Bradford reporter. (Towanda, Pa.) 1844-1884, December 07, 1850, Image 2

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4 . 0 fo orkt;
reie Free j SpeceN Fie Bien!
Frredons fair Free Ter
, .
Towautia, SAturby, l'ectiliber 7,1 S ,50.
::7 " -- 7 Ir -'- e ran a elT7►it e - 11. tplr I • r .
Him 30 p, no —ll moll wlttun the ) ror 30 ernes will
1a glerlnrir.l—tor ro•h po•derrtnolly rn mit oner S I 00
trill be
d ..4. 0 ,.4. No, p.p. , lie. p I qvcr Iwo vests. tallfr* paid hif.
A trrrtrflop•Msl ,ll pr, .41iSnr. of trn Intro. !Al Peals for flue
k.t. evil '2,5 rrol• for •orhloulnwonoti snorrtunn,
It-r (Id - , in I{l.. `• I cop ,
ah, Ifinel.'" north of tho r.,1,1,.
0 ,„-4,.....0 .4.,...1. Ow ,rd 14,1101. Entrance broxeen
1k1e0,•,..40.5m•' and I.llwr l'e cow on,res. •
1.. . ,
The g'realdenl•s Message.
The Me: , ...age exchides our usual fella*.
IreasoM4l)itt in lenzh,i well wrinen, and altogether
a creitilatle prcitlin . 4hn. To it, strigesiinns, 4 of
coarse, we do t hi al;ree ; but have no room this
.cell: tor coinmen Is.
The Union to be Sartdi
We were mistaken in saying last week that the
Great Tilden Dismonstration at Plillattelphia had
saved the Union. 'The wmk is to be 'consummat.
(94 this place on Tuesday evening next, when •
the lam dad; cloud which /On PTA upon our conntly
will be dispersed, and the bright sun of liberty and
peace shine in all its effuhience.upon our trlciiioui
The patriotism of firatlfind is rimmed, and,
like another Richmond is in the field, to sustain
the Union am! Certittitatinn, and (town down the
unholy desperadoes who are threatening to strbvert
our liberties end nor free institutions! lire
Union! lire hr flanribuol 11 bile New York,
Boston, and Philmlrl,ehi.l arc rsghting up the fires
ill' patriotism, until the firmament is illuminated,
tehall not Towanda, mal its disinterested panints be
allotted to send up their penny-mart, to make
the great spectacle more magnificent ? Some such
demoesaation is greedy needed to make the anion
perfectly safe.
This Union ,itanils on the brink of hightfol
precipice. The Nigger slave law threatens to top
tile it into the awful t_mlf. Hall( and portentous
floods make murky night settle our - country.
'lime Constitution its in danger! .Arouse„ Freemen
atone. ! Men dare to ask if the Fegiiive Slave
law is just in all its particulars. The I;am musttie
taken as it is, and ltd wry faces made, or
? Iv . union
' IS shivered into a lionthed thousand liniments,
more or less. Eiiery title who will ma linxza for
th e L ew , es it i s, t u t the height of wisdom iu legis•
iti,itino, is a fulatirt, aei ab it n t;:toor to our
country, and shinild f e itelionnced. Tom out.
Freemen, turn otit t Rally every man who wish
es himself untlerStond as the peculiar guardian of
the Constitution. and that every one else is oppneed
to it ! Every man, who wont I accept some fat
office if offered hint!' Every Than who would de•
vise some means Ingot such office. This is a glo.
trout opportunity of manufacturing capital—(over
the left)—it may be lime last. Pont neglect it.
Serinnsly We have seen the call for a Union`
meeting, at the Court House, in this place on Tues
day evening - next, addressed to those " opposed to
the agitation of all bisuntratista, vi holier under the
garb of Ain 'Monism, Free Soilism,.and all the other
isms,'' (Freesoilism has been masted, see notice,)
and we advise all who can conveniently attend, to
be present. It will be a "sight as is r sight," to
see all t•lte old frtgies, congregated together, endea.
goring to prove tlio are opposed to our Constitution
and OW law', and laying plans M. the laird hope
Hof manufacturirm political capital, . It will he
pleasant to see the movers in the late Canal mee t-
Mg, which was to setirt;L•Sometiody to the Lezisla
lure o n ly it ,141 11 '1) elnspicuous in conviiting.
people our ltberti'es are safe in tie hands of no one
else. Of course their motives can't be questioned.
We paoicularl'Y advise those antiquated politicians
who have =r strynted their brief hour." upon tlmpo
litiml stag?. enjoyed its - remtinerafmns, and been
quietly ennsigued by the public voice to their orig
inaLobscurity,tto be on hand, anti labor zealously
for a resurrection, influenced by the remembrance
of offices oncte l e njnyed, andpleaiant anticipations
of the sM , eity ttilcent of the " good time coming."
When this CneCting.shaffhave - been holden, the
danger is paid. ` ; the Itfaelstroem into whose fear
ful to tex ouriconntry was fast hastening, dis
appear ; South Carolina will inscribe praise to its
esiginators, atilt offer np incense in after days to
their memory. Their's shall be the glory of hav
ing saved onccowitry from . anarchy and civil war,
arid all their concomitant hitnors. They have
Saved the CaPtinl, and shall g 6 dawn in history, as
the saviors of Itnne. on Capitoline hill, have be
came.celetugreil: Father Ritchie, will hush his
&debit jererniatis, and the prat=es of our patriots
shaft arouse his garrulity. 9fy the :principle of simi
lie siinelibirs ad cunriotty—{we won't say the , dose
'is hommpatldc). 7 -by agitating where there is no
agitation, they will allay all agitation! By rais
ing op sperires of disunionists,. they can buffet
the monsters . to their heart's content, mid wok
theinsefve's ito a perfect fitror of patriotism with
perfect safet y. Of coarse the y'w ill deal gently with
these who are arrays •I in open hostslity to the Con
stitution at the Sputh—Aenouncing therm would npt
answer tli pn rprAes • here.
