Bradford reporter. (Towanda, Pa.) 1844-1884, December 12, 1861, Image 1

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Thursday Morning, December 12, 1861.
JrpHrtmtnt Reports.
Report of the Secretary of War.
WAR DEPARTMENT, Dec. 1,1861.
g tR . I have the honor to submit the an
nua! report of this Department
The accompanying reports of the chiefs of
♦t, e several Bureaus present the estimates of the
inoropriations required for the service of this
n/pirtraent during the fiscal year ending June
30' iv} 3 and also the appropriations necessary
M caver deficiencies in the estimates for 1861
-62 :
Toe following statement presents the entire
estimated strength of the army, both volun
teers aud regulars :
STATS*. ~ * " '
3 mos. The war. Ag gate.
~ .... 4.038 4.689
CaHforo.a.. •••• W. 400 14.636
- 775 2.000 2,775
Delaware 4 GO.OOO 34,9*1
Indiana 19.800 20,768
S ::::::::::: -63 14,239 15.007
Ma*-' uusetts 3,435 26,760 30,195
WCUFPUI 781 28.550 29.331
Miiinrwitt 4.160 4,60
I y K ..,, ir i 9,356 22.130 31 436
VT* Hampshire 77'J 9,600 10,379
R J CR -T V 3.063 9.242 12.410
HE Yolk. 10,188 100.200 110.388
WILE bland 1.285 5.898 7.183
T'ernnmt 780 8,000 8,780
Vir-iaia 779 12.000 12,778
U i.iou-iin 792 12,153 14,945
j, 1.000 1.000
~ J,KE 2.500 2,500
; AIL 1.000 1.000
M.-x;,,. 1,000 1.000
eiriet of Columbia 2.823 1,000 3,823
Tot.IL 77,875 010,637 718,512>-J strength (if t lie re-
Kilar aruijr. including tiie
I;HV enlistment* under net
f Congress of July 20,
lMil -••• 20
Total 660,971
The several arms of the service are estimat
ed as follows :
Jim. of Iht service Volunteers. Regulars. Ag gale
infantry 557.205 11.17., 568.383
Cavalry ' 1
Ariiilerv . ... 3- 21.638
Stifles and Sharpshooters.. • NJ-o
I i.iiffineen 107 101
T„iai 610,637 20,331 660,971
Trie appropriations asked for the service of
the next fiscal year arc computed for a force
' 500,000 ruen They have been reduced
•i; ■ In vest possible amount consistent with
public interests, and are based upon a
' y economical administration of the vari-
I i.ranches of this Department,
iae appropriations to cover deficiencies are
'-r lered necessary by the excess of Iho force
a the field over that upon which the estimates
*ere founded, and by extraordinary expendi
'urea connected with the employment and dis
arge of the three months contingent.
An item of very heavy expense is the large
counted force which has been organized,equip
eil, and made available since the called ses
• ! of Congress, and wliicli was not computed
rin the estimate While an increase of
ivalry was undoubtedly necessary, it has
rracheJ a numerical strength more than ade
cnte to the wants of the service. As it -can
■ vbe m i iitained at a great cost, measures
CI be taken for its gradual reduction.
•In org-ao zing our great army, I was r fTec
aideu by the loyal Governors of the drf
'rresit t-Latf s, and I cheerfully acknowledge
■A- pr >D}i" patriotism win which they respood-
K :o the call of this Department.
H Congress, during its extra session, autlioriz i
B 'he army to be increased by the acceptance j
I ft vjlunteer force of 500,009 men, and made j
■appropriation of $500,060,000 for its sup- j
■ " A call for the troops was immediately
so numerous were the offers that it
tlßCiutid d fficult to discriminate in the choice j
■'"* the patriotism of the people demanded ,
M* there should be no restriction upou enlist-
H v Every portion ol the loyal States de- j
P'l to swell the army, and every community j
■ !ii anxious that it should be represented in a
that appealed to the noblest impulses of j
thoroughly aroused was the national!
