The Montrose Democrat. (Montrose, Pa.) 1849-1876, July 04, 1861, Image 2

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• F. Iloto Citezen.i of the .Seriate and House
ni Represeptatiiw:—lttring been \ eon
%.-ctied on :in extraorilinAry' occasion
thorizecj-h}' the Constitution, your at ,
tion la not called to,any ordinary , subject
of legislat ion.
. At the beginning of the Presidential
term, four months ago, , the functions of
the . Federalvernment were found to
be geberalLy suspended within the sere
ral States of South Carolina, Georgia;
Alabama, , :_Mississippi,. Louisiana and
Florida, , excepting only those of. the
Post Office Department,,, Within these
States all the forts, arsenals, dock yards,
custom houses, and, had' been
seized and were held in open hostility to
this Government; excepting only 'Fort
Pickens, Taylor and Jefferson, or near
the Florida coast, and Fort Suinter, in
Charleston harbor, South Carolina.
The forts thus seized had been put, in
improved chndition. New ones had been
Intuit and armed forces had been. organ.
ized and were. organizing, all avowed with
the same 'hostile purpose. The forts . re
tnaining in the possession Of . the - Federal
k 3 over u m e,n t, in and near these States,
wereeither.beseiged or menaced by war
like-,prepanitions, and especially Fort.
Sumter, which was nearly surrounded lip*
well projected hostile batteries, with guns
equal hi quality to the best of its.
acid ontainnbering the latter perhaps ten
to - one. A disproportionate share of the
Federal- muskets and rifles had somehow
'found their way into the States, and hail
been seized tQ:he used against the Gov : ,
.enmient. - ''''''
Aeeumnlatrons of the public revenue
lying within them hail been seized, for
the same ottieet. - ! .The Nav,:v'was scatter=
ed in disiant Seas,. leaving but a very small
part O a f within the immediate reach of
the Government. Officers of the Federal
Armyand.Navy had resigned in great
. numbers, and of those resigning a: large
prop9,rtion -had taken -up arms- against the
Gortrinnent. ••
Sithultmreously, and in connection with
all this,-the purpose to sever the..TFederal
Union was openly•avowed..ln accordance
With this purpose, an ordinance had been
adoptcd,in.each of these States, declaring
the. States respectively to .be separated'
from the National Union. Aformula for
roustructing a-combined Government for'
these StateAThad been promulgated, and
ibis illegal organization it the character
kNfeimfederateStates-was already invoking
recoguitiou, aid and intervention- fron
foreign powers. , •
it Reference is here made to the poliey
l'orth in his inaugural rniciress - ; and a
long review of the eondi(ion of Fort Sum
k‘r, and the which• controled the
'r _biect '_ relsti~e tri its reintbreenient, up
itsbesn 'Area •upon.)
TIIE, 1,:51;I: roncED rroN - COUNTI:N
In this. act, discarding all else, they have
forced upon the country, the'distinct issue
---immediate dissolution
or , blood. •And
this issue embraces more than the fate Of
.these Unitect States; it presents to z the
whole fltmily of man the question whether
a Constit9tional'Republic or Democracy
-a Government of the people by the
ratite people can or cannot maintain its
territorial-integrity against its own do
mestic foes. It presents the question
whether discontented individuals too-few
itt itimilier to eontrol the Administration
•according to the 4rganie law in imy case,
can always, voon the pretencesmade in
this-case or any other pretence, iire khp
their Government, and thus prae ically
put an end to free government - upon the
earth. It forces us to ask, is there in all
republics this inherent and fatal weakness? .
Must ii government of necessity •be too
strong for the liberties of its ewn people,
or too weak to maintain its'own eNist
,etiCe?. . -
So viewing the issue, no claim was left
but to al out the war power of the . Go v
vernsnent, and so to resist_ Ate' force'em
flpyed for its destruction by force
.for its
preservation. The, call was • made, and
• the response of the country was most
gratifying, Sarpas.sing in imanimity and
spirit the 'most sanguine expectations.
Yet none of the States commonly called'
Slave States 'except Delaware gave _ a
regiment. through regular State organiza
tion. •
( Here, we' have a sketch of the -eottrs
taken by Virginia in her act (-.),f secession,
4,.te., and a reference to the " armed 'neu
trality " policy oTthe border Stat 4 .
pecurri, - the action of the Gevern
ment, it inay be sated that at first a call'
Cray made for 7:009 millitia, and • rapidly,
followisz this a proclamation was issued
for closing tbe.ports of the insurrect ion ary
districts, .by proceeding,!f in the nature - of
a blockade. Sci far, all was believed to,bc
strictly legal. -
Itthis poka the insurrectioni , th an
nounced their
. pnrpose to en ter. the
practice of privateering. Other calls
were made for volunteers, to serve three
years unless sooner discharged. and also
for large additions to the . regular army
and n..tvy. N These meaTmres, whether
stfiesfrs legal or not, were ventured tipim
an6eir *a - hat appeared to le a popular de
mantA public necessity—trui
Then as now slat Congress wduld readily
ratify them. It is believed that nothing-has been done beyond the constitutional
eteney of Congress.
EAU wurr 11.1.1:17.A5,
So)ii after the first call for it
-(tonsidered a duty to authorize the
Co:ma:Mine; General in riror, ezises
aceordipg to ws daZeretion, to suspend the
- writs of habeas corpus, or in other woi!d's,
to arrest and .detaiu Without resort to the"
ordinary prOcessi and forms ofiatV; sneli
individuals as:be night deem dangerous fe' !
public safety. This authority has pnr
posel,y been exercised, but 1-117 Sparin,rly.
Nevkrtheless the legality and propriety
of what has been done under. it are (pies-.
' tioned, atailie attention of the country
has been called to the proposition that
one who is sworn to take earn that the.
laws be faithfully executed should not
himself violate them, Of course some
consideration "was•giyen to the. question
of power and propriety before this, matter
was acted upon.
