Bradford reporter. (Towanda, Pa.) 1844-1884, December 16, 1854, Image 1

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SatnrDan fßomiuc, December 18, 1854.
JMtctfi) Ijoetrj.
Borne by the restless winds along,
Where the sorrowful woodland grieves,
Hither and thither a fitful throng,
Merrily dance the autumn leaves.
Upward they mount to the murky sky.
Downward they.plunge to the earth below;
Now in a giddy whirl thev flv,
Now in a madcap chase they go.
Tinkling gaily, their feet advance
Over the graves in thoughtless glee;
And the music to which they dance,
Hark! 'tis a dirge's melody.
Onward merrily still they go
Through the wood and over the wave,
'Till they find in the wintry snow,
Chilly and dark, their lonely grave.
Borne by the tempter's power along,
While kind heaven in pity grieves,
Giddily pass the human throng
Thoughtlessly as the autumn leaves.
Upward they mount in fancies high,
Downward they plunge in pleasures low ;
Now in the passion's whirl they fly,
Now in Ambition's chase they go.
Merrily still their feet advance
Over the graves in ihoughtless glee;
And the music to which they dance,
Hark ! 'tis a dirge of melody.
Onward! giddily on they go,
Over the earth and over the wave,
Till they find in the depth below,
Chilly and dark, their lonely grave.
Postmaster General's Report.
There are 23,548 post offices in the United States
—the annual compensations of 257 ol which
amount to 81,000 and upward*. During the las',
vear, 1.842 offices were established, and 614 dis
continued. Number of Postmasters appointed dur
ing the same time, 8.618 R-movaie. 1,967 Num
ber oi mail rou'es, 6,697. Number of mail con
tractor*, 5.167. Tolal annual transportation of mail*,
63 387,005 miles, at a cost ol 84.630 676 ; thus 21,-
366 603 miles by mode* not specified, at 5 cent*
per mile; 20.890,530 mites by coach, at C cents
per mile ; 15,133 387 miles by railroad, at 12 cts
4 raids per mile; 5,792,483 miles by steamboat, at
8 cen's 4 mills per mile. Increase in the transport
ation during the past year 2} per cent.
The expendi'ures of the department during the
past year were 88.577,424 12, and the revenue
$6,955 556 22. To the former must be added
<133,483 33, balance due foreign offices, which
would leave the to'al deficiency lor the y ear 1854
at 51,755,321 23 The deficiency for the year 1853
was 82,116 078 20— leaving a difference in favor
of 1853 of 5361,756. The increase in the revenue
of 1854 compared with the revenue of 1853, is
$970,399 48—or about 19 percent.
The Postmaster-General alludes at considerable
langth to the difficulties between the department
and railroad companies relative to the rates of
compensation for carrying the mails. The com
panies, he says, allege that the government should
not a*k or expect them to perform for it any ser
vice at a less ra!e than that paid by individuals for
similar services. This principle, he con'ends, he
has always been willing to recognise in the ad
justment of prices. What is now required,-he be-
is, that the railroad companies should be
paid according to tire bulk of the mails, the speed
with which they are conveyed, and the accomoda
tions required. The sums paid by expresscorn
panies are no fair criterion ; for, as they are unin
fluenced by competition, they can pay any price
demanded of them, and assess it upon their custo
mers. England, France, Germany and Canada,
pay less lo railroads for mail service than is paid
by the United Stales. Complaint is made of the
insufficient accomodations, as a general rule, (or
route agents. Allusion is made to the habit ol ir
responsible parties obtaining, by gross misrepresen
tation, mail contracts, and subsequently throwing
them up because ol failure on their part to sell the
same ai a profit.
Owing lo cases not within the control of the de
partment, the expenses of the current year will
greatly those of the past year. They are estimated
at 89,841,921 33. This increase will be owing to
the additional compensation ol postmasters and
the enhanced prices demanded by the contractors
at the last letting?.