Tux titteur4iicErtati, calieil for Monday even
if tg, trairAjonnied until li'ednesday evening, and
finally broke up in great confusion. We are reluc
tantly obliged to pootpUtre our account cr* the scenes
until out next.
(511.r1/1111 11,111. ROAD —On Saturday last, ender
the act to eonstrort a Railroad to avoi.i the fin:fined
)lane, near i'lailalelpina, the board of Canal Com
missioners ptoeArede‘t to sell the Philatlelphra and
Columbia Itaifroad, ismweeti linrad street
and the phine,'ittelinlitei 117 e Sclinyikill Viaduct the
t7idieetor's reline and the Engine Depot at the cor
ner of rettirsylvrtnia Avenue told Schuylkill' Nivth
- street. The sale was • effected and John 'reciter,
Eq. l'resi,tetit of the fteattina R..adroad Crmrprorr,
purelia.ed it for the sawn of r. 1. 213,200—the paythents
in be -withent herrest. from the date of the delivery
. of rhe road as' follows :---1-25,000 each at the limit
ill sale anoldelicery of the road ; 1.550,600 on the
first day of April, 1451, and ' 1 )0 ; 000 monthly, thdre
eller, anti! the entire debt is
• • The.pmcesids of the sale are to be approp r i a te]
In the repeir of the road between the anew part and
tadilmitia, and the Commissioners have arynintod
F Gay, to make 'the necessary stamina
. lions and eurveys, with -a' view .to strai;hteu the
curers an, either necersary improietnients.—Nusiis.
Ai X - ' A COngliSi:
...•••••• •
W ainqOToljlOonclk, Dete r VI 85%,• I
imr..-e-l'he titivate w Oriftr a€ll7l
o'dlock . The following, rnislin belie " Were 'present tri.
Medias. Bradbury, litOblinalaleMorrfas. John
via, 'Winthrop, Phelps, i'llarke; Hphdrn, Smith,
Dihpin,on;- Ba id oria_,,lttesiatil, Coor, Sturgeon,
Spruance,tV ilea, Pratt; I r eirce, Mason, Hamer,
Badger, Mangum, Berrien, King. Clements. Morton,
re.iton, Bell, , Turney, twine b % Chase. Shields, Whit.
condi . ; Voile*. of Wisconsin, Walker, tones., Dodge,
of lowa, Filch, Cass
Mr. Sturgeon offered a resolinion (hat the Secre
tary inform the Mouse that a quorum was present.
and that they were now ready to proceed to blast
mess. Adopted.
On motion t.if Mr, Dodge, oflowla. it IriV•oll7ertil
that the Senators be allowed nelspapers equal to
the ciwl of tour daily papers.
On motion It was ordered dist the boor of Meet.
log shalt he 12
A message was received from the House, stating
that a quorum was present.,
Mr. Berrien submitted a resolution that a com
mittee of two be appointed roy the chair, to act
with p like committee of the House, and inform the
President of the United States that a quorum was
prttse to in each House. and were ready to receive
any communicatitin from him. Adopted.
The President appointed Messrs. Berrien and
Dickinson the committee on the part of the Senate.
The committee retired at 25 minutes bSforo two
o'clock, and reported that the Message was received
and the usual numbetsof that and the accompanying
documents were ordered to be printed.
At three o'clock the Senate adjourned.
lioess.—Soon slier the opening of the doors this
morning, the galleries were filled by a good-homur
ed audience. The members on the floor were ex
changing happy salutations with each other, all
seemingly glad again to meet. A great confusion
of tongues prevailed, but at 12 o'clock the speak
er's voice was heard above the din calling to order.
The members look their seals, and its a few min.
utes compaoiive stillness prevailed.
The Clerk then called the roll, when 160 mem
ber: answeredito their nances.
Mr. 'roil presented the memorial of Jared Per
kins. contesting the seat of George W. Morrison,
• which was referred to the committee on electiqna.
On motion of Mr. Millard, it was resolved, that a
corami tee be appointed by the House to join such
committee on the part of the Senate to wait on the
President, and inform loin 11;at a quorum of both
Houses is now in Session. and 'that Congress is
ready to receive any communication which he may
be pleased to make.
In accordance with this resolution., Messrs.
•liard, McDowell and 1/uer, were appointed a com
. Mr. Johnston, of Arkansas, offered a resolution,
that the members vacate their seats, and that they
proceed to draw for a thoice. Several amendmebts
were proposed, one of which only was adopted, pro
viding th it Mr. Owe i, of Georgia, who it sick in
th.s ctly, hill have the privilege of drawing fur his
sea ifirough a friend; The resolution, as ainenderi,
was adopted.
" The members vacated their seats. and their names
were placed in s box. and as each name was drawn,
the members sele:terl 11/Cif Seat.
Mr. Hilliard. from the join( Committee, terkined
that the PreSllle n t would immediately send his Mes
sage. to both House..
The Messag,e was then handed by the Speaker to
the Clerk, who proceeded to read it.
Fe'bnc eili;rtur of the Senttle and of the House of
firpreintiatices :
Belog soddenly called, in she mi Ist of the lasi
session of Con:;rezoi, by a painful dispensation of
Divine Pmvidence, so the responsible station which
I how hold, I consented myseti with such commu
nications to the Legislature as the exigency of the .
moment seemed to require. The country was
shrondeil in mourning for the Ines of its venerated
chief magistrate, and all beans were penetrated
with grief. Neither the time nor the occasion ap
peared ea requite or to justify, on my part, any ge
neral expression of political °pin' oils, orAny an
nonncement of the principles crtich would govern
me in the discharge of the duties to she perfor
mance of which I had been so unexpectedly called.