The *hole of the' laws whiCh was. fe'
(pared to be faithfully executed, were be-
'Mg resisted and failing of execution in
'nearly one third of the States. Must they
.be allowed to finally fail - of execution,
even bad it been perfectly clear that by
the use Means necessary 'to their execution
some single law, made in ,such extreme'
ienderness' of Ihe citizens' liberties that
practically it relieves more of the guilty'
than the Innocent, Mould to a very-limit
ed extent be violated.
To state the question more directly, are
all the laws - but one to - go uneseeuted,
,and the government itself to go to piece
lest:that one he violated ? Even 'in .43t1C11
:c ease, irould -:tot the osicial bath he
'ri•oken if the Oireintnent'should be over
. .
thrown, when it was belived that• disre
garding the single Arould tend to pre
serve it
But. it' wag not beVe . yed`that •WS ques
tion ivas presente was-not believed
that any law was violatied. The provision
of the Constitution that theeptivilege—mthe
writ of habeat corphs—sheuld not 'be Sus
pended, unless when in case of rebellion
or invasion the_ public safety May require,
it is equivalent to n provision that such
privilege fluty be suspended when' in cases
.of rebellion or invasion the wbliv safety
does require it., k 'was decided:- that -We
have a ease of rebellion, and- hat the, pub
lic safety does require the qualified sns
pensionlof the privilege of the writ which
was authOrized to .be made.
Nowit,is insisted; that congresic -.and
nut the' Executive - vested with ' this
.`- .
But the Constitution itself is.silent as
o which or 4vhois to :exercise the power,
and as the:provision was plainly made for.
B,dangerous emergency, it cannot be be
lieYed that the ft.:milers Of the instrument
,intended that in every ease the danger
should run its cOuro until CongreSs could
be called.Oigether, the very assembling of
which might -be prt'..=v6ntedos was intend
ed in:this case by the Rebellion.
,No there extended ,argurnent is • now
offered, as an opinion at sonic length will
probably be presented by the Attorney
, ,
tleneral. 'Whether there shall lie. any
,legiSlation upon thb sulject, :and it' any
what, is submitted entirely to the better
judgment of Congressl •
• The forbearance of this gorernrnent haul
Veen so l e traordinary and so long contin
ued' as iti) lead sonic -foreign nations to
shape heir action as if they siipposed the
early destruction of our National Union
Wat 3 probable.
While 'this on discovery gave theExec
ntive some concern, he is now happy to
.say that the sovereignty and rights of the
United..itat es are now everywhere respec
ted by foreign powers, and a general sym,
nathy the. country is manifested
throughont.the world. •
The • reports of' the Secreiaries of the
Treasury, War and Navy, will give the
information in detail deemed • necessary
anal conVenient fbr your deliberation and
action, while the Executive and . all the
Departments will stand ready to strpply
omissions, or to communicate new facts
considered important for you to khow.
It is noW recomniehded that you give
the legal means tbr making this contest
a• short, and derisive one ; that yon placc;
at the control of the Government for the I
work' at least 400,006 men- and .i.4.400,001L
0M. - • r
That. number of men is about one tenth I
j of thosepf proper- ages within. the regions
where al I, are; appa relitly willing to engage,
and the sum is less than the twenty-third
part of the money , value owned 'by the'
Mon who seem 'ready . to devote the whole.
A debt of 00,000,000 now ;is a less
sum per head than was the debt of our
IlevolUtion when we came' but of- that
strugle, and the money value in the coon-'I
try now hears even a greater proportion
to what it was then than does the popula
tion. Surely- each matt, has as strong. a
Motive now to preserve our liberties as .
each had then to establish them ?
' A right result at this time will be worth I
more to the world than ten times the men
and ten times the money. The evidence
reaching us from the country leaves no
room to doubt, that the material for the
work is abnmiant, mid that it needs only
the had of legislation to give it legal
sanction, and the-hand °file Executive
to give itqwartical shape and efficiency.
One of the greatest perple \ xities.of thel
Government is to aVoid•receivink troops
6st er . than provided for their. In a word
the:Teeple will-Save their Government, it
the Gowernmentit;ceff Will do its part on
ly indifferently well. It might seem, at
first thought, to be of • little difThrence
•whether !the .present movement' 'of the
South be called SeOssion or Rebellion.—
TIM movers, however, well understand
the difference. At the beginning they
know that they could never raise their any respeetabld magnitude by
any name which implies - violation of law.
They knewtheirpeeple possessed as much,
of moral sense, :is. much of devotion to
law and order, -and:as Much pride in and
reverence for the history and government
of their common country as-any other civ
ilized and patriotic:people.
• They knew they -could make no advance
directly in. the teillt of these strong and
noble sentiments. Aceordinolv'thev cony-
1.. . -
'pence(' by . an insidious debauching of the
public mind. They', invented an ingenious
soph isth which, if conceded, was followed
by perfectly logical, steps through all the
incidents to the Complete destruction of
,the ram. The sophism itself is that any
!' State of the Union .16,y, consistently . with
I the . National Constitution, and therefore
; lawfully
,and peacefully withdraw from
the Union, withoutthircons'ent of the Un
imr.or of, any Atter State. The littledis
:,nise,- that the supposed right is to be -ex
ercised only for a just cause,•because they
themselves are to belhe sole judges of its
' justice, is too thin to 'merit any notice.