A uniform plan of registration is warmly recom
mended as an additional protection for the safe de
hvery ol letters of value. The want of such a safe
guard has long been felt; and as the cost of its
maintenance will fall directiy upon those who will
cherluily bear the expense, we see no good reason
w hy it should not be incorporated into our postal
Ajstern as one ol its principal leaturcs.
During ihat three years commencing July 1, 1851
-5 50t ,022 03 postage-e'.amps a:.d stamped envel
opes have been issued by the department, of which
?5,002 301 were sold.
For the last year the cost of the service on the
YRriojg United States mail steamship lines, and
across the Isthmus, was as follows; Collins line,
'\venty six round trips $858,000 ; New York and
Havre, eleven round trips, $137,500; Astoria and
Panama via San Francisco, twenty-four rounJ trips
18,250; New York and New Orleans to Aspin
8289,000 ; Charleston and Havana $50,000
Orleans to Vera Cruz, twenty-lour round trips
?37 ,000 ; Aspinwall to Panama $119,727. Total
S- "23,010 29.
Die service performed by lire several lines of
mail steamships is treated at large The
' w - ,rn atter General is of opinion that the compen
'4 'on now received is too large, and that the pres- j
ent system is calculated lo drive off private com
peiiiion. He also states that the Nicaragua com
pany have offered to carry a weekly mail between
New York and California for the sum of $600,000
per annum, which he thinks is the highest rale of
pay which ought to be demanded. The cost this
year lor a semi-monthly mail, by the Isthmus route
| i 55757.977 03.
No progress has been made since the last teport
in the pending negotiations with Great Britain re
lative the admission of France into the arrange
ment, as coritempla'ed by (lie provision in the 12 h
article of our postal convention. No postal conven
tion has as yet been'eflected with France ; bufone
is about being made with Mexico.
Arrangements have been made with the Austra
lia line of monthly packets to convey mails regu
larly between New York and Australia. The rates
on all outgoing matter have been fixed at five
cents a letter, two cents each for newspapers, and
one cent an ounce lor pamphlets and magazines.—
These rates embrace both the United States inland
and sea postage.
The fines and deductions during the past year
amount to $110,486. The amount lor the previous
was 537,920.
Secretary of War's Report.
We learn from that document that the authorized
strength of the army is 14 216 ; the actual strength
is only 10,745. The ranks, however, are rapidly
filling up under the inducements offered by the law
passed the 4tfi ol August last, increasing the pay
of the so Idiers.
The troops have been kept actively employed
in preserving peace among the Indians, but the ar
my is too small to enable the Department to pre
vent or punish outrages In the West, several
causes conspire to render extended hostilities more
probable, and when they occur, mote formidable.
An increase of military lorce is absolutely necessa
ry. In Texas, authority has been given to call out
militia; but the necessity is constant, and the Con
siitution and laws in giving the President authori
ty to call out mi'itia to repel invasion and suppress
insurrection, did not design that he should keep on
foot a permanent force ol the kind now required
An increase ot the tegular army is therelore re
commended. The recommendations for an increase
in the pay of the officers, for pensions to their wi
dows and children, and lor retiring, such as are
disqualified for service, are renewed.
I In Florida, little has been done in removing the
| Seminoles. The trade 'with the whi es has been
| cut off", and means are being taken to contract roads
in their country, and acquire a thorough knowledge
of its topography, with a view to ulteiior opera
tions should they no! peaceably remove.