I, therefore, that it may not be deemed inap
propriate, if I avail mysell of the opportunity of the
re-arsembling of Congress to make known mysien
timents in a general manner, it, regarie to the poli
cy which orght to be pnrimed by she government,
both in its intercourse with fo r eign na n s ,„, an d
in its management and administration of internal
Nations, like individuals, in a state of nature,
are egnnt and independent, possessingeedain
and owing • certatil to each other, arising
frog: their necessary and re nvoirlable relations;
which and duties there is nolcommoti ant ho.
ri'y to prooTt and e iforce. S:111, they arc iigl.ts and
duties, biniti-ig in morals, in conscience, and in
honor, although there is no tribunal to which an
injured party can appear but the disinterested judg
ment of mankind, and ultimately the arbitration of
the sword.
n; the acknowledged rights of nations js that
which each possesses of establialiing that form of
government which it may deem most conducive to
the happitess and' prosperity of its own- citizens;
of changing that. form, as circometuncre may
remore ; and of manaeing Its mtemal aflairs, ac
cording to its own will. The people of the United
States claim this right for themselves, and -they
readily concede it to others. Hence it tiecomes an
imperative duty not to interfere in the eniment
or internal policy of other nations: and although
we may eymp.whime with the tmf 'donate or the op.
pressed, everywhere, in their struggles for freedom.
our principles forbid os from taking any part in
such foreign contests.
We rnake no wars to promote or to prevent Imo
cessions to thrones: in maintain any theory of a
balance poser ; or to suppress the acinalonvemment
which any country chooaea to establish for itself
We instieate no revolutions. nor suffer any hostile
military expeditions to be fitted out in the ed
States to inside the territory- , or provinces of a
friendly nation. The great law of morality ought
to have a national, as well as personal and indivi
dual, application. We should act towards other
nations, as we wish them to act towards us; and
justice and conscience should Corm the rule of con
duct between governments? instead of mere pow.
er. self interest, or-the desire of agigrandizemeut•—
TO maintain a strict neutrality in foreign wars, in
cultivate trienilly relations,. to reciprorate everyno
ble and generous act, and to perform punctually
and scroFinonsly every treaty obligation -these are
the duties which we owe to other States, and by
the performance of whir+, we best entitle ourselves
io like treatment from them : or if that, in any case,
be refused, we min crime our own rights with jos
tice and a clear conscience.
In our domesie policy, the Constitotion .will be
My guide; and in goes:ems of doubt, I shall look
fir iii IllteirrinlinlT to the jnificiol decisions of that
tribunal, vt l ich was estabfiSheil to eeprrend it, and
to'ilie usage of the groremment. sanctioned by the
acquiescence 'of the country. Isregaril all its pro.
cottons as equally In all of its parts n is
the will of the- people, expressed in its most so
lemn form, and the correituteil authorities, are but
-seems to-carry that wit!
_into effect. Every power
which it has granted is to be executed far the
good; tut no pretetice of utility, no tritest con.
viciion, even, of what might be expedient, can lug.
tify the assumption of any power ntd granted. The
powers conferred upon the government and their
distribution tothe several departments, are isclear
ly espresaoll in that sarced instrument as thl im,f
perfecti:u of human language will allow, and I
deem it in, first defy, not to question its wisdom,
;Mil to its pnovisiorts, evade. its requirements, of
nullity its comm.:lnds.
Upon you,fellow citizens as the representatives
of the States and people, is wisely ilevolvesl the
Orli/dative pewter. I shall comply with my duty,
iu laying before you, from time: to time, any infix.
mation calculated to enable you to discharge your
high and responsilde trust for the benefit of- our
COU23IIOCi COnSfgUellia.
"WOliiiitVi ' t .••• frankly expretiiidlipotribe
"I L
leading subjects lef I rislatihn ; anti if, which I do
nut anticipate s ydte should appear tome amen
t ea,
Otitutiripal o stis),
...... "tithing on tint jusfistneetll
i01,,/tatkdr d rtittldtt, or with., praltisie4thasf4 .
ark's*, a ' likel," prodnce cons,Tenelp hits-,
ritßisat•ial th) -•••• ' J should net thruik i *om the'
diiy of reterting • il l () you whit May reit/onus, kir
'your iurthet„eonslille atiotas. Beyontt„the itere;,,pei
romance he ennsititutional obligation:44olb my
respell for the legislature And my sense of proprie
.y is ill restr4in the from any attempt to control o r
infltiettee parr pmeeedings. 7 'With you is the'pafr• -
er, the honor, and the resixmasibility of the legiada
tion id the country. s
The Government of the United States is a lima
ted Government. It is confined to the ekerctiso of
Powers expressly granted and. such ethers As may
tiemecdosary,firt earryite4_thoser priwers into ether
And it is at all times an especial duty in guard
niaitist - any itittingernent cm - the jest tights et the
r s
swum Over ,the o ' and subjects intrusted to
to Congress , iti, leg :dative authority is supreme._
Bin here that nut& sty ceases, end every citizen
who truly loves the Constitution, and fleshes the
continuance of its elkistenee and Its bleasites,s, will
resolutely and firm! . resist any interference in those
domestic eflaira, tv nch the Constitution hes clearly
and unequivocally eft to the exclnsise authority
of the States. Arid e'rery such chiteh tt ill also de
precate useless irritation rirncmg the several; mem
bers of the Union, and. all reproach and enmination
tending to aleniate one portion of the country l i me
another. The beauty Of our system of Government
consists, and its safety sled do ability must cohabit,
in nvoiding mutual collisions and encroachments, l i
and in the regular separate action of all, while each
is tevolv#rg in its (awn di-tint orbit.
