,
requisite, constitutional and legal qualifi
cations.' If refused admission as a mem-,
ber for want of due allegiance to the gov
ernment, and returned to his constituents;
they are admonished that none but per-:
sons loyal to the United-States will be al
lowed a voice in thoLegislativet Councils
of the nation, and the political power sod
moral influenel of dongresti" are thus ef
thotively exerted in the interests of loyal
tylo the Government and fidelity to the'
,Upon this question, so vitally af
fecting, the restoration of the Union and
the permanency of our present form of
Government, my convictions, heretofore
expressed, have undergone no change.; but'
on the contrary, their correctness has been
confirmed by reflection and time. If the
admission of loyal members to seats in the
respective Houses of Congress was wise
and expedient a year ago, it is Do less wise
and expedient now. If this anomalous
condition isright—if, in the exact condi
tion of these States at the present time, it
is lawful to exclude them from represen l
tation, I do not see that the question will;
be changed by the effitix of time. Ten'
years hence, if these States remain as they
are, the right of representation will be no
stronger—the right of exclusion will be
no weaker.
The Constitution of the United States
makes it the duty of the President to rec
ommend to the consideration of Congress
"such measures as he shall j.idge neces
sary or expedient." I know-of no meas
ure more imperatively demanded by ev
ery consideration of national interest,
sound policy, and equal justice, than the
admission of loyal members from the now
unrepresented States. This would con
summate the work of restoration, and ex
ert a most salutary influence in the re es
tablishment of peace, harmony, and fra
ternal feeling. It would tend greatly to
renew the confidence of the American
pennies in eha our an Elvbiev , of their
institutions. It won in us More
closely together as a nation, and enable us
to show to the world the inherent. and re
cuperative power. of a Government foun
ded upon the will or the people, and es
tablished upon .be principles of liberty,
justice and intelligence.
Our increased strength and enhanced
prosperity would irrefragably demonstrate
the fallacy of the arguments against free
institutions drawn from our recent na
tional disorders by the enemies of repub
lican government. The admission of loy
al members from the States now excluded
from Congress, by allaying doubt and ap
prehension, would turn capital, now awai
ting an opportunity for investment, into
the channels of trade and industry. It
wnuld alleviate the present troubled con
dition of those States, and, by inducing
emigration, and in the settlement of fer
tile regions now uncultivated, and lead to
an increased production of those staples
which have added so greatly to the
wealth of the nation and the commerce of
the world. New fields of _ enterprise
would be opened to our progressive peo
ple, and soon the devastations of war
would be repaired, and all traces of our
domestic differences effaced from the
minds of our countrymen.
In our efforts to preserve " the unity
of the Government which constitutes us
one people," by restoring the States to
the condition which they held prier to
the Rebellion, we should be cautious, lest
having , rescued our nation from perils of
threatened disintegration, we resort to'
consolidation, and, in the end, absolute
despotism, as a remedy; for the recurrence
of similar troubles. The war having ter
minated and with it all occasion forthe ei
ercise of power of doubtful constitutional
ity, we should hasten to bring legislation
within the boundaries prescribed by. the
ConAtitution, and to return to the,ancieet
landmarks established by our fathers for
the guidance of succeeding generations.
'The Constitution which at any time ex,-
ists. until changed by an explicit and ad
thentic act of the whole people, is sacredly
obligatory' upon all." "If, in the. Opinion
of the people, the distribution or modifi
cation of the constitutional powers be, in
any particular, wrong; let it" be corrected
by an amendment in the way in which
the, Constitution designates. But let
there be no change by usurpation ; for
" it, is the customary . weapon by . which .
free governments are destroyed.": Was
hington spoke these,words to, Ids country
men, when, followed .by; their- love and
gratitude, he voluntarily retired from the
cares• of, public life. ."To keep in all
things within the palnof our-constitntion
al powers, and ,cherish the Federal. Union
as theonlysock.of safety," were preserib-.
by Jefferson es rules of ,action to en-.
dear to his " countrynlen—the Artie princi
ples,44 theit , e9a 13 .A. 4 909.a,/ia4 ArPwate a
spiciatii to tifeiiliaopiness•nuil,carefe .