The most important part of the report is that
which recommends a revision of the laws regulat
ing rank and command, and fixing the organiza
tion. Much difficulty arises from B evet commis
sions, giving many officers double rank ; circum
stances determine whether the brevet commn-sions
shall take effect, and each officer is to judge for
himselt wheiher the circumstances have occurred
which puts his higher rank in force. Still greater
difficulties arie bom doubts whether the staff" are
entitled to command troops. Many contradictory
decisions by the higher authority have been made,
that nothing short ot legislation can regulate the
subject. With regard to brevet rank it is proposed
that it shall take effect in no case, except when
specially ordered by the President. To propose a
law as lo the Staff regulating command, is a matter
of much embarrassment. On the one hand it is
manifestly improper to exclude from command of.
ficers olhigh rank whose duties are of a military
character, while it is scarcely less lo give the right
of commanding troops to officers whose whole
time has been devoted to special duties separate
Irom troops. It is proposed, therefore, to break up
in a great measure the exclusive Staff corps, and
entrust their du ies to officers detailed from the
A concise account is given of the recent im
provements in fire arms, which are said to have
increased their effective range threefold. Experi
ments made by order of the Deparimni', have
confitmed this statement, and the opinion is ex
pressed that smooth bored arms will cease to be
used as military weapons. No more mu.-kets
should therefore be made; but attention should be
turned to the improved pattern.
The report on the Pacific Railroad cannot be
completed for a month or two yet, and no results
are ye! stated; some par ies are yet in the field,
an J others will be sent out next spring.
At the Capitol, the marble work has been re
tarded by deficiency of supply. The brick work
has gone so far that the two wings will be under
roof this winter.
The remainder ol the report is occupied with de
tails of minor importance.
Report of Solicitor of'llic Treasury.
This report shows that the whole number of
suits brought during the year under the direction ol
the Solicitor ol the Tieasury is 586 ; that of these
46 were on Treasury franscrips; 218 lor ike re
covery ol fines, penalties, arid forfeitures under the
revenue laws ; 144 ola miscellaneous character —
178 ori custom house or ware house bonds in Cal
ifornia, and 3 for the recovery of land purchased
by the United States and reserved for light-house
purposes. Of there 586 cases, it appears thai 286
have been tried and finally decided ; that 48 have
been either discontinued or remitted by the Presi
dent and Secretary of the Treasury, and that 251
are pending and undecided. Of these undecided
cases, it appears from the tables that the greater
portion ol them have been recently brough', and
the trial term has not yet been reached.
The amount of money which appears to have
been collected on suits brought during the year is
$118,526 11 ; the amount collected <luring„lhe
year on suits brought previous to i!s commence
ment is $232,709 48; malting the tolal sunt ol
$351,235 59 collected during the year.
It further appear--that suits are in charge of 'he
office for the recovery of lands in Virginia and Cal
ifornia. valued at over three millons of dollars,
which are in due course of preparation for trial.
The report compliments the district attorneys
and marshals generally lor their faithful devotion to
the public interests, and urgently recommends an
amendment ot the fee bill, PO as to give district
attorneys a more liberal and remunerative compen
sation for their services.
It fuither recommends the enactment of a law
by Congress authorizing the compromise ol judg
ments and debt* oflong standing. In fine, the re
port in question, though a very modest document,
shows that the present Solicitor of the Treasury i*
an indefatigable, reliable, and competent man for
the position of so great responsibility and impor
lance he holds.
Report ofttio Secretary ofllic \avy.
The first chapter of Mr. Dobbin's communica
tion is occupied with the movements of our nation
al vessels during the pa*l year. Ho says he
could not rpprove'' Commander Hollins for burn
ing Greytown, though he nowhere distinctly com
mends hi* conduct. He rather seems disposed to
lay the responsibility ol that transaction upon Min
ister Borland.
The Albany has not been heard from since Sep
tember, tut the Secretary does not give her up;—
thinks she has put in somewhere for repairs.
The second chapter ol Secretary's report con
tains an elaborate exhortation to increase the Navy.
He does not think the six fiigates ordered last win
ter enough, and one of his reasons for otdering
more i.-, that such a mode of expending the public
money " gladdens the hearts of hundreds ol cheer
ful artisans, who pay it back into the treasury with
fourfold interest." That is a new doctrine for a
democratic cabinet minister to hold.
