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[From the New York Citizen].
AMERICA TO IRELAND.
BY JAMES A. CLAKK.
i not I'm get thee, Old Ireland, now
:1 d.iv-stai illumines thy borders,
of .submission expires in a vow
, 11. as thy girdle of waters !
. ,-j t!u Shamrock are flourishing here,
i, , h"ii"i the heroes who bore them,
- i; ' i:. Mulligan, Corcoran and Meaglier,
:1k l- ••! lire wt lit before tliem.
■t the Lion is heard in the night,
• i. drinks from the depths of thy fountains ;
.tries a pluming their pinions for flight
• i t tli. crag- ol Columbia's mountains !
~iil fall on tin- Lion with talons of steel,
W! a. the vnv-civ is raised by tlieir brothers ;
id strike, end tilt power of the tyrant shall
v ; tie pangs be lias meted to others ! [reel
... t tl: time when the spirit of Moore,
tin tl. pie bo ze, moved in thy bowers,
umcd • vi i v garden and glen of thy shore
i it bl u-suim I with liberty's flowers!
: j.. iiish ii t U'i'.v lor the Summer of Song,
Lo! the autumn wind over thee rages ; •
tii! is ai>- all r.-iidy, the reapers are strong,
\ml tin y rush to the harvest of ages!
•Ik I:, ill' thy -olden hc.il- ntitigl. s with gray.
And thy blue ey.-s ale swimming in sorrow :
the millions who mock at thy Visions to-day.
Will vie-v thee in wonder to-monow ;
i i shalt rise from the anguish now rending thy
i i ill hark the shorter with scorning, [breast,
. \ night shall be lit by the Stars of the West,
,t breaks into Freedom's full morning!
rHE BATTLE-FIELD OF GETTYS-'
1 • .LI UIC AND AC TUATE PIC'TTKE.
/ ,• Editor of the Press:
.-p.: I have just returned from a visit to
ys irg, and •! you choose to accont
i.y ii a long ramble over the field and
it wiiiit a participant in the battle has
- iy, well aud good. In the main, "1
i tie story as 'twas told to ine but it
mi to say anything new* upon a theme
•ily haekuied. You newspaper people
..ive. I know, what most people have a
. if—long articles; therefore, "for)
your readers should grow skittish," j
■ o.ive my full permission to abbreviate, j
or omit, tit your pleasure. As-1
tg this article, then, to have escaped !
i'e - J your waste-paper basket, start |
ine on litis line November morning,
.i the Einuiettsburg road, for our com-!
iiiuii itud guide we have Captain A. F. I
• a\ mi l, a gallant and accomplished young |
iliver, who served all through, from York- i
; wn to lVtersbui'g, and for nearly two!
r.-ars on tiie .stall of Major General Hum
A! out a mile on we halt. The Captain
> \ iw | I >i-gin to feel at home.
me take ;tn observation, as these leti
- vo'ic not here then. All right, I've got
w. Do y.u see that big walnut on the i
o\( r there? That was Gen. Hum-;
ys headquarters on the morning of
i .-lay, July 2d. Almost worn out with !
inarching, 1 was aroused from my |
aiy i iv..uac at daylight, and ordered to \
1 filghniaii's regiment—the 26th ;
■>; vania—on picket along here. La
th- day, the right of our division, j
- brigade, held this brick house. Fur-,
i ■! ova was posted Tnrnbull's battery, I
low that barn, stood Lieut. See-i
id -till further towards our left the '
- ..I Birney's division, under Living-I a
a tli, Randolph, Clark and \\ inslow. j
a them all, for never were guns
• '■■• l more beautifully. All suffered i
'; i\—Seeley's especially. He had
y 1 man or horse left standing, and j
niseif severely wounded. He was a
• uit -fficer, and had risen from the;
■-* X ivv go with me into that orchard.
• A • ' t-> find a certain apple-tree which
1 :i - a reiidezvouse during the day for i
lli-'i-rs and out orderlies. Atone pc
'•t.inding under it, with Captains
. hrey ; and McClellan, a shell exploded
B't •-, killing thn •• of our poor order- -
■ sides striking my h use." \\ e found
•■'"••—Us limbs were shattered, and the
5- ut 2 o'clock the whole 3d Corps
" "'it in line-of battle over the open i
1. and a more magnificent spectacle '
'o .i.-, valor rolling on the foe,' 1 never
■-s'.'d. Awny over on that bare spot •
" ; iig ground the rebels had planted two
with which they enfiladed our
in", fairly sweeping it from right to
I-' id ! how they pitched it into us ! i
k'Mree'.s's infantry debouched from
A 'ls, and in a short time all around
vv are standing—to the right, left
h :| nt—along this road, through that
bard, away down toward Round
j, ' h'.iirs the battle raged. General
s ivas wounded near that large barn.
I r*. tneiiiber this spot of ground. •
heiiind that stone-fence, that 1
• " nil red to post Colonel Burling's !
I, y " Gn my way back, 1 passed the
■ 'a. !!. gt., then commanded by my
Lieut Col. F. F. Cavada. It had
■ ""ii ordered to an advanced position
•' ." ' |he road. 1 road up ancl shook
with my brother. "Good-bye Fred,
d lor yourself; you are going* into a
■" and are sure to cateh it." So it
th-'rx i' U o ''Gh, io conneotioa with
, ' ' oiuisyivania, Col. Tippin, had a
A hgm (,} amj | uß [ heavily. Mv i
E. O. (i(K)lalien, Pnblislior.
brother and his brigade commander, Gen.