Jackson held that the action of the 'Gee-
~c~+rgr~a,.'C7":•''''Rt~'..~..Ha-e. ~~_ .:fix ~c~~...55c~w^,n,~..~,,•"~
oral Gmlernmpnt, , should strict
ly 'Who sphere of its appropri- -
eta duties,' ar4 jgatjy and forcibly arg94
that our, government is not 'to be roam
taiped nor mu, ~VniOn preserved " by in,:
vasions Abe:J.IOAB, and powers of the
several - States. In thus' attempting. ,to
make our finecal,.Government strong, we
make it Weak. It tine strength consists
in leaving StateN as much.
as possible tiiiheniselves; in making itself
felt, not' to - but in its begefi-
Cence; notJd' its ebritrol, but in its pro
teetiOrn'tititih` bi dingy t he States More
closely to the anti..., leaving each to'
move tmobstrboted ler a proper constitu
tional orbit.P. , •-These are - the teachings of
men whose deeds,and services have made
them illustrions,, and who, long since'
withdrawn, from the scenes of life, have
left to their itsountry the rich legacy of
their example, their wisdom and their pa
triotism, Drawing fresh inspiration from
their lessons,: let us-emulate them in love
of country and respect for the Constitu
tion and the jaws.
The report of the Secretary of the
Treasury tifibrOs much information re
specting the' revenue •arid commerce of
the country.' His views upon the 'ctn.-
rency ; and With reference to a proper ad
justment of revenue system, internal
as well us impost,' are 'commended to, the
careful. consideratioryof Congress. In my
last annual message I expressed my gen
eral views upon these subjects. I need
now only call'attentiou to the necessity of
carrying into 'every department of the
Government a system of rigid accounta
bility, thoroiugh retrenchment, and wise
economy. With 'no exceptional nor un
usual-expenditures, the oppressive bur
dens of taxation can be lessened by such
a modification of our . Reienue laws as
wilt be consistent • with toe public faith,
and the legitimate and necessary wants of
the Government.
The repoit presents a much more satis
factory condition .of our finances than one '
year ago thii most sanguinecould have an
ticipated. ; I l . :hying the fiscal year ending
the 30th .Inne,, 1865, the last year of the
war, the !labile 'debt was increased $941,-
902,537, and on the 31st of October, 1865
it anionottroj' b $2,740,8.4,750. On the
due,ea t0402,501,310,00u, too aitnioutzon
during a period of fourteen' monthii, com
mencing September 1, 1865, and ending
October 31,1866, having been $206,319,-
565. In the last annual report en the
state of thelnaneee, it was estimated that
during the three 'quarters of the fiscal
year ending the 30th of June last, the
debt - would be increased $112,194,947.
During that period, however, it was re
duced $31,106,387, the receipts of the
year having been $89,905,905 more, and
the expenditures $200,529,235 less than
the estimates. Nothing could more clear
ly indicate than these statements the ex
tent. and availability of the national re
sources, and— the rapidity and safety
with which, under our form of Govern
ment, great military and naval establish
ments can be disbanded, and expenses re
duced from a warto a peace footing.