In his third chapter the Secretary presses the
importance of a '* retired list," in which to bestow
the superannuated and incompetent from whatever
cause, so that merit may be advanced and reward
Chap'er fourth, on the subject of discipline, gives
the Secretary's views of the opera'ion ol the law
abolishing flogging. He is opposed, to the restora
tion of that kind of punishment, and quotes the
opinion oi Capt. Walker, given upon his return
from a four years'cruise, who says:
In regard to the first ques'ion, wheiher it is
desirable to restore corporal punishment, 1 reply,
thai, from experience, as well as conviction, I do
not believe it would be desirable, or lor the inter
es's of the service."
The Secretary suggests some amendments to the
present laws as a substitute tor flogging.
The subject of yards and dock* is next treated of
at some length, in the course of which the Sccre'a
ry expresses his conviction of the importance of
having a basin and railway attached to the Cali
fornia Naval Dry Dock.
The report concludes with a reference to miscel
laneous matters ol litile general interest, the (acts
having previously found their way into the pub'ic
The Annual Report of the Secretary
of the Interior.
This i* an exceedingly able interesting document.
As an exhibit of the affairs of this department, it
presents a condition of things of which lie may
justly feel p'oud.
During the last fiscal year, there have been
1 1 070 935 acres ol the public lands'surveyed, and
8,190,027 acres brought into market. Within the
same period, 7.035.735 acres were sold for cash,
bringing 89,285,533.58 into the Treasury, being 5,-
952, 210 acres mere than were sold during the pre
ceding year, 3,416 SO2 acres were located with
bounty land warrants—l 1 033,813 selected for the
States, as swamp lands. 1 751,962 for railroads,
Thus showing that, while there has beenji large in
crease iri the number of acres sold lor ca*h, a sen
sible diminution is felt in the various other modes
in which the lands are disposed of.
The quantity ol land sold during the first and
second quarters of the present fi-cal year was 3,-
826.619 acres, and the amount teceived therefor
was 83,642,496 44 mote than duting the corres
ponding period of the last year. The quantity of
land located in satisfaction of bounty land warrants
issued for services lendered in the various wars
since the year 1790 is 31 427,612 acres. To satis
fy Virginia bounty land warrants under the act of
31st August, 1852, a scrip has heen issued cover
ing 537 356 acres, and to setisly the remaining war
rant*, it is supposed that about 200 000 acres more
will be required.
The introduction ol the graduation principle into
our public land system engrafts upon it a new and
important feature. The Secretary considers the
law as it is very difficult of execution, and that fully
to accomplish the objects contemplated by its pas
sage, material modifications must be made.
He adheres lo his previous views respecting the
policy of granting alternate sections ol land in aid
of the construction of great leading highways,
where such woiksare likely to be undeitaken and
completed in good faith, and prove beneficial to
the public at large, and not merely to ai"venturers
and speculators. To throw the necessary guards
and restrictions around such grants, lie makes
some practical suggestions, but submits the matter
to tiie wisdom of Congress.
The applications to Congress a! its last session,
so far as they were brought to the attention of the
Department by the committees, contemplated the
construction of about 5,056 miles of railroad ; and
allowing six sections to the mile they would have
required 20,000,000 acres.
In anticipation that some of these grants would
be made, the Department, upon the urgent solici
lions of the delegations in Congress, reserved the
lands from sale along the proposed routes of these
roads to an extent approaching to about 30.000 000
acres. The Department has carelully reconsider
ed the policy ol this course, and come lo the deter
mination not to make such reservations hereafter
until the grants shall have been actually made by
Congres* The reasonvfor this determination are,
its doubtful legality ; that they retard the settlement
ol the country; the difficulty ol ascertaining in
what cases it is likely the grants will be made;
and the fear of injuring the section of country in
which the improvement is contemplated by turning
thence the tide of emigration.
The Secretary rei'erates his recommendation that
the officers connected with the survey and sale of
the public lands be prohibited by law from becom
ing interested in its purchase.
