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751 LIME =to
Sittarban Ottpber, 4 4 1551.
HON. S. A. DOUGLAS,
N. Y. STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY,
R ochmer, ow Fria. m , September 10th, 1831.
Mr. Trrsideld and Gentlemen of du 'War York
..4rritnitur dl Socitty.--1 have not the prestunp
!lnn io suppose that I can enlighten this immense
a.sembhge of scientific and' practical farmers, by
anything I can say on , the subject of agriculture—
The' theme is so cast, and embraces so many co
ordinate branches of science and industry, that a
more enumeration of these would far exceed the
!imits of the discourse
kgriculture has found a larger field for exercise,
the intellectual and moral energies of man in this
conntrt; than in any other on the globe. It has
here the conditions of its fullest development
and its most ample success—the greateit stimulbs
to eternal, and the highest reward. Our country
etirerace s s a greater extent of territory, a more fertile
fo , l a more diversided climate, and, above all,
I'3 , more intelligent; energetic; and independent
icanwiry., thin any other with whose agricultural '
o ldoctnitis it is now competing fur ihe markets ot .
;ie Our lands are cheap ; and not exhanst-1
e' by the cultivation of twenty centuries. Our far
riers are the owners of the soil in fee-simple, while
abolition of the laws of primogeniture prevents
:he accumulation of real property in the hands of a
!r•a - land owners. Our country is the first that has
;r1 the \vorld the example of independent farming
that has restored agricultural labor to
natural dignity of which the feudal systems of
ltiocld world had deprived it. Every tree plant-
And it is fortunate for us, and for the preserva
tion-of our liberal institutions, that agriculture enters
FO largely into the political economy of ouncountry.
As now pursued, it developsahe mind and the
body, and preserves both the health and morals of
ow people--As long. as so large a portion of our
voters are, eriga,,,neti in agriceliural pursuits, we need
apprehend no danger to our republican institutions
—no pernicious influence of foreinn nations on the
steady development of our wealth and power,
Producing all the necessaries of lite fanbeyonzi our
own wants, and, importing for the most part only
the lurnries, we are, whenever we choMe. indo
pendent of the rest of the world; while natione, -
producing the necessaries of life not in sufficient
quantities to feed their own population, and depend
ing on the sale of their luxuries lot the supply of
this deficiency, will have a care not wantonly to
interrupt our peaceful relations with them. Eng
land Once ready a to spend her last guinea, and to
sacrifice her last man," to break down the conti
nental system-of Europe, will not easily' be.tempt
, ed to build a similar system in America; and it is
uiture, in this country, is a highly respects-' not-to be supposed that other cations will press for-
at the same time, a most attractive pursuit. ward to do that from which Great Britain wisely
ebstains. As long as the great body of our pope
): rot only resorted to as a means of acquiring an
Innint independence, tint as a dignified and plea. 1 ration is composed of owners and cultivators of the
soil, we shall remain true to our republican instincts.
nirn..le occupation by 'Men of science and letters,
We may not succeed in the production of every
;.y statesmen- and warriors, merchapts and 'urine- I
luxury for the enjoyment and gratification of man,
, r < ; in short, by all who have gathered wealth,
-nor, and distinction in other pursuits of life. f but we will produce, at the cheapest rate, and in
So tong as agriculture:was the eiclusive ricempa-
the greatest abundance, those things which contr
~ ni of an enslaved peasantry, it produced little i bate. most-to the comfort, happiness, and peace,
note than the necessaries -of life. It remained not only of our own people, but of the laboring clas
s mete ]abort; zonimming men's physical sea of all other countries.
enzth. a 1 ,lescendirri'g, with littleimprovement, We are now able to furnish the whole world
1-oln :a•nerl son ; among those wt o were b 6 orn and with the cheapest and best food, and with the cheap
at! a; llsppily for the progress of 'mankind,. est and best raiment, We furnish grain, provisions
coed mn ot the agricultural laborer has Chang- and cottorn—the three staple articles of commerce,
A' in many parts of the world, and it is no small in greater quantities and of better qualities, than
sac re of . pride and gratification for us to knciw that any other nation; and the time is not far distant
i; t< the example of America which has wrought when we will be able- also to ;entila.er their prices
e chance. and restored agriculture to its original What a boundl es s field, then is opened to our agri
ank among the most honorable occupations of i cultural industry ! What ample reward to the la
man. I: Is now a profession calling to its aid bor of our : (farmer_ ! The command of the worlds
science and the mechanic ans, and,' in its every ' staples, even without the acquisition of Calticenia,
taanch. the inventive genius of man: The farmer, (which secures to us the in:introl of the precious
t^44ead of merely following the beaten track of his metals,) must have given us the control of the cont.
