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ONf DOLLAR PER ANNUM INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE.
Thursday Morning, September 5, 1861.
WHERE IS MY BOY TO-NIOHT.
Oh. where is my boy to night ?
The boy wlio was bravest of all
He went to the battle of Right,
Vnd MiJ thai he feared not to fall!
O. proud was bis step when he went;
And deep was the gleam of his eye ;
And I knew wh.U his young heart meant,
Wlfcn he faltering, said " good-bye."
O where is my boy to-night ?
For 1 know that the strife has begun;
That many have fallen in fight
And a glorious victory s won.
poos he skep/aeatli the sod of the slam ?
Has his proud form given its breath ?
0 GOD.' is my boy with the slain.
Who only would yield to death ?
Be it thus. I have no fears that he sought
To shelter himself Irora the lead ;
For he'd spring - here 'twas falling most hot,
To secure the dying and dead.
That fallen be was in the figlit;
I fn but 1 cannot tell why—
That Gor has promoted my boy,
And tempers my soul to night.
§> 1 11111 i ®a 11 •
How Tom and I Kept House.
My churn and I had often, in the privacy
of our room, wondered how a of only
three persous coul J make so much work, and
ff i,r our landlady could, on some perticular
days, keep on her feet from morn till night.--
Although we could appreciate the clear cof
| :ee, the tender steak and the light biscuit
' dial were placed before us, we could perform
them ill half the time, and not much
fuss about it either ; and we had more than
occe freely expressed our opinion as to the
manner which some hou-ehold affairs sho'd be
treated ; hut the merry twinkling in the eye
of our good naiurt d landlady, and the oft re
peated expression " a man s work is from
to sua, hut woaiars work is never done, did
uot convict us, and old bachelors like we be
gan to think of a home cf our owu, where we
could have the privilege of trying our hand
at trie culinary bu.-iuesS —provided Mrs. Some
body was willing.
One evening, as we sat down to the table,
our landlady informed us that she had been
called out of town to a sick friend, and as she
eX|>eoteii to he absent a few days, she would
, try and fiud some one to take charge of the
I house aud its occupants.
Tom and 1 protested against this unneces
sary trouble, for was not this the opportunity
*e had loug beeu wishing for ? We were
.irge euough to take care of ourelves, and
sae need have no fear ou our account.
After much entreaty on our part, and ob
jecting on the ladiys purt, consent was at least
won for us to act for ourselves, and after show
ing us the barrels, firkins acd boxes contain
ing the ingredients used iu cooking, and deliv
ering the keys of the store-room aud closets,
our landlady bid us good bye,with a wish that
we might have a pleasant as well as proQtable
The anticipated baking of the morrow pos
seted for us more charms than did ever a box
of marbles in our boyhood days. That evening
we read all the receipts contained in the cook
book, from making bread to frosting wedding
cake, and ia our own couceit, thought we
were wise enough to do anything.
The next morning, we made a visit to the
closet to see what provisions were left for the
day— but alas ! were forcibly reminded of
I the old nursery song—" Old Mother Hub
bard went to tne eupbord," Ac., but instead
boding it bare, we found proof sufficient
i midnight revel, and we both exclaimed,
It was aranged chat Tom should kindle the
sft aud make tne coffee, while I mixed bread
md l d the table. Tying on my apron to
ttep my pants clean, I went to work. The
toar was sifted, but what next, and cook
"ook was consulted ; " a little salajratus,
Jtast and salt, according toyour judgment."
" Tom" says I, " what does this mean,
a.: according to vour judgment ?*'
" Why, don't you know.a cup fuil, of course ;
I thnocht you knew how to make bread !"
•ndToin blew into the stove till his face was
might have been called a ' celestial
! went to the stove, and found the dampers
"I must say. Tor, that if TOO are as long
R ndi ng & flame in a lady's bean, as you
-sre been in ibis ftove, your future prospects
lr e not flattering. I thought you knew how
make a 6re !"
