Bradford reporter. (Towanda, Pa.) 1844-1884, March 18, 1854, Image 1

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    i r ,
ztatna rat\YQ
co t bap Morning, Markt la, lOC
stlut6 Votitt
11s 11 R 1 IZADT
When Winter's howling, stormy blast,
With fury on us rolls;
When virgin snows fly drifting pas,
In mountains from the poles:
When fierce aorth•easters clear the street,
Of every living thing.
0, then how much we long to greet
The calm and genial Spring.
g o ! Spring.approaches—how exact,
The seasons do return.
Each rising 51)11 proclaims the fact,
Its beacon signals burn :
The atmosphere, the wood., and lawn,
Most joyously do ring,
Woh sounds peculiar to the dawn
Of calm and genial Spring.
Theo-let's be joyful we who are
So favored from on high ;
Bow down the heed, let humble prayer,
Ascend above the sky:
Lei's cease awhile our worldly boasts,
Attune the harp and sing.
hosannas to the Lord of Hosts,
Wh o se nds another Spring.
S o on Nature in her richest robe,
mokr glorious will be seen ;
hind will' spread the entire globe
uh purest. richest greet:t—
iler .wiles: carpets span the earth,
shr mantle ding,
fr, r • glade, and mountain heath,
TheLr , rnpproachins Spring.'
n' F:ckneac are oppressed
re v. ho-on, crutt he.: en--
Jump ot • Pxult, you'll find it best,
doth Ihe bounding Roe
Came out and view the budding tree—
roar ators and: shutters sing
Wide r , pon, to admit the breeze,
Of sweet refreshing :Trine,.
The mighty monsters of the Ileep
The small fish in the streatit—
They too, :ump up, and ail they leap,
They praise the great Supreme—
The .Eagle soaring to the Sun,
The Fmall bird on the wing.
Ami lark, at datr.brarik bath begun,
To worship God in Spring.
0, breathes there one beneath the skies,
A man, who ever trod
This earth of ours, and still denies,
The existence of s God—
Let sock, if sne.h there be: arise,
And view each happy thing,
For all that wrllrs, or swims, or flies,
Most worship God in Spring.
ANNo. I k 24 ••--.1.11.4g5 MONROE, PRCSIDENT
Visit cf Lafayette to thelTaited States.
In the summer 'at this year General Lafayette,
arettmpanied by titts,son, Mr. George iVashingion
Lirly.iny. and under an invitation from !he Prettitt
eat. reri-ied the United States after a lapse cf for
yewr. Ile was received with unbounded honor,
3riec ion and gratitude t y the American people.—
, Lillie survivors 01 the Rertilution, it was the re.
of a brother to the new generation, born since
:tit time, it waa.the apparition of a historical, char•
vterjarmliar horn the cradle; and comtnnin; all the
Ties to love, admiration, gratitude, entlinsiastm,
Ihath rould act upon the heart atnd the imagination
he young and ardent He visited every state in
me Union, doubled in number since, as the Lien('
nil pupil of Washington,he had spilt hitblood and
unshed his fortune for their independence. His
rogrepts throutrh the states was a trinmphal proces
. ton, such as no Roman ever led up—a procession
nst through a city, but over a contitient—foltowed,
rot by captives in chains of iron, but by , a nation in
11te bonds of affection. To him it was an unexpect.
eland overpowering reception. His modest esti.
ere of himself had not allowed him to suppose
that he was to electrify a continent. He expected
kindness,but not enthusiasm. He expected to meet
vett surviving friends, not to rouse a young gener.