iannnzr, how brings to his par:tint his own powers inert* of the - world. But independent of these in
c ,ny:uc and investigation. Chemistry teaches temational consderations, there is yet another which
Lam its nature and quality of the ingredients corn- I will naturally suggest itself to your minds. Our
•-•!-;his sell. the species of ort most suitableto agricultural products, owip to the vast extent of
'• ;na!a- . re pater and Me' kinds of manure he our territory, and the peat aide:epees ot soil and
e proPortior.s ,of cattle he matt . climate, - are tO varied as to furnish abundant ex
,een to mate i,Lfta,m . prodacti#4 As he acquires changes for the domestic trade between the tinier
tnna-W..k. chemim,v, of aarienlinria geology. ' eta States of the Union: They famish in- them
p;,yy,c'io,Fy of plaras'and animals, his selves, the materials of a very extensive internal
tt•carze rri. - ne certain, and his iewan! more commerce. employ, to a farze extent, out coasting
•••• ‘rith tnary ledge, the krtility of man's tonnage, and secure constant employment to our
mir,l has ,:.:searered remedies for the sterility ot steamboats anti railroads.
;• means of guataing the fruits of his Planting and farming • are the mutual
3.;..a 1.4 the ricks;nades of Climate. This each other, as are, indeed, all branches of agricul
. rill e Ameriean tanner possesses the total in lustry,notirithganding the many prejudices
intatlfi'yir.; labor, and thereby its reward, which, in this respect May be entertained rn various
e 71 - .4 11-gen:oz.!, and efiective machinery. i sections of •C....e country. They take a narrovn view
cea: t3:O of our farming population may iof ?political economy, who can see but rival itter
' to glut eased in other pursuits, in eats grwing oat of the different productions of the
!e!, no prop:lr . :ion (to the • quantity of nn- sante country ; and they are worse than bigoted
ru.;lratest tar.ds. We have more soil than people who, in consequence of it, indulge in unworthy
rt". - -ir tt productive: while the very opposite tealonsies or hostile sentiments towards brethren of
is the old world. As manual labor is i the same family. You cannot, by l eg itimate means
and procured with difficultv, machines benefit any one branch of industry of a trreatcountry
z'n ly called in to take its place wt'hcut det- without imiireelybenefining all the rest; and when,
to the laborer. The machine dries not de- as„in the case before us, one interest is dependent
i'• , sel:im of employment, it merely performs that o n the cedrer—when the producer of one article is
u h,, t , ae t ray no t i me to spare, an d with the best and often the only consumer of the other,
,nn his callication would be corned to nay- who is so rash as assert that th: prosperity of the
C - CjrtlrV cart 'award a higher 'pre one worts the injurx ot the other ! But it is : not
rn.r.m 'to tae izrentire genius of mechanics than my purpose on the present OOINIFiOn, funfieVito put
0.1; Ir , rrn_ none can boast of a greater number •of sue It:Wham of thoctght.. My eject not to make
reatroni applcahte to agriculture and the me- proselytes .for 'a particular theory, but simply to
ar 4 - (kr azrieultnial machines, especially show the -nts.ssaty connectisam and intimate 'eta
care eicresi the admiration of the world ;and tionship of all the branches of the same species cf
s - 1:11 car cabs , antiat achievements in that industry, and their harmonious no-operation in pro:
ti "' lmerA of iadagry, it is perhaps not unpleasant motireg the wrath, happineot, and power of a grea t
' 3 =re extorted the test i mon y o f E ng land o n s l a te people The free international exchanges of corn
to the Ingenuity displayed by American modnies, so eagerly ect=ht for as the great
menial desideratum of the different-ma:kw of Eu
rope - exists already, by the simple operation of our
federal camstitinicatic between. the different Sates
of this Union; and the products- of the difierent'
,States of Europe are less varied than three DI the.
different geographical divisions of oar common
con=try. The domestic exchanges of every country
reinorally constitutes thereat bulk of its enure coop.
mace; but in none—pethaps not even in China—
is so large a portion of them hamkted exclusively
,tay the products of the soiiiits in Our
!have, thus- far, briedy,referma to nes:saws in
connection 'kith other branches of industry but 1
propene to rs step farther, am! consider - by them
'seta, some of the. ptimiffal 'estimators!, prod
;which - enter lamely- itooliss pofek:al mammy oi
:this country.- for the pertmeo cif shoiriag,
not only how embluticniar htmeti of apientule
may in mini aid in Wang utlthet tinaseiciefand
• .1 . the American farmer, every quill), every
•''weer he cultivate•, every hedge be grows, is his
own. a J Jescends as an inheritcrice to his children.
