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ONE MLLAR PER ANN'JM, INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE.
K. (>. GOODRICH, EDITOR.
TOW A N D.A. :
SatnrDan ftlarninn, 3iuu 21, ISolj.
i!eirn of Terror in Kansas!
We make some extracts below to show the
■omlition of Kansas under the rule of the pre
.mini •" law and order" men, who are murder
lu r inoffensive citizens, burning houses, steal -
~_r cattle and committing depredations " by
nithority " of the territorial laws.
The first article is from the fYorth American,
i Philadelphia paper, of decidedly conservative
H-arings. which has not sympathized with the
riends of Freedom, but which is now awakeu
:il and alarmed at the dangerous inroads of
- iverv upon our free institutions, and at the
iionstrous outrages perpetrated upon the Free
Settlers in Kansas.
[Ui 'ira tin- Nin th American of the fith June.]
FIS'M KANSAS. —We have conversed with
Mr. <l. P. Lowry, the private Secretary of Ex
i; iveruor Reeder, who has just arrived from
Kansas He gives a melancholy account of
the condition of things in the territory, and
ir mi hi> statements we are satisfied that the
litters of the newspaper correspondents, so far
in exaggerating the troubles, scarcely do
•; in justice. All the roads leading from the
Missouri border to the principal towns of the
MTitory. arc covered by roving bands, clothed
u:th the authority ot the national government,
•a jo allow no Free State man to pass. They
k? arrests without cause, and without war
• They search whom they choose, break
-:i private letters and trunks, and it is now
-t impossible for any supplies or comniu
.ss'iis to reach the Free State men by anv
: tlie regular means. Resistance to these
.maulers is immediately heralded to every
• of the Union as insurrection against the
- and authority of the nation Even the
mkt affray is thus magnified. The Free
-Miemen have from the first lieen loth to op
: 'iy one chit bed with national authority.
' •-e roving bands rob them, cut off their
-■■■>- and communications, steal their horses
i'-attle, and do not hesitate to commit mur
is assaults without provocation,
i' frequently asked why the Free State
uo not retaliate. We have already given
.'of i rca-oii. Another is that the ontra
never committed when there is the
. test chance of an even conflict. The as
i .Mr. Sumner is a faithful type of all
■ iragroiis deeds of the pro-slavery men in
N -us A lieu one or two Frec-soilers are
-lit by a band of tLoir opponents, or when
:m be taken unawares, or when a solita
ry farmer can be found afar from help, then
Mi-ourians are terrible fellows. This is
xphmation of their success. Lawrence
was known by them to lie in an utterly
lenoolos ' ondition, for the want of supplies,
'arrest or absence of leaders, and other
■ auics. The roving bands lose no opportuni
st driving (lie Free State men from tlieir
r: \wlicntlicvcando so without peri! to
| ''Reives Hut tlicy will only attack solitary
"-MIS. and when there is a danger of help
i sin .moiH'd to resist them, tlicv are quite
Mr Jolui S. Howen, of West Chester, a
i'-p| i table and intelligent gentleman, j
'■rings the latest accounts from the terri
fy. represent- its condition as truly deplora-
Tk'audacity and recklessness of thebor
• ' ruffians have increased to such an extent as
oi'pail the settlers in a continual ferment
-anxiety. They now deem it fatal to lose
-"it of their arms.
'br readers <au be at no loss to understand
I'j-ct ot these outrages. It is to harass
p ' i!' <at tin 1 Free-State iuen, so as to
- ' iu tn abandon their claims. 'l*llo reign
'T is a> complete as it is possible for it
31 "• -\o opportunity of arresting orin
- Irc(->tate man i< neglected, either in
3 or Kansas. Unless help of some kind
T" iiiy extended to the sufferers, it is
, • r, 'i that the control of the Territory
■ "j"-u—ly abandoned to the despera
i y Shannon, Atchison and Hufnrd.
' 1 States authority there is now open-
I- hi the outrages. The leaders are all
t with it whenever they undertake to
" 3 !c an enormity.