Thiss-sophism derivesinuch, perhaps the
whole of currency, from the - assump
tion that, there is some otrinipotent and sh
. cred supremacy pertaining to a State, .to
each State of the Federal Union. -Our
States have neither . -nuire OrTess power
than that reserved to. theM in t i he Union
by the - Constitution, no one of them ever
having,been a State out 'of the Union.—
; The original ones passel, into the Union
even betbre they cast off their British Co
lonial dependence, and the new
.ones each
eameinto the rition• directly from a eon
idition of. dependence, excepting Teas ;
land even Tex:is; in its tetiaporary indcpen
41elice; was never designated rit,:State.
i • The-new oneslonlY took the desig,na
i tion : Of States on iconiing -into the Union;
while•that name was first adopted for the
ola ones IS and hy: the q)eclaration of In
-I,depentienee. Therein the. United Colon=
ies were dcela'red to be fre' s e and indepell
;dent States. • i . . is•
But even. then the object' was plainly
not to ileelar6 their independence of one
another, or of tlun'ttion, but directly the
contrary, as - their mutual pledge and their
mutual. action,_ before, at the time and af ,
terwards,:abundantly show : The expi g'
plighting ()faith, by each and all the_ i
onwinal thirteen,, in the articles • confed- i
r, ,
cration, two years laer, tha . the Union 1
shall be perpiltuil;!! is in conclusive.-1
Having never been teS, either in sub
or in natii *side of the Union, I
whence this in . ',, dal omnipotence of State I!
'Rights ass Ingia '6l9im of power to law-1
fully d - roy the : tritiolif itself? Much is
eiti• abotit the' sOverefgaty of the States,
.iii the Nord eten is no in the National
Constitution, nor as believed in anynf the
State ConstitutiOns. What is a sovereign-'
tv, in the political sense of the term ?=- i
Would...itl,be far Wrong - to define it ,". a po-
. i
li teal community*ithoet a politiCal eh-
Perior?" , • Tested iby ,tites„.no, one of. oar.
*Mee except Texas, *Clyne:a sovereign
ty, aitd.even Texas gate up the character
On coining into. thb UniOn,'hy which act
She acknowledge 4 the Constitution of the
United 'States and the ittws and treaties
orthe United States, made in piirsifance
91 the Constituti, to *be for her the in
prenie law of the Find. (rho - states'have
their status in the Ueion,. and they have
do other legal staths. If they break from
this, they can only do se - itgainst law and
by revolution. Theyiticin„•thd - not them
selves separated, procured their indepen
dence and their hberty.l By conquest or
purchase, the . Union gate each of them
whatever of independenee and liberty it
has: 'The Union is older than-any of the-
States, faCt it created them as
states. Originally some!indepentleat col
onies'. made the Union, !and'in turn,Ahe
Union threw - off their -old dependence•for
theM and made thetri States; such as they -
are. Not one ofi them ever . 'tetra State
Colistitution independent of the Union.
Of course it is trot tbrgottenthat all the
new . States flamed their Constitution
fore they entered j ibe Union; nevertheless
dependent upon Mid preparatory to .com
ing into the Union.
,• UnqueStionabl)J, the _States have the
powers and rights resCrved to them in
mid lit the 'National' Constitution ;• but
,among these, surely, ore not ineluded • all
Conviveble powers, how ever mischievous
ski• destructive, bat at 'most suck as are
known in the world at the time, as Gov
ernmental.powent, and Certainly a, powel•
to destroy the Government itself had nev
er known as governmental a merely
Ministrative power.
This reletive.thatter of National power
and State, Rights las- a, principle, is no oth
er titan the prin4ilde of liicality and. gen
Whatevir ,concerns the whole should
he confided to title 'lvhole, to the General.
Government ' • .while whatever concerns- a
State only should be' left, exclusively to
the State. This is all there is of original
principle aboutit.l Whether the National
•Constitutioh; br 'defining boundaries be=
tweet' the two, has applied the'prineiple
with exact accuracy is not to be question
-ed. We are alsolbound Aly that defining,
without question - . 1 What is now combat
ted is the'positi4n that - :Secession is con
sistent with the iConstitution—is lawful
and peaceful. It is not contended that
there is' a i ry exprbss law' for it, and noth
ing should ever I ! ?e N implied as law which
leads to unjust or absurd consequence.
- [Next, follows a sound tho' not. very
forcible argument against the dogma of
secession, of which the Tribune & Co.,
will please take uoticel
It may be well questioned whether there
is, to-day, a majority of the legally'qualA
fled votes of :MY State except perhaps
South Carolina, n favor of disunion:—
There is much rdason to berdieve that the
Union men are tie majority in niany,•ill
not in every of the so-called Se:. 1
ced2d States. .j
As the contrarr- 'has not been demon-1
strated iii any • ond of them, it is voitured
to Arm this even or Virginia and Tene.s
sec, for the resnq of-an!election held in
military camps, Ivlhere the bayotiq.s were 1
all on one side of tlhe question voted. upon, 1
can scarcely he considered as a demonstra, !
tion •of. 'popular Iseiitiment. At such an
election all that large class who are not; at '
once for the Unicin and against coercion,
would be coereedlto tote against the en-,
It may lie atiiiimed, without extraVa
gance, that the -00 institutions we enjoy
have developed the power and improved
the condition of ()int whole people beyond
any example in tbe world.
Or chnractr .of Our v-olunteers 1
11Mse a striking iflust,Kation. do large,an
army as the GovVrnment has now on foot
Was never. heforei known, without a gol
aier in it but who had taken his plaie there
of his own free '
. But more than; this. There are many
i single regiments Whose members, one and
another, .possess full practical knowledge
of the arts,. sciences, ; profesSions,. and,
-whatevereite whether. useful or elegant,'
that is known in jhe world; and there is
t.scarcely one' Wont which there could not.
be selead a Preident, a Cabinet, a Con
! gress, and perhaps a Court, abundantly
i competent, to administer the Government
I itself, . i . . - -
I . Nor do I- saYtliis is not true also in the
case of our late: friends, now . adversaries,
in this contest •' lint if it is, so much the
1 better .the reason why. 4:he Government
which hasednferred such benefits on them
and us, should nQt be broken up. Who
' ever, in a ny section, proposes to .abandon
I .suA a Government, would do well to con;
("cider in deference- to what principle he
1 does it; what better he is likely to get in
I its stead. Whether the substitute will
give, or be intended to give, so much of
Igood to the people. There - are some for
•shadowings on this subject. Our :Over-
I, saries have adopted some declaration::: of
independence, - in 'Which, unlike the good j
1 old one penned, by Jefferson, they omit I
1 the words, "All men are created equal."