Graham, were both taken prisoners, the
latter severely wounded. 1 never saw the
rebels fight with such diabolical fury. The
most murderous fire- canister, shrapnel,and
musketry—was poured into their very faces
us it were, but nothing stopped them. The
3d Corps, those heroes of Chancellorsville,
and other bloody fields, led by Birney, Hum
phreys, i>e Trobriand, Ward, Graham and
Oarr—never fought more heroically.
A word of criticism here. At one period
of the battle, Birney, being hard pressed,
called upon Gen. Sykes, in command of the
sth Corps, for assistance. Sykes had been or
dered to aid the 3d if called upon, but he re
turned for answer that he " would be up in
time—that his men were tired and were
making coffee !" They did come up in
about an hour, and, says Gen. Warren, in
his testimony, " the troops under General
Sykes arrived barely in lime to save Round
Top, and they had a very desperate tight to
hold it." And again of the operations next
day. " When the repulse took place, Gen.
Meade intended to move forward and as
sault the enemy in turn. He ordered an
advance of the sth Corps, but it was car
ried on so slowly that it did not amount to
much, if anything." Gen. George Sykes is
a brave man, but entirely "too slow," so at
least Gen. Grant seemed to think, for in the
subsequent reorganization of the Army of
the Potomac, the services of "Tardy Geo.,"
No. 2, were dispensed with. The oth, as a
Corps, has a glorious record, and never
failed to fight bravely when properly han
To resume the captain's narrative. "As
the afternoon wore on the pressure became
greater and greater, until at last our whole
corps, with the exception of Carr's brig
ade and a few other regiments, were hurled
down the slope, broken and discomfited,the
rebels following in hot pursuit. Our losses
were frightful. In our division, of 5,000
men, or loss was nearly 2,000." " Well,
Captain, you saw must of the heavy light
ing done by this army, tell me, were you
ever in a hotter place than this?" "Never
but once —and that reminds me of a little
story. In the attack upon the enemy's po
sition at the first Fredericksburg, our divi
sion was ordered to storm the heights. As
we were preparing to move, Gen. Hum
phreys—always a very polite man—turned
round to his staff, and in his blandest man
ner remarked, ' Young gentlemen, 1 intend
to lead this assault, and shall be happy to
have the pleasure of your company.' Of
course, the invitation was too polite to be
declined. Tiiat was the roughest place I
ever was in, and I can't conceive, even to
this day, how any of us ever got back
1 alive." Our division lost nearly 1.100 men
in about fifteen minutes. In this clump of
bushes my horse received a second wound,
and fell dead under inc. I managed to
scramble over the ridge, where our men
were being rallied, and soon after the sun
went down and the rebels were beaten
back beyond the load."
" Capt. Chester, of our military family,
was seen to go down in the melee, and after
night-fall a party started out in search of
him. We found him near that large flat
rock, alive, but greviously wounded. His
horse and faithful orderly both lay dead he
side him, and across his legs a rebel sol
dier, whom he had killed with his revolver,
while in the act of plundering him of his
watch. He was taken up tenderly, and
conveyed to the hospital on Rock creek,
where lie died next day.
" With heavy hearts we now set about
the task of burying such of our poor fel
lows as were within reach. Always the
saddest of a soldier's duties, it was pecul
iarly so upon this occasion, for all felt that
the rising sun Would bring with it a repe
tition of this day's horrors, and that, per
haps, at this hour to-morrow, some com
rade might be performing this same sad of
fice for us.
' "Few aud short were the prayers we said.
And we spoke not a word of sorrow.
As we steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead, I
And bitterly thought on the tnorrme."
In the course of the day we paid a visit !
to Mr. S her ley's house, where we were
niost hospitably received. This house
stands about the centre of the field, and is
riddled, from garret to basement. Traces I
of the conflict are to be seen on every side, !
including the hist resting-place of many !
poor Southerners. Mr. Sherfey's barn was j
burnt during the figlri, and some of the j
wounded who sought refuge there perished ;
in the flames. " These," said Mrs. Sherfey, I
producing some tin cans, "contain peaches j
that were growing in our orchard over;
there at the time of the battle. These are !
my trophies." In the front garden grows !
the beautiful shrub known as the " burning
bush," luxuriant with its crop of bright red j
berries, typical of the blood shed at its !
roots. " Take some of the berries with j
you and plant them," said the kind old la-!
dy ; " they will grow anywhere, and will 1
be pleasant mementoes of Gettysburg."
We next made our way to Little Round |
Top, where we had the pleasure of meeting j
Colonel Batchelder. This gentleman is en- i
gaged in collecting the details of .the bat
tle, and will, no doubt, produce a book of
equal interest with his great map. I was
sorry to hear him say that he intends des
ignating this as " Weed's Hill," in honor of
the general who fell on its top. Honor to
t.ie memory of the brave man in some other
way, Colonel, but don't seek to change this |
name. As " Littl; Round Top " it has al-'
ways passed into history, and so it will be !
known forever. There are few finer views
of the whole field than from this point, and
here took place the closest and most san
guinary fighting of Thursday. In front and
to the right the sth Corps had a heavy
thing of it. On the height fought two of
the noblest soldiers of the army, Vincent!
and Rice. The former laid down his life
here, the latter at Spottsylvania the year
after. All the little stone walls thrown up
between the huge boulders are still here.