During the fiscal year ending the 30th
of June, 1866, the receipts were $558,03g",-
820, and the expenditures 8520,750,940,
leaving an available stirphis of $37,281,-
680. It_is estimated that the receipts for
the fiscal year ending the 30th June,
1867, will be $475;061,386 and' that the
expenditures will reach the sum'of $316,-
428,078, leaving in the Treasury a surplus
of 8158,633,308. For the fiscal year end
ing June so, 1888, it is estimated that the
receipts will amount to $436,000,000, and
that the expenditures-- will' be '5)350,24 5 1,-
641—showing an excess of $85,752,359 in
favor of the Government. These estima
ted receipts may be diminished by a re
(Indian of excise ands import duties; bat
after all necessary redactions shall' haio
been made, the revenue of 'the. present
and of 'following years will , doubtless be
sufficient toerover - all legitimate charges
upon rthe Treasury, and leave a large' an
,surplus to be applied to the payment
of the principal of the debt. - There seems
now to be no good reason why taxes may
,not be reduced as tbetountry advances in
population .and - wealth, , anitiret , the debt
,be extinguished within the next quarter
of.a century, • ,
szeummey • 'STANTON'S REPORT.
The report - of tub' Secretary of War
furnishes' valuable . and important _informs.
tion' in; reference to the ,opeirations
,of his
department during the, putt year. Few
volunteers new remidn'm the service and
they are being ' discharge as' rapidly, as
.they can be replaced, by ...regular troops.
The army has been promptly paid, care
fully Provided - with' medical treatment,
,well sheltered and. subSisted, - ,Eadjs to be
furnished With br'eech lneding suialt. helm,
The military strength
,of '.tho . nation_has
been quimpaired by the - disabarge, of vet
untetirs; the 'disposition of 'Unserviceable
cbr And,,the, .rotrepott
merit ore.iipiiiiditures.Agfiiitent ,Warma
teriarto meet .aiir e.Oiergea, g 4ns :Peen
retabied iwd from tlin .disbaudedvolun
eeniti*taill.oo.9 4 ,0 -re4.Pond , like:Pa!
lona armies call, largo can bni.apidiyor,
'lonized, equipped and concentrated.
Vortificatietiiiin ;the; cotist; and run te
have reeelied, .or are being . prepared ter;
mcirdptivierful armaMent4 lake sitiveye
and barbOr`and riVer inipreventents are M .
course energeem'Prosemitian, ' Prepar
atione Hive lieed made'for the' 'payment
of the addititmal - bounties authorized ad..
ring thp recent session of Congress, im- -
der'such, regulations as will protect the
Government; ftoinfraud,' and secure to
betiierably dikcibarged soldier the
earned reward of his thithfnlncse andel
laut7. 'More than sit, thousand maimed
soldiers' hive reCeiVed:artificial limb's-or;
other sttrginal sipfieraiteit and forty. one
'mantel cemet ries, contenting the remains
of 104,626 Union soldiers, have aliTadY
been established. The total estimate of
militarj 'appropriations hi $25,2050189.
It is stated in. the report of the Secre
tary of the Navy that the naval force at,
this time consists of '278 vessels, armed
with 2,951 guns. Of these, 116 vessels,
carrying 1,029 guns, are in commission,
distributed chiefly, among seven squad
rons. The. number of open in the service
is 13,600. Great activity and vigilance
have been displayed by all the squadrons,
and their movements have been judicious
ly and efficiently. arranged in such man
ner as wonld best promotelAmerican cora
and protect the rights and interests of our
countrymen abroad._ The vessels unem
ployed are undergoing repairs, or are laid
up until their services may be required.
, .
Most ; of the iron-clad fleet is at League
Island, in the vicinity of Philadelphia, a
place which, until decisive measures
should be taken by Congress, was select
ed by the Secretary of the Navy as the
most eligible location for that class:of yes
eels. It is important ,that a suitable pub
lic station should be provided for the iron
clad fleet. It is intended that these ves
sels shall. be in condition for .any emer
gently, and it is desirable that the Lill ac
ceptnig League Island for naval purposes,
which passed' the House of Representa
tives at its last session, should receive fi
nal action at' an early period, in _order
that there may be a'suitable public sta
tion for this Class of vessels, as well as a
navy yard of area'aufficient for the wants
of the service on the Delaware river.