atm. As he approached the-harbor of New York,
nr made inquiry of itime acquaintance to know
sachet he could find a hack to convey bim to a
weft illustrious man, and modest as illustration)
l'Avle did he know that all America was on loot to
!strife him—to take possession of him the mo t
Thew zle touched her soil—to. teach and carry him--
bnat" and applaud him—to make him the guest
stones, states and the nation, among as he could' ,
be detained. - Many were the happy meetings
which he had with old comradee, scrvivors i for
Lea l halt a• centuty, of their early hardships and
' 4l. `gx 3 ', and most grateful .to his head*. was to
see them, es many'ofthem, exceptrons to the Mat
H 7l which denies to the beginners of revolutions
the good fortun e to conclude them, (and of which
maxim hie nu n cou n t r y had just been an ex-
Phi i'ltficattot, ) 'and to see his aid comrades norrur
ly conclude the one they began, bat live to enjoy
its fruits a nd honors. Three of his via associates
he found ex.Presuleres (Adams, Jefferson and
thscm.) enjoying C.e respect-and affection of their
country, atter hay.ibg reached its highest honors.—
Another, and the test one that Time would admit
to the the Presidency (Mr Monroe,) 'haw in the
Pre , idential chair, and turit;nu, him to revisit the
land of bra adoption. Many of tureeady associ
ates seen in the two Reuses of Cougrests—masmy in
the state govet monis, and many more in• all the
valks of private life, patriarchal sires, respeeted•for
° Audiometers; and summated for MOP patriotic
"men. It wadi a'grateltif spectacle; arid the mine
I mPtusive from :Ate etderintoos tateWkicli he r liad
seen attend en Misty, otttie reielikkaary pitifiati of
'he Old World, But the entbustaslrn of this young
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eneration aitaishistratta 'striated' itirgive
' hint a new view of littiiselit--a - fqtareiliniese
Bich alto' Worild 't`4i iseen '1 se ilier
egg.'lieftirellielit, bitte'io
tiilty . ci end' irnheli,zeplattsWaird m iratiqn he Rii'' ,
his ewnfuture to'r'te
*est ti me as one of the `iticiat'perteat :and heintilid
e t harlicters Whioh 66'i:tribe 'Wiest eventlatte
iiqds'of, 'the world hie Clay as
Speaker' I the Hou r seof
4 11ireel . and the
organ of th eir congiatilationi, L a / a line, ( .. when
he was received in the ball the West%) very:fe
licitonaly te'rized thijdelefhie . ineeetit 'confronta
tion with posterity, '' and_ adorned , and amplified
With &races of Oratory. He said: ri The isin
wiehjtas been sonietiinesindelged, that PrOvidence
would allow the'patriot:after'lleath, to return to his
country, and to contemplate the' immediate chaff
gee' which had taken place—to view therre'reists fel
ledt the cities built, the Mountains levelled , theCia:
oalscat, the highways orietied, the progress of the
arts, the advancement of learning, and the increase
of population. General qour present vitit to the
United Statia is the realization of the "consoling
ject of that wish . hitherto vain. You are in the midst
of posterity ! Everywhere yoq most have been
struck w rift the great changes, physical and moral,
which have occurred since you left us. Ev,en this
verrci7, bearing a venerated name, alike endear.
ing, to you and to us, has since emerged from the
forest which then covered its site. In, one respect
you behold us unaltered, and that is, in
,the senti
ment of continued devotion to liberty, 'and of ar
dent affection and profound gratitude to your depart.
ed friend, the father of his country, and to your il
lustrious associates in the field and 'in the cabinet,
for the multiplied blessings which surround us, and
for the very privilege of addressing you, whiCh I
now have." He was received in both •Houses of
Coriress wi s fh equal honor; but the House did not
limit themselves to honors; they added substantial
rewards for long past, services and sacrifices—two
hundred thousand dollars in money, and twenty
lour thousand acres of fertile land in Florida—
These noble grants did .tot pass without objectiot;
—objection to the princiole,not to the amount. The
ingratitude of republics is the theme of any declaim
er; it required a Tacitus to say, that gratiltide was
the death oflepublics and the birth of monarchies;
and it t efongs to the people of the" United States to!,
exhibit an exception to that profound remark, (as
they do to io many other lessons of history,) and
show a young republic that knows how to be grate
ful without being unwise, and is able to pay the
debt of gratitude without giving its liberties in di,-
charge of the obligation. The venerable Mr. Ma
con, yielded to no one in love and admiration of
Lafayette, and appreciation of 'his servieeis and sa
crifices in the American cause, opposed the grants
in the Senate, and did it with the honesty of pur
pose and simplicity of language which distinguish
ed all the acts of his tile. He said: "It was with
painful reluctance, that he felt_ himself obliged to
oppose the passage of this bill.\Ho admitted, to the
full extent claimed for them, the great and merito.
rious services of General Lafayette, and he did no t
object to the precise sum which this bill propos.
ed to award him; but he objected to the toli on this
ground : he considered General Lafayette, to all in
tent's and purposps, having been, during our revo
luticm‘a son adopted into the family, taken into the
honsehold, and placed, in every reaped, on the
same looting with the other sons of the same tami
ty. To treat him is others were treated, was all,
in this view of his relation to us, that could be re.
quired, arpl this hail been done. That General La
fayette made great sacrifices, and spent much of
his money in the service of this country, 'Otani Mr
M ,1 1 as firmly believe as I do any other thing
smiler the sun. 1 have no doubt that every faculty
of his mind and body were exerted in The revolu
tionary war, in defence - Of this country ; but this
was equally the case with all the sons of the fami
ly. Many native Americans spent their all, made
great sacrifices,and devoted thew lives in the same
cause. This was the ground ,of his objection to
this bill, which, he repeitted, it was as disagreeable
to him to state al it could be to the Senate to hear.