In fact, nothing is changed. Would that
this could be said of other parts of the field.
Inscriptions upon the rocks mark the spots
where Vincent and Ilazlett fell. Here, too,
at the early age of twenty-five, fell that
accomplished soldier, Col. O'Ronke, of the
150 th New York. Graduating at the head
of his class, two years before, he was at
once assigned to duty in the field, and soon
became distinguished for his reckless and
impetuous courage. He was struck while
mounting upon a rock gallantly animat
ing his men. Fortunately, the extreme
left was field by that splendid regiment the
20th Maine, then under the command of
TOWANDA, BRADFORD COUNTY, PA., DECEMBER 14, 1865.
: Col. Chamberlain, afterwards one of Sheri
i dan's heroes of the Five Forks. Firing
| away their last cartridge, Chamberlain or
j dered his regiment to charge down the
hill, and succeeded in clearing its sides
i with the bayonet. The remarkable ledge
!of rocks known as the "Devil's Den," di
| rectly opposite Round Top, was occupied
' by the enemy's sharpshooters, one of whom
J had a safe position within the cleft and
picked off our men with fatal accuracy.
The face or the boulder behind which lie
lay is covered with marks of the minnies
sent at him. One even " went for him"
clean through the crevice, but missed. He
was finally dislodged by a charge, and es
caped through an opening to the rear.
Seven muskets, it is said, were found in his
; hiding place. There is room enough for
f fifty. On the slope in front of this den lie
| bleaching the bones of rebel dead, washed
j out by the rains. The scene of Crawford's
| charge, with our superb Pennsylvania Re
! serves, was to the right and in front of
i Little Round Top. Brigadier Gen. Zook
! and Colonel Jeflards—the lattrr of the 4th
I Michigan—were killed in the field beyond.
| Col. Jeffards was killed by a bayouet
! thrust, while gallantly holding up with his
J own hands the colors of his regiment. Near
; that ploughed field, charging at the head
lof his brave " Bucktails," fell our Chester
I county neighbor, Col Frederick Taylor,
j No death in the whole army was more sin
i cerely mourned.
"Mauy the ways that lead to death, hut few
: Grandly; and one alone is glory's gate,
Standing wherever free men dare their fate,
i Determined, as thou icert, to die—or do!"
We now proceed along the line held by
us on Friday, Co!. B. politely acting as
i guide. In that little grove, close to our
lines, fell the rebel General Barksdalc on
Thursday. This violent, brawling rebel
| started in search of "hit rights," and this
little pile of stones here marks the spot
where he is presumed to have found them.
It is said he was drunk when he started on
the charge, and this may account for his
j headlong, reckless bravery. True or not,
"the story's still extant." Here in the
i thickest of the fight, exposing himself like
a common soldier, the gallant Hancock rc
| ceived his wound. That advanced line of
; works was held by the Vermont brigade.
It was commanded by Gen. Stannard, who
subsequently gave an arm to the cause on
the James. A pile of knapsacks, just as
they were unslung, still lie mouldering
here —on one the inscription " 16th Ver
mont " is still visible. Even now the debris
of battle—hats, shoes, cartridge-boxes,
bayonet scabbards, canteens, Ac.--lie scat
tered all over the field. Next we come to
the position held by the " Philadelphia
Brigade," composed of the 69th—"Paddy
Owens' regulars the 72d, Baxter's Zou
aves, and that splendid fighting regiment,
the 71st, or California, commanded origin
ally by the lamented Baker, and subse
quently by our gallant fellow-townsmen, I
Colonels John Markoe and K. Penn Smith. |
This brigade—veteran fighters, every man 1
of them—was led upon this occasion by a
gallant New Yorker, Brigadier Gen. Webb, ;
and nobly was the honor of both cities sus- i
tained. Would that 1 had it in my power I
to particularize all the organizations con- j
spicous for courage and conduct in this
great battle, but that would be to mention ,
almost every regiment, battery and squad- j
ron engaged. From here we have an ex- i
cedent view of Seminary Ridge, the line of !
woods whence the rebels issued, and the
beautiful level fields over which they swept 1
in their grand charge. This certainly is i
the most magnificent battle-field in the |
world. The heights of La Belle Alliance j
and Mount Saint Jean in some respects re- j
semble our Cemetery and Seminary Ridges, 1
with the same gentle, undulating valley in- i
tervexiing ; but at Waterloo the principal !
road runs at right angles, while hero, par- '
allel with the position. Speaking of the j
bombardment which preceded the charge, ,
that experienced soldier, Gen. Hancock, :
says : " It was the most terrific cannonade !