Why ? They have adopted a temporary 1
I national CanstitittiOn in the preamble ofi
which unlike,onr good'old one, signed' by
Washington, thev r omit." We, the.people,"
and sithstitute We, the deputies of the
1 Sovereign and independent States." Why
1 this.deliberate pressing out of view the.
I rights of men and the authority of the .
I-people ? ' , , ,
This is essentially a people's'eontest.—
On the side of th'p Union it is
,p. struggle
for Maintaining : in the .7 world that forth
and substance of government, whose lead
ing 'objeot is to elevate the condition of
:men ;to littAttificial weights from all
'shoulders ; tO: - `eldar the'path of laudable,
pursuit for all'; tq afford all an unfett tfd
start, and a fair chance in the me f life.
Yielding, to rartial and to orary de
Pamir : es from neesSit3,-, t ..._ is the lead-C
mg object of the': Gore ' ent for whose
'eNistenoe-IWe cotliOn . ` ' .
_ .
. rp tl'
lam rp t Ifay l py to believe . that the
appreciate SO
understand7 l p ls le lEß
thi. lt,iis worthy of note that . while lin
is, the Government's hour of trial, large
:numbers of those in the army and navy
who have been favored With the ofliei , s,
have resigned and prOved false to. the
hand Whichhad pampered them, not one
common soldler . - or ,- - Common sailor is
known to have dqserted his flag.. Great
honor is-due to these
who remain
ed:time, despite: the exaMple tiMir
treacherous associates. -
But the' greatest honor and Most im
p-ortantlact of alliktlM unaninioni firm
ness .ofthe common soldiers and comniOn
sailors. To the lasitwW, so.faras known,
thefhave . successfully`resistedthe trait
orous efforts of those whose cowhands
but an hour before y the obeyed a abso
• •
lute la*. This is the patriotic instinct of
plain people.
They undeOtand,•*ithOilt an argument;
that the destroying of the government,
which was
.made byClVashington, means
no good, to them; -gar peauliiir Govern--
ment has often been Called au experiment.
Two points in it_ our !people - have already
Settled—the -sneeessful- est Wishing • and !
tbe,successful adniinistrat ion , of it.
One still remains,Hits successful main
t.snaitee. against n fbrminable internal
attempt to over throW it. It is for theta
-to demonstrate to the .World that thase
who can fairly carry. tin election ° caw also
suppress a rebellion ;ithat ballots are the .
rightful and peaceful:Successors of bullets,
and that when,- hathlts , have , fairly" and
constitutionally &Med, there can - be no
successfid appeal , batAk to bullets—that
there can be no Sitcbessful appeal - except
to ballets themselves* succeeding
ions. Such will be .a great lesson of peace
teaching men what they cannot take by an
election, neither can they take by war;
leaching all the folly Of being the begin
ners of wan -•
• Lest there be scutt l e •tmeasinesg in the
minds of candid 1111311 ns to, what is to be
the eonrse of the qovernment towards
the Southe'rn
_States atiee the Rebellion
shall have been suppilessed the Executive
deems is proper to say at will be his pur
pose then as ever, to ibe be guided by the
Constitution and the laws and that the
probably will have no: different understan
ding of the powers atilt - the duties of the
Federal Government relatively to the
rights of the Slates and people under the
Constitution tlian expressed in the Inatigu
mai Address.
lle•desires to preserve the Gill-eminent
that it may be administered to all as it
was admiids,ered by the. men who made
it: Loyal citizens verywhere have Ole
right, to claim this of their Government,
awl Government has no right to withhold
or neglect it. It is not perceived that-in
giving it there is any, coercionany con
qucst or subjugation in any just sense of
those terms.
• The Constitution provides, and all the
States haVe accepted the provision that
the Utdon States shall guarantee to every
State in-this. Union a Republican form of
Government. But if a State mad• law
fully go out of the Union, having done so
it may also discard the Republican tbrfn .
of Government ;so that to prevent its
going ,out it is all indispensible to use
every means to' the end of maintaining
the guaranty. When an end is lawful
ayld obligatory the indispensable means to;
obtain it are also laWful and Olir-atory,
NO cO3II , uoItISES To ,pr 3TADF
, It .nas With deepest that the ExeeTti,
tivelound the duty of employing the war
power in defence of the GovernMent forced
upon Lim. He could- but perform this
duty or surrender the existence of the
Government. No compromise by public
servants coin iirthis ease be :t cure—not
that 'compromisescare pot oftin proper - but
Met, no popular • Government• can long
survive a marked Precedent.
That those tvho carry an election eau
only save the Giivennmentfrom immediate
destruction by giving up the main pOint
upon which the people gaye the election.
The people themselves, and not their
servants, can safely reverse their own de
liberate decisions.
Asa private citizen the Executive could
not have eonsented.thattlese iiLatictun
shall perish, much less °online in 4ta betray
al of so vast and so sacred a trust as these
free people had confided to - him.
He felt that he had no moral right t6"'
shrink nor . even to eount the chances of
his own life in what 'might follow. In
full view of his great responsibility helms
so far done what he has deemed his duty.
You Will now according io your own
judgment, perferm yonrs. Ile sincerely
hopes that your views And yodr actions
may so accord, with his as to ksure all
faithful citizens who have been 'disturbed
in their rights of a certain and ,speedy re
storation to them under the constitniion
and the laws.
And having this closen' our murk ,
without guile and with pure purpose, let.
us renew. our our trust in God and f,io'for
ward without fear and with manly hearts.
,-- expense of 'War,
The war preceding the treaty, a llys
wiek, in 1097, cost *120,000,000.