He did not mean to take op the time of the Senate
in debate upon the principle ot'the bill, or to move
any amendment , to it. He admitted that, when
such things 'were done, they should be done with a
free hand. It was to the principle of the bill, there
fore, and not to the . yam proposed to be given by it,
that he objected. •
The ardent Mr. Rayne, of South Carolina, repor
ter of the bill in the Senate, replied to the objec
tion, and first showed from -history, (not from Le
layette, who would have nothing to do with the
proposed grant,) his advances, losses and iicrifi. I
ces in our cause. He had expended for the Amer
ican service, in six years, kin - 1177 to 170, the'
sum of 700,000 fiances (140,00) and tinder what
circamitances !--aloreigner, owing its nothing, and
throwing his fortune into the scale with his life; to
be lavished in our catise t _ Fle left the enjoyments
of rank suutfortune, and the endearments of his fa
mily, to come aoirsefve in out almost destitute ar
mice, and ivithont pay. He .equipped and. armed.
a regiment for our service, and freighted a veasel
to us, loaded vvatvarms and munitions., It was no t ,
until the, year. 17#4, when almost ruined by the
Frenclt.revolutipn, and efforts in the cause
of liberty, fiat he .Twould mediae
,the ,naked pay,,
without interest, of a gerteild officer for the time he
had served with us. A .
,He was egli!!ed: o bad, ill Igto of t he Ocregni Q 1
the revolution,. end 1;1,5QQ Vico teas granted to hint,
to, be located on any,or Alte,public tends oldia
Ed States. His,agent,. located one thottsand we
the,p,ity of New, . Weans ; ead,onmeas
alterwarde, not being informed of thelocatipoy
fed the same vomit° thexity LOtleahs. His
location was-valid, and kw ma" so, infitanted.Oipt
bevelitsed its-adhent tbit-c.sleyingottluit* he. would
have noconteetutilltinfr. penticerottlerlimetkan
people, tunkoderedlhwleeatittOo .be temoredl
which weedone,end eenitd,optet:gtound , ol Dube'
value—thee giving up wind was Then worth
F,‘ 1> r 71' .;""rri" ,
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it r0L,15 ITED: BY SA DAY-vlit4.olfAliDiV, BR,AtFOßD.,cousir - - ': , `BY .
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;;V". 44 . RE ARM. rt -
!f, uTitilicumcq nos 44mi.QqA=3**.7,
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I:ft • tri wr t •
15(4 ind r -rtos it.k 11 Were - in. b riniy
advances, losses Mid iraci . rifice t s, grsat 'them
#' eiti;e; beriserhap s
*intuited by;the atorat'eftelp';uttful'eitlinttlet
joining us, and . ,lrininfloeterferitirtbeiringand mitt.
hay; which procured us die elfilinceef France..,
inaniiniti, and
with thegeneraleoneurtunce-ofthe Ariaerimm peo
ple:oSO ,frartsfiSA '
as a reason, in a coneorsetion
with me, while the
petite rete..itepending (forrire bill witailtareed ih
the Christmas holidays, when 1 had gene to Virgin
ia, 0 11 4 oPPGTIRIIIIX IR girl appil `.greet
man,) which showed his regard for liberty abroad
as well as tit 'tibiae, " and ldrr•farlening ',gray into
future events. life said there would be a change
in France, wed laterls) mould the- heed of
it, and ought, to be easy And, independent in his
circumstances, to be able to act efficiently in con t
ddeting, the 9evement. This he said to me on
Christmas dap , 1824. Sur ye ire afterwards this view
iniolliturity was verified. The, old Bourbons had
loYetire The Duke Of Orleans, a brave general in
the reioblican armies, at the commencement of du/
reeointion, wie's handed to the throne by Laftelie,
and became the citizen king, surroupiled / by. re.
publican institutions. And in this Lafayette was
consistent and sincere. lie was a republican him.
self, but deemed a constitutional monarchy the pro.
per government for France, and labored for that
form in'the person ofLouis Xr.: as well as in that
of Louis Phillippe.