■ i! ",'hat 1 have no doubt this force would j
H*tbeea swollen to a million, had not the
telt compelled to restrict it, in the ;
■ynce of authority from the representatives j
■"* people to inert ase the limited number ;
' 1 r, U ' r on * reS:j t0 decide whether the
■ * ail he farther augmented, with a view
a more speedy termination of the war, or
jer it shall be confined to the strength
■; V(>( I hy Jaw 11j the latter case,with
■ ' '" (> j reducing the volunteer force to
W. 1 propose, with the consent of Con-
H. i ° co s°lidat e such of the regiments as
-aiii time to time fall below the regula
' iird. The adoption of this measure
urease the uurnber of officers and pro
; e J diminish the expenses of the army
aid of Napoleon by Jotnini that, in
K c ! m P7 n °f 1815, that great general on
H '' -N pril had a reirular army of 200,-
,k H' e Ist of June he had iucreas
■ ' )r(, e to 414,00#. The proportion, adds
' bad be thought proper to inaugurate
\ v 'em of defense, would have raised it
' .JOM men by the Ist of September."—
commencement of this rebellion, inaii
• 'J the attack npeu Fort Suinter, the
l Jent was 16,006 regulars, principally
eß t to hold in check maraud
. DE In April, 75,000 volunteers were
I" enlist lor three months service,
with such alacrity that 77,875 i
obtained. Under the au- i
m act of Congress of July 22,1861 ;
m..:r Were aß ked to furnish 560.000 vol- i
HI ,° S€r?e for three years, or during the
BCI approved the 29th of the i
• the addition of 2f>,000 men to the
Regular Army of the United States was au
thorized. The result is. that we have uow an
army of upward of 600,000 men. If we add
to this the number of the discharged three
months volunteers, the aggregate force furnish
ed to the Government since April last exceeds
700,00 men.
We have here an evidence of the wonderful
strength of onr institutions. Without con
scriptions, levies, drafts,or other extraordi nary
expedients, we have raised a greater force than
that which, gathered by Napoleon with the
aid of all these appliances, was considered an
evidence of his wouderful genius and energy,
and of the military spirit of the French nation.
Here every man has an interest in the Govern
ment, and rushes to its defense when dangers
beset it.
By reference to the records of the Revolu
tion it will be seen that Massachusetts, with a
population of 350,000, had at one time 56.000
troops iu tbe field, or over one sixth of her
entire people—a force greatly exceeding the
whole number of troops furnished by all the
Southern States during that war Should the
present loyal States furnish troops iu like pro
portion, which undoubtedly would be the case
should any emergency demand it, the Govern
ment could promptly put into the field an army
of over three millious.
It gives me great satisfaction to refer to the
creditable degree of discipline of our troops,
most of whom were, but a short time since,
engaged in the pursuits of peace Thej are
rapidly attaining an efficiency which cannot
(ail to bring success to our arms. Officers and
men alike evince an earnest desire to aecomp
lish themselves iu every duty of the camp and
field, and the various corps are animated by
an emulation to excel each other iu soldierly
The conspiracy against the Government ex
tended over an area of 733,144 square miles,
possessing a toast line of 3,523 miles, and a
shore line of 25,414 mil. s, with an iutetior
boundary line of 7,031 miles in length. This
conspiracy stripped us of arms and munitions,
and scattered our Navy to the most distant
quarters of the globe. The effort to restore
the Union, which the Government entered on
in April last, was the most gigantic endeavor
in the history of civil war. The interval of
seven months lias been spent iu preparation.