Af er the passage of the act of September, HCS9,
granting the swamp and overflowed lands to the-
States in which they are situated, many of such
lands were taken up by purchase or loca'ion as
agricultural land*. The act o! 1850 being a grant
in prescvti to the State*, the Government cannot
make tides to the individual purchasers or locators,
and many difficulties have grown up under this
head, to settle which and afford the necessary
relief the Secreta'y recommends remedial legisla
The Secretary a!-o recommends, as indispensa
bly necessary to the completion of the vast amount
of business before it, a continuation, for another
year, of the commission to settte land claims in
California. The commissioners have, by their
great assiduity, accomplished a great deal, and
there is still much to be done. They have adjudi
cated 397 claims, which is less than half the num
ber presented. Of those adjudicated, 294 con
firmed for about 736 square leagues of lar.d, and
103 rejee'ed, covering about 383 square leagues.
The Secretary adverts to the irregularities and
inequalities produced by the numerous and dissi
milar existing pension laws, and recommends
some important modifications wi'h a view to uni
formity, and also res'ore the system somewhat to
the original design ol its projectors, and to increase
its benefits and restrict its operation to those who
are teally and Ipgitirna'ely deserving objects of
governmen'al favor and protection.
He renews his recommendation of a biennial ex
amination of invalid pensioners, and cites the sin
gular fact that while applications are numerous and
constantly being presented lor an increase of pen
sion on account ofallcged increase of disability, but
two instances have occurred of a voluntarily ac
knowledgment of a diminution of the disease or
wound for which the pension was originally grant
The Department has been eminently successful
in ferreting out and bringing to punihment the per
petra'ors of frauds on the Pension Bureau. Up to
the 30th ol September last, and since the 4th of
March, 1853, 30 persons have been indicted. Of
t!iee, 11 have been convicted; 9 have forfeited
their recognizances arjd fled ; I has died; 1 com
mitted suicide; 2 have eluded the officers of the
law, and 6 awai'ed trial.
We are surprised to leatn that in so large and
important a department as that of the Interior, no
appropria'ion ledgers were kept therein, by which
the financial condition ol the Department could be
ascertained, until the present head ol the Depart
ment took charge off it. We do no! see how its
affairs cauld have been intelligen'ly managed with
out having this information readily at hand.
It now appears that an admirable and economi
cal system has been devied and is in suecesslul
operation, (requiting but one disbursing clerk in
stead of three, which the laws allows ) by which
uniformity and pronip itude are secured in the dis
bursement of the public moneys, and aJvances to
disbursing officers regulated by the wants of the
public service and the means ot the Department to
meet them.
On the 31*t March, 1813, the enormous sum of
8948,175 80 was in the hands of agents for paying
pensions alone. This new financial system has en
abled the Sec re ary of the Interior to call in this
amouti', so that on the 30th of June last, those
agent* only hajon hand the aggregatesum 0f?393,-
SOI -20—an amount amply sufficient for the prompt
payment of pensions fable to be called for until
oilier advances are made.
It was supposed until recently, that the new line
of boundary between the United States and the
Republic of Mexico would be completed with the
time and amount estimated at the last session.- 8 -
Recent intelligence, however, indicates that further
appropriation may be necessary, but the Secretary
still hopes that if made, its use may be avoided.
The Secretary recommends the demarkation of
boundary line between the United States and the
Bri i*h Possessions on the Northwest and particu
luly thai portion of the Territory rl Washington,
and also the settlement of the claims of the Hud
son's Bay and Pugct Sound Companies, before
difficulties grow up between the citizens of the
two nations, and create embarrasments for the fu
He makes some judicious suggestion* respecting
die laws and organization of the Patent Office, so
a* the belter lo secure the rights ol inventors, and
increase l ie efficiency of the office in proportion to
die rapidly increasing business devolving upon it.
He also recommend* die creation, in connection
with the office of Attorney General.of a law depart
ment of the Government, the increase of salaiies
ol the judges of the district courts of the United
Siate, and certain modifications oi the feu bill ol
A large amount of di*cteiion being in the head
of the Department, respecting judicial expenses of
various kind*, the Secretary deems it
safest, and recommends that all such matters, as
far as practicable, be regulated by law.