Loaded with honors and with every feeling of
bean gratified in the n oble reception lie had met
in the country of hit4Joption, Lafayette returned
to the country of 'fps birth the following summer,
mill as the guest, of the United States, and under its
flag. Ile . was carried back in a national ship of
war, tkie next frigate Brandywine—a delicate coin
pliment"<in the name and selection of the ship)
from the new President, Mr. Adams, Lafayette hay
ing , wet with his blood the sanguinary battle-field
wch takes its name from the little stream which
pare it first to the field, and then to the frigate. Mr.
Monroe, then Subaltern in the service of the
ted Slates, was wounded at the same time. How
honorable to themselves and to, the American pet)•
ple, that nearly fifty years . alterwarde they should
again appear together, and,in exalted elation ; one
as President, inviting the other to the great repub.
tic, and signing the acts which testified a nation's
gratitude; the other sea patriot hero, tried in the
revolutions of two countries, and resplendent in the
glory of virtuous and coneistent fame.
From Booselm!d Words
Half the world knows that the quicksilver mine
of Almaden, sixteen miles [earth of Seville, is the
finest that exists.. Its annual produce is twice as
great u that of all the mines of the same kind in
Carniola, Aungary, the Palatine and Peru put. to
gether. Almaden therefore is worth visiting—
The place has its own traffic and no-other. There
is no high road in its neighborhood, and the
quicksilver raised is carried by muleteers to the
government states of Seville, where only it may
be distributed; not being delivered at the mine to
any purchaser. The muleteers take to Almaden,
wood, gunpowder, provision!, and all necessaries;
and thus the town lives and supports its eight thou
sand inhabitants. It is built chiefly in the form of
one very lore, street, on the tidge of a hill, over the
mine, which fit every sense forms the foundation
upon which it stands. It used to be under theesre
of a sleepy old hidalgo of a governor, but it is now
controlled by a scientific officer, entitled the super
intendent, and there is a good deal of vigor and
practical sense displayed in the arrangements of
the place. There is atown hail in Almaden, a welt
endowed school, and a hospital for the diseases of
the miners.
The fimeased forms of the men working as exert.
raters belong anty too prominently to a picture of
Almaden. You meet men in the street with was,
ted faces, livid breaths, and trembling hunk
blind, paralytic. The heat in the lower workings
of the mine ie very considerable, the ventillation is
imperfect, vrpar of quicksilver floats upon the air,
and cot dense.. on the walla, lown which it trickles
in little runlets of pure liquid metal. Even visitors
are sensibly affected by it, and retain for 'tome time
the meiotic flavor in their months. The miners...
who number mote than four thousand—are divided
inip three gangs, or watches, walking six bouts
each, and leaving the fourth six hours of the twee.
ty root—horn ten at night until four in the morning
—as an interval of perfect rear. On account ofithe
heat, and the deleterious natote et the vapor, sum
mer is made.the idle time, winter the great period
of activity among the population. As the rimer
Dimes, the appearance of the miners begins to tell
its own tale,-and great numbers hasten to their na--
live plains and mountains to recruit.
Their homes are chiefly scattered _about Estee.
mandato, Andalusia and Portugal. ,Crowds of Pot.
mimesis, after harvest, flock- to obtaht.cmployment
at Almaden, selling not their Aber only but their
health. The most robust cannot work in the mine
loogerthan for about fourteen days in succession,
generally eight or sine 'days talks as long aperiod
of such labor as can be endured without-reet. Those
who exceed that time are obliged. - eventeally to
give up work end :breathe unautleiterated air lot
perhapituro menthsiogetheni -11 - they work • with.
out due precaution, and almost inevitably if they in
delgi in ciiimoninere at Almaden, -aged between
twenty bre and thirty, waste away, lose hair Ind
teeth, acquits' an bootie:T*6D breath, ot• become'
temetioreer afflieted:with tremblinge that 'render
unable:to eupplysheircneulvietse -, they harerto be
led like infautc if die disease ballot checked*.