The history of this rebellion, in common with,
all others, for obvious causes, records the first
successes in favor of the insurgents. The
diastcrof Bull Run was but the natural conse
quence of the premature advance o f our brave
but undiscipliued troops, which the impatience
of the country demanded. The betrayal also
of our movements by traitors in our midst en
abled the rebels to choose and intrench their
positiou, and by a re-enforcement iu great
strength, at the moment of victory, to snatch
it from our grasp. The reverse, however,gave
no discouragement to our gallant people ; they
have crowded into our ra-.ks, and although
large numbers have been necessarily rejected, a
mighty army in invincible array stands eager
to precipitate itself upon the foe. The check
that we have received upon the Potomac has,
therefore, but postponed the campaign for a
few months. The other successes of the reoels,
though dearly won, were mere affairs, with no
important or permanent advantages. The pos
session of Western Virginia and the occupation
of llatteras and Beaufort have nobly redeem
ed our tran-ient reverses.
At the date- of my last report, the States of
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
were threatened with rebellion. In Delaware
the good sense and patriotism of the people
! have triumphed over the unholy schemes of
traitors The people of Kentucky early pro
nounced themselves, by an unequivocal declara
tion at the ballot box, iu favor of the Union ;
and Maryland, notwithstanding the efforts of
bad men in power in the City of Baltimore,
when the opportunity of a general election was
afforded, under the lead of her brave and pa
triotic Governor, rebuked by an overwhelming
majority the traitors who would have led her
to destruction. In Missouri, a loyal State
Government has been established by the peo
ple, thausands of whom have rallied to the
support of the Federal authority, and, in con
junction with troops from other portions of
the country, have forced the rebels to retire
into the adjoining State The Government
established in Virginia by the loyal portion of
her population is in successful operation, and
I have no doubt will be sustained by the peo
pie of the entire State whenever the thralldom
of the rebel forces shall have been removed.
Thus has it been made clearly apparent that
iu whatever direction the forces of the Union
have extended their protection, the repressed
loyalty of the people, irresistibly manifesting
itself, has aided to restore and maintain the
authority of the Government ; and I doubt
not that the army now assembled on the banks
of the Potomac will, under its able leader,
soon make t>uch a demonstration as will re
establish its authority throughout all the re
bellious States
The loyal Governor of Virginia is proceed
j ing to organize Courts under the constitution
; and laws of the State in all her eastern coun
ties in the occupation of our troops. I re
spectfully suirgest that authority should he
triven to the President to send Commissioners
with the army, with power to exercise all the
functions of local government wherever the
evil authority has ceased to exist, and especial
ly to enforce the obligations of contracts, and
the collection of debts doe to loyal creditors.
As stated in my last Report, at the com
mencement of this rebellion the Government
found itself deficient in arms and munitions of
war, through the bad faith of those intrusted
with their control during the preceding
ministration. The Armory at Harpers Ferry
having been destroyed to prevent its posses
sion and use by the rebels, the Government
was compelled to rely upon the single armory
at Springfield, and npon private establish
ments, for a supply of arms. Every effort has
been made to increase the capacity of that
armory, the greatest product of which, prior
to these troubles, had Dever exceeded 800
muskets per mouth. In charge of an energetic
and able Ordnance officer, the force being
don led, and operations vigorously prosecuted
day and night, there were made at this estab
lishment, during the past month of October,
a total of 6,900 muskets ; aud it is confidently
expected that 10,000 will be manufactured
during the present month. On a recent visit
with a view to eularge the capacity of the
armory, I directed the purchase of a large
quantity of machinery already furnished,which
when put in operation, will enable this estab
lishment to produce,during the next year,2oo,-
000 stand of the justly celebrated Spriugfield
rifles. I respectfully suggest the recommen
dation of a liberal appropriation by Congress
for the purpose of yet further increasing the
capacity of this armory, believing that it can
be made sufficient to supply all the muskets
and rifles which the Government may here
after need in any contingency. Located in a
healthful country, to the midst of an industri
ous and ingenious peopl-*, where competent
workmen can always be obtained without dif
ficulty .and sufficiently near to all the materials
needed in the manufacture of arms, it is at the
same time accessible to every part of the
country by water end railway communication.