My bread had l>een in the oven aboot an
our , >hd although 1 had looked at it, aud
it round, i: looked as flat as when I
•W put it into the pan. By our united ef
' e succeeded in building a fire, and soon
• e Vagrant smell of coffee filled the room.
H table was laid, and we were patieotlv
•siting for the bread to bake.
hat on earth are you doing, Tom V I
'aimed, as I saw him at work upon au old
M fiy. settling the coffee, to be sure ; didu't
• v 5 tell me to put a fish into it ? and 1 bav
tu: Put in a half one yet."
0 dear,'" I groaned, " your ears andgen
; -'disposition w 11 be the death of you yet.
' 5 u a p.ece of fish skin— but perhaps it js
;q *U it looks ; salt is good, you know."
e bread began to look brown, and we de
- that it wa done—brown. While plac
°P°h the table, I heard a groan and a
,4 U come here. Bob," from the kitchen,
a ,°® had poured hot water upon hm hand,
J sat opon the floor, blowing furiously !
his fingers. 1
THE BRADFORD REPORTER.
" Soft soap is good ; go put your hand in
to the pot of soap in the cellar."
"O, murder ! murder!'' came in tones of
aprony from the regions below ; " soft soap is
good for burns, is it ?" and Tom came up with
tears streaming down his face, and the salt
brine drining from his hand.
" Confouud this housekeeping ! don't you
say so, Bob? Let us have some breakfast, or
the Coroner will have a case of starvation to
We sat down to the table, but before we
had eaten two mouthfuls of bread, or swallow
ed two draughs of coffee, we came to the con
clusion that the waters of the far famed Salt
Lake could not equal our coffee, and if one of
the biscuits were hung about a prisoner's neck
it would prove a millstone. We began to an
alyze the saline subjects before us, aud we
unanimously agreed that " saleratus and salt
accordiug to your judgment" was no judgmeut
The striking of the clock warned us that it
was time that we were ou our way to the of
fice. We compared notes, and found that we
had been just three hours preparing our deli
(Eleven o'clock fouud us takiug a lunch at
As we had been disappointed iu the morn
ing, we were determined to make pies and
cake ; they were much easier than bread for
beginners. So, two hours before the nsuai
time for closing our office, be bade adieu to
books and documents, and were hurrying home
to profit by the experience of the morning
We could not but miss the cheerful face,
the blazing tire and well laid table that always
greeted our return from our daily toil ; but
we soon banished these -ad thoughts by vigor
ously wielding the broom, and in a short tune
the kitchen looked quite presentable.
I was to make the pies and cakes, and Tom
was to run the errands and make the custard
puddiug—a little milk and a few eggs—who
couldn't make a custard pudding ? Putting
on a large apron, and rolling up ray coat
sleeves, I prepared for my afternoou's work.
First we dropped the curtain for fear we
might have inquisitive neighbors. I took a
table at one end of the kitchen, while l'om
took the one in the dining room, so that we
should not interfere with each other. As I
stood considering what to put iu the piecrust,
besides sugar, eggs and allspice, I heard him
saying to himself, "a pint of eggs and six
grams of sugar, spice, and then ta^te."
" Here, Bob, here's an enigma for you to
solve ; how in the world shall I weigh a pint
of eggs, and count six pounds of sugar ?"
"O, this is ea-sy enough—use the scale for
the eggs, and mierovscope for the sugar, aud
for the spice, I should thins, ginger and cina
mon would do; 1 really believe you didn't
know the first thing about cooking—a pretty
husband you would make—don't forget the
milk ; you will find it in the store room."
A smothered laugh came from the store
room, and softly whispered " io >k here, Bob."
I tiptoed along, expecting to find a tiger or
rattlesnake, but what a sight met my eye !
