Bradford reporter. (Towanda, Pa.) 1844-1884, August 25, 1859, Image 1

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Thursday Morning, August 25, 1859.
SMcctcb |!oetrn.
Wavy and bright in the summer air—
Like a quiet sea when the wind blows fair,
And its roughest breath has scarcely curled,
The green highway to an unknown world
Soft whispers passing from shore to shore,
Like a heart content, yet desiring more—
Who feels forlorn,
Wandering thus on the path through the corn ?
A short space since, and the dead leaves lay
Corruption under the hedge-rows gray ;
Nor hum of insect, nor voice of bird
O'er tfie desolate field was ever heard ;
Only at eve the pallid snow
Blushed rose-red, in the red sun glow ;
'Till one blest morn,
Shot up into life the green young corn.
Small and feeble, tender and pale,
It bent its bead to the wintry gale,
Hearkened the wren's soft note of cheer,
Scarcely believing spring was near :
Saw chesnuts bud, and the champions blow,
And daises mimic the vanished snow.
Where it was born,
On either side of the path through the corn.
The corn—the corn—the beautiful corn,
Rising wonderfully, morn by morn,
First, scarce as high as a fairy's wand,
Then, just in reach of a child's wee hand,
Then growing,growing, tall, green and strorg.
With the voice of the harvest in its song,
While iu fond scorn
The lark out-carols the murmuring corn.
Oh, strange, sweet path, formed day by day,
How, when and wherefore—tongue cannot say;
No more than of life's strange paths we know,
Or whether our eyes shall ever see
The wheat in the ear, or the fruit on the tree.
Yet, who is forloru ?
Heaven, that watered the furrows,will ripen the com.
Tin—lts Uses and Commerce.
There are thousands of persons who have
no further knowledge of tin than that of be
holding it in the form of common pails and
pans. Well, to use an expressive Irishism,
" such tin is no tin at nil." It is simply thin
plutes of iron coated with tin metal, the pro
per name of which ought to be tinned sheet-iron.
Tin is one of our most useful metals, because
it is employed for a great number of purposes.
We purpose to give some information respect
ing it, which will be new to most of our people
and interesting, we think, to all.
Tin is one of the most ancient metals—
that is, it was well known to the ancients ; and
it is very well established as a fact that the
Phoenicians, those olden masters of the sea when
Tyre was in her glory, made voyages to Corn
wall, and obtained tin from the mines in that
district, long before Britannia was known to
the Romans. It was this tin, alloyed with cop
per, which formed the old brouze armor of the
Asiatic warriors ; and it may have been furnish
ed also by the renewed Hiram, King of Tyre,
the great architect and friend of Solomon, for
the building of the first and unapproached
Jewish temple. In appearance, this metal re
sembles silver when first polished ; but it sooner
becomes dim, because a thin coatofoxyd forms
early on its surface when exposed to a moist
atmosphere. It is quite ductile, and may be
rolled out into very thin sheets, called tin foil
When undergoing this roiling operation, it is
kept at temperature of about 212 Fall., at
which heat its malleability is greatly increased.
A common method of making tin foil is to fonu
ingots of lead and tin—the former in the heart
of the ingot, the latter on the outside—and to
roll tliese into foil. By this process, the tin
is retained on the outside, however thin the
ingots may be rolled out, while the posionous
lead is kept inside ;and by this means the cost
of the material is not one-half what it other
wise would be if made entirely of pure tin. A
patent has been secured for this invention, and
by the reduction caused by it in the price of
foil, the latter is now employed for a hundred
purposes, such as wrappers for tobacco, labels
on bottles, &t\, for which paper and other sub
stances were formerly used.