After having made contracts for arms with
privato establishments in this country, it was
deemed necessary by the President to insure
a speedy and ample supply, to send a special
agent to Europe with funds to the amount of
two millions of dollars to purchase more. I
am gratified to state that he has made ar
rangements for a large number of arms, pact
of which have already been delivered. The
remainder will be shipped by successive
steamers until all shall have been received.
Coinbinatio- s among manufacturers, impor
ters, aud agents, for the sale of arms, have, in
many cases, caused an undue increase in
prices. To prevent advantage being thus ta
ken of the necessities of the Government, Col
lectors of Customs have been directed to de
liver to the agents of the UuDed States all
arms and munitions that may be imported into
this country.
The call for arms has called into existence
numerous establishments for their manufacture
throughout the loyal portion of the country,
and it has been the policy of this Department
to encourage the development of tbe capital,
euterprise, and skill of our people in this di
rection. The Government should never have
less than a million of muskets in its arsenals,
with a corresp nding proportion of arms and
vquipments for artillery and cavalry. Other
wise it may, at a most critical moment, find it
self deficint in guns while having an abundance
of men.
I recommend that application be made to
Congress for authority to establish a National
foundry for the manufacture of heavy artillery
at such point as may afford the greatest facili
ties for the purpose. While a sufficient num
ber of cannon, perhaps, could be procured from
private manufactories, the possessiou of a Na
tional establishment would lead to experiments
which would be useful to the country, and pre
vent imposition in prices by the accurate knowl
edge that would be acquired of the real value
of work of this character.
In my last report I called attention to the
fact that legislation was necessary for the re
organization, upon a uniform basis, of the mi
litia of the country. Some general plan should
be provided by Congress in aid of the States,
by which our militia can be organized, armed
and discipline, and made effective at any mo
meat for immediate service. If thoroughly
trained in tine of peace, when occasion de
mands, it may be converted into a vast army
confident in its discipline and uuconquorable in
in its patriotism In the absence of any gen
eral system of organization, upward of 700,-
000 men have already been brought into the
field ; and, in view of the alarcity and enthu
siasm that have been displayed, I do not hesi
tate to express the belief t! at no combination
of events can arise in which this country will
not be able not only to protect itself, but, con
trary to its policy, which is pease with all the
world, to enter upon aggressive operations
against auv power that may intermeddle with
our domestic uffairs. A Committee should be
appointed by Cougress, with authority to sit
during the session, o devise and report a plan
for the general organization of the Militia of
the United States.
It is of great importance that immediate at
tention should be given to the condition of onr
fortifications upon the seaboard and the lakes,
and upon our exosed frontiers. They sbenldat
once be placed iu perfect condition for success
ful defense. Aggressions are seldom made up
on a nation ever ready to defend its honor and
to repel insults ; and we should show to the
world, that while engaged in quelling distur
bances at home we are able to protect ouselves
against attacks from abroad.
I earnestly recommend that immediate pro
visions be made for increasing the corps of
Cudets to the greatest capacity of the Milita
ry Academy. There are now only 192 cadets
i t that important institution. lam assured by
the Superintendent that 400 can at present be
accommodated, and that, with vety trifling ad
ditional expense, this number may be increas
ed to 500. It is not necessary, at this late
day, to speak of the value of educated soldiers.
While, in time of war or rebellien, we must
ever depend mainly upon our militia and vol
unteers, we shall always need thoroughly train
ed officers. Two classes have been graduated
during the present year, in order that the
service might have the benefit of their military
education. I had hoped that Congress, ut its
extra session, would authorize an increase
of the number. Having failed to do so, 1 trust
that at the approaching session an increase will
be authorized, and that the selection of cadets
will be limited exclusively to those States,
which, co-operating cordially with the Govern
ment, have brought their forces into the field
to aid io the maintenance of its authority.