ei aro coantri is mariiid by the aa
r"•""=rzent of #gricalture is nettling
.: 41 zeaE 1 - a : es azJ territories; riculturet
ezwy meat to Ger wortshops 3 apiculture furnishes
rAlucts which Lutz the basis of oor fiti4n
dummy:. aumnetoti. apiculture, bl REMY"
tie balky articles of our exports, employs the
L'e"; - e of our rhip soetir the
kets ittereased products, eels fortbWeOrt
ei rano:lads And csuols. The of
W e'Kent..,kNew York demanded the Sr.p of
Erlei coval, and the tarmacs of the. Wenestt
- 1 -"t‘ cw:l fOT ITS Wit. The Wecem
te:tituties become "144 arta *Pica
-1;z43. ivaducts accumulate * new ra#roads and canals
cecewary to famiihmthret of transports
-147z :a the wahoscl. The Wesfis desist= Of . ,sw
ever; a T ec i r t i the mss. It moire the
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navigation of the Mississippland of the Law
rence, the canal's of New York, Pennsylvania,
Ohio, Indiana,, and Illinois, and all the railroads
now constructed or in process of construction from •
the sea coast to theiglissiissippi valley. And all these
'facilities will yet prove insufficient to form ade
quate outlets for the constantly accumulating pro-
ducts of the Western farmers. New lines of com
munication will be called into existence, and it iS
extremely doubtful whether the capital and enter.
prise of the country will be able to keep pace with
the increased demands for internal improvements.
Thus agriculture .stimulates every species of in
dostry, and the parent and sutiporter of them all
What,: I would ask, would be• the present condition
of our foreign commerce, had it not been stimulat.
eil the.inerased productions of agriculture?—
What, the condi'ion of our mercantile navy, in
steamers and sailing ships already Outstripping that
of the first maritime nation of the globe? It is the
bulky products of agriculture that make up freights,
and furnish the principal portion of our foreign ex-
PUBLISRED EVERY SATURDAY Al Toivaiii, BRADFORD COIiNTtPA.,,BY . E. O'MEARA GOODRICI.
4 !_I,EgLUIDLEt3t3 or. oziiirmiieriox
maritime, importance of a nation s hut also how one
species of agricultural industry may come to the as
sistance of another with which it seems to have mr
necessary connection. And I may also be able to:
show, froth examples furnished by our history, that
even products seemingly competing with each oth
er in the same markets, may yet have a tendency
to create increased demands for all of them. With
the theories and speculations of political economists,
I have no disposition to meddle before this audi
ences- -1 shall content myself with presenting facts,
leaving you to make the application.
The leading American agricultural staple is cot
ton and its cultivation and manufacture have with
in the last half centuryacquired an importance far
exceeding all other similar pursuits. The plant
though indigenous to the tropical regions of Africa.
Asia, and America, hhd only been used to a limited
extent, for the purposes of clothing, when the Amer--
can invention' of the cotton-gin gave its cultivation
an impetus and extension unprecedented in the '
nals of agriculture. No branch of human industry
has ever risen to importance' and power so rapidly
as that oaf cotton : no)re has produced so' great a
revolution in the continence and manufactures oldie
civilized world. Previous to the revolution, and
even as late as the adoption of the federal constitu
tion', not a single pound of Cotton was exported from
America: while it is now notonly the principal article
of our exports, (exceeding in value all other agri
culture exports of out country,) but the great basis
u of our foreign exchanges, and the most powerful
lever of the commerce ofihe world.
The cotton trade alOne has sufficed to revolution
ize the commerce of the world. Wherevera bale
ot cotton goes, it carries with it a portion of Ameri
can intelligence an,i power. The abolition of the
corn laws ot England—opening the ports of Great
Briton to American breadstuds and provisions--
was a triumph achieved by the American cotton
_*rower over the feudal aristocracy of the old world.
It tarnishes bread to the laboring Masses of Great
Brit= and Ireland, at the same time that it clothed
them, and formed the first step toward the arneliora-
Lion of their condition. It afforded increased mar
kets, not only to products of the South, but, from
the necessary relation of all articles of commerce,
also to those ot the Northern and western States of
the Union. What has been effected in England by
the power'of American agriculture, must, in due
course of time, extend to every commercial and
manufacturing country on the continent of Europe.