I ever witnessed, and the most prolonged." j
A rebel eye-witness describing it, says : 1
" I have never yet heard such tremendous J
artillery firing. The very earth shook be- j
neatli our feet, and the hills and rocks j
seemed to reel like a drunken man. For
one hour and a half this most terrific firing
was continued, during which time the
shrieking of shells, the erash of falling
timber, the fragments of rock flying through j
the air, shattered from the eliffs by solid
shot ; the heavy mutterings from the val- !
ley between the opposing armies, the I
splash of bursting shrapnel, and the fierce I
neighiug of wounded artillery horses, made i
a picture terribly grand and sublime." At- j
ter this came the charge. Our eighty guns,
planted on the crest from Cemetery Hill to j
Round Top, "volleyed and thundered," and, I
when the infantry joined in the chorus, so
terrible was the tire that tore through them
that the rebel columns presented the extra
ordinary spectacle of ten thousand men
playing at " leap-frog !" In spite of every
effort, tin; flower of Lee's veterans, directed
by tried leaders such as Garnett, Armstead,
Kemper, Wright, Posey and Mahone, failed
in.carrying our position, although at one
or two points they charged up to, and even
over it. " What other than Southern troops
would have made that charge?" Ay, sir,
but what other than Northern troops would
have met and repulsed it ? Northern en
durance, upon this occasion was too much
for Southern impetuosity and dash. "There
swung the pine against the palm." In the j
hi oody ruck hundreds of their best officers !
went down. It was the turning point ofi
the grand drama, and with the sun, on that
3d day of July, went down the sun of "the
Confederacy" forever ! Although known
as "Pickett's charge," (Jen. Graham, whom
I met here yesterday, informs me that Pick
ett himself was not in it. He describes
him as a coarse, brutal fellow, and says he
treated him with the greatest inhumanity
after the battle, whilst wounded, and a
prisoner in his hands. The rebel corps ;
commanders either did not expose them
selves as freely as our own, or they had
better luck, for none were hit, whilst we
lost one, Reynolds, killed ; and two, Han
cock and Sickles, wounded. The story
told in Hlacforood, by Col. Freemantle, of
the British army, who was present, may
help to explain it. He says, that carried
away by excitement, lie rushed up to Long
street, who was sitting on a fence "quietly
whittling a stick," whilst watching the
charge, and said, " Gen. Longsireet, isn't
this splendid ; 1 wouldn't have missed it
for the world !" " The d—l you wouldn't,"
REGARDLESS OF DENUNCIATION FROM ANY QUARTER.
replied Longstreet ; " why don't you see
we are getting licked like h—l !" We now
crossed the Baltimore pike, calling on our
way at the small frame building, on the
Taneytowu road, used as the headquarters
of Gen. Meade on Friday. This will al
ways be a point ol great interest. The
house is sadly shattered, and the poor
widow who owns it complains bitterly of
her losses. " When I comes home, my
house was all over blood ; the 'sojers' took
away all my coverlits and quilts, two tons
of hay, they spiled my spring, my apple
trees and every ding." She says a couple
of hundred dollars would be a great help to
her, and thinks she should get "from some
veros." Sure enough, why shouldn't the
poor woman get it? In the garden of a
cottage in the little village of Watertoo
the visitor is shown the monument erected
over the Marquis ol Auglesea's leg, and
the poor peasant has made quite a little
fortune by exhibiting the boot cut from the
leg, and tlie table upon which the amputa
tion was performed. This hint might not
be thrown away upon a more enterprising
person, but 1 doubt if this poor, old, frowsy
German woman will ever profit by it. To
the right of Cemetery Hill was stationed the
battery so furiously assaulted by Hays'
brigade of Louisiana Tigers. The lunettes
and traverses remain undisturbed, and
The little eminence in front was held,
and with distinguished honor, by that con
scientious and patriotic soldier, Brigadier
Gen. Wadsworth. The* works thrown up
by our men on Culp's Hill are still to be
seen, except such portion of the timber as
is being removed by* the owner of the
ground. Only think of the meanness of
the man who is pulling to pieces these
monuments, and converting the timber in
to fence rails and cord-wood ! The effect
of the furious lire poured upon Ewell's
swarming columns is visible enough.—
Hardly a rock or a tree in front of these
works has escaped. Many of the trees are
covered and scarred with bullets as high
as fifty* feet from the ground. There was
"wild," as well as deadly shooting here on
that fearful Thursday night and Friday
morning. Along this rough, rocky hill
fought our own Geary, oud that distin
guished Rhode Islander, Brigadier General
Green. Five months after, at the desper
ate midnight battle of Wahatchie, in Look
out Valley, this indomitable fighting officer
only* added to the laurels already gained at
Autietam and Gettysburg. An inscription
on a tree blose by tells the story of a large
mound in the ravine below : " To the right
lie buried forty-five rebels!" From here
we struck across to the scene of the first
day's fight. In the following communica
tion to Governor Curtin, General Cutler
tells us how the battle opened : "I owe a
duty to one of your regiments, the 56th,aud
its brave commander, Colonel J. \V. Hof
mann. It was my fortune to be in the ad
vance on the morning of July Ist. The at
mospnere being a little thick, I took out
my glass to examine the enemy, being a
few paces in front of Colonel If., he turned
to me and inquired, ' Is that the enemy ?'
My reply was ' Yes.' Turning to his men,
he commanded, ' Ready—right oblique—
aim—fire !' and the battle of Gettysburg
was opened. The fire was followed by
other regiments instantly, still, that battle
on the soil of Pennsylvania was opened by
her own son?, and it is just that it should
become a matter of history." Here is the
ground fought by our brave cavalrymen,
under Pleasauton, Buford, Kilpatrick,
Farnswortli, Merrit, Custer and Gregg.