In this connection justice requires that I
should call attention to the claims of a veteran
officer, to whom, more than to any other, the
Military Academy is indebted for its present
prosperous and efficiant condition. I allude
to Col. Sylvanus T.iayer of the Engineer
Corps, who DOW, by reason of advauced years
end fajthfnl public services, is incapacitated
for duty in the field. Under the recent law of
Congress he may justly claim to be retired from
active service ; but believing that his distin
guished services should receive some mark of
acknowledgement from the Government, I re
commend that authority be asked to retire him
upon his full pay and emoluments.
The health of an army is a consideration of
the highest consequences. Good men and wo
men in different States, impelled bv the high
est motives of benevolance and|patriotism,have
come in aid to the constituted sanitary arrang
ments of the Government, and been greatly iu
litrumental in diminishing diseases in the camps
—giving increased comfort and hsppiness to
the life of the soldier, and imparting to our
hospital service a more humane and generous
character. Salubrity of situation and pleas
nntness of surroundings have dictated the
choice of the hospital sites, and establishments
for our sick and wounded, of which we have
every reason to be proud, have been opened in
St. Louis, Washington, Georgetown, Balti
more and Annapolis, and will be attached to
uvcry division of the army in the field. To the
close of the war, vigilant care shall be given
to the health of the well soldier, and to the
comfort and recovery of the sick.
I recommend that the system of promotions
which prevails in the regular service be appli
ed to the volunteer forces in the respective
Siates ; restricting, however, the promotions
to men actually in the field. At present each
Governor selects and appoints the officers for
the troops furnished by his State, and com
plaint is not unfrequently made that when va
cancies occur in the field men of inferior quali
fications are placed iu command over those in
the ranks who are their superiors in military
experience and capacity. The advancement
of merit should be the leading principle in all
promotions, and the volunteer soldier should
be given to understand that preferment win
be the sure reward of intelligence, fidelity, and
distinguished service.
The coarse above recommended has been
pursued by this Department, and it is my in
tention, so far as is in my power, to continue
a system which cannot fail to have a most
beneficial effect upon the entire service.
By existing laws and regulations, an officer
of the regular army ranks au officer of volun
teers of the same grade, notwithstanding the
commission of the latter may be of antecedent
date. Iu my judgment, this practice has a
tendency to repress the ardor and to limit the
opportunity for distinction of volunteer officers,
and a change should be made by which seni
ority of commission should confer the right of
1 submit for reflection the question, wheth
er the distinction between Regulars and Vol
unteers which uow exists, should be permitted
to contiuue. The efficiency of the army, it ap
pears to me, might be greatly increased by a
consolidation of the two during the continu
ance of the war, which, combining both forces
would constitute them one grand army of the
Recruiting for the Regular army has not
been attended with the success which was an
ticipated, although a large number of men
have entered this branch of the service. While
it ia admitted that soldiers in the Regalar ar
my, under the control of officers of military ed
ucation und experience, are generally better
cared for than those iu the Volunteer service,
it is certain that the popular preference is
largely given to the latter. Young men evi
dently prefer to enter a corps officered by their
friends and acquaintances, and, besides the
bounty granted to Volunteers in the most of
the States, inducements are often directly of
fered to them by those whose commissions de
pend upon their success in obtaining recruits.
In addition the volunteer is allowed to draw
his whole pay of sl3 per month, wbHe by law
$2 per month are deducted from the pay of
the Regular to be returned to him at tlw end
of his term of service. In my judgment, this
law should be repeuled, and the Regular sol
dier be allowed to receive his full pay when
due. He should also receive either a reason
able bounty upon enlisting, or an advance of
S2O of the SIOO which a law of the last ses
sion of Congress grants to regulars and volun
teers on the experatioo of their periods of ser
vice. Tbif would doubtless stimulate enlist
ments, as it would enable the soldier to make
some provision for those dependent upon him
for support until be receives his pay.