'The Spanish war of I 73 0; settled for at
:ANN Chapelle, cost *370,000,000.
The war of thei Spanish Succession cost
The treaty of Paris in 1763, ended a
bloody struf.r.4le, witieft cost 8560,000,
The. ii'ar of American Ilidependenee
cost England and this'. country *930,000,
The war of ten years, which is known
as " the Wench Revolution 0117p3,-7 cost
The war against - the First Napoleon,
which began in 1803 and 'ended in 1815,
cost the extraordinary amount of 85,
The Crimean war cost i;4,000,000.
The last Italian war (not including the
hoStilities between. Victor Emmanuel,
Garibaldi, 'Bombs, etc,.) cost $47,00!
The last war in India cost Engl p3B,
000,000. - . .
More than one4talf the iseases of the
human,system are can from the Use of
impore Breadstnfl. , and as Saleratus and
Soda are the es • ntial properties for using
it becoMes übly necessary to be watch
ful. He ick Gold Medal Saler
atus • the only - perfectly healthy to be
r "ed upon, Try
.one paper, and you -trill
..Convinced what we say is true. • Never
use Soda if you Can procure, this article.
Go to your Grocer and get a paper.
Depot 112 Liberty Street, New 'York.
ZO"I'lle Charleston 31erdury, in speak
ing of the letter of London Times Russell
ino- which he asserts -that the people of the
South desire one of the 'royal race ofEng l
and to rule over them says there are but
two. monarchists in the whole State of the
South Cardillo ' one of whom Js a lawyer
in Charleston, Jan* L. Petigru t and the
other an eccentric planter. N
—lt is reported thUt Mr. Blair haS been
appointed a Brigadier General, and Gen,
era! Lyan a Major General. The 'one - is a
soldier—the other a., politician. In the
opening of his speech, the .other evening
on' the. occasion of his serenade, Mr. Bh4ii•
said—"l am no military
• Have we
a Senate who will save oqr - troops frorn
being - fed' up to butchery - by -knell Gen-
4,--A Mau was arrested in , -New York
the other day and taken. before a piagiS•
trate, who reprimanded - him for speaking
dkrespeeicully of the President.
dx:. 04ikit.. 1
•Anfictu 1. - =-Congrnsis shall make, n
-Constitution of the United States.
,'"•It In well known that there have alwityl been thee
amongst un *lto wish to entered the powers of t be genera
government; and experience would seem I...lndicate the
there In a tendency on the part of this government tcrove.
step Old houndarlem marked ouifor it by the Conntittition.
lie legitimate authority fn abundantly nufllcient for all th
purporen for which it wan created ; and its powers bein
exprensiv enumerated, there • VAN BE NO JOST),
THEM. EVERY attempt to torYrcl.e "Oyer Oi
these limits . 1 , 40 , thi lie' ItItallITLY .4.21 , 1) FIRMLY i
OPPOSED. For one evil example, will Wel
lead to
' onrerettres still .110.111:' MIS CIMINVOUS ; and If the priu l
ciple or constructive power,t, or sopponed advantages, on
temporary eircumetances, eltall ever be permitted to Jun-,'
tit). the assumption of a power not given by the Cpuntil
teflon, the general government Will before long nbsor •
• ell the Moven of leglnlatiOn, and you will have, in effect .
lint one connolidated government. , c-:Andrew Jackson'
Farewal Address. M. , 'Read It all, earefullY. •
.• If snch a etrugglebt once begun, and the cltliena o
one section of.tho country are, arrayed In arms against[
those of nnothcrin doubtful conflict:let thetettie rrmdl tue,
it may.. 7'HERE WILL BE AN END of the VA - 10.5_,r1
and with it to the hopes qfgreedom.. The- rictorrof the'
Jujured would not secure to them he blessings of liberty ,4
would cream , their wrongs, but they would 'Memoir, ,
share in the COJIMON nut.r.--Jack.on%! Farewell
•Stufieute clenigning to attend the Ilinghattiton Com
mercial College, on hear of noniethlno of practical value,'
by calling at or nddreneing this office.
r. 1 - We give a brief report of buttlnees tranactlons In.
Congrese, and will print more iletaile In future.
ra.77 . l.Vity IP it that tho,Ae ho take the lead in charging'
" treamn" upon Democrats, and threate'ning them with,
mob violence because they cannot endorse all the words
and ris id:Lincoln and his managers, are the loudest In
condemnatieVeven threatening therewith overthrow . ..
An answerils solicited:
' Friday, the colored people of Montrose .were
marching through the stroete to martial music, and When
they Caine In front of the telegraph office, where it wdni
announced that Grow had bin elected Speaker, a halt'
was made meth rce cheers given for Grow; and then 3
for Wllmot,iti Illicit both seseS,and children, Jolli
ed. It is aways proper that any paity should inhibit an
endoreenaent oftheir immediate representatives.
2-711 — The 'President's Message will at
tract attention, and should' be - carefully
read: As a production, in point of schol
arship and .statesmanship, it is like other
emanations from the same source, crude—
but is the best be can give, and we should
be satisfied. Captions fluiltfluding,; in
thesetitne!i, would be out of place, and
every man shOuld read it with unbiased
feelings. The arguments for the perpetu
ity of the I:Ilion, against secession, A7c.,,
will be appreciated by all excepl,sOuthern
rebelS and northern . flinatics, who, under
the _tuition of. the Tribude and other auti.:
• slavery journals, have been led to believe
WA - there exists a right to secede- from
the Uniott. The cool up0101.7,y for viola
final of the Constitution, by asking Con
gress to sanction it, opens the way for
any degree of anarchy Which a despot may
choose to inaugunate. The habeas corpus disciisse4l.;, and the- idea ad
vanced that the President may suspend it.