M ""lements in the Territory extend
" "lav-live miles beyond the Missouri
h i< only those nearest the latter
"!• visited In* the mobs. The others,
suffer from the cutting off of their
Mr I.owry says that there arc not
'"iglit hundred bona fide pro-slavery
Ihe Free-State party outnumber
"" '-'rcatly that no one pretends to doubt
"lien! pre|)ouderaiicc. Notwithstand
' troubles heretofore, the population
3 o increase up to the commencement
• ' t and worst interference. That has
and threatens to put an end to all
;' "th. A number of the southern
r "d' eribed as very worthy persons,
• " tt.'d on laud and gone to work to
I hit the rnassof them appear to
- 1 l ii without means, who, on arriving
V or >'. were destitute, and had to be
r ,/ '"Mlibations from their friends.
.. ' I' 0 *''-"g slaves, they arc not able
; ;! by the Free-State men on their
, ifir workshops. Others subsist
r they obtain on the roads, in the
i and " picket guards.'' Were it
c, " | l! "' "hole body would undoubted
!'" fwe of circumstances, mciu
' " s tate party, a number
" 3 -' "lone already.
'" "''w.-pajH-rs have censured <io
-1 '"v no in t) v i'.r hi- /light from
THE BRADFORD REPORTER.
the territory. Air. Lowry informs us that lie
I was desirous of remaining, and would have
done so but for the earnest solicitations of a
number of the prominent citizens of Lawrence,
and of Messrs. Sherman and Howard, the ma
jority of the Congressional Committee, all of
whom were laudably desirous of removing all
show of pretext for any assault on the place.
Ilad (Jovernor Reeder remained, it would
have been at the hazard of his life, as the
ruffians had avowed their fixed purpose to hang
A Record of Kansas Ruffianism.
Availing themselves of the fact that the ru
mors of the alleged death of Dr. Root, Gcn-
Pomeroy, and Air. Mitchell, the shooting of
Jones, and the killing" of " eight Pro-Slavery
men," now prove to have been unfouuded, the
doughfaces boldly characterize all statements
of outrages in Kansas as " Republican lies." —
That there has been falsehood as well as truth
sent over the telegraph lines, by the Missouri
ans who have charge of them, is unquestiona
ble. Rut these false statements do not invali
date or diminish the real catalogue of crime.
To enable our readers to keep the latter in
memory we subjoin below a list of a few oc
currences, which are authenticated by legal
evidence, and which are not even attempted to
be denied. There are five times as many oth
er similar ones reported, and tolerably we]] au
thenticated. Rut we wait until they shall be
officially and legally confirmed before adding
them to the list
NOVEMBER 29, 1854.
Missourians to tlie number of over one
thousand invaded Territory, armed,drive Judges
and legal voters from Polls, and by fraudulent
ballots pretend to elect Whitfield Delegate.
MARCH 30, 1855.
Nearly four thousand Missourians again in
vade Territory and repeat the outrages com
mitted in November preceding.
OCTOBER 1, 1855.
Third invasion of Missourians, accompanied
by similar outrages.
DECEMBER 15, 1855.
Fourth invasion, by which an endeavor is
made to vote down the Free-State Constitution,
i but proves a failure.
MAY 21, 1850.
Jones, a Missouri Postmaster, heads an
armed mob of Alabama, South Carolina and
Missouri men, which marches against Law
rence, pillages and plunders it, with violence
to the inhabitants, and the burning of several
OCTOBER 2, 1855.
Thomas Neuman, a Free-State man, stabbed
in the street of Leavenworth by a gang of
OCTOBER 2, 1855.
Child killed while at play, by a shot fired
by a Missotirian at James Furnatn, a Free-
State man, which missed him and entered a
NOVEMBER 23, 1855.
Olias. W. Dow, a Free State man, shot by
F. N. Coleman, a pro-slavery settler. Murder
er takes refuge with Gov*. Shannon, and is pro
tected by him.
DECEMBER —, 1855.
James Parbcr, Free-State man, assaulted
| and murdered by a shot in the back from the
I gun of one of President Pierce's Indian
Collins, a Free-State man, called out from
his mill, where lie was at work, and shot by
Laughlin, a pro-slavery settler.
JANTARY 17, 1850.
F. I'. Drown, a Free-State man, taken pri
soner by a gang of Missourians, hacked to
pieces with knives and hatchets, and his bleed
ing corpse Hung into his own door—from the
effects of which his widow is now a raving
MAY 20, 1550.