Tin is also extensively employed intheehem
ical arts, such as by calico printers and dyers,
for making what are called "spirit modants"
and " staunatc salts." It is this metal which
gives its brilliant hues to the rich crimson
shawl and the azure-blue robe of the fashiona
ble lady ; and it lorms the basis of many other
colors on silk, cotton and woolen fabrics. For
this purpose, the metal is commonly dissolved
in an acid,such as hydrochloric or nito-muriatic,
which, in a diluU-d state, forms the chemists'
"spirits." Instead of dissolving it as an acid
for such purpose, as was exehi-ively done in
former years, it is now combined with an alkali,
anil forms the stannate of soda, a salt resem
bling pearl-ash. In this form it is now exten
sively employed in Europe, and the writer of
this has had some of it in his possession for
more than a year, but has endeavored in vain
to make some of our practical chemists appre
ciate its advantages. Tin dissolves in some
acids like white sugar in hot water ; but the
action which takes place iu the former case is
chemical—in the latter, merely mechanical.
The tinned-plates employed by our " white
smiths" for making milk pans, paiis, and such
like articles, are all imported from England,to
wiiich country their manufacture iconfined.—
M e alse import great quantities of this metal
in pigs, cailed " block tin." It is principally
used for making bronze alloys for machinery
and white metul," formerly called " Britannia
metal,' which is an alloy composed of tin, cop
per and antimony Very small portions of
the latter two metals are used in the alloy
only a sufficient quantity to render the tin hard
and at the same time retain its ductile quality.
A very great amount of this metallic alloy is
employed in the manufacture of tea-table ware.
It is first made into sheets ; these ore after
words spun in lathes into the forms of tea,
coffee and milk pots, cups, flagons, and urns,
of tasteful designs ; af'er which they are elec
tro plated with silver, and become beautiful in
appearance. Twenty years ago all our pewter
and Britannia ware was imported from England
now, very little, if any, comes to us from
abroad. We manufacture all we use at home.
Skillful English artisaus introduced the art
among us, and there are very large manufac
tories for making this ware in Waterbury and
Meriden, Conn., Taunton, Mass., and several
other New England towns. Very great ad
vances have been made of recent years in the
desigus or forms of articles formed of this ware.
The old pewter tea-pots and their udjuncts
were models of ugliness in comparison with the
same class of articles now manufactured. The
adoption of classic models has wonderfully im
proved the tastes of our people, and such has
been the progress recently made in this art that
elegant articles of such ware, with surfaces of
dazzling pure silver, can now be purchased
lower than the old-pewter-pots, 30 years ago.
At some other period, we may refer at further
length to these manufactures ; we must now,
however, confine ourselves to tiu as au article
of commerce.
Four classes of tin find their way into our
market. These are denominated Banca, Straits
English and Spanish. The first is the best,
and is the principal sort which we employ
Our rocks yield au abundance of gold, but
not a pound of American tin has ever beeu
sold in our marts. Traces of this metal have
beeu found at Lyme, N. 11., Gotham, Mess,
and in some parts of Virginia ; but we have
uo tiu mines.
" Bauca tin," is always sold for about two
and three cents more per pound than any other
because it is a reliable article, aud its quality
can be taken upon trust. The honest Holland
er deserves credit for this confidence in the tin
with which he furnishes us. Its name is deriv
ed from the island of Banca, where it is obtain
ed, and which is under the government of the
the Dutch East India Company. Great core
is exercised in smelting the ore to obtain the
metal pure and of a uniform quality, aud the
manner iu which business is done in the selling
of it is peculiar. The company makes public
sales of this metal only once per annum, in the
mouth of July, and accumlates the yearly pro
ducts of their mines for this purpose. Rotter
dam. in Holland, is the place of sale ; and
about two or three months previous to this event
the company sends uotiees to all civilized coun
tries of the amount to be sold, with the relia
ble guarantee that not another pound shell be
furnished until July of the subsequent year. —
These annual sales were commenced about 20
years ago. and the promises of this Dutch
company have always been sacredly kept,
although, in many intsances, great temptations
have been presented by a high rise in the prices
of the metal after the public sales. Those
who purchase Banca tin at Rotterdam, do so
with the perfect confidence that subsequently
a flood of this metal cannot be poured into the
market to lower their prices The investment
in it, therefore, is very safe, and the Roths
childs and other large bankers are frequent
purchasers for the purpose of safely investing
idle funds.