Otoosly, cramps anthtervoturatfackir of-the most:
egenitinwkind followlmpon itseassymptordslind
lead to death: Thdrorhai worliwitbinzine bocnuily
liviitnodereety; deat , efatilit,l
they Atka camatwarvutcleanintlbgirPamoris Wm*.
onghli-afterlat tr,cisounnuotookm•lhe thltdayats.,
natiddift tu oh)' age. ThessrAisease•
fifflid the mitiefspay. 'Ft* d'pon the
ore Qiool4o. du? 014 s, in .amehipg
gild in Qtbei operationislia not Buflan •
Storehorieesitmagasiniss, and workshops, - are the,
leading feetiireit` or the little (Own-,Every'jb jilg
rnitriufitctured that is used even, to- the 4opei--to
made upon she spot ; and the- workstiope, ilk* she
4itAit ortiisitring - details tf ibi r ,SnistOieff, are
planuraAll catv'eff
out of the solid rook. .Thelquickmiver mina be
long* us the Crown lender - orhiriii` it s leffiitsf in
toii . eyeo , WOO, to
very large deposit,), end i details are all some
what of a aracter'." There Used to besitsas
tire frequently ()Collide:4"V dia . :ooring of, the
works, and by Gres. The" last fire raged or. up
ward Of two-years and a halt: - Tile-employment
of wood, eseept.lor tempsfary 'preppies, has there
tore been abandoned, and ilist)rifieent arched gal
lei ies off' are built through eiery,Rge . , of the
coifs:ls. The deposits are almost vertical; and
;raid pains ere-taken misapply the void left by-the
,removed ore, with a aufficiently'strong body of ma
sonry, Half the ore is, however, every where l,e(t
standing as a reserve in case of er.y future acci
dents.; and the whole yearly-supply drawn kora
the mine is limited re twenty. thoesind quintals
This supply is drawn by nide power from the-bow
els of the hill thro' a shaft ciiestruoted on the Usual
impressive scale. There is not tench, trouble given
by water in the mine. What water there i 4 has to
be pumper' up by means of a.i engine built for:the
place by Watt himself, which word() be a valuable
curie ity in, a siitiseum. , .
The ore lies, as I have stall in a ledge, almost
perpendicular 'There are three veins of it called
respectively St. Nicholas, St. Trancisi•O, and St Die.
go, which traverse the length of the hill and inter
sect it vertically;, at the point where the converge
galleries connect them all together. The thickness
of the lode varies between fourteen aid sixteen
feet ; it is mach thicker where the veins intersect,
and seems to be practically inexhaustible; for as
the shaft deepens, the ore grows richer both m
quality and in qbantity. The yield consists of cam.
pact, gray gee er., impregnated with cinnabar and
red teal. Associated with it is a conglomerate
called by the miners Fraylesoar, because in col.
or it resembles the bine gray of the familiar cite
sock worn by the (Myles (trims) of the Fancisco
The chiel entrance to the mine is out of the town,
on the hillside, facing the south, the town itself
being on the hilltop. The main adit leads by a
gallery to the first ladder, and by galleries and vie ,
ry steep ladders the descent afterwards continued
to be made. Though the mine is one of the very
oldest in the world—the oldest, I believe, of any
kind that still continues to be worked—the workings
hare not, up to this time, penetrated deeper than a
thousand teat,
The quicksilver is procnred,out of the ore by sub
!Motion over brick furnaces abput 5 feet in lieight,
intl as the furnaces are fed with the wood of cistas
and other aromatic shrubs, this part of the proves
is extremely grateful to the senses. There are thir
teen double furnaces and two qoadrupleones, part
ly erected at Almaden, partly at Almadenejos—
Little Almaden—in the neighborhood. The miner
rife having been sorted, are placed in the chambers
over the furnaces according to their quality, in dif
ferent proportions and positions, the best at the but.
10M. The whole mass, piled upon open arches in
the form of a dome, is then tooted over with soil
bricks made of kneaded clay end
,flue particles of
'll4de:wet of mercury, a free space of about eighteen
inches being left between the ore and tool,in which
the vapor can collect and circulate. The mercurial
vapor finally conducted along stoneware tubes lnted
together, condensing as it goes, is deposited it gut
ters, which conduct it acroes the masonry of a ter
race intoxisterns prepared to receive it. The quick.
silver theta carefully collected is then put into jars
of wrought iron, weighing about 16 lbs. a-piece,and
each holding abOut twenty-five lbs. Ligijith of the
finished produce of the mines.