John Stewart, formerly of Dushford, Alle
ghany county, N. V., a young man of 20, shot
in his saddle while attempting to escape from
a party of "Jones' posse."
MAY 19, 1850.
Jones, " the only sou of his mother, and she
a widow," aged 19, shot through the back, by
one of " J ones'posse," because he refused to
give up his horse, with which lie snpported him
self and his widowed mother.
PRINTING OFFICES DESTROYED.
DECEMBER 22, 1855.
Territorial Register, an Administration pa
per at Leavenworth, conducted by Col. Dela
liay, mobbed for advocating a Free-State,
presses broken, type thrown into the river and
editor threatened with murder.
APRIL 14, 1855.
Parlrille Luminary, at Parkvillo, on the
frontier, mobbed by Missourians for similar
cause, and the editors, Messrs. Park & Patter
son, obliged to quit the State.
MAY 21, 1855.
Herald of Freedom office, in Lawrence, fired
upon with a field piece by " Joue's posse" and
reduced to ruins.
Tribune office, in Lawrence, mobbed, ran
sacki'd and set on fire and burned to the ground,
presses, Ac., "destroyed.
LYNCHING 1855 AND '56.
.Sixteen Free-State men, at different times,
have been tarred and feathered, or beaten, or
both, and some of them carried into Missouri,
or set adrift in the river. Among them were
William Phillips, a lawyer of Leavenworth,
and a member elect of the Territorial Legisla
ture ; the Dev. Pardee Duller, a Baptist cler
gvmati : Die D v Mr. Clark a Methodist mis-
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY AT TOWANDA, BRADFORD COUNTY, PA., BY E. O'MEARA GOODRICH.
sionary, and other ministers of the gospel of
various denominations. Assaults and battery
have l)cen too numerous to recapitulate, hard
ly a day passing without some attack on Free-
State men in the streets or on the high roads.
Among those assailed have been Gov. Reeder,
Gen. Poiueroy, &c.
Of Governor Robinson, without a warrant.
Of Mr. Rrown, editor of The JleralJ of
Freedom, without a warrant.
Of Messrs. Rronson, Hutchinson, Dietzlor,
Schuyler, Smith Baker and fourteen others, by
Missourians acting under authority of a pre
tended court, for " high treason," in refusing
to obey laws of the "Legislature" pretend
ed to have been elected by the Missouri inva
Imposing penalty of death for assisting slaves
Imposing penalty of dentil for circulating or
printing publications calculated to incite slaves
Imposing penalty of death for assisting slaves
to escape from any State and take refuge in
Imposing penalty of five years' imprison
ment at hard labor for harboring fugitive
Imposing penalty of two years'imprisonment
for aiding a fugitive slave to escape from custo
dy of an officer.
Imposing penalty of five years'imprisonment
at hard labor for writing, printing or circula
ting anything against slavery.
Imposing penalty of two years' imprisonment
at hard labor for saying that persons have not
a right to hold slaves in the Territory
Disqualifying all from sitting as Jurors who
do not admit the right to hold slaves in the
Disqualifying all as voters who do uot swear
to support the fugitive slave law.
Admitting any one to vote on payment of
sl, 110 matter where resident, who will swear j
to uphold the fugitive slave law and Nebraska !
Appointing Missourians to be town and
county officers for six years to come.
Re-enacting the Slave laws of Missouri, en
masse, adding that wherever the word "State"
occurs in them, it shall be construed to mean
NO EXCUSE FOR DESTROYING LAWRENCE.
I. R. Donalson, United States Marshal for 1
the First District Court, ct cetera, collected his
monster posse under pretext that he couid not!
execute the writs in his hands by an ordinary
His letter to the people of Lawrence proved
that this was a mere pretext. Another fact
confirms this charge.
On the timing preceding the destruction of
the printing offices, the Free-State Hotel, (/or.
Robinsoris residence, and the. sacking of the city,
Mr. J lonnlsons Deputy Marshal—Mr. Fain—
served tiro writs in Lawrence, without the aid
of any posse or encountering the slightest opposi
Let this fact be borne in mind !
A few days previous to the sacking of Law
rence, two young ladies were violated by a gang
of " law and order" ruffians, on a claim five
miles northwest of the city.
They lived on the claim with their mother. I
Their father had recently gone Fast on busi
ness. They saw four or five men seize two of
their horses in the field, and lead them off
They went down, and protested against the act.