By the act approved August 5, 1861, the
President is authorized to appoint as many
aids to Major Generals of the regular army,
acting in the field, as he may deem proper
The number .of aids, in my opinion, should be
limited, and no more should be allowed to each
Major General than can be advantageously
employed upon his own proper staff. Much
expense would thus be saved, and the Execu
tive aud this Department would be releived by
applications very embarrassing from their na
ture and extent.
The fifth section of the act approved Sep
' tember 28th, 1850, makes the discharge of mi
nors obligatory upon this Department, upon
proof that their enlistment was without the
consent of their parents or guardians. In view
of the injurious operation of this law, and of
the facilities which it opens to frauds, I re
spectfully urge its early repeal. Applications
for discharges of minors can then be determin
ed either by this department, in accordance
with such regulations as experience may have
shown to be necessary, or by the civil tribunals
of he country.
The employment of regimentel bands should
be limited ; the proportion of musicians now
allowed by law being too great, and their use
fulness not at all commensurate with their
heavy expense.
Corporations, like individuals, are liable tc
be governed bv selfish motives in the absence
of competition An instance of this kiud oc
cured in the management of the railroads be
tween Baltimore and New York The sura of
$6 was charged upon that route for the trans
portation of each soldier from New York to
Baltimore. As this rate seemed extravagent
to the Department, when considered ID con
nection with the great increase of trade upon
these roads, made necessary by the wants of
the Government, inquiry na3 made concern
ing the expediency of using the roads from
New York to Baltimore via. Harrisburg. The
resnlt was an arrangement by which troops
were brought by the last named ronte at $4
each ; and, as a consequence, this rate was at
once necessarily adopted by all the railroads
in the loyal States, making a saving to the
Government of 83 1-2 per cent in all its trans
portation of soldiers, and at the same time giv
ing to the railroads, through increased busi
ness, a liberal compensation.
Tbe railroad connection between Washing
ton and Baltimore has been lately much im
proved by additional sideings, and bj exten
sions in this city. In order, however, that
abundant supplies may always be at the com
mand of the Department, arrangements should
be made for laying a double truck between this
city and Annapo'as Juuctiop, w'uh improved
sideings and facilities at Annapolis and along
the Branch road.
Should the navigation of the Potomac Riv
er be interrupted by blockade, or the severities
of winter, it would become absolutely necessa
ry, for the proper supply of tbe troops in the
District of Columbia and vicinity and of the
inhabitants of this city, to provide additianal
railroad connection between Washington and
Baltimore. A responsible company with a
charter from the State of Maryland, have pro
posed to do this upon condition that the Gov
ernment will endorse their bonds ; they btnd
iog themselves to set aside annually a sufficient
sum for their redemption at maturity, and thus
eventually release the Government from any
liability whatever, and to charge, for trans
portation, rates in no case to exceed four cents
a tun per mile for- freight, and three'cents a
mile for passengers. During the continuance
of the war, however, their charge for passen
gt rs is not to exceed two cents per mile. The
charge for the transportation of passengers be
tween the two cities is at present 3 3-4 cents
per mile, and for freight the rates per tun will
average from five to eight cents per mile. The
large saving to the Goverutncut in cost of
transportation would amply compensate for all
liability, anil give to the citizens of all the loy
al States arreatly improred facilities for reach
ing the National Capital, aud at msch less
rates than they are uow compelled to pay. To
the citizens of the District it would cheapen
the cost of supplies, and prove of immense val
ue in every respect.
I recommend that a railway,be constructed
through this city from the Navy-Yard, by the
Capitol to Georgetown, formiug connection
with the existing railroad depots, and using the
Aqueduct bridge for the purpose of crossing
the river at Georgetown. By a junction of
this proposed railway with abc Orange and
Alexandria Railroad, not only would the com
munications with our troop? in Virgiuia, be
greatly improved, but an easy access be ob
tained to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
near Harper's Ferry, by means of the Loudon
aud llampshier Railroad. To its importance
as affordiug facilities for moveing troops aud
supplies in time of war, may be added to the
future benefits it would confer npon the Dis
trict of Colombia. The outlay required would
be saved iu a few mouths by enabling the
Government to dispense with the expensive
ferry at Georgetown, and by greatly decreas
ing the costly wagou transportation of the ar
my through this city.