In 1856, there was 167,000 pigs of Banca
(70 His. each) sold at Rotterdam ; in 1857,
101,000 ; 1808 101,000 ; 1850, 130,000,0n1y.
There was quite a falling off in the product
last, year, and, as a consequence, there has been
a rise from two to three cents per pound in
Bauca since the news of the annual sales the
last month arrived. Of the amount of this tin
taken by the Limited States in four years,
there were, in 1856, 32 316 pigs ; in 7857
(year of the panic) 14.000 ; in 1858, 31,791 ;
and this year, so far, 27,000 pigs. Our " white
ware" manufacturers do not find hard granules
and other foreign .substances in this tin, as they
doin other brands ; hence its high character
for the most important purposes.
" Straits tin " derives its name from vessels
which trade with ports in the Indian Archi
pelago,and pass through the Straits of Malacca.
They collect this metal at Singapore, at Borneo,
and other places and all bough some of the pias
are as good as those of Banca, on the whole it
is not so reliable, but ranks next in value.
" English tin "is obtained in Cornwall,where
the most productive mines of this metal in the
world are located. The best qualities of English
tin, it is said, never reach our markets ; the
poorer qualities only are exported. The " re
fined English," which is esteemed as good as
Banca, and sells for the same price in London,
is all kept for British manufacturing purposes,
the demand for it being greater than the sup
Our "Spanish tin" comes from Mexico and
South America. Its quality is poor, owing to
the slovenly method employed to smelt the ore.
It could be refined to equal any other ; but as
it is, the pigs of it sold in our market are very
This metal (tin) deserves more attention
from our metallurgists than it has received, as
its market value is steadly on the increase,and
the demand for it advancing rapidly, because
of its more general application to various new
purposes in the arts. Banca tin is double the
price >t was 20 years ago ; the wholesale price
at present is 33 cents per pound, and the pros
pect is that it will attain to a much higher
figure. Dr Jackson, of Boston, who has dis
covered specimens of tin ore in New Hamp
shire, advises further prospecting for the metal
and we urge his suggestion upon metallurgists
in every section of our country, as it costs us
about $5,500,000 annually for it, the largest
item being plates and sheets valued at $4,700,-
000, a sum which might be saved if we bad
tin mines of Our own.
Religion will snstain QS through the
uneven and uncertain journey of life—support
us in a dying hour, and bring ns safely tr
heaven at last, where we shall enjoy the bliss
ful presence of our Saviour forever.
may sound like a paradox, yet the
break of both of an army's wiDgs is a pretty
so/a way to make it Qy
Inclined to be Quarrelsome.
" There was once a little, slim-built fellow,
rich as a Jew, and independent us the devil,
riding along a highway in the state of Georgia,
when he over-took a man driving a drove of
hogs by the help of a big, raw boned, six-foot
twofisted specimen of humanity. Stopping the
last named individual, he accosted him :
" I say, are these your hogs?"
" No, sir ; I'm to work by the month."
"What pay might you be getting, friend ?"
" Ten dollars a mouth and whiskey tbrowu
in," was the reply.
"Well, look here, I'm a weak, little,inoffen
sive man, and people are npt to impose upon
me, d'ye see. Now, I'll give you twenty-five
dollars a month to ride ulong with me and pro
tect me," said Mr. Gardner. " But, he added
as a thought struck him, "how might you be
on the fight ?"
" Never been licked in my life," rejoined the
"Just the man I want. Is't a bargain ?"
queried Gardner.
" Six-footer ruminated. "Twenty-five dollars
—double wages—nothing to do but to ride
around and smash a fellow's mug occasionally
when he's sassy."
" .Six-footer accepted."
"They rode along till, just at night, they
reached a village inn. Dismounting ut the
door,they went in. Gardner immediately singl
ed out the biggest man in the room, and pick
ed a tuss with him. After considerable pro
miscuous jawing, Gardner turned to his fight
ing friend, and intimated that the licking of
that man had become a sad necessity. Six
footer peeled, went in, and came out first best.