The ruffians seized them, carried them down to
the woods, and consummated an outrage upon
There is a day ot retribution coming for all
this —and that speedily.
STKIXCFELLOW IX A STOKE.
Mr. F. Legate of this city was in Mr. Bab
cock's store, when I)r. Stringfellow and other
" law-abiding" persons entered it.
Stringfellow said—" Hoys ! can't we get
some good cigars here ?"
He went behind the counter, and put a box
under each arm.
" Well, boys," lie said, as lie took them
away, " I guess this is as good plunder as I
The other men who came in with liitn carried
Two hundred horses, at least, have been sto
len from the Free-State men, within 20 miles
of Lawrence, since Mr. Marshal Donalson is
sued his illegal proclamation. A party of the
Free-State men have organized and left Law
rence, and swear that tlicy will not return to
the city until these horses, or an equal number,
are again in possession of their owners.
They say that they will seize the horse of
every man within 20 miles of Lawrence who is
known to have given aid and comfort to the
As soon as the number is made up they will
They are so exasperated by the outrages and
humiliations to which they have been forced to
submit, that it. is impossible to restrain them
The Law-and-Ordcr organs will soon teem
with essays, I doubt not, on the virtue of obe
dience to law ; but it is extremely doubtful
whether they will even incidentally refer to
the causes which have led to this unfortunate
DTSCXIOS FLA US AND ACTS.
A white flag, with a blood-red star in the
centre—the ensign of the Southern Disuuion
jsts—was hoisted on the Free-State Hotel be
fore the cannonading commenced.
Sheriff Jones himself planted a red flag—ap
propriate emblem of pirates !—ou the roof of
Herald of Freedom office.
An American flag floated from a staff at the
fort erected last Autumn near the Kansas Hi
rer. The " legally organized " militia hauled
it down and tore it into ribbons ! This act is
significant of their ultimate designs.
During the cannonading a rumor spread ra '
" REGARDLESS OF DENUNCIATION FROM ANY QUARTER."
pidlv tliat United States troops were on the
opposite side of the river, preparing to cross
over. Au officer rode up to Sheriff Jones and
spoke to him.
On retiring lie shouted :
" Hoys ! quick 1 A hundred of you run
down to the river and secure the ferry-boats !
If the troops try to cross, fire at them and keep
them hack !"
A crowd instantly ran to execute the order.
The fern-boats were secured.
The rumor was false.
One of the victims of this cruel raid, a far
mer, residing about a mile from Lawrence,
wrote the following letter in response to a re
quest for information in regard to his losses :
LAWRENCE, K. T., May 25, 185 G.
On the 21st of May, at night, a number of
horsemen robbed me of my brood mares, and
burned for fuel, while encamped near my resi
-1 dence, between four and live hundred rails.—
On the morning of the 22d twenty-eight horse
men came and searched my house, asking for
Beecher's Bibles. While throwing about the
beds, one of them took my wife's night-clothes
and held them up, then threw them at a com
rade. They took from me two suits of men's
clothes, women's clothing, a watch, &c. I can
not say at present what amount I have suffer
ed ; but my crops are left uufcnccd, nor can I
get fence without horses.
Republican Meeting in Pike.
At a meeting of the citizens of Pike town
ship, convened at the Presbyterian Meeting
House, in Leßaysville, on Saturday the 7th
inst., Dr. E. COBUIIX was called to the
Chair, and (J.N. DEWOLF appointed Secre
The object of the meeting being stated
by the chair, reciting in a clear and forcible
manner the wrongs and oppressions which were
being perpetrated by the United States Go
vernment, through the influence of the slave
power of the South. On motion, E. Crandal,
G. X. DeWolf and A. Beardsley were appoin
ted a committee to draft resolutions. The
committee having retired, the meeting was ad
dressed by E. W. Jones, Esq., in an earnest
and eloquent appeal for immediate and efficient
action against the ruling powers of the Feder
al government. The committee then cainc for
ward and reported the following resolutions,
which were unanimously adopted :
That whereas, by the report of the Senate
Investigating Committee in the small matter of
the attempt to kill Snmner, a member of the
Senate, by Mr. Brooks a member of the House
of Representatives, it appears that while such
things do really constitute a breach of the privi
leges of that high, and by the Committee in
tended to be a dignified and important body,
they yet have no authority or power to protect
themselves or prevent a recurrence of similar
trivial offences. Therefore,
Kesrived , That we recommend and advise
individual Senators to place no dependence up
on the Scrgeunt-at-Armsor other officers of the
Senate, but to summon a sufficient number of
their constituents to net as a body guard and
■protection while in the discharge of their sena
Jfesolced, That the able, fearless and inde
pendent manner with which the Hon. (J. A.