A throrough examination of the subject ha? re
suited in showing that the expenses incident to the
office of coroner of the District (amounting to about
89,900 per annum) are not legally chargeable to
the United States, and the drafts upon the Treasury
on this account have consequently ceased. The
Clerk of the United States Court in this District has
also been required to conform to the laws—in some
respect heretofore neglected—regulating the lees
andjemoluments of other clerks of United States
courts in the several States and Territories, and a
considerable saving of public money been thereby
effected. It seem* that two hundred and twenty
three terms of the courts, are annually held at
eighty-eight different places, and in alluding to the
causes which yeady demand larger appropria'ion*
for the support of ihe judiciary, the Secretn-y very
pertinently suggests whether the bu*ines* tran*ac'-
ed in the cour's justifies the.e nnmerou* term*. Ii
appears that lr,r the western district of Virginia
courts are held at six different places, in the north
em district of New York at eight, in California n'
six, in Roniiana at six, and in Florida at five.—
The Secretary scum* inclined lo the idea of hold
ing courts at but one or two places in each Stale,
and of eiec ir g suitable buildings at tho*e poin's for
their acoomadation, and with a view of making
them independent ol the Sta'e or other local au
The Census statistics called lor by the sopcrate
resolutions of the two Houses of Congress at the
two Houses of Congress at the last sesion are now
ready to be laid before Congress, and the work
having been completed, the clercical force retain
ed for that purpose has been dibanded. The Sec
re'ary, we are glad to perceive, recommends liter
al appropriations for improvement of the Federal
metropolis, and al*o the erection o! firc-proof build
ings for the accommodation of the State, War.
Navy, and In'erior Department.*, and suggest* tha'
a better application of a portion ol the large amount
now in the Treamry cannot be made. He also
suggests the proprie'y of donating to the ei'y author
ities for educational purposes all the vacant city
lo's which may not be needed for public pur
The wmk on the Li'tle Falls bridge, and likewise
the Insane A-vlnm, has been vigorously proseent
ed under the able and accomplished officers res
pectively in charge of them. The latter will soon
be ready to receive the patients for whose accom
modations its erec'ion has been authorized. The
affairs of the Peni'entiary are noticed, and an ap
propriation a*ked to free it of an olil indebtedness.
The Secretary conceives that his Chiet Clerk was
overlooked, when, by an act of the !a*t Congress,
the sal ine* of certain Government officer* were in
creased ; and justly appreciated the value ol his
services, which, he says, are equally a* arduou* and
important as those of the Assistant Secretaries of
the other departments,he recommends that hiscom
pensation be increased accordingly, and that he be
made, r.r officio, Assistant Secretary, in the absence
of the Secretary from the Department.
Within the pa*t year fourteen Indian treaties
have been negotiated, all of which evince a just
and liberal spirit towards the poor Indians. The
Secretary considers the annuities provided for there
in amply sufficient for the pu-poses intended, if
properly and judiciously applied, to effect which
every ?flort is b--ing made. He regard* it as one
of the highest and most solemn duties of the Gov
ernment to see that it* engagement with these un
lettered children of the forest, who are rapidly pas
sing away are executed with the most scrupulous
good faith, and that mild ami persua-ive mea-ure*
should be employed to induce them to abandon the
c!ia*e and become asettled ami agricultural peoplp,
as the only remedy against their early and total ex
tinc'ion, and that force or coercion *hould not be
employed except in the last resort. The jot and
humane sentiments of the honorable Secretary ins
pecting these wild and barbarous, though in'eres'-
ing people, do equal credit to his head and heart,
and his report on this subject will, wecannnt doubt,
be read with interest and commendation by every
sta'esman. philosopher, and philanthrope*!.
Summary ot the Treasury Report.