Never, in any preceding campaign, had
the cavalry of this army rendered such dis
tinguished and invaluable service. To
meet the enemy was to overthrow them,
until, at last, it was only with the greatest
difficulty that Stuart could get his men to
stand at all. The next point reached was
the scene of the bloody* though unavailing
struggle of the Ist and lltli Corps. The
marks of battle still abound, but the inter
est centres in the spot where Reynolds was
killed. The General was nearly up with
the skirmish-line—no place, say military
men, for a corps commander ; " but that
was just like John Reynolds and he had
just dispatched several of his aids, Capts.
Baird, Rosengarteu and Riddle, on some
special duties, and was himself watching
the deployment of a brigade of Wisconsin
troops, when the fatal bullet, fired by a
sharpshooter, struck him in the neck and
he fell off his horse dead. Poor Reynolds !
"There liavo been tears ami breaking hearts for
We now stand in the National Cemetery,
on Cemetery Hill. Who can stand unmoved
in this silent city of the dead. Here repose
the precious offerings laid upon the altar of
the country by the loy il States. Ordinarilly
the filling uu of a cemetery is slow work—
the work of years. Three, dags sufficed to
Jill this.' And what is the reward of those
brave men for their weeks of weary march
ing aud days and nights of fearful fighting!
"Two paces of the vilest earth !" Here
they lie, "those demi-gods !" of the rank
and file. "Unknown !" "unknown !" the on
ly epitaph of hundreds. Yes, here they
lie. "massed" with beautiful military preci
sion, rank upon rank, as if awaiting the
order to appear in review before the Great
Coniuiauder-iu-chief of us all !
"Up many a fortress wall
They charged—those boys in blue ;
Mid surging smoke and volleying tint I
The bravest were the first to fall—
To fall for w ami yoe
Who can ever forget those terrible days
of July. That period of agonizing sus
And when the news did come, Oh, how
that sad catalogue pulled upon the heart
strings ! Reynolds, Zcok, Farnswortli,
Card, Weed, Jeffards, Taylor, Arrowsniith,
O'Rourke, Lowery, Cross, Hazlett, Vincent,
Devereaux, Williard, Adams, Miller
Period of honor as of woes,
What bright careers 'twas thine to close!
Mark'd on thy roll of blood what names.
To Freedom's memory, and to Fame's
Laid there their last immortal claims!"
So ends my story of Gettysburg.
PHIT.ADELHHIA, Nov.. 1865. (I. ,1. <l.
TWICE RUINED.—"I never was mined but
twice," said a wit: "once when I Inst a lawsuit.and
once when I gained one."
WHY is a person annoyed by n fool like
one who fall into the sea ?—Because, he is a man
A YOUNG lady atNiagra was heard to ex
claim : "What an elegant trimming that rainbow
would make for a white lace dress!"
REPORT OF THE COMPTROLLER OF THE
The facts presented in the report of the
Comptroller of the Currency will surprise
the country and damage a great many the
ories and propositions for the reduction of
the amount of paper money afloat. The
theories have all assumed that the amount
of paper in circulation was a thousand mil
lions, and their calculations are based on
that sum. But it is not shown that while
the whole available currency of the country,
State and national bank notes, and Treas
ury notes of all grades, is nine hundred
and sixty millions, the amount actually in
circulation on the first of last October was
less than four hundred and sixty-one mil
lions. This fact will be a serious blow to
the financial theories of those learned lei
lows who have so persistently urged an im
i mediate reduction of the currency as the
! grand cure for the evil of high prices. It
S is also shown that the amount of national
i bank notes in circulation is smaller than
| any estimates have made it It has been
• thought that there were alloat ten millions j
i in excess of the three hundred millions au- ;
j tliorized by law. But instead of this there j
i are hardly bonds enough deposited to en- :
! title those institutions to issue two hundred j
1 and forty-five millions, thus leaving a large ,
| balance in their favor.
The Comptroller enters extensively into j
the discussion of the several questions |
which bear upon the condition of the cur- i
fency. Like the Secretary of the Treasury, j
he has a great deal to say about contract-:
ion. He recommends that the National I
Banking law be so amended that the banks '
! shall be required to redeem their notes at j
I par at the three great business centres — j
i 'New-York, Boston and Philauelphia. This'
j question has already been very extensively ;
j advocated in some financial circles, and op-1
| posed in others, and now goes before Con- j
; gross with the official endorsement of the j
i government banking officer He also urg- j
J es the reduction of the government issues !
' of paper, and proposes to commence it by
| the conversion of all the interest-bearing
i legal tender notes into live-twenty six per
j cent bonds. This, he argues, caiqbe done i
i without affecting the money market, inas- j
| much as there is not more than five per
] cent, of that issue now in active circulation, j
1 he great hulk being held as an investment, i
i it would be simply exchanging one class of!
; securities for another. While lie favors '
this reduction in the government issues, he j
also recommends an increase of the amount ;
I of the national bauk notes to four hundred 1
I millions. In effecting this he would require '
; a reduction of the regular legal tender !
j notes to an amount more than equivalent I
!to the increase in bauk currency. The pol- j
j icy of the financial officers of the govern- !
| ineut evidently is to leave the question of j
! supplying paper currency to the banks ex
j elusively at as early a period as possible,
j This recommendation of the Comptroller is
no doubt the initiatory step in this policy.