As for the antiquity of the mine at Almaden; that
is immense. Pliny says, that the Greeks had Ver
million from it seven hen - died years B. C and the
Romans in their day were obtaining from it ten.
thousand pounds of cinnabar yearly, for use in their
paintings. The working of the mine tell, of course,
into abeyance in the Dark Ages, but was reromed
aglin rikrhe fifieentb. century. After the eXpuision
of die Moors, the mine was given aea present , to
the religious knights of Culatrava, and it reverted
toitte Crown more than , three centatiesego. •
The present wcnkingit are'not suite on die old
spot. Yugger Brothers, of Augibing, farmed it' in
those past days; end having drawn a fortune out of
it, by which theyr became' a byword for wealth,
("Rich as a Facer," sayellte-Spanish miners still.)
they gave op their lease as worthless. Goverment
could make nothing' Of the mine, and therefore
caused the gro.ond,to be attentively eipiored. The
extraordioary desposit upon which the ixurters are
operating vat en that•way diecovered.-
W.VALvAuLt.Tilir.c..-'7 1 11,e Jotlowing labia Wilt
be found very valuable to many of our reatierp:
bov24 inches by strfUre *rid 281 b.
chez deei, ill cunrain a Vairel; (,I,ol‘..firifs.)
A box. 24, inches by.. 16 inches square s; cad -14 in..
ties deep, will' cortain half *buret: - •
A box 28 inches 154 ritehei scoria anti 8
inehekdeeP; Citritaliarie bushel.
A box 12 inches by 11 2 square, and B inches
dfiep;wlll contain bll a
Abox B".incirealiy . 84 iricqss,arinarrit,aa4 p
es jeep, will contain one peck.
A bpx..ll incbetklor . 8 ipclieslquare t an4k2.ineb.
8 64 iegP, Wiit contain 0 1 141344 N
A boxlinahestiyginches mums,
-A box tineheWby 4inebiesistisreird4elinebo
es deeoi-irilCcoratiiii,oirtlivititt't
6',,Protisi944 We. exPeclfill4 44shi aP,HIIV
said when he took. .an -
, - , ../i iS
• •"`":, •
: 7 ;
' , 071'. !P. s , .t 4
til , finide;t"d! RalMknew
- *Err - AzrziturairAtm. '
/ Water usealiffindidovaliveleveL , irbef o netain
is ari`pure aelhe inteint VhaffttiWs - from it.' 'Frain
err iffl*a (4(14 tiiKit; ra *l l ifirle irdiiprp Elmo,. t niay
however, at untie disc vie, become -Aso intermin
gled with trittersifiicidi beiters-perhaps.) as to
ail , op trod claim_ to lie of iherpure unalloyed
11(14 0*-i ts 44"71,r40 1 . 061110` aYa,ia ay lie
fine ital i brilliankas,a,ny its rteilAbefa bat ap
ply your microscopes and' you will, find-a remnant
of the impanties thin were so plainly to be seen at
its bourne; " ' ' ' '
Seeiely, like water, will find as level. ,
also unlike water, will sometimes attempt to run , op
bill. Society, like the water of a river, is motion!)
rii , somia 1931 . Whhih, when in
the riier goes by the general name of river water.
The clear bright stream- that comes -gurgling: from
the hill aide, dancing anill'brilliant;the -symbol of
purity, *bee in She„ flood, is river Water and in
such company hasten .i tO the main to ottani by
cloud anti storm a supply] to ha mother ((Lennon.—
with society, in its - Cows., h -piastres on and'dOwn
ward to the earth to toimritost; whence” others spring
fto fill the hustling threads of life. !dere is equality ;
the level, has alias' been ,finind. Here the poor but
worthy men sleeps sweetly, anti will rise refreshed
in the morning. The: rieb anti vain man steeps
quietly enough certainly.! Let him test with his
4s a lake doth mirror forth objects in beauty and
symmetry, perfect and discernable, according as it
is pure and transparent, so is the sentiment or so
ciety the reflex of the opinions of individuals which
compose it; and these opinions are the tests of
influences which operate upon and pivern their
minds,—as the shadows! are the tests of :he purity
and' transparency ,of the; laket :these' influences
vary according to their locality. , " For as s .walers
do take tinctures and teals from Jthe soil throngti
which they run,” so do these influences iliff.r an,
cording to the vreal!h or intellectual worth of the
model individuals of any particular locality. Hence
that shade or,tirge that is given ,to public opinion
in different places. Hence that dignified and con
sequential bearing of some towarditheir less weal
thy acquaintances, a bearing Which Challenges'the
respect, intimacy, confidence and friendship_ot eve
ry intelligent man, be he nob or poor. And hence,
too, in some places,
" l'bat feast of reason and glow of sour
that just sense of the relative poeitiona of men, be
their cirennistancelair they map r if they are wor
thy—that equality of reeling, whiCh, while it affords
pleasure to many, is also a mark of good breeding
and commontrense.