For the benefit of those who have neither time
nor inclination to peruse ih* lull report of the Sec
retary of the Treasuiy, and ypt desire a knowledge
of i s contents, we have made the following sy
nopsis, which, we believe, contains the substance
of ail the important subjects treated in the official
docum mt.
The report commences very properly whh a
view of the condition of the Treasury, from which
we learn that the actual receipt* into the Treasury
for the fi-cal year ending 30 h June, 1554, from
all sources were $73 519.705, which with the bal
ance in the Treasury on l*t Ju'y 1863 $3l 942 -
;92, give a total lor the service ol the year ol 895,-
492.598. The actual expenditures for the year
were $75 354 630, leaving a balance in the Tieas
ury on the l*t July 1854, of $2O 137 967. The re
ceip's for the quaitei ending Sep*. 30, 1854, were
$21,521 392. The estimates for the remaining
three quarters of the fiscal year are $12,500 000
The amount of public debt ou'standing on the lt
ol July, 1851, was <17,180 506
The Secretary anticipates a falling off in the cus
toms receipts, owing to the Reciprocity Treaty
and the short crops. The table of the tonnage of
the United States exhibits an increase for the year
of 385 882 tons. The table ol exports and imports
shows that Ihe imports oi the year were <26 331.-
317 in excess ol the exports.
The state of the revenue induces the Secre'ary
to again call the attention of Congress to the pro
priely of reducing the revenue from customs so
that no more money shall be received into the
Treasury than is required for an economical ad
ministration ol the Government He recommends
but three rales of duly, viz: 100,40, and 25 per
cent, in place of the eight schedules at present in
use. Toe recommendation for a repeal of the fi-h
-ing bounties is renewed, and the subject of draw
back duties and refined sugar is also recommend
ed to .he consideration of Congress.
The statement a* to the currency of the country
gives the total amount of gold and silver coin in
circulation on 30th September at $241,000,000
against which the tolal Bank circulation is $204,-
788,209. It appears from the report on the banks,
submitted to Congress on the 6:h of May, 1854,
that in 1850-51 there were 879 banks in the Ui:i
ted Sta es, witft a capital of $227,907,533, and in
1853-4 there were 1,208 banks, with a capita! of
$301,756,071, being an increase of $73,948,538. —
vamoses s? a
In IPSO—SI the chcn's i"n of the 879 bank* was
$155 1C5,251 ; deposit.*, $128,056 712 ; due (o
other bank*,s4<s 411 923 ; and together $390.539,-
891 ; and in,1853-54 the circulation of the 1 208
bank? was $205 689,207; the depntit, 5188.188,-
744; anJ there was due to other bank?, $5O 322,-
162 ; and toge her, $443.200.114. makins an in
crease of $ll2 660,222, with specie in their vaults
in 1850-51 o! $l3 C7l 013, and in 1853-51 of $59,-
710.453, being an increase of $10,739 205.
The Secretary is opposed to the circulation of
notes of a small denomination.
The Secretary calls for further aid lor pro'eoting
human life fmrn shipwreck on onr coasts, ant! sug
gests whe her the law should not provide greater
ecuri'y in the- construction of steam pas*eneec ves
sel*. or leave them as now, to ship owners. He
al-o recommends (lie continuance of the Coast
In view of recent fraud* by Collectors of Cus
toms in Cleveland, o'rwego, , the report calls fir
such additional legislation as may be deemed
necessary. The balance of ihe report refers main
ly to lite operation* ol the various departments of
the Treasury. .
TMG COCHINEAL. —The Cochineal of Commerce
has the appearance of a seed or grain ; and few
persons who are acquainted with the natural histo
ry of the article which is the principle ingredient
in all our most brilliant dyes, would, on inspection,
believe it to be a member ol the animal, iniead of
th vegetable kingdom. Rut so it i*, nnd million
of pound* of the*e mtnu'e insec's are reared and
sacrificed, made an important article of commerce,
and sol i in 'he various marke's of the whole civil
ized world, in order to gratify the eye of man.