It it receives the endorsement ol Congress
it will be gradually put into operation; but
all must admit that the legal tenders can
; not be withdrawn until we again approach
; specie payments, which we must, by the
: very nature of things, necessarily be at
j some distant day in the future.
There is one other proposition in this re
port that will no doubt attract considerable
attention and be the subject of discussion.
That is a plan for the payment of the na
tional debt. Mr. Clarke gives it as his be
lief that there can be raised from a few
sources of revenue sufficient to meet the
interest on the public debt,pay the ordinary
expenses of the government, and contribute •
an amount annually towards a sinking fund
which will pay our entire national debt in
thirty-two years,and at the same time abol
ish the income tax. This will no doubt as
tonish those growlers who have been claim
ing that we can never pay our debt and
that repudiation is inevitable. But he pro
poses to do this by adjusting our tariff,tax
ing cotton, whiskey, malt liquors, domestic
wines, tobacco, stamps and licenses, and
abolishing all others. As this mode would
be less felt by the taxpayer than the pres
ent system we presume that it will be pop
ular among a large class of the Northern
people. But it will at the same time abol
ish a large army of officials, in the shape of
assessors and collectors, and there may be
some question as to which class, the tax
payers or the taxgatherers, will have the
greatest influence in Congress.
The question which has already been
raised in many of the Northern Legislatures
in regard to taxing United States securities,
and tiiat has entered to a greater or less
extent into the political canvass of some
of the States, is dwelt upon quite exten
sively, and a mode pointed out by which
Ihe whole difficulty can be adjusted in a
few years without danger to the public
faith. Taken altogether this is an encour
aging exhibit, and has many features to
commend it to the people and to Congress.
It shows that the Department lias been ad
ministered with a view to protect the pub
lic interests rather than for the special ben
efit of bank speculators.
THE TREASURY REPORT-
The report of the Secretary of the Treas
ury is a comprehensive review of the iinan- i
cial situation, in which he freely expresses
his views and makes such suggestions to
Congress as he considers best calculated to
gradually emancipate the country from the
evils inseperable from an enormous nation
al debt and an inflated and depreciated cur
rency. He moralizes like one who, dislik
j ing liis surroundings,sighs for some Utopia
[ which he knows to be beyond his reach. i
He regrets the plethora of paper money, i
I and sees that it is undermining the morals
' of the people by encouraging waste and
| extravagance, and the only remedy, in his
i opinion, is a reduction of the currency. But
j elsewhere he qualifies bis opinion by saying
j that a very rapid reduction of it would be
' disastrous, though there is no reason to ap
• prehend that any policy which Congress
i may adopt will cause such a rapid reduct
j ion of prices as to produce very serious
j embarrassments to trade, and that the in
! tluences of funding upon the money market
: will sufficiently prevent the too vapid with
i drawal of legal tenders,
f He estimates that the public debt will
| amount on the Ist of July next to three
thousand millions, but the unsettled and ac
cruing claims against the government can
not now be computed. Meanwhile he ob
| serves that if the expenditures for the re-
#3 per Annum, in Advance.
maiiiing three-quarters of the present fiscal
year prove equal to the estimates there will
be a deficiency to be provided for by loans
of $112,194,947, exclusive of $32,536,901 of
five per cent notes, a portion of which is
now in process of redemption. Hence he
asks for power to sell six per cent bonds
to provide the means of meeting the defi
! ciency, as well as to retire compound inter
est notes, as they mature, and plain legal
tenders. Ho cannot understand how the
funding of currency can fail to reduce
prices ; but the example of it which he has
already furnished has shown that at least
it does not effect the price of gold, while,
without lowering the price of the neces-.
saries of life, it exerts a depressing infiu- j
ence upon government securities. This is 1
because there is a public distrust of the j
worth of the remainder ol the currency as
compared with gold. He does not formally j
endorse the recommendation of the Comp-1
troller of the Currency for a further issue of!
national bank currency ; but be admits that \
the South is in great want of bank circulu-!
tion, and regrets that the North received I
the whole of the authorized three hundred '
millions. He recognizes his own powerless- !
ness, beyond a very narrow limit, when he ;
remarks that there is nioredauger to be a|e j
prehended from the inability of the govern
ment to reduce its circulation rapidly j
enough thai, lroui a too rapid reduction of |
it ; and it is in part to prevent a financial j
crisis that is certain to come without it that j
the Secretary recommends contraction. Lie I
places great reliance upon the revenue, and
suggests the propriety of funding tiie en-'
tire indebtedness of the nation into five per '
cent perpetual annuities, the interest ofj
which, supposing the debt to be three thou- j
sand millions, would be one hundred and '
fifty millions per annum. By the applica-|
tion of one hundred millions to the pay-1
ment of the principal, he shows that the j
debt would be extinguished in a little over j
Without entering into further details, ;
however, we may say that the report is, on 1
the whole, conservative, and calculated to |
soothe rather than excite apprehensions ofj
the adoption of radical measures.
THE REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR.
Secretary Stanton's report is important
in two points of view—first, as it relates
the history of the final events of the war,
and presents some remarkable facts in re
lation to that history ; and, second, as it j
shows the wonderful capabilities of the i
country for war, and indicates what we i
can do if suddenly called upon to defend i
our rights or assert the national dignity. I
In the latter view it glances quite directly j
at the Mexican question, and will reassure j
all those who regret that our army has
been so far disbanded while that question j
has not yet been brought to a definite issue.