This is in conflict with the best .English
and American authorities i but he elitire
iy conceits the dartgynnlS question hour ! ".
the" country, which -is, =whether he citn
authorize inferior military inn to do- sp at
their pleasure. .•
Ii he had refrained front saying any
thing about-- " those who had power to
carry .an election;-" being'able to .suppress
rebellion, he would - have shoWn more
seise ; he were obliged to rely -up
on the Tarty that elected- him- to sustain
him now, his chances would be doleful.—
And when a majority of his army are those
who, opposed his election, such a remark
is a gross outrage upon the country. '.
Ile seems, so frilly indoctrinated With the
old dogma of somehow getting slavery
a.coUrse extinction,'.' that he can
not refrain. from talking about: taking
"artificial burdens from the shoulders of
all trip." • Thos'e Who support the war
from abolition impulses will thank him : for'
this broad knt, but others prefer to hear
of no such plots.,
His partial promise that the:federal goii
erinnent•will not enlarge its powers and
encroach upon -- the liberties of the people
after the war is over, is very kind, but al
together needless. The " rights of the
States and the people under the Const .
Lion," are pretty plainly set forth
derstood, and it makes no,
whether ins " understandi,
er changes or not;
low' no man to co
g" of them et--
, ttc PEOPLE will al
, rol. them to girit such
ay choose to embrace.
Referee is made .to," compromise,"
and he ' again he seems unable to!com,
pr end any other idea than that it would
'. ffeet his .party=and they will doubtleSS
take this a finality on the subject.. , Per;
haps the Lonly compromise which - coutl he
no* available would he to allow the peo
to Make some fair, national settlement
I f of the slavery hobby—and this they will.
rcio very proMptly, if. allowed to. This .
I•tvould'not. affect tlOntegrity of the ger.
Ornment, nor-interfere directly with the
war ; but it would 'disarm intermeddlers
at the North , In(ru r ,ive - tile true Union men
... •
'at the South a powerful argument-with
which to prosecute a. vigorous Union agi
tation, that
_would soon entirely, uridei.
I -mine the secession dogma in the border
1 states, and,. spreading into, the cotton
I states, result in scattering the Confeder..
ate' armies to their homes. Meantime the
federal army could take its own course,
lbut it - would find'nefee to fight, and would,
bear that Davis mid his •eabinet Stood.
alone in 'their glory, or-rather that they
bad fallen—fled front want ofsuPport.-7
Tims,this, crazy rebellion -. would- meet a
bloodless . extermination ;.' the stale bone
of contention be •removed ; . the country
saved. from a terrible . war,. and restored
ito Peace, permanent unity Tld-pfesperi..
ty ; and .our white people could in ftaure
, talk and vote upon.. such questions as con.
Coned themselves, instead otthe negroes.
. Perhaps such sentiments are ":treasona.
I ble" under. the nowitaiidird, •but.,a, true-
Ihei . ited people respinid
,to them leadenly
I neVerthelcsi, . .
opinions as
were ibSeitlfroraiowntin the
•4th, ~kut - learn ! ! that , the _ day. ..passed oit
pleas4ntly,:Witb no occurrence to -serious
li:distneb peire of the lOw a . The eel
. .
ebration came og.iccerdimi to'prOgranune
theOratiOn of Mr. WU' dim; is spo
ken of ns beingyery eloquent and able.—
May all futilre recurrences of this Nation
al Pay; be observed only with thoughts
of National Unity, Peace, Harmony, and
Prosperity !
editor'a the Montrose Democrat
announced a few that Mr. Grow
was •".squelched." The announcement is
quickly followed by, the ele‘tion of Mr.
Grpw as Speaker of therfouse of .Repre
sentktives—one of the highest ,and most
responsible positions in'the'Government:
But the Democrat editor's flicts are as un
reliable us his patriotism."--,-Repub/kan;
• As I,SUAL the its. base ef libel us,. Makes up a falsehood, but
dares not quote. WC .never made any
siichminouncement, butAhis sfluibis-mrin
uthctured•out of a newk item iu our col;
micas sonic weeks since, in which dblack
republican . neiviononger, suggests 'certain
results which did not comp about—the
triuMpli'of Blair and - Forney over Grow:
and Etheridge. The blackguards who
contribute to our neighbors Columns have
a clear - field,, .
;,"There . will-be a camp meeting in
the maple - grove .near_ Lynn, &trill , ' the
coming season. /
lIA NAGAZlNE.—TieJuly•ntftob
er of Harper is capital, and ; proves tltat
however much the war may have inter
-11. Ted with- other literary enterprises; it;
has hadsno (fleet on
_this universally popu
lar Magazine.. of With part V. of
"A Summer in jN e w-England," , which de
..scribes the White Mountains, with the aid
of a number of Porte-Crayon's most spirit
ed illustratiOnsl Mr. T.- Addison
arils. also contribqes an article. on New
York and', its. vicinity • illustrated with
numerous pretty wood engravings 'from
his own drawings. Anthony Trollope's
novel of "Orl4 Farm," and Thackeray's
"Philip," are cOntinned. The tales, poet
ry and • other articles,_ are good and the'
several editortl : departmentsare well sus
tained. The "Editor's Drawer" has a
new; feature, in the shape of numerous
humorous sketches, 'which add point to
the anecdotes . they illustrate.
Wilkei-Barrean Prisoners
Lieut. Colonel Bowman and E. 11. Chase
esq.;of . Col. A. Emley'm Regiment (the
Bth PMinsylv:Mia,) froin Lnzerne county
are in the hancti of the: rebel g, The fol
lowin fr ,, rn the ..k..ranton BepiAlican will
explain :. • . .