The battle against commercial restrictions is now
waging in France, Belgipm, Germany, and Italy,
and must eventually terminate in the abrogation of
In enumerating the leading agriceltaral staples
of our country, we are naturally led to the consid
eration of the tobacco plant. It is not only my pur
pose here to inquire how far the use of tobacco, in
any of ifs forms, may be r eg arded as an elegant 1
accomplishment, or whether its culture should be
encouraged, as one of the necessaries of life In
Holland, on the shores ot to Baltic, and countries
of Europe, I believe it has been regarded as a medi
cal plant, and an antidote against prevailing dis
eases while in some of the German States, its
growth; owing to the general use of the weed, is
enforced by law. Be it as it may, the rise of to
bacco, in some shape, has become general in every
quarter of the globe., and its production an object of
Tobacco enters largely into our foreign exchanges,
being second only to cotton on the lists of our agri
cultural expoits. There is no nation with which
we trade that does not use tobacco; while in sever
' al European countries it is a government monopoly,
and one of the chief articles from which r evenue Ls
Iderived. In several States of this Union it
tires the chief staple article of agriculture, and it 4
producers are lame consumers of the ordinary pro
ducts of the farm and dairy of other States: while
in satr.e . of the Northern and Northwr , tcrn
lias been in:reduced ; as even in:we prof.
'latde than the usual agncultural industry c,f on:
And we not only export tobacco, but we are also
importers of the article to a large amount tor our
own consuMrption. it becomes an appropriate sub
ject of inquiry, therefore, whether our sod and cli
mate are not adapted to the production of those so
perior qualities which we now import, as well as
to those in the production of which we elect other
portions id the world : and the question may also
arise whether our qualities of tobacco may not be
improved so as to equal those now imported front
the principal West India Islands. At all events,
the action of ,lovernment is invoked not io Marker.
in its endeavors to 'induce the governments of
France, Belgium, and Austria, to abandon their
present tobacco monopolies, mut to open their ports
to the reception of this, as well as other seri/cultural
staples of our country. lam aware that th es e en
deavors, up to this moment ; have met with but lit
tle success; but this consulates no valid reason why
they should be abandoned. The age of monopo.
bes, is fumed, and' the check which every monopo
ly imposes on other branches of commerce, and
eh/out.hit, i ndirectly, on the revenue, added in our
own governmental resocures, can, in the ertl, hard
y fail to open the eyes of those nations, and to ef- ,
tent the de,..treil
r t would now invite your attention 'to the es-porta
bilisa,i‘-mti.. At one time, in the binary of
OUT cal:Wry - a Cwo`'"al -r:rprecsioti - prevaded that we
s h ou ld He i er „.• wheal and sour to
Enrepe. The di,. aurae from European- iniukw t s„ ihe
ems of tramportstion, t0:e0.4 Do ca l iitsk iressranee„
all trete Bled up against vs, Tioshou;•:hat COM
pell4ol. a with the tub :thwereof EAtroPei en.
tirely out of the question, arra that we must confine
oor export of breactgofts to the British North Amen
can Colonies, the West lodim, and Sant America.
.This war, however, has bowel:nested by experi
enee.. Witham ineloding onr larr4 s. espoits derin
the famine year, srben we wine almost the tasty
...6.7.etsin the markets cdTatrutpe, oar everts show
a reistetable increase int:atm) years; pereans
ettmminstatia' n have improved, rabactions have
becOme cheaper, distances have been shortened,
by the saving ottircie,'and in spitworAill this lugu
brious prophesies of our croakers, we find our -far
mers competing with the principal *heat growers
of Europe inlbeir own markets! :-'American tweed
stalls hate gained a permanent loothohlin the prin
cipal markets of the world, and our wheat flour is
quite as great a favorite in Mark Lane, as any oth
er species of the same article imported into Eng- ,
land. Occasional fluctuations in priceit panic-
Mar years of large crop:—mast, of course, be sub
mitted to in the trade of all agricultural staples;
but these will be met, and their influence guarded
against by a frugal industrious people. 1
Dot while in , the trade of wheat and flour we
meet with powerful rivals in the North and -South
of Europeamong the people on the Baltic and
those bordering on the Black Sea—the trade in In
dian corn and corn meal, and in proiisions, is to a
great extent left almost without competition, save
that which proceeds front the offer of a cheaper and
inferior substitute. We can tarnish good prowls
' ions, at tower rates, than any other country on the
1 globe; and Indian corn has no longer any other
i real competitor in British markets, than the • now
1 uncertain crops of potatoes. With this view of the
subject, you will pardon me if I at once proeeed4o
'the consideration ofthat important American staple.