The military history of the great cam- ;
paigns that gave ns the victory is left to i
General Grant ; the Secretary is satisfied j
to state results in that respect ; but he j
bears with natural emphasis on the rapid
change brought about through his depart-,
ment from war to peace—on the noiseless,
effective, almost immediate obliteration of;
a vast army which the theorists of the Old :
World had declared would in the hour of
victory prove more dangerous to our liber j
ties than the rebellion it had been required !
to put down. " The national military force,"
says the report " on the first of May, 1865, I
numbered one million five hundred and six- j
teen men. It is proposed to reduce the j
military establishment to fifty thousand i
troops, and over eight hundred thousand
have already been mustered out of service.''
The military appropriations of the last <
session of Congress were over five hundred
millions of dollars. The military estimates
for the next year are less than thirty-four
millions. This is a result of victories that
the taxpayer can appreciate. Some of the j
figures given enable us to realize the en
ormous expenditures incident to au srruy
of a million men. Thus a large slice of
the national debt is well accounted lor
when we learn that more than a thousand
million dollars have been paid to the sol
diers. Two hundred and seventy millions
weie taken home by the eight hundred
thousand men lately mustered out. Some 1
of the draft figures have also considerable
interest. The number of men asked for by
government to put down the rebellion was,
on all calls together, 2,759,049, and the ■
number of men actually brought out was
only 102,496 short of this. This deficiency
was not from failure, but occnred rbecause
the recruiting was stopped by the end of
What the Secretary says as to our abili
ty to organize another army, if circumstan
ces should require it, has a national inter- .
est at the present time. He states that
the estimate for the army, as given above,
"is believed to be adequate for anj* nation
al exigency, if the country should be bless
ed with peace. The reduction of the na- i
tioual military force, in its rapidity and
numbers, is without example, and if theie
be any alarm in the public mind because j
this reduction is made while grave ques
tions at home and abroad are unsettled, a !
brief consideration of the subject will show
that there is no cause for apprehension." |
The Secretary then runs over the facts that
the troops disbanded were volunteers, who
t came out originally to support the govern
ment ; that there struggles in its cause
have not lessened their love for it, and
that "a foreign war would intensify the
national feeling, and thousands once mis-
Jed, would rejoice to atone their error by
rallying to the national tlag." The only
question relating to troops is one with res
pect to how soon we could raise them.—
" Our experience on this point," says the
j report "is significant. When Lee's army
surrendered thousands of recruits weie
pouring in, and men were discharged from
stations in every State. On several oc
casions.when troops were promptly needed
to avert impending disaster, vigorous ex
ertion brought them into the field from re
mote States with incredible speed. Official
reports show that after the disasters on
the Peninsula, in 1862, over eighty thous
and troops were enlisted, organized, armed,
equipped and sent into the field in less than
a month. Sixty thousand troops have re
peatedly gone to the field within four weeks.
Ninety thousand infantry were sent to the
armies from the five States of Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, lowa and Wisconsin within twenty
days." And it is shown that in all other
■ respects we are as ready for war as we
■ were before our vast army went home.
These facts will make the report very
j interesting to Maximillian and to his friends
[in France. Tn all respects it is an impor
tant document, aricf will especially be re
cognized in its groupings of facts as a va.
nable contribution towards the history 4'
HEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF IN
The report of the Commissioner of Inter
nal Revenue is an interesting and impor
tant document. The <'onimissioner speaks
in favorable terms of tiie patience of Un
people under the burden of taxation, ami
shows from statistics that the aggregate
receipts have for the past fiscal year been
largely above those of the jrevious y<. r
The following statement exhibits the
amount of receipts from internal 1 venue
for the past three years -Receipts for '63
(ten months), $41,003,192; 1864, $1 16,850,-
072; 1805, $211,129,52*. The * ''WnmissLn
er says the actual cost of assessing and
collecting the internal revenue will amount
to two and three-quarters per cent >1 the
receipts. The actual annual cost h i tin
collection of the customs amounts to three
and one-half per cent of the receipts, which
is ranch helow the cost of collecting the
customs ill Great Britain. Among the ar
ticles from which the internal revenue ol
the United States is derived it may be in
teresting to enumerate the following :
Bank dividends, £3,987,200 ; railroad divi
dends and interest on bonds, $3,258,404; in
surance companies, $1,725,170 ; salaries i
persons employed by the government, $2,-
837,333; revenue stamps, $11,172,302 —be-
ing more than double that of the previous
year; licences, $12,605,091; incomes, $20.-
577,340, or about six millions more than in
1804. Of the amount collected from in
comes in 1803 $279,333 wore returned at
five per cent upon incomes above t n thou
-1 sand dollars, 8172,770 at three per cent up
ion incomes of less than ten thousand d -i
lars, and $3,037 upon incomes from Unit*- i
States securities. Of that collected in 'O4
$6,913,834 were returned at live p"r ce; .