The Constitution has made it the ditty of the Pre
sident to rake care that the laws - be faithfully exe
cuted. In a Government like mars, in which all
laws are passed by a majority of the representa
tives of the people, and th e se representatives are
chosen for such short periods, that any injurious nr
obnoxious law can very soon be repealed. it would
appear unlikely that any great numbers should be
fuund to resist the, execution of the laws. But it
mum be borne in mind that the country is exten
sive, that there may he focal interests or prejudices
rendering a law odious its one pan, which is rent so
in another, and that tlsopalitless and inconsiderate,
misled by their pa:wig:ins, or their imaginations,
may be indused madly to resist such laws as they
disapprove. Such persons should recollect that,
there ran be no real practical liberty : that when
law is trampled undo, foot, tyranny rules, whether
it appears in Am torus of a ml Italy despotism or of
popular violence The law is the only sure pra
tettion of the weak, and the only efficient restraint
upon the minng. ' When impartially end faithfully
administered, none is beneath its protection, and
none above its control. You, gentlemen, and the
country may he assured, that to the utmost of my
ability, and to the extent of the power reeled in me,
I shall at ail lintro. and in all places, take care that
the-laws be ~ fditlifully executed. in the discharge of
ithis duty,- solemnly imposed upon ins by the Con
stitution, and by my oath al etfice, I _shall , at • k
from no realyarsibbly, and ' , hall enald'avor to meet
events as they may ati‘e, with firmness, as well
as with prodenee and do-ermine _
The appointing power is rupee the moat delicate
with which the exezutive is invested. "I regard it
as a sacred [rust, to be exercised with -the role
view of advaneing prnsperitj and happiness of
the people. It shall be my e art to elevate the
standard of official employment, by selecting for
places of importance individuals fitted fin Ile posts
to which they tire assigned, by their 'Ailown
rity, talents, and vinnes. In so extenifve a coon.
try, with so great a population, and where few
116.010011 appointed to oifieel can be known lodge ap
pointing power mistakes will sometimes unavosila .
bly happen, and inikirtimate appointments be made,
notwithwandir g the greatest rare In such cases,
the power of removal may be proper ly.exereised:
and neglect of, duty or malkwitanee- in office wilt
be 110 more tolerated in individuals appointed by
myself than in those appointed by others.
I am happy in being able to say that no unfavo•
rable change in our foreign relations has taken
place since the message at the opening of the last
session- olanxi Congress We are at peace with all na
tions, we enjoy in an eminent degree the bless
ings of that peace, in a prospermts.and-growing com
merce, and in ad the (onus of amicable national
intercourse. The unexampled growth of the coun
try, the present amount 01 es population, and its
ample(meani of self-protection, amine far it the re•
ammo of all nations., while . it is trusted that its cha
racter for justice and a regard to the rights of other
Slates, will cause that respect to be readily and
cheerfully pa;4l.
A conceit on wa4 g tiatit g between the
led States and Great Ili i.aiti, in April last, for facili
tating and metalling the cnotarnetton id a ship ca
nal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans ' and
for other mirposes. This instrument has since been
ratified by the contracting parties, the exchange of
ratificatens has been effected, and proclamation
thereof has been duly made.
In addition to the stipulations contained in this
convention, two other objects remit', to be accom
{dished between the (-attracting provers.
First, the designation and es:ablishment of a free
port at each end of the canal.
Second, an agreement fixing the distance from
the shore within which belligerent maritime ope
rations Shall; not be carried on. On these points
mere is little doubt that the two governments will
come to an understanding.
The company of citizens of 4he United States
who have arquirett from the State 01Nicarimaa the
privilege oriental:aging a ship canal between the
two oceans, through die territory of the State, have
made progress in their preliminary arrangements.
The treaty between the Miffed State, and Great
Ramie, of the 19th of April last, above referred to,
being now in operation. it lei to be hoped that the
.guatranties which it offers will be sufficient to se:
cure the completion 01 the work, with all practiea.
ble expedition. It is obvious that the result walld
be indefinitely postponed, it any other than peace.
lel measures, kat the purpose of harmonizing con.
11Mting.claints to territory, in that quarter, shoold be
adopted. it will consequently be In) endeavor' to
any further negotiations an the part of this govern
meat, whirr), may be requisite kr this parpoae l to
be so catdOcted as to bring them to a speedy and
successful close
Some unavoidable tlelny has occurred, arising
from distance and the difficulty of intercourse be.
tween this) Government and that of Nicaragua, but;
u intelligence has just been received of the ap
pointment of an Envoy Extraordinary and Mints
ter Plenipntentiaryef that Government tereaide at
Wasitingtrin whose arrival may eoou be expected,
it is hopett p tirat no further impediments will be ex
perienced to the prompt transaction of business be
tween the r two Governments.
Citizen* of the United Suites have undertaken
the connesion of the two oceans by means of a
railroad *Toss the lethmits of Tehauntepec, under
grants oldie Mexican Governmt to a citizen of that
republic. It is understood tha n thorough survey
of the coarse of the communication is in prepara
tion, and there is - ever, reason to expert that it
will be P's\rsia..uted with characteristic energy / es.
pechdly wheri the Government shall have consent-
Url to such stipulations with the Government of the
United Seater as may be necessary to impart a feel.
ing of securtij to those who may embark their pro.
petty in the enterprise, Negotiwi-ms are pending
Ids the necomplishment of that object, and a hope
is confidently entertained that, *ben the Govern
ment of Mexico shall beeorre Italy sensible of the
advantages that coudity tannot fail to derive trom
t h e wel t s , a nd team that the Government of the
Ifiiiiett States desires that the right el sovereignty
of Mexico in the Isthmus shall remaim tritimpair
ell, the stipulations referred to will be agreed to
with alaeniy. •
By, the hat advice' from Mexico it towel appear,
however ! , that that Government entertains strong
olitxsiops . to some of the stipulations which the
partiesconcerned in the project of the railroad deem
nrcensarY for their protection and security.. Fur
titer consideration it is to hoped, or some mbdifica
lion of terms, may yet reconcile the differences
existing between the two Got:muttons in this re
"Vonth inAieetioita baing - retenttyli;eit - 61 - Vairt4
the Minister of the United States in Mexico, who
prosecuting the sutdeet with zpmptitutte „ r id
'LI ?1
Althoitith the aegotiatlinutorith.,rosttigitlitit the
pay u meivt of chirps el *men* of Opt Umterates
'wiring that bloyernfitept hayits no yet tess led its
a fchinal treaty; yet'' prole:talon made brihtscso•
sernment of Pottugil for the hoar "atljnaittient and,
-payment - of those defiers, haii-reeenttrbeen -*-
reined on the part of the United States. it gives
me pletesure to say that Mr. Clay, to 'whom the rte.