Indian corn is, no doubt, an imligeneons plant of
North and gouth America, haring been cultivated
by the Indians many centuries before the discovery
i of this continent. Antiquarian researches and
architectural ruins show, that Indian corn must have
t been grown and held in high esteem as the chief'
' article at food by the Aztecs, and this supposition l
becomes the more probable, as the principal Other .
grains now cultivated in, America have been since
introitceed from Europe. It ccmnitutes now a chief 1
article of food for man and the animals subject to 1 1
this dominion on thi- rimtivem, and an important! ,
article of export to Europe. although many F6,rts of
South Europe have been found well adapted to its
growth. It recommends itself to the great body of
consumers by its nutritious qualities, far exceeding
those of other substitutes for wheat and rye, now in
use among the laboring climes of Europe acd by
the great variety of forms in which it may be pre
pared for food. French chemists assert bat two
cents worth of, Indian corn will go further in sus
taining animal life, than ten cents" worth of wheat,
rye or barley. There is no doubt that its consump
tion is ir.creasingeverywhere, and that its production
in this country, on the largest scale, will abundant
ly reward the farmer. Indian corn will, in due
lime, not only partially supplant the potato, (which
is now an uncertain crop in Einope,l butalsocom
pete successfully with the more valuable grains and 1
Among the agrieulturat products entering into the
tzeneral consumption of all civilized nations sugar
deservedly occupies a very high rank. It is a dis
puted question whether the sugar -cane is indigen- .
ens to America. It has been known and cultivated
from the earliest periods in Asia, and especially in
China, and is by some supposed to have been in
tnilluced into America by the Spaniards and Porto
auese. Others maintain' that the Bane plant indi
genens to the New Woild. I incline to the latter
opinion, but leave ;be subject to those who bare
the time and inclination to investigate it.
Segal Iran cane is pothered to a great extent in pr i nc i pa lly f ur t h e use o f our commerc i a l marine.
the United States; but a latger Pettito is Yet ire- . The importations commenced when little or" no ,
ported from &veto countries. ? Whether the Uni. i h emp was produced i n t ha t
.eoun t r y,a n d h ave b een
ted States will ever be able to produce the quantity cont i nue d . un d er t h e i m p re ,Wi ow t h at ,A mer a nm
reqnired for their own consumption, remains to be hemp wan not Arra to this of Raton' for tee manor I
sere, and will in all likelihood depend on the pint! far-tote of euidaee. It beetling store been aseer
able annexation of more sugar grown* Seates to the rained. however that nor soil an d cl i mate a re we e . '
Union. Some pit:lions of Louisiana, Texas, anal adapted to the growth of hemp, and that we can
Florida, prodrie- cane sugar to the extent of re- prodoce it cheap and in abundance. It is now believ.
ward ing the celtiraters 7 while in many oldie North- ed that the hemp growth in Kentucky, bliseomi r
em States large amounts of sozar Ire manufactur- Ohio, I nd i ana, l owa , an d pert i tips ot h er S ates o f
ed from the maple tree. The *hole qaannty,ilesr_ the Union, is fully equal to the ;Russian in earength
ever, does rot meet thedemand for homeconsump , an , I sevurc, and that our countrymen have die
• tt"ni and the rine'"'n has "ften be e n a'ske d i wheth - i covered a process of sienna, by which it can be
er same o: e: elate, easily raised aed dullyateil, • rendered equal, if not superior, to that of Ramie,
I may not, in earl at feast, supply the deficiency I tor Mt purposes to which the lamer has been appli
-1 The cultivation of the beet-root, for the ntamnae - i e-1 in this country. This fact renders the culture
t tore of scgar, - `was totred'x'ea into France, doling i of hemp well worth the attention of American age.