- There set Miss Grimalkin ami tier interesting
t family ot four, lapping the milk reserved for
- our pudding. Woman's weapon was in great
. i demand—and a divorce was granted between
. j Mistress Broom aud Mr Handle—and our bi--
t cuit also hastened the exit of the Grimalkin
t Junior, (two of whom never made thir appear
. ance) while their affectionate mother raide a
| shining path through a square of glass. As
Tom was errand boy, he took a large pitcher
and went out for more milk. While he was
■ gone, i amused myself by singing, " There'll
be no more sorrow there," when to my sorrow
the door bell rang, and being directly over
head, was the cause of a gymnastic exhibition
which closed the downfall of China, and with
. pontomme gestures. I stood amid the ruins,
and thought of the coufusion of Babel. Ding,
ding, went the bell, each peal louder than the
last. 1 could not get to the door for I was
not dressed to receive callers. As I was creep
ing along, and when almost to the door I step
ped ou my apron, and like a dutiful subject I
obeyed the laws of gravitation, aud struck my
bead with such force that 1 saw stars without
looking for them. I heard a laugh outside,
, aud some one said : " Oh, I can wait, please
put the truuk on the steps " I groaned both
mentally and physically, " Oh, if Tom would
j only come," he could go to the door, for he
looked quite decent. Our caller, whoever it
might be, was determined to enter. " O, Tom,
why don't you comfc !' and, as if in answer to
my wish, 1 heard a crash down below.
I ran down stairs and there lay poor Tom on
bis face conpletely deluged in muk —the pitch
er broken aud the fragments scattered over
the floor—streams of milk running in ail direc
" I should think you ought to know better
than to leave a broomstick across the doorway
for a fellow to tumble over ; here I've spoilt
my clothes, cut my nose, and can't tell you
what internal injuries I have sustained, and
ail through your carelessness. If this is what
you call housekeeping, I must say that I am
heartily sick of it. You inav finish that pud
ding—l wou't tonch it." " Hush. Tom, don't
speak so loud, if you do we are ruined men.—
We have no time to cry for spilt milk, for we
have company on the door steps, and they are
determined to gain entrance ; there's the bell
again ; it's uo nse, I might as well go to the
I took off my apron, smoothed my hair,
washed my hands, and put on my company
face, while Tom went to his room to make
himself whole, leaving footprints by the way,
not such as Longfellow would have ns leave,
to cheer the heart of a forlorn brother, Gut
footsteps that an ambitious brother, m ght see,
and like his predecessor, aspire to tread the
I opened the door, and there stood the hand
somest specimen of humanity try eyes ever be
held. As soon as she looked at me, she bur-t
into a hearty laujb, and when she recovered
her breath, a laugh was introduced between
I every word, as she asked me if Mrs. C was at j
borne. " So, Miss, she is not at borne, she ts
PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY AT TOWANDA, BRADFORD COUNTY, PA., BY E. 0. GOODRICH.
out of town." I stammered. "She will not be
goue long, I suppose, and I can stop until she
Visions of broken China, spilt milk and
half baked pics floated before me, aud I tho'L
it no sin to tell one of Mrs. Opie's. " She will
probably be gone some time, six weeks, I be
" I never knew my aunt to be gone so long
from home, but I must stop at least one night,
for it is past car time, and I cannot return un
til to-morrow." What could I do, surely I
was born under an uulucky star—before me
was the niece, the heiress of whom I had heard
such extruvagaut praises, aud what made me
feel still more uncomfortable, was the provok
ing smile that appeared whenever she looked
at me. I wondered what could be the cause
of her merriment. Surely it could not be me,
who was called the Quest looking young man
in town. Something must be doue, so 1 invit
ed the young lady iu and excused myself, went
to Tom's room to see if he had survived his
downfall. The exclamation that greeted me
as 1 opened the door was in no way flattering
to my pride. "My ! Bob, you havn't been to
the door with that face V' " Of course 1 have
and servgd not only as door tender, but as
committee of arrangements, and introduced the
lady into the parlor, and am now waiting for
jou to go down with me aud eutertain her."