"The next night, at another hotel thesaute
scene wns-renacted—Gardner getting into a
row with the biugest man in the place, uud
six-footer doing the fighting.
"At last, on the third day thev came to a
ferry kept by*a huge, double-fisted man, who
had never been licked iu his life. Whilst cross
ing the river Garduer, as usual, began to find
fault and " blow." The ferrymau naturally
got mad, threw things around, aud (old him Ins
opinion of their kind. Gardner then turned to
his friend and gently broke the intelligence to
him, " that he was sorry, but that it was ab
solutely necessary to thrash that ferry man."
"Six-footer nodded his head, but said noth
ing. It was plainly to be seen that he did not
relish the job, by the way he shrugged his
shoulders, but there was no help for it. So
when they reached the shore, both stripped,
aud at it they went. Up and down the bank,
over the sand, into the water they fought,
scratched, gouged, Git, and rolled, till, at the
end of an hour, the ferryman gave in. Six
footer was triumphant, but it had been tough
work. Going up to his employer, lie scratch -
his heart for a moment, and then broke forth :
" Look here, Mr. Gardner, your salary sets
mighty well, hut—Fin—of—the—opinion—
that you are inclined to be. quarrelsome. Here
I've only been with you three days, and I've
licked tlie three biggest men ir. the country ! I
think this firm had better dissolve, for you see
Mr. Gardner, I'm afraid you're inclined to be
quarrelsome, and 1 reckon I'll draw !"
Tahutca Gazette.
his last Wine Press, tells an old story, which,
he says, few persons have not heard. When
governor of New York, Seward, in those pre
railroad days, had occasion to visit a certain
part of the state, and, accordingly, mounted
upon the box of the mail-coach, in order that
he might enjoy his cigar and the scenery.—
The driver was an inquisitive fellow, and his
passenger humored him.
" Land agent?" said the driver.
"Xo," quoth Seward.
" Selling goods ?"
" Xo."
" Traveling preacher ?"
" Xo."
" Circus ?"
" No "
"What then?" said the baffled driver,
" what is your business ?"
"Governor," replied Seward, with a tran
quil puff.
" Governor o' what ?"
"{Governor of the State of New York,"
replied the smoking passenger with compos
" Get aout !"
" Well, 1 can convince you of that," said
Seward, "for here is a man on the road with
whom I am acquainted, and, as the stage pass
ed by,he saluted him. "Good morning, Mr.
Bunker, I want to ask you a question—am I
not the Governor of the state of New York ?"
" Xo, by thunder !" was Bunker's unexpect
ed answer.
" Who is, then ?" said the startled smoker.
" Thurlow Weed !"
JEST" Col. Nash once demanded the hand
of a cross grained Alabama planter's daughter.
" Squire my business to day is to ask for your
daughter's baud." "It is, is it ? What! you
inarry my gal ? Look here, young man, leave
my premises instanter, and if you ever set foot
here again, I'll make my niggers skin you.
Marry my daughter yon " Nash left. He
saw the old gentleman was angry. After get
ting off to a safe place he thought he would
turn and take a last fond look at the home
of his lost idol when he espied the old man
busy shoveling up his tracks from the yard
and thowing them over the fence.
ftay-Learning is not offensive in a woman,
if she only preserves a gentle and thoroughly
feminine disposition. Some one has very sig
nificantly said, that it does not matter how
blue the stockings are, if only the petticoat is
long enough to cover them.
■ ' '
PATIENCE. —" I remember," says Wesley
" hearing my futhersay to my mother, "how
could you have the patience to tell that block
headj the same thing twenty times over?"
" Why," mid she, " if I had told him hut nine
teen times, I should have lost all my labor."
Aii' and Snnshine.