collation nn the putt of tile Visited States:fiatt been
etattisted, discharged the duties of his -appointment
with ability and discretion, acting alw,Ays within
the instructions of the Governnient.
is expected that a regular convention will be
immediately negotiated fur carrying the, Wee
men' tletween the two governments into effect.
The Commissioners appointed under the act of
Congress for ensiling him cheer' the Convention
with Bleat! on the 27th of January, 1849, has en
tercel upon the performance of the ditties imposed
upon him by that eel. It is 'hoped that those dn.
ties may be completed within the little whiCh it
prescribes. The documents, however, which the
Imperial government, by the thin! article of the
convention, stipulates to loons!' to the Government
of the Viii•ed Mates, have not yet been received.
As it is presumed.that those CricuMents wilt be es.
seined frit the correct disposition of the claim, it
may become necessary for Congress to extend the
period limited for the duration of the Commission.
The sum stimulated by the. 4th-article of' the con
vention to be paid to this Government has been re
. The collection in the ports di the 'United States
of discriminating duties upon the Tepee's of Chili
and their cargoes has been suspended, pursuant to
the provisions of the act of Congress of the 24th of
May, 1828. It is to be hoped that this measure
will impart a fresh impulse to the commerce be
tween the two countries, which of late and espe
cially since our acquisition of California, Me, to the
mutual advantage of the parties, been itegmentede
Peruv'an guano has become so desirable an ar
ticle to the agricultural interests of the Unjtedtstates,
that it is the duty of the Government to employ all
the means properly in its power for, the purpose of
ranging that snide to be imported into the emmtty
at a reasonable price Nothing will be omitted on
my part to towards accomplishing this (limitable
end. lam purse aded that in removing any re
piraints on this traffic, the Peruvian Government
will pmmole Os own best interests, while it will
afford a proof of a triendly disposition towards this
country, which will be Airily appreciated.
The treaty between the United States and His
Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Wands, which
has recently been made public, will, it .s believed
have a beneficial effect upon the relation's between
the two countries.
The relations between those Innis el the island
of St. Domingo, which were formerly colonies of
Spain and France, respectively, are still in an in k . -
ttle4l condition_ The proximity of that Island to
the l'ilited States, and the delicate questions in-
volved in the existing, controversy there, render it
desirable that it should be, permanently and spserli
ly adjusted. The interests of humanity and of ge
mud commerce alai, demand this ; and, as inti
mations of the statue sentiments lave been receiv.
ed from other governments, it is hoped that some
plan may soon be devised to effect the object in a
manner likely to give general satisfaction. The
government of the United States will not fad, by
the exercise of all proper friendly offices, to do
all in its powor to g at an end to the destructive war
which has raged b etween the different pads of the
island, and to secure to them both the benefiti of
peace an.l commerce.
I refer you in .the report of the Secretary of the
Treasury for a detailed statement of the finances.
The total receipts into the Treasury, Inc the year
ending 30th of June last, were $4'.421.718 90.
The total expsuirlitorei during the same petiod
were 543.200,168 90.
The public debt has been reduced, since the Jest
annual report from the Treasury Department $475,-
776 79
;By the 19th Perliall of the aCI of 'JRth• January,
1847, the pmeeeils of the sales of the public lands
were pleilg.eit for die interest and principal of the
public debt. The great amount of those lands sob.
segnently granted by Congicsr for military bounder.,
will, it is believed, very nearly supply the pubfie
demand (or several years to come, and bat little re•
liance can, therefore, be placed on that hitherto
fruitful source of revenue.
Aside from the permanent annual expenditnres.
which have necessarily largely Mcreasad, a portion
of the public debt. amounting to eight million sev
enty-five h worn I nine bemired and eighty-six dol
lars and filly-nine cents (>8,075 ; 986 59) must be
provided lot within the t ext two fiscal years, It is
moat desirabte that these accruing demands should
be met without resorting to new loans,
Ali et perience has demonstrated the wisdom and
policy of miring a large 'melon of revenue, for the
stioport of Government. trotn duties ori goods im
ported. The power to lay there duties is angers
tionable, and its chief object, of muse, is to replen
-1•h the treascity. But if, in doing dills an inciden
tal adtardage may be gained by encouraging the
induetty of nor own citizens, it is our ditty re avail
ourselves of that advantage.
A duty laid upon art article which carmen be pro
duced tn,this country—such se tea arcollee—adds
to the cost of the article, and is chiefly or wholly
pelti by the crmsumer. Rut a duty laid upon an ar
ticle Which may be produced here, stimulates the
skill end industry of our own country to produce
the same reticle, which is brought into the market
in competition with the foreign article, and the im
porter is thus compi-lied to reduce his pride to that
at which the domestie article can be sold, thereby
throwing 'a part of the duty upon the prothicer of the
foreign article. The countenance of this process
creates the skill, and invites the capital, which fi
nally enabled us to produce the article much cheap
er than it could have been procured from abroad,
thrr iby benefining bath the producer anti consumer
at home. The consequence of this is, that the ar
tisan, and the agriculturist are brought together,
each alien's a really market "Or the produce of the
other. the whole country becomes prosperous '
• and
the ability to p ro duce every necessary of life fen.
ders us independent in war as well as in peace.