" Oh dear, I shall die ; look in the glass,
Bob and holding ou to his sides he slid from
his chair to the floor, and rolled over aud over
with such volocity, that 1 really thought he
bad gooe crazy. I loo.ked in the glass. O !
horrors, what a sight presented itself. My
head looked as if it had blossomed from the
flour barrel ; on my forehead were two marks,
commonly called beauty spots (but I called
them horrid spots) my nose, ray beautiful nose,
that was the most marked feature o? my face;
it looked as if it had been dipped in ink.
" liow do you like the looks ; dou't you
think the lady will be charmed ? Oh ! dear !"
and Tom went into another fit—l made uo
answer, but made for the door.
" Wheie are you going? to complete the
fascination ?" " Going to make a clean breast
as well as a clean face of the whole aud
while Tom was dressing in his best, I explain
ed matters to our lady visitor, and joined with
her iu laughing at our mishaps. She insisted
on being shown to the scene of onr late disas
ter, aud finding resistance useless, I went with
her to the regions below. Tom soon came
uowo, and acting as her servants, we soon put
things in shape and place. Donning one of her
auut's ample aprons, the little figure flitted
from room to room, and soou dispatched the
baking. I tended the stove ; Tom gathered
up the fragmeuts, meanwhile speculating upon
the durability of Job's patience, hail he passed
through the trying ordeal of housekeeping, and
concluded his meditations by saying, that if
he had passed through the trying ordeal he
never would have been handed down as a mo
del of patience.
At the usual hour for tea, we sat down to
a tea table loaded with bread, pies and cake,
(the custard pudding was not forgotten) as
uicely baked as those ever put before us by
our landlady. When enjoying the meal, aud
laughing over the adventures of the day, who
should come in but our landlady wenriug upon
her face such an innocent expression, that I?
being naturally of a suspicious nature, began
to think she had not beeu far distant after all,
but being also a wise mail, I said not a word,
but thought a great deal upon the subject.—
Mv suspicions were confirmed by the knowing
look that passed between aunt and niece. I
could uot for a long time forgive her for tke
lesson she had taught me, but when her niece
put her hand in mine and promised to make
my oread during lifetime, I freely forgive the
aunt, thought my experience in the line of
cookiug was not as unprofitable as it might
have been. Tom says that it was my nose
that made ray fortune, and " that perhaps he
might have been the lucky one had it not been
for the confounded broomhandle" I know
not whether my nose won the lady love, bat
one tning I do know that I shall never raeddje
with that " work that is done," and to those
who are wise iu their own conceit, I would say,
let them try and see w hat they can do ; per
haps their experience will coincide with my
One of my biscuits I have reserved in case
of war ; it might answer the same purpose as
a bullet ; and until that time arrives, I iutend
it shall occupy a conspicuous place in my cab
iaent of curiosities.
PAT BFTTERI vc. HIS INSTRUCTIONS.—A lady
and gentleman recently married, in the nei.gh
bornood of Xothingharo, left home in their
own carriage for a bridal tour amoug the
Cumberland lakes. In order to avoid the
curiosity attracted by persons in the honey
moon the gentleman gave his Irish footman
the strictest charge not to tell any one on the
road that tbey were newly married, and
threatening to dismiss bim instantly if he did.
Pat promised implicit obedience ; but on leav
ing the fir*t inn on the road, next morning the
happy couple were much astonished and annoy
ed to find the servauts all assembled, and
pointing to the gentleman, mysteriously ex
claiming ' That's him ; that's the man.' On
reaching the next stage, the indignaut master
told Murphy he must immediately discharge
him, as he "had divulged what he impressed
upon him as a secret. ' Plase your honor,
iivs Pat, ' what is it you complain of?' ' You
rascal,' exclaimed the angry master, ' you told
the servants at the inn last night that we
were a newly married couple.' ' Och, then be
this and he that,' said Pat, brightening np in
anticipated triumph, 'there's not a word of
truth iu it, yer honor ; sure I tould the
whole of them, servants and all, that you
wouldn't be married for a fortnight yet !