The naval pension fund amounts to
47M,051 a An inreaak i ol
department for the fiscal pear ending'Both
June last_ were 843,324;526, and
.tlio esti
mates Torthe ebbing year amount to $23,-
&08,486. Attention is invited to thelon
dition of our seamen, and the importance
of legislative measures for their relief and
improvement. The suggestions in behalf
of this deserving class of our fellow citi
zens are earnestly recommended to the fa
vorable attention of Congress.
The report of the Postmaster Genera'
presents a most satisfactory condition of
thn postal service, and• submits recom
mendations which deserve the considera
tion of Congress. The revenues of the
Department for the, year ending June 30,
1886, were $14,366,986, and the expendi
tures $15,352,079, showing an excess of
the latter. of 8965,083. In anticipation of
this deficiency, however, special appro
priation was made by Congress in the act
approved July 28, 1866. Including the
standing appropriation of $700,000 for
free mail matter, as a legitimate portion
of the revenues , remaining unexpended,
the actnal deficiency for the past. year is
only $265,93—a sum within $51,141 of
the amount estimated in the annual re
p Art of 1864. The decrease of revenue
compared with the previous year was one
and one-fifth , per cent, and the increase of
'expenditures, owing principally to•the en
largement of the mail service in t,be South
waft 12 per cent. .
On the 30th of June •last there were in
operation 6,930 mail ,routes with an ag
gregatei length,pf 189,921 m iles, m aggre
gate annual transportation , 0f, : 71,837,914
mile?, and, an aggregate annual coat, in
chiding all expenditures, of $8,410,184.
The length of rail-roaci routes is ; 32,092 ;
miles, and the anunaktrinsportion3o,6o9,-
467 miles. !The length of - ,steamboat
routes, is • 14,345. miles,
.and the annual
transportation 3,411;962 miles. •
The pall service isi,rapidly increasing
throughout the: whole country, audits
steady extensiOa throughout the South
era Statea indicates their constantly im
proving oonditiou. The. growing impor
tanenof the foreign service also:: merits
attention., The Post,Office Department
or Great Britain and our 'own have
agreed upon a preliminary basis for anew
Postal Convention, -.Which it is believed
will, prove eminently , beneficial , to the
commercialiinterests of the United States,
inasmuch, as, it, contemplates a redaction
of the international letter postage to one
half the exietingxrates; a: , reduction of
.postage- with , Ali ether countries to and
from which cerrespondence is transmitted,
in the British .mail, or in closed mails
through the Znited.Hiugdom ;_ the estab 4 .
lisbment of uniform and reasonable. char
ges,for,the sea' and territorial transit of
.correspondence in closed and an
allowance to._ each Postioll/cCDepUtte,
Anent, of the...right tomen nulitecuarod•
reagops.eatabliobed nude., the authority.
of the other for the deepatoh of coffee.
T~" j~'^.c - : er w ids;ri':.."`~."T%~-.:..~Nwt~dc::lta._-'a24?,e=wC::G
i , V,Otto - *Vit,*ikiiTEit - *-' :
Rerienee, either, open or eleeedAtiON.
on the eame.teme as thope.applinnWo
the Inhabit:min of the country provi4ing
the te!anaof transportation.,
The report of the Secretary of the In
terior' exhibits the. condition of 'thosi:l •
branches of tbc4ublio service which ate
committed his supervision: During
the lastilsol . .year four million Bil hand- •
red and twenty-bine thousand three hub
dred 'and ;twelve. acres of public land were
disposedbf, and 1,892,518 acrekwere
tered-tinder the homestead act. , , The po'-1
cy, originally adopted relatin to the pub
lic lands has undergone essential)modiflL'
cations. Immediate _ -revenue and not
their rapid , settlement , was tike.cardigal
feature of our land system.. Long_ experi
ence ded'earnest discussion have resulted
in, the .conviction that the early develop
ment of our, agricultural xesources and
the &fusee cilfon energetic population..
over our vist - teiritory, are objects„of far
greater importance to our national growth
than the prociedebf the sate of the pub
lics land to the highest bidder •in open.