A high tariff can never be permanent, It will
cause dissatisfaction and will be t changed. It ex
cludes competition, and thereby invites the invest
ment of capital hi niantrfaeteres to such excess,
that when changed it brings dishese, bankreptc7,
and rum upon all she have been striated by its
faithless protection. What the intandaettrter wines
is uniformity and permanency, that he may feel a
confidence That he is not to ,te. mined by sudden
changes. But to make a taritconiform and perma
nent, it is not only necessary that the law should
not xt altered, but that the duty should not fluctu
ate. To effect this, all duties should be specific,
wherever, the nature of the article is such as to ad
mit of it. Advalorem duties fluctuate with the
Kee, and oiler strong temptations to fraud, and
perjury. Spec:fie defies, on the contra are ogee d
and uniform in all ports, and at elf tim , ,
and oiler
a strong inducement to the importer t - bring the
best article, as he pars no more duty open that,
than open one of 'ink rior quality. I therefore
strongly recommend a modification of the present
tsrifl, *Melt has prostrated some of our most im
portant and necessary marrnfactores, and that ape
attic duties be imposed suffiriedt to raise the requi
-1 site revenue; making inch discrimination in favor
of the industrial pursuits of our own country
,se to
encourage home production. It is also important
that an tin fm Innate provision in the present tarifi i
1 which imposes a much higher duty epon dm row
material that enters into our manneictures than up
on the marrufaetuted aniele, should be remembered.
The papers aecompanyittgthe report of the See.
retary of the Treasury will dattose fraud, attempt.
si) upon thu revenue,' in 'satiety antt amount sa
uter i as to justify the conchesian that it is *mei.
tile, ender any system alert valorem defies levied
upon the foreign cost or value of the article,
to se
cure an honest observance and an effectual admin
istration of the laws. The fraudulent device, la
evade the law,- which have been detected - by' the
vigilance of the appraisers, leave no rarest to doubt
' that ands, imposatious not iliruoverird, 10 . WV:
'attiiitiiit' h - siici.l. n•ItitTeVAW ' '' :r----- o
. . 7 ' . Since IC .
enactment of the law now in otee.. This state of ..
this lt,a , elree„, tlyAlad a prejudicia ' leen n,
, thrise ' oil in peign monism 1 11 a 71
lime ~ &the thii (west trailer Ir mth 4. osi
i 1,3 ing-ind, .iliniw . that importiethre - i
eteplopnetOlitc4,. e hands of Well:l3l%ns 'it
jiiiphoneit mop, trio are alike regard leitis it. aw lit 4d
i A r lie obligating* robin :oath. By title means 1,-*e
plain - intention/1 ortongreast, as e. restrea ittilit
law are daily defeated. Every moriver,iif policy
andsluty, thepAnsts,,hrisel !tie In askAhak.eine#:,jit:
"tendon oreor grass to lids subject. If Congress
should deem it unwise to lint:min any 'important
changes in the system of levying duties at this sea
slant, it *ill become Indispensable to the protec
tkal of the sevenito that suelt **nether:, as in the
jiitlipnent of Congtese May, m ideate the evils com
plashed 01, tlhoidd be at mite apptidd.
As before stated, specitleirduties would, in, my,
ripittkoh, allied the mosilaittierla tiiiiiily $6l his
oval but, if yossboohl hot' cone* in this vielri
Bien ) as a tiartiAlirinnetly, I beg leave respectfully
to recommend that, instead of taking the invoice of
the article abroad as i means of determining ini
tialer here, thecortectness of whieh invoice it is in
many cases impossible to verify, the law, tie so
changed as to require a home valuation of apprai
sal, to be regulated in such manner as to give, as
far as practicable, uniformity in the several ports.
There being no mita in - Catiforn in II ate inform
ed that the laborers in the mines are compelled to
dispose of their gold deal at a largeiseount: This
appears to me to be a heavy and u njust tax, upon
the labor of those employed in ektraetiue this pie
cings metal; and I doubt not you witr.bli disposed,
at the earliest period posible, to relieve them imm
ii by the establishment ol a mint. In the mean
time, as an asiiayees office is established there, 1
would respectful l y submit lot ye& considerat ion
the propriety of authetizing gold bullion, which has
been aisayed antlstamped, to be received in pay
ment of Government dries. I cannot conceive that
the treasury would suffer any loss by such a pro
vision, which will at once raise bullion to its par
rider, anti therein. save (if I am rightly informdd)
many millions of dollars to the taborets which are
now paid in broker age to convert this precious
metal into available fends. This diieoutit upon
their hard earnings is I heavy sax, and every effort
should be made by tfreGoveinment to relieve them
from so great a burden. •
More than three•itannita of our imputation are en•
gaged in the cultivation of the soil The commer• ,
.eial, manufactitting, and navigating inlereste are all,
to a g reat extent, dependent on the ago icuitmal. It
ia, 4rekire, the Most important interest of the na•
non, and has a just claim to the foittering care and
protection at the govermo . ent, so far as they can be
extended consistently sillAth the Cmvisions of the
Constitution. As thin cannot be done by the ordi
nary mode:col legislation, I respect/oily recommend
the establishment of an Agtieisitoral Bureau, to be
charged with the duty .nf giving to this leading
branch Of American industry the encouragement
which it sir well desterges. In view of the im
mense mineral resnerces of our country, fuorigion
should also be made for the emphtyment of a Nom
potent mineralogist anti chemiA, alto should be
required, mules the direction of the head of the
boreal:l,ln collect specimens of the various mine
rals of our country. and to ascertain, by carefel
analysis, their respective elements and properties.
and their rilapiation to useful purposes Ile should
also he required to examine and =rep ort open the
qualities of ditlerent soils, and the manints- best
calculated to improve their productiveness. By
publishing the results of such eaperiments, with
suitable explanations, 'and by the , :olleetion widths
tribution of rare reedi anti plants,-vr oh insituctinne
aslo the best system of cultivation, much may b e
I done to promote this great national interest:
In cemplianee with the Corizrese, passed
on the 211 of May, 1850, providirr.; amona other
things, ler taking the seventh cenarn', a superinten
dent was_appointed mid all other measures adopted
which:were deemed necessary to ensn:e the prompt
and' faithful performance of that duty. This appro_
priaion already male will, it is believed, be suffi—
cient to defray the whole expense of the'work ; but
farther legislation may be necessary in regard l
the eompeneltion of some of the mar-hale of the
Tirritories. It will also be proper to make provis
ions by law, at an early day, far the publication of
such abstracts of the returns as the public interests
may require.