A wife's bosom shoald he the tomb of
her husband's failings, and his character far
more valuable iu her estimation than his life.
A little girl bearing it remarked that
all people bad once been children, artlessly
iuouired, " who toon care of tb e t-abies.
" RESARDLESS OF DENUNCIATION FROM ANY QUARTER."
CUNNING OF THE RAVEN. —In the narrative
of the Arctic Yoyage of Capt. McClure, of
the British Navy, is the following story of two
raveus which became demosiieated on board
the Investigator. The raven it appears, is
. tbeonlv bird that braves a pclar winter, and
in the depth of the season he is seen to flit
through the cold and suuless atmosphere like
au evil spirit, his sullen croak alone breaking
j the stillness of the death like sceue. No one
of the crew attempted to shoot the ravens,
they consequently became very bold as will be
seen from the followiug story :
"Two ravens now established themselves as
friends of the family in Mercy Bay, liviog
mainly by what little scraps the men might
have thrown away after meal times. The
ship's dog, however, looked upon these as his
special perquisites, and exhibited considerable
energy in maintaing bis rights agaiust the
ravens, who nevertheless outwitted him in a
way which amused every one. Observing that
he appeared quite willing to make a mouthful
of their own sable persons, they used to throw
themselves intentionally in his way, just as the
mestins were being cleaned out oo the dirt
heap outside the ship. The dog would irn
mediate'y run at tbcm and the y would just fly
a few yards ; the dog then ma Je another tun,
and again they wonld appear to escape him
bat by an inch.and so on until they had tempt
ed and provoked him to the store a considera
ble distance off. The ravens would then make
a direct flight for the ship anc. had generally
done good execotion long before the poor
mortified looking dog, detected the imposition
that had been practiced upon him, and rushed
ed back again."
editor acknowledges the receipt of
a bottle of braudy, forty eight years old ; and
: savs : " This brandy is so old that we have
' very ranch fear it cannot live much longer."
Life in Africa.
The recent work of M. du Chaillo, in which
he narrates his experiences and observations
!in Africa, is full of interest ng matter. We
clip from it the two following passages :
CANNIBALISM AMONG THE FANS.
" Eating the bodies of persons who have
died of sickuess is a form of cannibalism of
which I had never heard among any people,
so that I determined to inquire if it were iu
deed a geueral custom among the Fans, or
merely an exceptional freak. They spoke
without embarrassment about the whole mat
ter, aud I was informed that, they constantly
buy the dead of the Osheba tribe, who, in
return, buy theirs. Tbey also buy the dead
of other families in their own tribes, and be
sides this, get the bodies of a great many
slaves from the Mbichos and Mboudemos, for
which they readily give ivory, at the rate of
a small tusk for a body. Until to-day I never
could believe two stories botu well authenti
cated but seeming quite impossible to any one
unacquaiuted with this people—which are told
of them on the Gaboon. A party of Fans
who came down to the sea shore once actual
ly stole a freshly buried body from the ceme i
tery, and cooked it and ate it among 1
them ; and at another time a party conveyed
a body into the woods, cut it up, and smoked
the flesG, which tney carried away with them.
The circumstances made a great fnss among
;he Mpongwe, and even the missionaries heard j
.of it, for it happened at a village not far ;
from the missionary grounds, but I never
credited the stories till now, though the facts
were well authenticated by witnesses. Iu
fact, the Fans seem regular ghouls, only they
practice their horrid custom lrablusbingly and
in open day, and have no shame about it. I
have seen there knives covered with human
sk : n, which their owners valued very highly.
To-day the Queen brought me some boiled
piatniain, which looked very nice ; but the fear
lest she should have cooked it in some pot ;
where a man had been cookel before—which j
was most likely the case—made me unable to i
eat it On ihese journeys 1 have fortnnately
taken with me sufficient pots to do my owu
cooking. They are the finest, bravest looking
set of negroes I have seen in the interior, and
eating human flesh seems to £,gree with them,
though I afterwards saw other Fan tribes
whose members had the fine air of those mono- 1
tains. As every where else location seems to
have much to do with it. These were living
among the mountains, and had all the appear- !
a nee of hardy mountaineer?."