" Pure air for the lungs and bright sunlight
for the eyes," is a physiological maxim which
should never be forgotten. On this subject
the Springfield Republican has some very good
remarks. It says:—" When the trees about
a dwelling shade the ground so thoroughly,
that the grass and shrubbery will not grow,
and the rooms of the house have a constant
air of dampuess and gloom, aud the outside
gathers moss and mold, it is time to make war
upon the trees and open a pathway for the
sunshine and warm air. If it were not for the
beneficent visits of the hot winds from sunnier
spots occasionally, such homes would be as
noisome and fatal as tombs. The vital statis
tics of cities show the sunny side of the streets
to be the most healthy,notwithstanding the in
sane efforts made even by the inhabitants of
cities to exclude the little sunlight that at
tempts to reach them ; and we have no doubt
that the statistics of country residences would
show the same general fact. A certain amount
of shade is essential to comfort, but when it
reaches the point of excluding sunshine alto
gether, it becomes a positive evil. When we
talk about opening windows and doors, we
know what the exclamation of tidy housekeep
ers will be. Flies are a nuisance, we confess,
multitudinous, disagreeable and dirty ; dust
from the streets is insufferable, and faded car
pets are a daily mortification. But after all,
are not rosy cheeked und lively children, and
vigorous w omen more ornamental and more es
sential to the comfort of a family than the best
preserved colors in the worsted work or entire
immunity from the annoyance of flies ? Let
us welcome the visits of the heailhful air and
sunshine, uud look out for the essential condi
tions of vigor aud cheerfulness first of all, and
if matters of mere show must be sacrificed,
wny, let them slide."
W EIGHT OF THE EARTH. —Corperfiicus first
demonstrated that the apparent terrestrial plain
was a free and independent material mass,
mi ving in a definable path through space.—
Then Newton explained that this independent
mass moved through space because it was un
supported by props und chains ; that, iu fact,
as a massive body, it as falling forever through
the void ; but that us it fails it sweeps round
the sun yi an never ending circuit, attracted
toward it by magnetic like energy, but kept
off from it by the force of its centrifugal move
ment. Next, Sneil and Picard measured the
dimensions of the heavy and falling mass, and
found that it was a spherical body, with a gir
dle of twenty five thousand miles. Subse
quently to this, Baily contrived a pair of scales
thut enabled him approximately to weigh the
vast spere ; and lie ascertained that it had
within itselfabout 1,256,105,670,000,000,000-
000.000 tuns of matter. To these discoveries,
Foucault more recently added demonstration
to the actual senses of the fact, that the mas
sive sphere is whirling on itself us it falis
through space, and round the sun, so I hat
point after point of its vast surface is brought
in succession into the genial influence of its
sunshine ; an investing atmosphere of com
mingled vapor and air is made to present clouds,
winds, aud lain, and the inverted surface to
bear vegetable forms and animated creatures
iu great diversity. The world is, then, a large,
solid sphere, invested with a loosened shell of
transparent, elastic, easily moving vapor, aud
whirling through space within the domains of
sunshine ; so that by the combined action of
tr.o transparent mobile vapor and tliestimulant
sunshine, organized creatures may grow and
live on its surface, and those vital changes
may be diffused, among which conscious and
mental life stand us the highest results.
A LEGAL ANECDOTE. —EIisha Williams,form
erly of Columbia county, was somew hat noted
for his eloquence and power of moving a jury.
On one occasion he made a plea which pro
duced a marked effect both upon the jury and
upon the Court. His legal opponent was a
mere pettifogger, but shrewd, and, as it so
happened on the occasion, succeeded in laying
out the eminent counsellor. When Mr Wil
liams had closed his eloquent appeal, the petti
fogger rose and said :
" Gentlemen or the Jury and your Honors :
I should despair of the triumph of my client
in this case, after the eloquent appeal of the
learned counsel, but for the fact that common
law is common sense. No man could like bet-
tcr the piece which the learned gentleman has
spoke, than what I like the piece, lie spoke
it good. I've hecred him give it four tunes
afore—once at Scodaek, in a burglary case ;
once at Kink, on a suspicion o' stealin' ; once
at Roughkeepsie, in a murder case : and the
next time at Kakiak, about the man who was
catehed a counterfeiting. Well, lie always
spoke it good, but this time he's really beat
himself. But what does it all amount to, gen
tlemen of the jury ? That is the question,
and you cau answer it as well as I kin, aud bet
ter tew ?"