Why this - shade or tinge of public sentiment?
and what are the char4teristica of the sell-atyled
" upper-ten 1" . . ,
The introduction of such sentiments is natural
enough. Poor illiberal and illiterate, or vain and
weak-minded men, who become rich suddenly, or
otherwise, are their pope( and powerful advocates.
Money is powerful. They take a station in societY—
" move in first circles"--et cetera, and • bring with
them those vule.arideas and notions which charac
terized them in former days, and whiCh they areas
unable to divest themselves of, ss the leopard. is to
change his spots;--and under such fostering care is
raised a brood well calculated by 'nature to appre
ciate their parents' virtues, and transmit diem to
posterity. Here is. the fountain whence flows a
binerstream, which from its Multi nstiaries, floods
the world; polluting and corrupting it. Here is the
origin of ,4 upper-tendom." •
As to their characteristics—it By the cut of their
emu, ye shall know them." By the abundance of
cologne and p.omatum, ye will "snuff them from
alar " Their petunial appearance iscommanding,
sleek : their coquet towards theirroondam friends
something like that cd Tittlebat Titmouse towards
his old friend Rocky their conversations edifying
- I —generally having reference to themselves, or to
the appearance of Mr. So and ,So, and Miss Such
an One, at the party the fillet evening. They read
the yellow covered literatures; of the day e
Harper"— teat it through, and think '• Pnnch's earl.
catures are so nice!" Fanny Fern's Book is inimita-
We I—anti the New Voilt. Herald is the paper ul the
Universe, because some of their friends sa;ri so --
Their estimate of perional wrintr is reckoned in
dollars, and „cents---their idess upon ploy other
subject, (selveseseepted.) are. generally 4, absent
by permission"l—theltr homes a II paraili4t of ig•
norance"—and'sfill the " world : wags en:" being
neither much wiser or better for their Oaring lived
in it. 1 Gcuarefil. •
Tosr,isD4, 1854
, FORGET Vous Jemmies —He is unwise and - an.
happy Who never forgets the in - pries he may have
received; they ate indenb d on his face, making
visage of the injured man frightful, like neglec
ted. Wounds inflietedi -open the stately tree; end
which might have yeeri effaced 4 - the - cirefel
hull:i:amen." They poise home Ip his heart, taken
the sunshine of happiness would bless him, and
throw him into a turmoil that not amity, subefilee
The detinin - Owe jt ign. in his boiit'n, and makes
hiM la all acountableeteanues,ihe moat miserable.
Have yorrbeen injered , in pntae hr ebarderell
the endhng.angiil'ht ininiveneas i find repose
year bosoms and yoq will be /ally revenged, and
what iftottnareconsequence, year health and peace
at mind %ail{ be "improved. •
Braerotcacc.—There cant OM be tu ftitire:oloW
ouVoiteet CreitiitlitOn replgte
wri* benevelenec s ,ritattaaiimpia 'what mariner- bc;
trtigta.render himself mac acceptable to his Cra
tOrt by dbibttlioargaildlif Isfi credal* 5
,OZrrsVibetheriyintaKe platinirnalm•etagcor
the Irciet•rour btailoters•stsoOld liestfod.
4c1111 Y:t tr.OV . : 44iifsc%*lll"i
Tat* nwupon.tboOgh eovringiagiatriot.z--
/}. •
The bt;lfeer in i rtSrgrovi:kri the 'gbh& an d,i, th
,fitteytht! PfdePs.4eileMble a ,,era lhlrn
plantation. The tree most frequently taken. to
shade 'the . &Mee is ttiedniftinp, it beantitof look
hlg, tree Wilt large red blnlsome, mhtCh , gni, set
off extraordinarily :weft by the fat datke‘i foliage of
the coilee.. Thecoffeebreittee , whichgrovry it left
alone, to trete of at least a heightrettchty feet, and
ttmeetiinea - mere areßret; to
eietieettlee.ti lees; 41-11 0 40 1 -- 1 ,4 13 e 4
enonghovhere the ripefratt.htut4o:betaken -down
hbmie llfte coffee =tree must be treffi
eienify known - to the :Eliglish readers, pitintleildi
necessary a more minee description; bnilt is not
generally known :that these .gartieue,raw in fast.;
nearly all plantations-in lave, are not kept by land
proptiitme, hot by 'goverment, who give theist 'in
charge' oficertain men, to ovetlook, post ihu; Anil,
latougnt iu preparedfor the market, and grant them
for this a certain and Pert good , pereentage. The
plamlng,'Of the trees, as wilt nearly the Oilier
e of: ism ions, government or, the direetory of die col
letes cues dope.; government also forces the naerpF,
at certain times of the year, to work for a cunrain
amount of money: These cake gardens are di
vijeJ nitet large regular ignores, anti ate different
inhabitants of the neighboring hampongs lave
their particular districts, where they pluck iberipe
coffee c4erries and early them to the mini!, getting
paid for the quantity they Ming in by the weight;
being obliged, however, in fini s. the district in a
stated time. T:.enoffeeplaniers have to deliver a
certain stipulated Ansuitity to , gore 'lament :for Their
percentage ;what mote they are able to raise they
receive a higher price bona government, but 'Poly
from government, for they are not allowed to sett
it to' any one else ; and even the Astatantliesident
in Bandonn, the first person in the district, had to
send down to Batavia for the coffee he wanted fur
his own vise. . -
Thelcoftee milts, where the ripe coffee is freed
of its husk first, and afterwards dried are very
simple. The process of drying the coffee berries
is rather tedieus, since the collect is enclosed in a
kind of cherry—in size and even tame not unlike oar
own, only fir sweeter.—whieh has to be removed.