The onprecedented growth of oucTerritories on
Ore Pacific in wealth and population, ararthe con
sequent increase of their social and commercial re
lations with the Atlantic States, seem to render it
the duty otthe,Government to . use ail its consoilu
Lionel power Ici huprove the means of Intercourse
with them. The Importance of opening " a fine
of commtinication, the best and most expeditions
of which the nature of the country wiry admit," be
tween the Valley of the Mississippi and the Pacific.
was b1011 : 2111 to your notice by my predecessor, in
his annual message; and as the reamers which he
presented ietavor of the messere still evict in full
force, beg lea to call your ntieulion to them,
and to tepeat the ibminendationa then mace by
The nocertainly i which exists in meant to the
validity of laud titles in California is a PI
which demand. your, early consideration. Merge
bodies gf land in that State are claimed nailer grant
said to have been Made to authority of the tJan
ish and Mexican Governments. Many of these
have not been perfected, others have been revoked,
and some are believed to tla fraudulent. But until
they shalt hate Been krificially investigated, they
will continue to retard thesentement and improve
ment of the country. t, therefore, respectfully tee
ommend that provision be made by law; for the
apponumeet of commissioners to examine all such
claims *Ma view to their final adjustment;
# also beg leave to call your attention to the pro
priety of extending; at an early (lay, ant system of
land laws, with seen modifications as may be nec
essary over the State of California and the territory
of Utah and !flew :Mexico. The mineral lands of
California will, of crease, farm an excepiott to any
germ al
.system which may be adopted. Various
methods of disposing of them have keen stvosted.
I was at first inclined to favor the system of leas,
ing, as it seemed to promise the largest revenue to
the Government, and to anted the best security
against monoroles btrt further reflection, and our
expetirmce in leasing the had mines and pelting
'andel Upon credit; have pronght my maid to the
conclusion that there would be great difficulty. in
collecting the rents, and that the relation of debtor
and Creditor, between the citiffens and the Gov'em.
ment, would be attended with many , mischievous.
conserencea. I therefore recommend that, instead
of retaining the mineral lands carder thripermanent
control Of the Government, they be divided into
small parcels and sold, under snub restrictions: as to
quantity and time, as will Unitive the_tiest mice, and
guard most ,effeetually against combinations of capi
talists to obtain monopolies.
The annexation of Texas and the acquisition of
California and ger* Mexico, havegiven inerea.ed
importance to our Tndiars whitlow". The cations
tribes trrought under our jclrisdietioe by these en
largementsof our boundaries ire estimated to em
brace a populatton of one hundred and twenty four,
Texas and New'Mexico are surrounded by pow
erful tribes-of Indians, who are a source of constant
annoyance ' to the. inhabitants Separating into
small predatory betide, and always mounted, they
overrun !he country, devastating farms, destroy ing
crops, driving oft - Whole herds of cable, and Aerie
sionally.mordenng the inhabitants or retrying them
into captivity. The great roads leading into Attie
country are infested. With them, thereby travelling
is rendered extremely dangerous, and emigration
is almost entirely arrested: - The Meitkat frontier,
which by the Vith article Of the treaty of Glandala
poHidalgo, ite are bound 'to protect against the In
dians within our border, is exposed to these incur
sions equally With our own. The military force
stemmed in that country (although forming a large
proportion of the army) is represented as entirety
inadequate to our own protection and the fulfilment
of our treaty stipulations with Mexico. The prin.
cape, deficiency et in cavalry, and k,, recommend
that Congress should, at as early a period as prac
ticable,. provide for the raising eV one Ot mote regi
"COM OS mewled mew • .
1iv...'7;;;;-,-------,,t-r-Ar-....-c-,—... ..•k..,",
'For -fart let stif.testions on thus 'Oro, anitothers
eentiectiql with oar domestic interests, and the de.
ntier, 1 icier yon to repoil 01 the
St ffmll f ir ,;;;o! . yonr favorable i ,.. iin'sittera-tiolt
4 ,
• icing contained in the last inentigned re.
. a m the letiei or the'general in chic'. 'eta.
life to tt stabrudinieut of an a-j tom for the" retie!
cir diiatil and destitute soldiers. This subject ap.
peals so strongly to your sympathies that it would
be superflifous in me to say ai.yittio r l more than ;
posed object. ..,
The navy continues to give protectintrio OIRVellt)-
,metce and othei national imerestivin - titer thee:evil
quarters of the globe, and with the exception of a
single steamer on the licrtherti" lakes,. the vessels
in commission arerdistributed itv six different squad
rons •
latkrePortAlbelead4 l, ..thaL Depaitmega-wits
sit it gie services Of these squadrons, and of the
several vessels eau:dorm} kismet! ,dvring the part
year. It irr a Ittoriree erati flea tion That While they been constantly prepared for any hostile emer
gstij, ther.ilave t every -where met crilb•tbe tempest
and conitesy, due as well to the dignity as to the
peaceful dispositions and just purposes of the na
The firb"btiiinlines aerepted by the government
from agenerous citizen of New .York,„ and" placed'
under the command. itf-aiiotticer of the navy, to
prheeed to tho in q,uest of the British
commander, Sir John - Frankrin, and h.s compan
ions. in complirtnce wltli t
a ct of 0111;VC*3, ap.
proved in May hull, bad, when, heard from.'
trated into a high northern latitude; but the success
of this noble and humane enterprise is yet uncer
I invite yoti t r ii rention to the view cf our present
naval c stabil nest and rerosurces presemed in the
repott of the secretary of`the Navy; faint the sup,_
gestilina therein made foritalurprovement, together
with the naval policy recerrmentled for tne securi
ty of our Pacific Coast, and the priairseriorr and el.
tension of otirconnrrerae with Eastern Asia: OtYr
facilities for a larger participation iii the trade of
the East, by means of odr recent settlements on the
sheds of the Pacific are too 6bviotS 16 be over
losked or disregarded.