the oeeration of the cowinel'al sYstem- That pro- I culture - es. A peep le -now only the second, and
hitwory se-rem. so lane , as it-continued, cene ...wed 1 isninnit soon so beithe tims , nommemin i and mart
in itself the amplest protection against all foreign 1 tine nation di the unite, ought to bestow a special
competnien petition; hot :vhen, upon the fall bf Napoleon, i cake en a l l pro d uc ts necessar y to t he f usetes 0 1 its
some of the French colonies which hal been sett- I commerc i a l an d naval enterpr i se . The capac i ty of
upon by great Britain, amine the war, were rester-) our so;l for the pwudorrion of hemp is entunireili
el to France, and the cell tmental system itself white our immense fcrree , ,n, conewi-e, and interns
abandoned, proteclion in the stripe of bieh duties i s , al nav i gat i on, i nsure to i t an amt %eand r ocre a,i ng ,
upon colonial eigar, War. ileernedneceeeery 50 ACS- ! home market _
lain the cultivation of the beet-root. .I:nder Louis 1 I would fain say a few words on the culture of
1 Philippe the grow th of beet too: and the maniac- I Mo'benies, in ccr.ec:icra with the raising of the
tore of beet root scar, received the comae anon- silkworm and shisreatufacture oi ..iik. lam aware
tion and trete:het care of the government. Welt that.the experimerne he-etpiforeinade have teen:ly
were encouraged by a series of I4Sheive enact- proved iinsocceesful ; tw—the enterprise resembled
mint, and, for a while, a fierce waggle was main- more a mercantile veculation than a fair trial by
tained between the advocates oche French colo practical men. lam loath to ieve that within
' nial system, and the friends of the domestic ;nide. the wide range of our. Norther A and Sa!tehena lat::. •
The large , and predominant interest of the censure- tales, there should not be a spot faroreble to the
er, which required, as an act of justice to all, that, cultivation of the silkeramt. Silkworms, and the
both kinds of sugar should be able to compete fair-, peculiar species of mulberry wpm which they Live r
ly for the home market, was entirely' left oat of the were hest introdoced unto Asian:nor, from Chinai i
question. 31eaewhile, the production of beet root and the experiment Jiarru . succeeded in . Greece,
sugar increased more then ten fold in amount, and in Turkey, in Fiance, in Italy, in Spam; and .in
since the entire removal of the protection by thid Porrupl, is it not reasonable to suppose, that they
iurpesiiirei of an excise duty upon it,' equal to del - would afro, thrive in tsauy portions of, OCIT own
imp;•irt duty on the colonial article, that branch of country, if the auention and care were.. bestowed
industry has maintained itself in defiance of all upon them which are thecianditious oftheir growth I
competition. ' - - - Experiments have lately.been made in South Corti,
•. , _l' am -not ,aware that the mil :and climate of line in_thecultivationtat the Chimers, tea plant, and
friaive . are;.4 any' respect, better . adapted to the if the accounts . I lta*e eeen ate to be Jellied npoo
est2 - ;tiii Of the't:ect root,th an many portions id have. seemly succeeded. Why they should not
the Veined State*, At all exalts,' cosirdrin that slk, an . article much less delicate .than, tea, and
Prussia. BeigiGln i Sarot y. other parts of Germany, ' which has already anteceded in so many ilitherent
and ;4mi area*, hare imitated the example cc climes, be susceptible also or profitable calairato 0
France, with the none ; it no greater mews, there in the United States 1-. A Imre, portion of car imPorta
Lis no reason to scppwie that it is entirely inapplica- born Europe consis' lof matmfactured iglus amt. if
ble to the United Stales; simaied E for the numt -we coup maerecd indontmlieetl4,llol . species of
in equally favorable latitude!, and aottect to aim - industry, a degree of, cability weal be imparted
influences of climate. , .I.i it nut; th erefore, a to our foreign. commercial • policy, which -.sapid
,titm worthy of your alettikaa, iltietber & add ' - aetTe to prevent drecimicendirgot politieaktnerark
tire of der beet toot, as a wager plant, may not my with to punkas pcuica, . ,- -,
successfully ititiodticesl tettiour otTn country, tut at
means of suppljaing,the deficiency of cane?
This subject denies additional interest froin - lhe,
consideration that anger,. in this coimtry, has. be
come an article of ordinary daily consumption, by
every class of nor'population; and !bat the comfort
and well being"of our . industrial laborers reeffirs
that its consumption should rather . increase than di,
minish, in proportion 'to the increasing pojnilatfon
of the United States.
Rice is a native of Tnda ; but was, at an early
period of our colonial history; transplanted to the
shores of South Carolina and Georgia. rbeheve
hazard nothing in as.sertinz that 'Cis nine erne:
intr. more luxuriantly on our soil than on that gay« ,
it birth, and that South Carolina rice; on acemint of
its superior quality, commands a hielter price in .
foreign markets. It is the staple article of a section
of country which is comparatively valueless file
any other species of agricultural production ; being
principally • raised on .swampy'gromnife, naturally.
subject !n inundation. It is moreover, confined to
a few loctlities, and limited in quantity, thoughcon
stitnting a very valuable crop. 1-leretotere riee has
only been raised in southern latitudes: but within
a few years—sirce the territory - of l'lfinnesitta has:
been thrown open to settlers—it has been nvcer
tained that the innumerable small lakee ant' iwarnps
whiCh dot the map of that section of cmintry upon
the head watery of the Mississippi, contain a ins.
uriant and spontaneous Oowth rice', Which
is well adopted to culinary porpottes. Is it not:
then, a subject - worthy of investigation, whether
this new species of rice, a native of the North, 'and I
accnstomed to a noehern climate, may not be pro.