Fur this purpose,' the whole coffee cherries are
tbrowa into large stone vats, Where they lie a cer
tain time in water, to loosen their flesh, or at least
to opervor soften it. After this they are taken out
and dried in the sun, large sheds
,beine provided,
which run on little wheels in a kind of railroad, to
corer those places where the coffee is placed to
dry directly as a shower, freqaent in this lattitude,
should sot in: The coflee— the shells now panty
roasted oft—thrown into a milt, whichF provided
with a large water wheel—a machin e will be
improved in a short time. As yet it Consists of a
hog circular trough : in which a large stone is con
tinually rolled round, by water power, to crush the
dry shells, while a email rake, following the.stone,
loosens those parts that have been pressed down
too hard. The troirgh is about fifteen inches wide,
and, set up in a circle so as to enable the stone,
which goes out from. the main
,and uptight standing
shaft by an arm from which n is suspended, by a
Chain, to be pulled over the cbtlee husks- The
cherries are rifted afterward but the stone is not
able to press upon all of them will equal force
since the coffee cherries are of unequal sire; and
the consequence is the small ones temstuuntoucti
ed, and require afterwards a very tedinue gleaning.
But the most slow and laborious work is the assort•
inr , afterwards the cleansed berries, which has to
be done as with the tea, by women and children;
but it is tafmore disagieeable, as the Coffee in its
dry and crushed husks holds an immense quantity
of dust. Only where work can be had, att in Java,
by commanding a certain number of people to
come, and by paying them afteiwaida. whatever
wanes the employer thinks fit, not what the labor
ers nuty ask, or solely- by slave labor, can such
produce be cultivated. profitably. Singular is the
way that coffee is used. in the country where it
groW wild—Sumatra—by the natives ; for they
only take off the young leaves from the tree and
Make a kind of tea of them.
for 1"
Well, you may cry a• long as you are . a . mititl
to, far youarp Ibe only one in the family op nhorti
the bible ever made the least impression)!
(jr.stilovr dreadfully that cigar melts?" es
claimed Curbing to a companion, whyi it'd in
awful smelling tiling"
" Oh, no, it's not the cigar that smells," was the
reply. - . ,
g• What is it then!'
" ' Why, it's your anise that smelts, 01 course
that's what noses aro) Miltlo lot."
" Have you any •limb.,horn, bonnets!"' in
quired a very modeat miss of a shop keeper.
" Any what ?''
-11 AnylirAtt.honi bontiets!"
mean t l ect•ho'rn?”
The young lady was brought to by . the propetie
stositives. • • •
, i4or" Mr. Jones,. don't yco think marriage a
meanie,' gruel" -
de r, Madame; anyilliug is
nit}eue ef,grace. tkpLt brat! A up prit!er and )Pasty 19;
repentaece." . Ent Mr Jones, under the infiututce,
cif mophindle.
, , •
•pc••'." did ye - ever own a bona I", asked
onei lrishniao 'of rinotberl.
" Divil a lifirtie, but one wiare," ephl rat.'
p. ; ;Ybat hind mare?'' asked lhe t aflittr u „,.
ik nightmare, y. spalpeen," replied PAL • •
:IN: Wee CO!awe!'" Java.
Or et Sammy, mj boy s what are you crying
Hitt hove) the bible at me, tni4 hit me on the