-.The preemption law confers upon the
pioneer • who .complies with 'the terms
they impose the-privilege of purchasing 10
limited portion " utioffered . lands at
the minimum price. The homestead
actments relieve the settler from the'payy
meat of purchase money, and secure - him
a permanent home, upon the condition of
residence of a term, of years.,. This liber
al policy invites emigration from the old,
and from the more crowded portions of
the new world. Its prepitious. _results
are undoubted, and will be mere signally,
manifested when time shall have givercte,
it a wider development.
Congress has. made liberal grants of
public lands to corporations in aid of the
constriction of railroads and other
nal improvements. Should this policy
hereafter prevail, more stringent provia-,
ions will be required to secure a faithful
application of the fund. The title to the
lands should not pass, by patent or other
wise, but remain in the government and
subject to its control until some portion
of the road has been actually bulk. Poe
tions of them might then, from time to
time, be conveyed to the corporation, but
never in greater ratio to the whole quan
tity embraced by the grant than the corn
pjated . parte,bear to the entire length of '
would not operateto the prejudice. of any
undertaking conceived in good faith and
executed with reasonable energy, as it is •
the settled praCtice to withdraw from
market the lands 'falling within the opera
tion of such grants, and thus to exclude
the inception of a subsequent adverse
right. A breach of the conditions which
Congress may deem proper to itnpOlie
should work a forfeiture of claim to the
lands so withdrawn but nnconveyed, and
of title to the lands conveyed ichich'itv
main unsold.
Operations on the Elevenl lines of the
Pacific railroad have been prose cuted
with unexampled vigor and success.,,,
Should - no unforseen causes of delay op
our, it is confidently anticipated that this
great thoroughfare will be potrinteted be
ore the expiration of the period designa
ted by Congresii.
During the last fiscal year the amount ,
paid .to pensioners, including the eitpen- •
see of disbursement, was $13,459,988,and.,
50,177 names were, added te.the pfnsion
rolls: The" entire number' of pensioner . ,
June 30, 1866, was 126,722. Thisi &et
furnishes melancholy and striking proof'
of the sacrifices Made to vindientertbe
tional authority of Abit!Federa) Goyern.-
ment, sad to maintain inviolate the integ
rity of theXnion. They impose'upon us
corresponding obligations. It is estima
ted that $33 . ,000,000 will , be required to
meet the eitgences of 'this branch of the
service during the next , fiscal year.-
Treaties have been concluded with the
Indians Who' entieed' into armed opposi
tion to our Qnvernment at the_ outbreak
of Rebellion, tisk nneonditionaily;
submitted to Our antborty, and manifes.,.. l
ted ah earnest - desire for; . a renewal of
friendly relations.
• -
Daring the year endiiag September $O,
18a6otjght thousand fikevn .huudre4l,:and
sixteen patents fOr useful , jnvputions and
designs, w,.cre issued, and: at,that i dge,the
balance - in the . TreaSury :the A eredit :.of .
the Patent fund was two "bun.died And
'twenty eight thousand twoiiiindred,ind
ninety haven - .
As a subject upon which ...depends swim..
mouse ,ablount of the;, production and
commerce :of .the ,country I: recommend
to. Congress snob: legislation an may be
necessary for the preservation of thetas , .
eea.of tho Mississippi river: -. It. is a tualm-s.
ter, of nationaliroportanoe that earlYst*"
cold bel taken pot only to add to the tef;:‘
Sitoooy of these barriers against ilestrtto ,
liveinnodations; but for: ;the ,ri3movat r
all obstructions - 3o the free • and safe;navi.,.,!.
gation of that great channel of.. trade:and
coonueroi. .1
The distriat of .•Columbia,nnaar reap,:
ling laws, is not entitled to that represon-