Of African morality, JittJ; praise can be
" Their women they keep only to minister
to their pride, influence, and sloth. A man
pays goods or slaves for his wife, aud regards ;
her therefore, as a piece of merchandise
Young gir's—even children in arms—are mar- j
ried to old men for political effect. The idea I
of love as we understand it, seems unknown to
these people. The inhabitants of the sea j
coast has uo hesitation in bartering the virtue
of his nearest female relative, nor arethe wo
men averse from the traffic, if only they will
be well paid. And I will add, that many of j
the whites who come to the coast,do more to j
debauch and demoralize these poor, ignorant !
natives than even their own iguorauce aud j
brutality would do."
There, (as elsewhere,) women are the pro
lific cause of trouble :
" Unlawful intercourse with the women of
a neighboring tribe or village, is the caose of
uearly all the ' palavers,' aud wars and fights j
in Africa. If a tribe wants to fight, they
make this the cause, by getting one of their
women to intrigue with a man oi the other
village ; and if they do not want to fight,then,
they are even forced into it. Then the system ;
of intermarrying involves half a dozen tribes j
iu the quarrel. Each chief calls ou his father
in-law to assist, and in this way the country
is thrown into uproar ; property is unsafe, and
becomes almost valueless to them ; agricultural j
operations are impeded, and whole villages j
gradually disappear from the scene of conten
tion, either by migrating, star ring out, or beiug
VOICES FROM THE SPIRIT LAND. —Soft voices
from the spirit laud and blending harmonious
ly with earthly strains, lead us ou ia our pil
Myriads of angels bright, walk the earth
both wheu we sleep and when we wake. And
O, how sweet to think, when at night we pil
low our beads that the pure spirit of some
loved one from the spirit world is hovering
near our bedside.
Ferchance it may be a sister beloved ?
Sweet Lillie! A plant too fragile for the
earth augels bore her away to a more genial
clime, the Eden above. And now a minister
ing angel; she is permitted to return aud'round
our bedside, nightly vigil keep. But listen,
iu those houses of quiet— a voice soft as the
balmy breeze o'f Summer, falls upon thee
whispering—'Sister come home.'
Years pass. Another stiring is broken.—
Death, with ratbless hand, tears from our
embrace the richest of Heaven's blessing—a
mother—That mother's voice—how it thrills
the soul ! How oft we hear its sweet cadence!
When the world looks on, cold, and frowning
ly it comes, breathing words of tenderness and
directing our gaze Heaven-ward—whispers—
" Tiiy home."
Traveler o'er the bri ny deep—bearcat thou
a voice, speaking from the blue waves beneath
thee ? Hearest thou in the wind's mirth, a
voice calling—" Couae home—Come where
the weary rest."
Care worn pilgrim with path beset with
thorns, comes not a spirit voice to thee, whisper
ing from its star lit throne on high—" Come
Dying saint—heaves not thy bosom with
rapture as earth recedes from view, and the
land of bright spirits opens upon the ravished
vision ? Shrink thy soul from its passage
through Death's dark waters ? Ah no ! .Toy
ecstatic fills the soul as the sweet notes from
angel bands salote thine ear and thine eyes
descry sister spirits waiting to convey thee to
thy home with the blest.
Sweet voices—those which breathe tons so
much of Heaven—whispering—" Come, wel
WILD CATS.—A gentleman having in his
possession ten or twelve hundred dollars on a
certain bauking institution, away oat West,
weut up to the counter one fine morning, and
addressed the teller in the following lan
"Good morning, sir. Beautiful weather,
sir, Ahem ! I have something over a thou
sand dollars worth of your money iu my pocket.
Do you redeem ?"
The teller 6avs—
" Good morning, sir ; " smiles"blandly and
answers—" We redeem, sir, but we don't pay
"Do not pay specie, hey ? Suspeuded, I
" What do you redeem with ?" was the next
" With bills on other banks," replied the
" And those, I persume, are non-specie pay
ing banks ?"