And so they did, and quickly, by a verdict
for the pettifogger's client.
ings since, says the Oswego Times, as the train
was leaving Fulton, a farmer attempted to
cross the track ahead of it with a wagon load
ed with lumber, and not having made the right
calculation, the hind end of the wagon was
struck by the locomotive, and the load, wagon
and farmer were scattered about promicnouslv.
The train was stopped as soon as possible,and
backed up to the spot, the v itnesses expecting
to find the driver a corpse, but instead of th°t
they found him sitting on the fence, wiping the
perspiration from his face, and all right, except
being terribly frightened. On seeing the con
ductor and engiueer approaching him he ex
claimed, " Boys, I guess I drova a little too
is difficult to conceive anything more
beautiful than the reply given bv one in afflic
tion, when he was asked how he bore it so
well. "It lightens the stroke," said he, "to
draw near to bim who handles the rod."
A Trip Through the Country.
At this time of year every one feels more or
less inclined forchrnge of scene, change of air,
or simply the excitement of fresh faces, new
society and different habits. All want a break
in the year—something to convince tliern that
they are not mere business or househo'd ani
mals, but that they are individuals with a large
capacity for enjoyment, and capable of being
amused and instructed by woodland notes and
the sight of farms, the sea, green fields, or
wild forests. In consequence, the great ques
tion now is : " How shall 1 spend my vaca
tion?" Friend, let us give you the advice
which Dr. llufeland, of Jena, gives on the
subject of travailing, in his great work, "The
Art of Prolonging Life," adding to his advice
the determination to be amused and keep in
good temper the whole holiday through. What
if hotel keepers over-charge thee, friend? be
not vexed, but make a joke of it, and the laugh
will do you more good than the extra charge
could do if spent in physic. Look on all
things pleasantly, determined to be pleased,
uud the moral effect will be of more value
than the physical ; and above all, locomotive
swain, take with tliec ut least one-third more
money than you expect to spend. You can
economise on the way, but it is well to have
something to meet contingencies. The learned
doctor tells us :
1. Traveling on foot, or rather on horse
back, is the most healthful ; but when one is
weakly, or undertakes long excursions, it is
more advisable to travel iu a carriage or by
2. When one travels in a car, it is very
beneficial always to change the posture ; that
is, to sit sometimes and sometimes to recline.
By these means one can best prevent the evils
attending continued riding iu this manner,
which are occasioned principally by the jolting
being in one direction.
3. Nature wiil not suffer any sudden transi
tions. It is therefore improper for people ac
customed to a sedentary life to undertake sud
denly a journey during which they w ill be ex
posed to violent jolting. The case here is the
same as if one accustomed to drink water
should all at once begin to drink wine.
4 Excursions, the object of which is health
must not be fatiguing ; but this can be deter
mined only by difference of temperament aud
constitution. One ought, above all tilings, to
avoid traveling in the night time ; which, by
interrupting the necessary refreshment, check
ing perspiration, and exposing the body to un
healthy air, is always prejud'ciaf.
5. People must not imagine that they may
indulge a little more in intemperance when on
a journey. One, however, needs not to be too
nice in the choice of food and drink ; und it is
always best to use the common fare of each
locality. But at any rate the stomach ought
not to be overloaded. By the motion of
traveling, the power of the body is too much
divided lor the stomach to admit of a large
quantity of food ; anrt the motion itseif, by
these means, will become more fa'iguing.—
People, in particular, should not indulge too
much in beating food and liquors, as is often
the case on journeys ; for traveling alone acts
as a stimulus, ami less stimulating nourish
ment is then required than in a state of rest.