Two members of the lower animal creation play
important part in minis'ering to hnman luxury and
pride, viz: hc ilk worm and the Cochineal fly
—the lormer in spinning the thread of a'l our most
costly tetile fabrics, and the latter in giving them
their brilliancy o! hue*. from the flaming scarlet,
the brilliant orange, and the blushing crimson, to
lite delica'e pink, and the pale-tinted rose. All
liie s e colors, in their infinite variety of shade as
well a* ai! other* where a tinge of red enters as a
component, are made from Cochineal.
The insect is obtained from Mexico and the
neighboring countries and is raied on a tree of the
Cactus family, on the juice of which it teed*
When the insects are properjy matured, they are
killed by pouring over them boiling water, or by
roasting them on plates of iron After being
thoroughlyried the insect is packed for the trade.
Immense quantities of this dye-stuff are u*ed both
in Rurnpe and Ihe United S'ate*, in silk and car
pet mannfactories.
The belie who, in a five hundred dollar shawl
of Can'nn crape, promenades Broadway, captivat
ing the hearts and turning the heads of tools and
coxcombs by the magnificence of the display, does
nor, perhaps, know enough 0 | na'ural history and
the mechanic arts, to understand that all the costly
paraphrenalia is manufactured out o| the shroud of
a crawling worm, and dyed with the life blood of
an immolated bug.
Ala show dowu east, the audience were
suddenly involved in 'ntal darkness by an acciden
tal putting out of the lights. Amoi>g the rest was
a newly country bumpkin and his pretty
bride ; and on the same bench—a stranger to bo h
—sat a city gentleman who, profiling by the-daik
ness, fell to kissing the bride. She whipered to
her husband—"John, John! this 'era tellers a
kissin' on me!"
" 1 ell him to quit,'' said John : for John it seems
probable, s ood a little in awe ot the philosophe
from the city, and found himself iheretere, in pre
plexed circumstances. " >J., 1 can't," whispered
the biide;"you tell him." "Make him quit'"
sai I John, now ge ting quite excited. ! don't
like to,"' whi-peted the bride. ' hesapc fect \-tran
rcr to mc
\ ,
A Mic.\m-.asTANDiNG.The boarders wereassem
bled, one stormy evening, in the parlor of a fash
ionable boarding house, in Ros'on, when a ra'her
amqnatedpnaiden lady lisped cu; (he remark that
she loved a rainy day, and always availed of one
to arrange her dtawers. "So do,"growled an oi l
sea captain, " 1 overhaul my drawers and shirts
too, sometimes, anil sew on a button or a string
where it is wanted.'' Mademoielle did not fain',
but there was an ang r y rustle of her silks, as she
swept from the room, leaving all to exchange a
suppressed titter lor a good heal hy laugh
are fond of eggs, they boil them harj, and eat ihern
at the desert like fruit, frequently with oranges
Sometime* ihey boil them in soup with vegetables.
For the people ol disiinc ioii, fowls are kept in
rooms, where they lay their eggs, and are fad
wi h ttce. The great j eop'e would not eat
ihe eggs o! fowls ihat run about at their wi'.l and
pick op what they can find. Many keep also swans,
geese and tu key s , but merely for pleasure, aswn
do peacock*, which they have also The gall of a
beas i made by their? in'o a so!id mass, and used
as a strengthening medicine, for weakness in the
stomach, and oilier disorder*, ft is highly valued
by the Japanese for-its medical vir'nes, and pud
for at a high pries.
NUMBER ONE —According to the newspapers,
Mr Hume, on die presentation of his pic ure, said
•' that his chief aim in life had been to promote tho
greatest good to the greatest number." The reports
omit to state ihalL">rd John Kussell here interrupt
ed him with the question—
" What is the meatest number ?"
Ar.d that Mr. flume, with great promptitude re
" Su-nber c e, to be sure."
— g. i
(fchr- The moit mischievous liars ate those .vi.o
keep just on the \erge ni truth.