• B9WIIA ',i AN() CHASE.—AII fears for
the safety of these gentlemen may be dis
missed. Colonel Emlev, of the Eighth
Ile: 41110 A, has jreceived a letter from'Col:
Bowman, dated Richmond, Va., Jane 22d
in which he 'Says ; " Myself and ME
Chase were arrested on Wednesday- even
ing. 113111 instupon.the hights opposite
wiiii:wisport,. Md., by a jacket of the
rebel army horseifian. The . same night
we were ;lisp:itched under guard
- to Win
che,ter. Va., arriving there at five o'clock
p. in., ~ f Tharsday. Tuesday . night, ;un
der no ,ward, but under our written pa
role, we were geua to these headquarters,
aiTiVing in'this' thy at four o'clock -p; m.
yesterday. We hz•ve been. treated from.
the first-moment Of oar arrest with the
utmost courtesy, and have the liberty of
the. eity tinder ~ parole. The only incon
venience we suffer arise from lack of extra
elOthing . or the means.of. proehring it.—
U ifortunately,! I left my , purse in" my
tr ink, and With Ric exception of a few
di liars in Mr. ChTie's pocket am entirely
w thout finances With this letter' will
YMe instenetiOns how remittances may
-etch us.. I enclose my draft. Mt . • the
iltyoming Bank for Sloo;.And Mr. Chase's
• .T. S. W iller Esq. He wishes you -to
dice to your areount; the balance in
1, - or at the ihaiik in Chambersliurg.—
lease inform by tinnily, the regithent
rid our friend Of my safety:' and health.
cannot speak ;too highly of the, kindness
Id respect with ;Irina we have been
erYwhere mat; 'and the "warin s,yinpa-•
ies that hard been extended to us on
-" its , -If' 11 '
Ul we letter of the Consti
tutio;rolilie riiitel States. It is up : lon
ger eoncealed,' : it is boldly- avowed (by
after day that the Constitution •must - be
invaded, overstepped, or iniother words,
trampled upon, in order to carry on :and
carry out -this-War. This is corruptiOn of
the rankeSt serti. This is the utter aban
domnent, of political morality ; -and the
country is in the last stages- ofdesiriible
-existence, when; good men on whom ire
have relied as the supporters of national
virtues, tell us tlint the Constitution is not
to stand n the Way . Of the President, in
'the manngernent of - our public
'Such men should remember that the Con;
stitution is aliove the 'President. • :Igo
man swears allegience - to the President,
but all men owe it . to the
. Constitutien.-•:
Aml when the'sleettine becomes popular,
as it is to-day4bat in times of great public
danger and national exigencies, the char
ter of all our political rights•may be disre...
' garded by those-who are sworn to defend
it, then our liberties„ are already gone,
and the} can be recovered only by such a
struggle as it takes to cast Out - devils from
one posSessetl..tlrriv York Ob.rrer—
. Presbyterian.
-Xl4 •
—One of the Lincoln- organs in New-
York city isliYing to prove that a grent
natiooardebt would be a blessing to our
country.—lt Would undoubtedly do to
.the people hero; just what it .. does to ;the
people of the old world-Lhelp tyrants to
crush their libprty„ . - • f • - •
—A despatalifiorp T4ittla Rnek, Arkari.
sas July lid, to the Memphis Appeal . says
that the 3lllitary Board Hai; issued a prod,
amation calling out ton thousand Men to
repel invasioWiif Federal troops: . through
_Missouri. : • . • •
B.kurimong ' ?July • I—fienry .May left
Baltimore - on Tuesday last for Richmond
whore) he now is. Report aresin circutt,
titin in regard him. Pervious to starting
he had an interview with. President
coln, bu - t whether in connection with his
viFit itipot knOWn...r It is said to day that
he-was invited to Richmond by Jett Davis
and that he is accompanied by two promi
nent; PennsylOnions, both friends of the
GOvdrument. ' . • .
' Gen. Patters - on' fought a battle near
MartinSburg, not far from Harper's .Fer.
ry. on' the- 2d. His. force Was some I ,000.
A dispatch from him- says:
"Left William - Sport at 6 o'clock, A, M.
to day for . this place We drove and
routed the Hebels .abont 10,000,• strong,
with four guns and now, cupy his camp
with the loss, gums,
to say, of three kill
ed =idler' wounted.":i - -
Several of the dead and wounded ofthe
Secession troops were-left on .the field in
their hasty retreat, one Or two of whom
Were buried by our men: ,
• It is said that General St4tt was so
much &ratified with.'thrs-: news" that' the
,Pre4ident «•as roused from his sleep to
ceive it. • 1,
. . .
The bethelaffair,waS not the onk
stance Which-has occurred ,of the Federal
troops tiring, into 'each , other. A * comes=
pondent of the Cincinnati Gazette *w4es
that ".portions of the two. attacking col
umns at•Fhillippi actually fired on each
other E precisely as the ; federal troops at'
Bethel did,- and the fact that they Were
over halfa mile apart was all that prewent
ed a terrible slaughter." •
BA 1.11 MODE, July I.—The.seiinre of the
.steamer St. Nichol* *Om this port, -
proves to have been a bold piratical'expe i
dition: When the steamer left. here, on
Friday evening, she had on board about,
fifty Secession passengers, most of whom
were disguised as meebanics,
,going to
points mkthoTMaryland shore of the .PO
- Among the number was i eapt.
Hollins, late of the 'United. States". ship
Susquehanna, who was Aisguised„ some
accounts say; as a woman, and that he re-
tired to his berth immediately- on going
On board the steamer. • •
After the boat had Jeff, Point I..Ookont,
CaPtain llollins threw off his disguise.,
and with the aid •of the passengers seized
the ,boat, which was itntnediately put`
across to Coney river, On the Virginia •
side. here • of the passengers,
not parties to the plot,•were landed, -in
cluding the Captain of the boat, who-Was.
placed undera guard;
. The steamer then .
went on a 'piratical • cruise towards --the
Rappahannock-river,' capturing 'three yeß
sek on the way, laden 'with ice:. coal and -
Coffee, with all of which Captain Hollins
made his way to Fredricksburg. The
Secession papers. here published 'aceintnts
of this affair is evening, calling it a
'brillliant exploit. The acuounts say • that.