$7,930,070 at thice per cent, and 876,373
at one and one-half per cent. (Ji that col
lected in 1805 $801,941 w< i- returned l
ten per cent, $9,934,748 at live per cent,
$9,797,245 at three per cent, and $133,402
at one and one-half per cent The receipts
from iron and steel, in the various n>rms
specifically named, were $9,219,713, -i
i nearly six millions more than the previous
year ; from refined petroleum and coal oil.
: $3,047,212,1 eing an increase of about sßoc
; 000 over 1864 ; cigars. $3,079,44$ tobacco,
$8,017,119; fermented liquors, $3,747.0'Ji :
distilled spirits, $15,995,733, or trvay ti.i
teeL millions less than the previous y ar
The Commissioner devotes a considerable
portion of his report to explaining way the
• the receipts from distilled spirits, w in
| tax of two dollars per gallon, ar - - inn i
1 less than they were when the tax u- ; ■ ! ir
I sixty cents per gal on. Tiie receipt- f r
j the current fiscal year are "estimated t<
reach $272,000,U00, ti about sixty u>illi< -
more than last year. The Commissioner
suggests an alteration in tin- mode of ap
pointing assistant assessors, nrg. s an in
crease in their compensation, as well as in
that of the clerks employed in the Liter, t
Revenue Bureau. An additional allowance
for office rent is also recommended Tin
Commissioner suggests several amendments
in relation to stamp duties,tin- duties ol th
Tax Commissioners, and other cii uige. A
the law, whereby doubtful points , m bi
FUN, FACTS AND FACET!®.
" It is never to late to mend," as the >ld
laily said when she sat vj> until 12 v. m. i •-! -
her husband's stockings.
\\ HV is the letter It the embodiment !
every American patriot's wish :—Bt-canse it is tV
end of war and the commencement i-t ii ,iii ■
"Do you like codfish bails, Mr. Wiggin
Mr. Wiggin, hesitatingly : - I t allv don i kn>-.
Miss ; I don't recollect attending dm-. ''
" Pa, how many legs has a ship A
ship lias no legs, my child." "Why.pa, tL•• jmjiei
says she draws twenty feet, and runs befor- th,
It was told Lord Chesterfield that -. lady,
who was a great teimagant.was married to .. gain, -
ster ; on which his lordship said "that cards
brimstone made the best match, ■. "
" What do you ask for that ariich in
quired Obediali of a young Miss. "Fifteen -hi]
lings. "Ain't you a little dear ?'' "Why L
replied, blushing, "all th, young linn t, II me
A voi xo man in conversation one ev< nil g
chanced to remark, "I am 110 prophet!" "Tru,.
replied a lady present, "no profit t- yours, 't' • i
any one else."
A I'leaveland paper advises tin- ,*.ui
ties to "close the rum holes." 8 m- p> >pi. do it
as often as they shut their mouths.
He was a poetical chap who describes
ladies' lips as the "glowing gateway of beans, p.-ik
sourkrout and potatoes. "
It brooks are as poets cali thein.tl:,- mest
joyous things in nature, what are they ,dw .. -
"murmuring" about ?
Tiit: lies of unhappy marriages arc en. t
A man s boots sometimes becomes light
through absorbing watei- :h>. man tu-v,
An old bachelor is a traveler on lit, 's
railroad who has entirely failed lent: kc tin ; j,
A man that everybody knows to be a liat
may perhaps be excused lor lying, it se. u;s ;
him a vast deal of good, and nob. uy my Lin
Ann Maria Ltory was man Ad to B
Short. A very pleasant w y >.f n-.Aii.i- . St. .
lit; that would have no tioublc in this
world must not be bom in it.
Oi'PoßU'NlTiEs, like eggs, must hat,
od when they are fresh.
Thk husband that di vonivd his \\ ii, witii
kisses tonnd afterwards tb ,i sii- ,ii- n, ,-d v. ith
A tJfAKEK intending t. drink a glass ,1
; water, took up a small tumbler of gin. 11, did
not discover the mistake a ;til lie got behind tie
j door and swallowed the dose, when he lifted both
; hands and exclaimed : "Verily, 1 have taken in
wardly the balm < -i the world's p< oplc. What will
Abigail say when she smells my breath :
"My dear .Julia," said one girl to another,
"can you make up your mind to marry that editor,
Mr. Snuff?" "Why, my dear," Julia replied, "I
i believe I could take him at a : "
* Ff.w more appropriate'epitaphs than tie
common Latin one of ".>Vmd /'
i "I aiu what thou slialt be, I was what th>u : i t
An iukeeper observed ti postillion with
only one spur, au,l inquired 111, reason. Why.
what would be the use of anothei - ' said th-- | >•-
tilhon, "If one side of the horse goes the other
i can't stand still.
Shrewd was tin- reply ol tin- it. - r. win.
on being requested by a dervish to it liim ai -.
vor, saiii. "(In cut' condition I will - whati-ver
you require. "What is that : "Never t.> tsk ie.
At Nr Isabee —Beatrix will you have
some bread and butter.- 1 Jb-atrix —"No! Ai - t
Isabel— "Is that th, way to answ.-i ? No what
Beatrix "No bread and butt- .
A person's character depends ag- ,! i • :
upon his bringing up. For instance, a man who
- lias been brought up by the polio seldom 1 ens
A year of pleasure passes lik, a tinting
bree/.e, -ut a moment of pain seem .:i ag, of pain.
The light of friendship is like tin- light
of phosphorus —Been plainest when all around is