The injuries to railroads, instigated by the
Rebel authorities of Baltimore, in order to
embarras communication with the North and
West, via Harrisburg, and with the East, via
Philadelphia, have been repaired by the differ
ent companies that own them. That portion
of the Baltimore und Ohio Railroad, West of
Harper's Ferry, which was so ruthlessly de
stroyed by the rebels,has not yet peen restored.
Tbe great interests of trade requires that this
road should be reopened as speedily as possi
ble by the company, for the transportation of
the West. To ani tbi object the Department
has tendered to the compauv a sufficient force
for its protection during the progress of the
work, aud will render such facilities as it may
be able to provide, in conncctiou with its oth
er important public duttes.
For the purpose of faciliating the transpor
tation of supplies to Alexandria and to points
beyond, it has been found necessary to rebuild
portions of the Orange and Alexandria and
the Loudon and Hampshier Railroads, and to
lay a track from the Railroad Depot to a point
on the l'otomac Rriver, iu this city.
Under an appropriation granted for that
purpose at the last Session of Congress, a
Telegraphic Bureau was established, and has
been found of the greatest service in our mili
tary operations. Eight hundred and fifty-sev
cu miles of te egraphic line have been already
built and put in operation, with an efficient
corps of operators,and a large extension is now
in process of construction.
Congress at its late session, made an appro
priation for the reconstruction of the Long
Bridge across the Potomac, which, in its then
dilapidated condition, was unsafe f or military
purposes. The work which has been carried
on without interruption to trade or travel, is
rappidly approaching completion, and, when
fiuished, will be a substaucial structure.
On the first of the present mouth Lieut.-Gen.
Winfield Scott voluntarily relinquished his
high command as General-in Chief of the
American army. He had faithfu'ly and gal
lainly served his country for upward of half a
ceutury, and the glory of bis achievements
has given additional luster to the brightest
pages of our national annals. The affections
of a greatful people followed him into his re
tirement. The President immediately con
ferred the command of the army upon the
officer next in rank. Fortunately for the
couutry, Maj.-Gen. McClellan had proved
himself equal to every situation in which his
great talents had been called into exercise.—
His brilliant achievements in Western Virginia
tbe nntiriug energy aDd consumate ability he
has displayed in the organisation and disci
plin of an entirely new army, have justly won
for him the confidence aud applause of the
troops and of the nation.
Extraordinary labor, energy, and talent have
been required at the various Bureaus of thfs
VOL. XXII. —NO. 28.
Depatment to provide for the wants of our
immense army. While errors may have been
occassionally committed by subordinates, and
while extravagent prices have undoubtedly
in some cases,controlled by haste and the pres
sures of rapid events, been paid for supplies,
it is with great gratification that I refer to
the economical administration of affairs dis
played in the various branches of the service
Our forces had not only to be armed, clothed,
and fed, but had to be suddenly brovided with
means of transportation to the extent hereto
fore unparelleled. While I believe that there
is no army iu the world better provided for in
every respect than our Regulars and Volun
teers, I candidly think that no forces so large,
and so well equipped, was ever put in the
field in short a space of lime at so small ex
Wbiie it is my intention to preserve the
strictest economy aud accountability, I think
the last dollar should be expended and the
last man should be armed to bring this anholy
rebellion to a speedy and permanent close.