.t wo lumared 'Rebels wereplaced on
board at Cones*: .
One of the most bloodV 'and
tights we 'have ever heard' of took place . mi
the 26th ult. about eleven miles east of
Ctunberland, along :end near the Railroafl,
between a mounted scouting party 61
thirteen men, under the eOramand of . Cor.
poral Hays, from Col Wallace's Indimia
Zouaves, and about fortyOrfifty Virginia
horsemen: -
•It is reported that the ;rebels ged and
were chased a Mile and
. tt foline of their
men. being killed. After- their pursuit
Closed they were attacked.and a . desperate
tight ensued ending in a loss ofsome erev
en more rebels and one • federal
The report looks eOravagant. •
July 2*--A special despatgli
to the Commercial, from Pomeroy, Ohio,
states that .Col..N:nlon, 'with LSS mcti
had just returned from an . eqedition ihto
Virginia, during kvhich theyeaptured four.
horses, sixteen head of cattle and two
mules front the fiebels. ' 1 '
. . Governor `V Ise, with it body "guard of
fifty men, titler . Capt. ,Patton had' been
fired at by. the. native Virginians, near
Sissonville and Wise .and Patton were
siipposed . to be mortally .:womided. Forty
the guards .were said E to be killed.—
Sissonvilk.- is in lianawha -county; 'about
twenty miles from the Ohio' river..
The - repbrt is uhdoubteAly true in sub
stance, but the wbunding-.of Wise and
Patton needs- confirmation.
July 7th—The New York Ninth' Regi
ment took the cars yesterday afterenonn
for Harpelg. w
Ver.ry.....they ; reached the
Without molestation,-4but_ they„,
were getting out of the earn ere- fired'
upon by Rebels on the epPosite side
9 1 -
the.river. Private 8an . .(0, of -E.Tornpany G .
wins instantly 'killed, and 'several Inori; -
were badly wtilinded. • . •
The Troops (lid not reeyrn thollro_
ST. 7..—0 n the 4 th, say ttralsl
officersLithit. Blood's Battalion of 'the
Sixth Missouri Regititerre; which went to
Iron Mountain on a scouting expditiotz
on Tuesday, returned. - They reltort the
death - of a ° Captain. and tlfree:ritlYates of
the Rebels, in a little skirmiigit near . V allay
Forge.. n the 6th inst., the Fede - ra
troops surrotiuded -Farmington, . and
thorotteriily searched the ;Own, and admin
istered the oath to some !fifty citizens.
a will-. soon soon
id all the
and .shown.
a journals
XXXVIIth Congresi—War Session
, .
JulY4--The Senate'We* Called t o tniler by Vice Pre t.
Ilamlin at 12. ru. Prevent Yd Ilenautto, inch:ding ttiom•
from Del., Md., Ky. and Johnsownt .Tenn. and Polk of
310. New Senator* Line and Pomeroy of KIM t 35,, Brow
nlng of and McDougall of Cal.,. were *worn in.
Ifouse—lST members present. On first baltai there wa: •
no chothe fn Speaker, and Blair withdrew his name and.
many changed to•Grow,llielperite). giving him 09 votes.
Etheridge or Tenn. was alerted Clerk, receiving 92 voted.
Seiniernilscelleneons hit:lncas was transacted and notice,l
&s-en In both houses. -
Senator Wilson has oftrcil the follow(pg :• - • •
A bill to ratify anti confinn certain; [all the] acts of tth, •
President, for the. Siajlpresstatt of Insurrection and rebel f.
A hill to authorise the empthyment of vohmteers for
enforcing the taws and pmtecupg public property. ,
A bill to therms!! the present - military establishment
of the United States. •
. -
A bill providing for the better organisation of the
A hill to promote the efficiency of the army. '
' A bill for organizing a volunteet militia force. [lOO,OOOl
to be called the Natioital Guard of the United States.
'Chandler has offered a tinge. confiscate the pm`perty of
all rebels hding civil office, and of military men abovo
the rank of - lieutenant.
'Or An Infamourgag•rnic has been sprung alum the
tiouse la cut odall knee proposals.
• , rarllie Comet which flret'appOnid about the last,of
Anne. Is still vitible near the north stir. It Ls moving
with great velocity from the sun, rindtowards our zenith.
tall foremost. It caught the astronomers asleep. but le
raid to be that of Charles the Fifth, of Prance, A. D.. 1 it.
=` 'TREASON'.—"We hope never to live in a repub
lie whereof one meettort is pinned to the residue by bayou
Vff — Abotit 100 persons are priaOn ab Waßhington city
charged Atith political ottenscA.
Ve"" A hank In Georp;•ta havinz: money in the mint. at
Philadelphia, the Secretary or the . 'rreasury, notitird the
attihneltiee not to pay It oTer. • .
L'49"Tho ?Tench, like the End Hob government. intrtni
to maintain the 6trieteNt neutrality between the United
and Confederau Mates of America.
glirThe prize brig iloitertno. , taiceu near Charleston,
was brought Into New York on the 3d.
virTßAtroxi9.-4n fai4rara - 11 h/Cr_4l l 4 Cham
voted, In Congress, to dissolve au Union. They area
Abraham's bosom. now. and he had betterbovrare for no
traitor can ever be trusted by their vicuna. -
M - Friends of Grow Mime that his election to the
fipeakervhip was attempted to b4' prevented by a . eorrupt
nee of the Piwtoffhw appointment( by the Efalra. and.
Forney's tricks. True or not, Prow gained by nec of
the charge againet lit rival Thule; -
' la dlaunion."—.D;uoae tut *perch in S,-mate
Majoi General McCall .has issued an
order directing each"of the litteen -llegi
menp of the *time Volunteer cores of
PennsYlvania, - to be rai4ed at.otice to the
minitntuu - army standard of 10411 officers
and'lnen.` A ,force of nearly 4000 with
thus be this -already large and
effective A0:5 4 ' •