A want of attention to this rule may occasion
to'o violent irritation, inflammation, accumula
tions of the blood, Ac. It is most proper, o:i
journeys, to eat rather little at a time, but of
ten ; to drink more than one eats ; and to
choose food easy of digestion, yet. strongly nu
tritive, not of a heating nature, and such as
cannot be readily adulterated. It is safest,
therefore, in the country and in small hotels,
to use milk, eggs, well-baked bread, boiled or
roasted meat, and fruit. Drink water, with
the addition of a little leinon juice If the
water be impure, it may be rendered sweet by
charcoal powder.
6. Avoid immoderate exertion and wasting
of the powers. It is, however, as difficult in
in general to lay dovn a proper standard of
motion-, as of eating and drinking. But na
ture, iu this, has given us a very excellent
guide, a sense of lassitude, which is here of as
much importance as the sense of satiety iu eat
ing or drinking. Weariness is nothing else
than the voice of nature, which tel's us that
our stock of powers is exhausted, and that lie
who is tired should enjoy repose. But nature
may, indeed, become lost in habit ; and we
may be as sensible of lassitude as the contin
ual glutton is of fullness, especially when the
nerves is overstrained by stimulating and heat
ing food and drink. There are then, however,
other signs to tell us that we have exceeded
the proper measure ; and I request that to
tliese the strictest attention may be p<wd.—
When one begins to lie low-spirited or deject
ed ; to yawn often, and be drowsy, yet at the
same time to be incapable of sleeping though
one enjoys rest; when the appetite is lost ;
when the smallest movement occasions a flut
tering of the pulse, heat, and even trembling ;
when the mouth becomes dry, aud is sensible
of a bitter taste, it is high time to seek re
freshment and repose, if one wishes to prevent
illness already beginning to take place.
7. While one is traveling, insensible per
spiration may easily be checked ; and cold is
the principal source of those diseases which
thence arise. It is advisable, therefore, to
guard against all sudden transitions from heat
to cold, or the contrary ; and those who have
great sensibility in the skin, will do well, when
they go on a journey, to carry a tiiiu flannel
shirt along with them.
8 Cleanliness, when on travels, is doubly
necessary ; and, therefore, to wash the body
frequently with cold water is much to be re
commended. This will contribute also, in a
great degree, to remove lassitude.
9. During winter, or iu cold cliina'e, one
may always submit to greater exercise than
during summer, or in warm climates, where
j perspiration exhausts one-half of the strength.
i Or.e, also, can undergo more fatigue early iu
the morning than in the afternoon.
10. Full-blooded persons, or those who are
subject to a spitting of blood, or other serious
disease, must consult their pbyticiao before
I they undertake a journal.
VOL. XX. NO. 32.
stant a woman tries to manage a man for her
self, she lias begun to ruin him. The lovely
creeper clings in its feebleness with grace to
the stately tree ; but if it oat grow, as if to
conceal its supporter, it speedily destroys what
it would otherwise adorn. When the serpent
had persuaded Eve that she should induce her
liusbcnj to take her advice, and become as
knowing as herself, she no longer felt herself
made for him, and both for God, but rather
that he was made to admire her. When she
prevailed, they soon bickered about their right
place, no doubt, for God's law was lost sight
of by both. One grand purpose of woman's
power over man's heart, now that both are fal
len, is the maintenance of man's self-respect.—
A man who loves a true-hearted woman aims
to sustain in himself whatever such a woman
can love and reverence. They mutually put each
other in mind of what each other ought to be
to the other. To the formation of manly char
acter, the love and reverence of the virtuous
feminine character is essential. One must see
in the other's love the reflection of the charac
ter desired. Hence the pertinacity of true lov®
and reverence often recovers a character that
would otherwise be lost forever. If once mutual
respect depart, then farewell the love that can
alone rectify what is wrong; then farewell the
heart rest, without which life becomes a deliri
um and an agony. If it be the faculty of woman
to love more tenaciously than man, her might
surpasses his so far as she is wise iu showing
it. In expressing love, without at the same
lime indicating her faith in the inherent dignity
of man, however obscure, she only repels him
to a worse condition by exciting a reckless
sense of his own worthlessness, together with a
hatred of her forgiving patronage. When a
man hates himself what can he love? Give
him time, and he will love the soul that cliugS
to him to save him.
fl-S" T'e following from the Cairo (III.)