(lured in the swampS and marches which nnt dig. '
figure our best agricultural - regions, am! remain a
source of disease and death to their inhabitanie I '
merely throw not thes'e hint: to-direct rani. sitten
tion:to the subject. not knowing whether otbersrnay '
not have.precedeil me. I leave it to your better
I. knowledge, and to your practical qualifications as
,farmers ; "tn make -The necessary experiiiientsf
belitving that in aericulture, as in other science
and Occupations, experience alone is the proper
test of all discoveries and improvements.
I have, within the last year, procured a consid
erable qnantity of the seeds of this rice . . born the
Patent office et Washington, and.distributed them
Among those whom I thouaht likely to make ex •
rriments in different pans of the conetry but suf
ficient time has not elapsed to a4.ertain the tenth.
Were it not from the British system of differential
duties tir on articles,, the productions of different
species of labor, South Carolina and Georgia, Tice
would have continued to be exported in lar g e gam
titles. But the system by which England has, of
late years, armed the agricultural products of her
East Indiaprovinceo, to the detriment and ruin of
her West hullo colonies, tics also—for a time, at I
least—exercised a/discouraging influence upon the
rice growers of• America. it is std-ject of congratu
lation, therefore, to know that, more recently, rice
rims found a ready home market, at such remuner
ating price as promiseitto that breach of aviculture
a Inn period of prosperity and sorrels.
Hemp has long been, and Pa continues to be,a
very considerable item in our foreign imports. The
government itself has, from its foundation, been a
large'imponer of hemp for naval purpose, in addi
tion to what has been introduced of private account
qa^tr/. ' ; - • .3 , .1
~~# . k - ?. i7I P'a. _x'._4.l
MY q 4 .P.f9OI. O PAIX ,4%—. t
haps, wub equal force to the euhirarien ofitre vine;
The, vine is . a9?1915 - tif Asia, bpi ha,s,"attattied,ily.
I;ialteit Pertectioil in' tUr6pe
• there is seareeti . 4;:qweie• or Miafie.iine• lentioriV
to commerce,. some efihe ff4hott prieed seiner in'
Europe Ore reapo!ai•thriett fir* vierlaTifkip Puitudo:
iB9,ima 50 0
.. fixefurtencting-:and marl rinifrsnit'
thelreatment of the wine in die rAtiff itt 11W
cellar, seem lo hare_tlime
as many rhrieties of the:l:rive as any liart or thil
World, inthgennus to . o.F.ri curratl, Aprtsrowing
insuriarnly wild in Wrindaurrprairie. The greater , '
part of them e however, 'remain sdrlt •aneultivaterl, •
Without the lean vatitel*ing , ettaCherf to ihern bT
nor Lannert. Yet strange tat, •alint st every"
experiment arisieb• hark been imulrerith' nut ' indtge.
nous grape, has Etri'eetleit:
rioi,in quality'to theordinaty liocitiood , ciaretaireir
ported into this country, are now. made from pore
indirlenetani :grape,. In= man y panintia
nia x Ohio, Kentucky; rudi4 . ni; , lliinoii,, Al4sou!i,
anti doubtless Ole; States of the Union ; vrhiler
it is well kniiwn that wine has tong- been :a' stapler
article of prednetinn in the *alley ot the Kip Grande
anti the4nnihern panic:mot California. The Catew ,
tn grape has shown itself ailinirahly , adttpreillaihir
manufacture ofshampaigne, while . the lighter sons
of it furnish "an excellent artide - for the - table. r
hale been infanne4l that native, ut„Flompe, maw
adopted citizens et the blnited:44a l o9, are %. 1 .*1e4 to
pay a higher prica-icx gbegguliao for the asost•goah
tie! of French' o'r Gerniito vrines towhith they are
A very fair' !edict' wine prorldced' its &nth
Carolina, born an indigenocs grape, ialletheapper
nom!, peculiar to that State. Similar emserirnenue
have- been magic-in °ires-Slates. arkl N ItOggs.tilleal
as if the ioiligenions'-Atinfiriceaw grape Were infi
nite in its varieties,. and its etibure better adapted
to the Sod and climate of this country than that of
atirother kind of grape imported either from Europe,.