"Very probably they are, sir,''bowing very
"Well, theD, what kind of bills can yon
give me ?"
"Almost any kind, sir. Give you Red Cat."
" Can't stand it."
" Well, then, bow's Grey Cat ?"
" Wouldn't give a straw for a whole barrel
" What do you say to Black Cat ?"
" 'Taint worth a cuss."
" Well, I'll try aud accommodate you with
"It wouldn't be any accommodation at all.
I dou't want your infernal wild cat money—
neither Red Cat, Grey Cat, Black Cat, White
Cat or Tom Cat. I wouldn't use it to litter a
horse with. Havn't you got some money on
eastern banks ?"
" No, sir,'' —softly and very politely—"east
era banks are principally specie-payiDg institu
" If not eastern, have yon bills on any other
banks that do pay specie ?"
" No, sir,'' bowing most courteously.
"Well, then"—drawing his package from
bis pocket with a desperate exprassion of coun
tenance—" Can you gire me tolerably executed
counterfeit bills on any bank that dots pay spe
" No, sir, very loud and looks if he had
MADE THEM SQUAT —A widow woman's
only son weDt to the Great Bethel Slaughter,
fought well, and returned home on a furlough.
His mother is pioos, and after he had answer
ed numerous inquiries as to his health, Ac.,
she said : " Now tell me, Henry, yon did not
kill uuy one did you ? You didn't pint your
gun at aDy of them, and commit murder,
right agin the Bible, did you ?" Said be : "I
don't know as I killed any one, bat I made
eight or ten of them squat d d sadden !"
TALL STUDENTS. —Tbey mean to raise tall
students in Wisconsin. An exchange says its
Board of Education has resolved to erect a
building large enough to accommodate five
hundred students three stories high !
£ST A country editor, speaking of spirit
ualism, says : "We don't believe in any me
diom except the 'circulating medium,' and
that has become so scarce that our belief in
it is shaken."
Speaking of lions, that was a great
idea of the hard shell preacher, who was dis
coursing of Daniel in the den of lions. Said
he : "There he sat all night, looking at the
show for nothing, didu't cost hitn a cent.
Whv is a fool in high station like a
man in a balloon ? Because everybody ap
pears little to him, and he appears little to ev
vol. xxix. —isro. i±.
The Teacher? Institutes for Bradford Co.,
for the Fall of 1861, will be holdeu at the fol
lowing times and places. Each Institute will
commence on Monday, at 2 o'clock, P. M. f
and close on the following Saturday at 12
At Athens Borough, Sept. 2d,for the towns
of Athens, Ridgbury, Burlington, Litchfield,
Suiithfield, Ulster and Sheshequin. At Rone,
Sept. 9th, for Rome, Wysox, Herrick, Pike,
Orwell, Warren, Wiudham, Standing Stone.
Sept. 16th, at Columbia X Roads, for Colum
bia, Wells, South Creek, Springfield, Troy
Armenia, Canton, West Burlington. At
Terrytown, Sept. 23d, for Wyalusing, Tusca
rora, Wilmot, Terry, Asylum. At Monroe-
I ton, Sept. 30th, for Leßoy, Granville, Frank
lin, Albany, Ovcrtou, the Towandas, and
Teachers are respectfully requested to be
prompt and punctual on tbe first day. Much
attention will be given to the subject of
reading. The State Suderintendent has re
quired teachers to be inspected,and have their
certificates graded in the ''Theory of Teach
ing;" hence, special iustruction in that depart
ment will be given.
Teachers should bring with them readers of
different kinds, writing paper and pencils,sing
ing books and grammars. It i 9 hoped that
there will be a fall attendance at each Insti
tute. The friends of education are invited to
atteud as much and as often as they cau fiud
Augtist 15, 1861. C. R. CO BURN.