Gazette will be understood and appreciated by
anyone who bus ever spent an hour in the
place :
" Whoop! I'm just nat'rally spilin' for a
fight! '' screamed a somewhat" tosticated " in
dividual in front of Spiingfield Block, the other
night. "I'm the best mau that ever wore hair.
I'm the big dog of the tan yard—the gray
wolf of the prairies, so I am ! Jerewsalem,
don't some of these ornary Cairo cusses waut
to tackle me f I'm the post oak runner—the
big boy what's never been backed ; I'm a steam
engine, fired up, with my safety-valve tied down
l'./O pounds of steam, and bound to bust, un
less I can work it cflf iickiu' some of these
Illinois suckers ! I shall die, I know I shall,
if I can't find somebody to fight me. Dare
any man that ever wore breeches lend me a
dollar ! Won't somebody here just please to
me a liar ?"
Notwithstanding tli is polite and uncommon
request, urged with so much pathos and sincer
ity, the gentleman made no impression on tha
minds of our citizens, and found no one willing
to make the required assertion. Next morn
ing we saw the youth sitting on a pile ot lum
ber by the river, both eyes bunged up, nose
flattened, half his teeth knocked out of his head
and his coat lorn into shreds. Upon kindly
inquiring alter his health, and how lie liked
Cairo, he remarked, " Stranger, I iige Cairo
first rate —it's a lively place, and has the best
society iu it I've met with since 1 left home."
Saxon and some uothem churches of early
date, a stone bench was made to project with
in the wall, running round the whole interior,
except the eastern end. In 1010, they were
represented as sitting on the ground, orstand
ing. About this time the people introduced
low, rude, three legged stools promiscuously
over the whole church. Wooden seats were
s on introduced after the Norman conquest.
In IGO T, a decree was issued in regard to the
wrangling for scats being so coimncn that none
could call any seat his own, except nohlemen
and patrons, each entering and holding the first
one be seized. As we approach the Reforma
tion, from 1530 to 1540, seats were more ap
propriate, the entrance being guarded by a
cross, and the initials engraved on them. Im
mediately after the Reformation the pew sys
tem prevailed ; as we learn from a complaint of
the poor commons addressed to Ileury VIII.,
in 1040, in reference to a decree that a liih!t>
should he in every church, at liberty for all to
read, because they feared it might lie taken
into the " quire,' 1 or some "pue." In 16US,
naileries were introduced. But as early as
1611 pews were arranged to afford comfort,
by being baized or cushioned, while the sides
around were so hiirli as to hide those within ;
(a device of the Puritans to avoid heing seen
by the officers, who reported those who did not
stand when the name of Jesus was mentioned.)
With 1 lie reign of Charles the First, the reason
for heightening t-he sides disappeared, and from
the civil war they decliucd gradually to their
present height.
PERSEVERANCE. —The greater the difficulty,
the more the glory in surmounting it. Skilful
pilots gain their reputation from storms and
£rs-A Washington clergyman, a Sunday or
two since, while stating a deficiency in the col
lections, remarked that since the issue of three
cent pieces, the revenue of his church has de
clined nearly one half!
fc£r*-It is complained of Sliakspeare, that
lie unnecessarily murdered Hamlet. Bnt he
lie has been paid for it. A great many Ham
lets have murdered Sbakspoaro.
FRIEND —One who will tell yon of your of
your faults and foliics in prosperity, and assist
you with his hands and heart in adversity.
ft** The more peaceably and qnictly we get
on, the bettor—the better for our neighbors.
The wisest policy is if a man cheats you, quit
dealing with him ; i 4" he is abusive, quit his
couipauy ; if he slanders you. take euro to lit®
eo that uobcdv will believe bioi