GROW has discharged his duties, meets with
our entire approbation, and we do hereby
pledge to him our abiding confidence in his in
tegrity and patriotism by agreciug to sustain
him in his present position at the ballot-box in
Kesolrrd , That to the noble band of pioneers
who have gone forth from among us to plant
the standard of Freedom and Equal Laws in
Kansas, we tender the assurances of our fer
vent admiration for their devotedncss, indigna
tion for their wrongs, and sympathy for their
sufferings ; and wc pledge ourselves intermit
no effort and relax no exertions until their
rights shall have been vindicated and their op
pressors brought to justice.
Itcsolved, That we entreat all who concur
with us in desiring and demanding that "Free
dom shall be national and slavery sectional,''
to forget or postpone their differences on oth
er points, and unite with us in securing Free
dom to Kansas and excluding slavery from all
the territory of the Union.
Jteso/red, That the rights of the states, and
of the people located in the territories, are just
objects of solicitude and support, and wc con
demn the efforts making in our day to fuse all
political power into one indiscriminate and
overshadowing nationalism, as contrary to the
faith of our fathers and perilous to republican
Itnuilred, That 11. 1?. Uailcy, l\ IT. Buck,
E. W. Jones, A. Benrdslcy ami Stephen Urillk
be appointed a committee to call meetings and
to notify the people of any events of interest
which may transpire.
Jtesohr/I, That the proceedings be signed by
the officers and published by the County pa
pers. E. CO BURN, President,
ti. N. DKWOI.K, Secretary.
" FOOLSCAP. '' —Every body knows what
" foolscap " paper is, but many would be puz
zled to tell how it came to bear this singular
cognomen. When Charles I. found his reve
nues short, he granted certain privileges,—
amounting to monopolies; and annng these
was the manufacture of paper, the exclusive
right of which was sold to certain parties, who
grew rich and enriched the government at the
expense of those who were obliged to nse pa
per. At this time all English paper bore in
water marks the Royal arms. The Parlia
ment under Cromwell made jests of this law
in every conceivable manner ; and, among
other indignities to the memory of Charles, it
was ordered that the Royal arms he removed
from the paper, and the fool's cap and bells
be substituted. These were also removed
when the Rump Parliament was prorogued ;
but paper of the size of the Parliament's jour
nals still bear the name of " foolscap."
tear A man being commiserated with on ac
count of his wife running away, said, " Pray,
don't pity mc till she comes back."
BY WM. C. BRYANT.
Oreat were the thoughts, and strong the winds,
Of those who framed the high debate.
The immoral league of love that binds
Our fair, broad Empire, State by State.
And deep the gladness of the hour, %
When as the auspicious task was dupe,
In solemn trust, the sword of power
Was given to glory's spotless sou.
The noble men are gone—the suns
Of sixty years have risen and set,
But the bright links, those chosen ones
So strongly forged and brighter yet.
Wide as our own free race increase—
Wide shall extend the elastic chain,
And biud in everlasting peace,
State after State—a mighty train.
Clean Your Cellars.
Ry a beneficial arrangement of Providence
the gases and odors most prejudicial to human
life are lighter than the air which surrounds
us, and as soon as disengaged, rise immediate
ly to the upper atmosphere, to be purified, and
then returned to be used again.
The warmer the weather, the more rapidly
are these gases generated, and the more raj>-
idly do they rise ; hence it is, that in the most
miasmatic regions of tiie tropics, the traveler
can with safety pursue his journey ut midday,
but to do so in the cool of the evening, or
morning, or midnight, would be certain death.
Hence, also, the popular but too sweeping
dread of "night air." To apply this scientific
tiuth to practical life in reference to the cel
lars under our dwellings, is the object of this
The ceilings of cellars should be well plas
tered, in order most effectually to prevent the
ascent of dampness and noisome odors through
the joints of the flooring.