Atzica,.or , the Canary Islands . In view of these
Itame., it is certainly no wild conjecture to suppose
that the United States will, in a very slime time,
Iproduce good wine so cheap and in such abundance,
as to render it a common and daily beverage. Such'
Ia result is not to be deprecated on the part of those
1 most scmpukths on the subject of ardent spirits, for
.i. I it is a well established fact, verified bythe °beer
! va.ion of every day, that the population of a-kw
x growing commies is noted Tor sobriety and temper
acce. The most sober people of the &Tuba, tow
in the wine-growing eonrrries ot , soithern Europe,
l where the article, like water, ia plac‘ii on vier) ,
table, free of cost, but in extra charge made for mil' ,
fee, and a very exorbitant one for teL They
scarcely ever indulge in it to excess, while in North
. ern Russia, where ardent Spirits are l osed as substi-
lute for wines, intoxicating tsthe presorting...tire,
i am now about to say a few wool . . rata eery itn.
, portant branch of huatsmdry, of peeshas interest to
t the American farmer. I atlade to the growth of
t• woof ;an article which in no small degree affects
our foreign and &meow exchanges. So far as aii
perience has demonstrated, large portions or our
country are admirably adapted to the growth of
wool Is the production of no other article has
there been so great au improvement in splantity and
quality. Qur early attempts at wool-growing were
most eackuiively confined to the inferior breeds
of sheep and the coarser qualities of word, ender
the prevalent impression that the &son, Merino,
South Downs, and all ohm finer quelities, amid
pat 6r. milord in insiecrently: Worm experinteun,
however, sip far to choir that the finer qualities of
wool can be produced an this country by Mentor
care and anentem to the breed and culture of the
cheep, as well as in any part of Europe, sod to an
extent beyond our present demand. The hills of
New Engtand New York, and Penasyliael, have
been shown to be well adapted to the radio; of
/beep, and it can hardly be doubted that the moon
; tales of Virginia, North Carolina, and other South.
ern Statesi;are equally favorable tonne same culture.
1 Wool and itheep s growirq, are also becoming an ant
i portant branch of industry on the Western parries,
; andit is highly-11,444e that the regions best adapt.
ed to them,, win yet be found betoecn the Muria
sippi and the Parifie, in the wa;le}s and upon the
2 rrat F A.,:i10,:, on bill' sides oldie Rocky Sloontarne.
Those re;toas are panic-Marty adap•ed to snaring.—
Theyclre lox the mon pad elevated, dry, and healthy,
about-slotz in rah grasses an-J pure water. The ex
ten: ot the ece:ery to abide I refer. embrace. art
1 area more than twice twat of the original thirteen
States of the Union. and ts destined to lie orevpied
by an int elli.-„tent, in,lo-tcloxi and energetic race of
'men, Mt inferor in any respect to those who in
taiwe..l the old S:a:es. - Nature has designed i: fi.ir
:be habitation of an .-rieeitioral people, and graz
ing most be their predominant porsuit
la gle e 3 r l Y stages of the srooP.en manufactures
of Europe, the aner qtiafities of wool were almost
exclusirefy supplied by Spain, aml the belief exist
ed there, le it did here, that no other Coindry could
sepply the mulct - in:ll4. Ilie northern
crastheoglit, would impair the filieren of the stta
ple..'.Bai the,merino sheep introduced into T..rtr
land socn iforied.lhat prtindice, and iliefr istre.
auction, m the htte.ting atter:ere. nt century, io.
to Saxons- and Litlia, et:Wished the fact that
. ... r -
proper Fate and ce;lstratiou will do more in this
branch of hastens:fry than mere cliniate or other fa
vorable ailrentiions cirecnivances.
uterine, far the impose of iirool.akowire . „ is now far
superior 10, the Spam-h, and its woof brings a h 41.-
ericiae.inibe pritmipal marketeof Emil:mil, France
and Belgium- Intleed, the finer q=daies of wool
are now almost exelessively sapplied 'by. Germany,
white SPani-th merino Wept hag almost entirely Jia.
? s limmed from the weer market* of &erre.
The bigot* of wool gxcrwing and !heel/ enter°
b famtme is full of salvable lessees In the Ameri
can fanner. It kolirs tibia kooirle4e, jir tgence ,
nal.evexao accomplish apirtst - adsmse climates
iced intrdkrent soils. The leisc2in is fill of enema
wrong-IA? Fit; and hilsaheallY MiartiMedrbtente
ca-Srtf FOURTH l'Ag..