The annual examinations of teachers for thia
county, will be holden in accordance with the
following programme. In three or foar instances
two townships have been put together, in order
that tbe inspections may all be held before the
winter schools commence. Examinations will
commence precisely at 10 o'clock a. m., none
will be inspected who do not come in before
11, unless the delay be unavoidable. Each
teacher must bring Sander's fifth Reader, ooe
sheet of fools cap paper, pen, ink and led
pencil. All who intend to teach during the
year must come forward and be examined
None will be examined privately unless ao
attendance upon tbe examination was impossi
ble, old—certificates will not be renewed.—
Directors and others interested, are earnestly
invited to attend.
Oct. 15—Wells A South Creek. Bowley Sehool House,
•• 16—Columbia. Au.teusviile
" 17—Springfield, Centre School House,
" IS—Ridgbury. Pemiyville,
" 19—Smithtield, Centre School House.
" 21—Troy A Armenia, Boro' School House,
" 22—Canton. Corners Scbiol Hoose,
" 23—Franklin A Leßoy, Chapel's School ileua*.
" 21—Granville, Taylor's School House,
" 25—Burlington. Boro'School House,
" 26—Monroe, Borough School House,
" 28—Wysox, A Standing Stone, Myersbnrgk.
" 29—Rome. Boro' School House,
" 30—Orwell. Hill School House,
" 31—Pike, iceliaysville,
Xov. I—Herrick, Landon School House,
< o—Wyalusing. Merryall.
" 4 —Tuscarora. Ackley School House,
•' j—Terry A Wilmot. Terrytown.
" 6—Albany A Overton, Browns School House.
" 7—Towanda. Boro'School House.
" 11—Asylum, Frenchtowa Lower House,
" 12—Sheshequin A Ulster, Kiuny School Home,
" 13—Athens, Boro' School House,
" 14—LitcbSeld, Centre School House.
" 15—Windham. Kuykendall School House,
•* 16—Warren, Bowea School House.
Aug. 3.1861. C. R. COBURJf.
Attorney General's Office, )
June 20, 1861. J
My opinion is requested by the Superinten
dent' of Common Schools on the following
questions, viz :
1. Is the duty of opening the schools and of
keeping them in operation at least four months
annually, obligatory upon Directors, or is it
merely a discretionary power ?
2. Are Directors individually liable to the
District for the loss of the annual State ap
propriation, in case they fail to put and keep
the schools in operation the required minimum
term of four months ?
3. What are the remedies against a Board
of Directors, who shall refuse to put and keep
the schools in operation the required term,'the
present year ?
1 will proceed to answer these questions it
the order in which they have been put:
1. Tbe 23d section of the Act of 1854,
makes it imperative on the Directors to estab
lish a sufficient number of Common Schools for
the education of every individual above the age
of five and under twenty-one years, in their re
spective districts, who may apply for admission
or instruction, either in person or by parent,
guardian or next friend ; and the subsequent
clauses of -that section, and the remaning
sections of the Act, contain various provisions
for the regulation and maintenance of tbe
schools thus directed to be established. The
ninth section provides, as causes of removal
from office, the refusal or neglect of all the
members of any Board of Directors to levy
the school tax, and to put or keep the schools
in operation so far as the means of the district
wiil permit, or to perform any other doty en
joined by law. Looking at all tbe provisions
of the Act, I am clearly of opinion, that tbe
duty of opening the schools and keeping them
in operation, as stated in the first question, is
obligatory on the Directors.
2 I am of opinion that the second question
ought to be answered in the negative.
3. Tbe remedies against a Board of Direc
tors, in tbe ease pnt in the third question, are
l ? t. to compel them by Mandamus to per
form their duty ; and, 2nd. removal from office
by tbe Court of Quarter Sessions.on complaint
made in accordace with the provisions of the
9vh section of tbe Act of 1854, above referred
to. Wm. M. Merkpitjt.
tef A religious atmosphere should sur-
I rooud every temple dedicated to science and
I literature, from the district school boose Op
' to our colleges