The bottom of the cellar should be well pav
ed with stone, cobble stones are jairhaps best ;
over this should be poured, to the extent of
several inches in thickness, water lime cement,
or such other material as is known to acquire
in time almost the hardness of stone ; this
keeps out the dampness of the earth below.
If additional dryness is desired for special
purposes, in parts of the cellar, let common
scantling be laid down, at convenient distan
ces, and loose boards be laid across tliern for
convenience of removal and sweeping under,
when cleaning time of the year comes.
The walls should be plastered, in order to
prevent the dust from settling on the innume
rable projections of a common stone wall.
Shelves should be arranged in the centre of
the cellar, not in the corners, or against the
walls ; these shelves should be hung from the
ceiling by wooden arms, attached firmly be
fore plastering ; thus you make all safe from
To those who are so fortunate as to own the
house in which they live, we recommend the
month of June, but to renters, the great mov
ing month of May, in New York, at least, as
the most appropriate time for the following
Let every tiling not absolutely nailed fast
be removed into the yard, and exposed to the
sun, and if yon please, remain for a week or
two, so as to afford opportunity for a thorough
Let the walls and floors be swept thorough
ly, on four or five different days, and letaeoat
of good whitewashing be laid on.
These things should be done onee a year,
and one day in the week at least, except in
midwinter, every opening in the cellar, for se
veral hours, about noon, should be thrown
wide, so as to allow as complete a ventilation
as possible. Scientific men have forced on the
common mind, by slow degrees, the importance
of a daily ventilation of our sleeping apart
ments, so now none but the careless or most
obtuse neglect it ; but few think of ventilat
ing their cellars, it is apparent that the noi
some dampness is constantly rising upwards
and pervading the whole dwelling.
Fmanatians from cellars do not kill in a
night; if they did, universal attention would
be forced to their proper management, but it
is certain, from the very nature of things, that
unclean, damp and mouldy cellars, with their
sepulchral fumes, do undermine the health of
multidudes of families, and send many of their
members to an untimely grave.
CIIAUACTEKISTICS OF A FRKXCII IJAPY.—THE
French lady's characteristics are generally that
she is unexceptionably shod—that she wears
inimitable gloves—that she has a toilet of two
colors only, with a distracting way of wearing
a shawl—that her manners arc bewitching, full
of small graces and delicately shaped coquet
ries, but never wanting in the nicest apprecia
tion of external propriety, to which her flirta
tions are always subordinate—that she has a
marvelous facility of walking unsoilcd through
the dirty streets of Paris, and as marvelous a
knack of holding up her skirts with one hand
over her left hip ; and that she has a super
natural preservation of youth, and a bewilder
ing habit of mistaking her friend's husband for
her ou n.
ftir "A man discovered America, but a
woman equipped the voyage." So everywhere;
man executes the performances, but woman
trains the man. Every effectual person, leav
ing his mark on the world, is but another Co
lumbus, for whose furnishing some Isabella, in
the form of his mother, or his wife, lays down
her jewels, her vanities and her comfort.
Let you be ever so pure, yon cannot
associate with bad companions without falling
into bad odor. Evil company is like tobacco
smoke—you cannot be long in its presence with
out carrying away a taint of it.
BsJ?" \\ c cannot always judge of a man's
feelings by his outward appearance ; his con
science may torture hint like a burning coal
within, while his outside is as smooth as polish
VOL. XVII. NO. I.
The Dykes of Holland.