The geographical position of the metropo
lis of the nation, menaced by the Rebels, and
required to be defended by thonsauds of oar
troops, induces me to suggest for consideration
the propriety and expediency of a reconstruc
tion of the boundaries of the States of Dela
ware, Maryland and Virginia Wisdom and
true statemenship would dictate that the seat
of the National Government for all time 3 to
come should be placed beyond reasonable dan
ger of seizure by enemies within, as well as
from capture by foes from without. By agree
ment between the States named, such as was
effected for similar purposes by Michigan and
Ohio, and by Missouri aud lowa, their boun
daries could be so changed as to render the
Capital more remote than at present from the
iufluence of State Government which arrayed
themselves in rebellion against the Federal au
thority. To this eud, the limits of Virginia
might be so altered as to make her bouudarie*
consist of the Blue Ridge oa the east and
Pennsylvania on the North, leaving those on
the south and west as at present. By this ar
angemcut two-counties of Maryland (Allagha
uy aud Washington) would be transferred to
the jurisdiction of Virginia. All the portion
of Virginia which lies between the Blue Ridge
and Chesapeake Bay could then be added to
Maryland, while that portion of the peninsula
betweeu the waters of the Cbesapeak aud At
lantic, now jointly held by Maryland and Vir
ginia, could be incorporated into the State of
Deleware. A reference to the map will show
that these are great natural boundaries, which
for all time to come would serve to mark the
limits of these States.
To make the protection of the capital com
plete, in consideration of the large accession
of territory which Maryland would receive un
der the arrangement proposed, it would be
necessary that that State should consent so to
modify her constitution as to limit the basis of
her representation to her white population.
In the connection, it would be the part of
wisdom to reanuex to thejDistrict of Columbia
that portion of its original limits which by act
of Cougress was retroceded to the S:ate of
It has become a grave question for deter
mination, what shall be done with the slaves
abandoned by their owners on the advance of
our troops into Southern territory, as iu Beau
-1 tort disteict of Sonth Carolina. The whole
white population therein is 6,000, while the
number of negooes exceeds 32,000. The pan
ic which drove their masters iu wild confusion
from their homes, leaves them iu undisputed
' possession of the soil. Shall they, armed by
their masters, be placed in the field to fight
agaiDSt ns, shall their labor be continually em
ployed in producing the means for supporting
the armies of rebellion ?
The war into which this Government has
been forced by rebellious traitors is carried oa
for the purpose of repossessing tbe property
violently and treacherously seized upoa by tbe
enemies of the Government, and to re-estab
lish the authority and laws of the United
States in the places where it is opposed or over
thrown by armed insurrection end rebellion—
Its purpose is to recover and defend what is
justly its own.
War, even between independent nations, U
made to subdue the enemy, aod all that be
longs to that euemy, by occupying the hostile
country, and exercising dominion over all the
men and things within its territory. This be
ing true in respect to independent nations at
war with each other, it follows that rebels
who are laboring by force of arms to overthrow
a Government, justly bring upon themselves
all ihe consequences of war, and provoke the
destruction merited by the worst of crimes.—
That Government would be false to national
trust, and would jn-tly excite the ridicule of
the civilized world, that would abstain from
the use of an efficient means to preserve its
own existence, or to overcome a rebellious and
traitorous enemy, by sparing or protecting the
property ot those who are waging war against
The principal wealth and power of the Reb
el States is a peculiar species of property, con
sisting of the service or labor of African slaves
or the deseudauts of Africans. This property
has bceu variously estimated at the valoe of
from $700,000, to $1,000,000,000.
Why should this property be exempt from
the hazards and consequences of a rebellious
war ?
It was the boast of the leader of the rebel
lion, while he yet had a seat in the Senate of
the United States, that the Southern States
would be comparitivelv safe and free from the
burdens of wur, if it should be brought on by
the contemplated rebellion, and that boast
was accompanied by the savage threats that
"Northern towns and cities would become
the victims of rapine and military soil," and
that " Northern men should smell Southern
cunpowder and feel Southern steel." No one
doubts the disposition of the rebels to carry
that threat into execution. The wealth of
Northern towns and cities, the prodoceof Nor
thern farms, Northern workshops and manu
factories, would certainly be seized, destroyed,
(Cono'uJtd on fourth )