r l lie dykes, at first strike the beholder as
no extraordinary work ; and it is not until we
find that a considerable part of the country of
Holland lies some twenty-four feet lietieath the
level of the sea at high tide, and that it has
merely a fence of mud banks to fortify the
land against the terrors of invasion from the
host of waters about it, that the mind becomes
awakened to the vastness and importance of
the structures. Nor is it in summer time,
when the surrounding rivers are half dried up'
and the ocean without is placid and beautiful
as some vast lake, that we ore able to arrive
at a sense of the protection afforded by the
belt of sea-walls to the people within them :
but only during the tempests of winter, when
the terrible wates are towering to the skv,
like liquid mountains, and the tide has risen
many feet above its usual height, owing to the
immense body of water from the Atlantic hav
ing been driven by the gales across the Ger
man ocean towards the narrow straits of Do
ver, and there being dammed up as it were,
so that the vut flood is forced back upon the
Dutch coast, and leans all its stupendous weight
against the ridge of dykes around the Neth
er-country. It is at such times, indeed, that
we learn how much property and how rnanv
lives depend upon the strength of these same
oeean bulwarks. It is fearfully interesting
then to walk at the foot of one "of the great
dykes, and to hear the heavy waves beating
like so many battering-rams against the outer
side of the mud-wall, and to know by the noise
that the ocean is already some twenty feet
above the head. The dykes are sometimes
forty feet high, and the foundation, which is
generally of clay—if not entirely, at least, on
the outside ; and the interior is filled with a
mixture of earth, clay and sand. The face of
the dyke is thatched, as it were, with willow
twigs, interlaced into a kind of wicker-work,
the intersections of which arc filled with pud
dled clay. The wicker-work lasts but a few
years : so that as it requires to be repeatedly
renewed, a number of willows have to be grow n
in Holland for the purpose.
The base of the dyke is generally protected
by masonry, and strengthened by large heaps
of stones, and rows of piles ; while the sum
mit is mostly planted with trees, because their
roots are found to bind the soil firmly togeth
A Ficrmxo PARSON.— The Rev. Xaptlmli
Pagget of Conn, was an exemplary soldier of
the Cross, and a zealous defender of his coun
try. Pur;ng the times that tried men's souls
lie espoused the patriot cause, and though his
proper avocation was to lead his flock iu the
paths of righteousness, he sometimes lead it on
to fight the battles of the republic. On one
occasion, when the enemy were approaching
his native village, he placed himself at the
head of the young men of war of his congre
gation, and went forth to meet the British.—
In the engagement which ensued, his party
was defeated, and himself taken prisoner.—
Partly out of regard for the great age of the
warlike pastor, and partly through respect for
his calling, his captors contented themselves
with giving him a good beating with the flat
of their swords ; and after advising him iu fu
ture to preach peace to his followers, and leave
war to soldiers, they sent him back to his peo
ple. Be} the old man was so mortified at his
defeat and treatment, that he 110 sooner reach
ed home than he took his bed, and never rose
from it again. A few moments before bis
death, one of his friends called to condole with
him, ami asked a history of the battle, which
the dying pastor gave, in the conventional
language of the time, as follows :—" Behold,
tidings came that the Philistines were ap
proaching, and I rose up and gathered my
young men, and led them, armed in the good
cause, against the enemies of their God aitd
their country. When I came uuto them I
lifted up my voice and cried, " Shoulder, each
of you your carnal weapon, and fire upon tlie
ungodly."' They did as 1 commanded ; but
my young men were stronger in grace than in
the weapons of the flesh ; and the wicked
conquered. They caught 111 c and dcspitcfully
used me ; but I thank the Lord that I raised
against tlicm my carnal weapon. Whether I
killed any, I know not, but I humbly trust in
(iod 1 did.'' With these words, the patriot
parson breathed his last.
BssF 1 A Juror's name was called l>y the
I clerk. The man advanced to the judge's desk
and said :
"Judge, I should like to he excused."
"It is impossible," said the Judge dccided-
" Hut, Judge, if you knew my reasons."
" Well, sir, what are they ?"
" Why the fact is," —and the man paused.
" Well sir, proceed," continued the judge.
" Well judge, if I must say it, I have got
The judge, who was a very sober man, sol
emnly and impressively exclaimed, " Clerk
scraicJi that man out !"
" Never go to bed," said a father to
his son, " without knowing something you did
not know in the morning."
" Yes, sir," replied the youth, " I went to
bed slewed last night—didn't dreaiu of such a
thing in the morning."
" Father,', said a cobbler's lad, as he
was pegging away at on old shoe, "they say
that trout bite good now." "Well, well," re
plied the old gentleman, "you stick to your
work, and they trout bite you !"
Jgy A man with small intellect and large
self-esteem is a bore to society. "While he with
large intellect and small self-esteem is fearful
of being one.
$-27" because a man is silent it does not ne
cessarily follow that lie thinks a great deal—•
lie may have no thoughts to express, and is
therefore silent from nccossitv.