The question in relation to rank in the army and
nary, and relative rank between (Miter( of the two
branches of the service presented tulle kteculive
by certain resolutions of the Hh&e of, lifeptrsenta
tivesiat the last session or Cooltress, have been
submitted to a hoard of officers in each • branch of
the service, and their report, eacted , gt an
early day.'
also earnestly recommend the enactment of a
taro authorizing offlccrs of the army and navy to he
retired from the settler, when incompetent f-r iis
rigittoriS and active ditties, ' care to make
suitable prolisione for, those who have faithfulli
served their r'ountry, add awarding distinctions, by ,
retalningin arpropriate those Who liar,.
bcen particularly conspicuous fur gallantry anti
good eanilliet. While the obligation of IhOCOUntry
is Co maintain and honor those who, to the exchi--.
sion of iqher purse - its, ha're devoted them-elves'l,,
its arduous servic:e;\ this obligation shoifti out be
permitted-to imerfer with the etreeleacy of the ser
vice itself. '
lam gratified in being eto state, that the es.
irritates of esp . endonre fin- the vin the etisittar,
year are let.. by more than on! m 1 iron of 4..ttara,
than those triltint.pretsent4teryerint 4 :" the nprn-opria
non which may become es.ary for th e e „, m ,„,
non pf a dock on the coast of the Pactfie. - prop,.. ! .
“ons. ftir which are now bets,' totr%oferetf, mid on
which a special report may be erpected catty in
your present session.
There is an evident justness in the
the same report, that appropriation for the naval
service proper should he separareif Oom wt
fixed and permanent objects, suth r. htilldtaz docki
and navy yards. and the fixtures at tac hed : . and
from the extraordinary eihfrets fouler the COT of
the Department. WhiCh, hove ver - iSportant, are not
essentiallyt naval:
A reelniOn of the e.t . a', for the cr , ternmen 41) f ilia
navy seems retrrire tfre ?men-elate ronsierkarion
of Congresrs. ' Tri systein of, Crime 3 .and pontsb
ments hattuuderione, no change for hail - a century,
until the kast session, though its defect, hate beta
often and ably pointed out, and the aßiainon o f a
particular species of corporal punr4meto, n'hich
then took place, without pror idin„t any,- ilistitutr,
has:telt the sr r. ice in a stateof defectiveness. which
Calls for prompt correction. I thert'zfore rt.commend
that (he- rhole s abject be rev lied it idiom delay, and
such a system establai.hed for the enforcement of
"discipline, is shall be at oncelhu mane and etterfna,
The accompanying report of the
General, presents a Natssfachny view of the eireya.
tiOus and condition of that Department:
At the close of the last hscal year, the hatqh of
the iSand mail tonics in the United Sian's: font
embracing the service in Oregon bin! C.likrina)
was one hundred and secentreicht thousand an
hundred and seventy.two mile-; the annual trete.
portation thereon forty-sic million five hairdreni anti
fortymone thensand four bundler] and tweltr..dfrrk•
miles; and the annual'enq of ssyh trAn•porio•ti
two maims seven hurt...4.rd and twenty-four th.u,
and tout hundred and twenty-sit dolly , .
The increase of the aerial transpirnation ror
that of the preceding yeah, was rarer editor , ItTOr
hundred and ninetr-ser en thousand . (hr.,- • Iturritrd
and fifty-four miles. and the increase in colt ea•
three hundred anti forty-two thousand four Wetted
and (arty dollars.
• The %owlet' of rat nitres in the Uni ed Slow
ori rfte first &Iv of lull last. *as ei2ht , en 11n , 01.71 0
frittr hundred and sevintren--beine art onnaq'rf
sixteen hundred and neveerty durrOg tat preethee,
year.. .
The gmss retie-hoes dr the' th•partmrn , tle
fiscal year ending .11the 90, 100, ant..nn , rd 14 fir
millions five hpachoed and seventy-ant dollars anl
forty-eight cents, including the annual ar;propria ,
eon of two hundred thott.and dolfar, f.,t the haul
ed matter uf the departments. and exeltnline
foreign pastages,collected for and payable to At.
British Govern relent:
The expenditures for the same period itire: ire
millions two hundred and twelve thi.usaild, env
handfed int fifty-three dollars and forrv•threefep:a
—leaving a tralance.ef revenue over reremltheer e,
of three hundred and forty thousand and 'Owen'
dollars and five cents,
aett happy to find that the fi,raleorni;rion ate'
Department is such as to )aside Pe'sem a ' s "
General in reconatnen"ding the redrew" of our In.
'land letter postage to three cents the single letter
when ptepaid. and five cents when not prepaid.
He also recontmends that the reepaOl ratio shad be
reduced to two cents whenever the reverters nf she
°Vie talent. after the redact/I/IL shall exceed 'is ei
penditores by more than five per cent. for 130 . - f O4
freCtltire years . ; that the pi stage upon Ca
and other -letters :rut by nor veep n s t eamer , she!'
'be mach reduc e that tha n rates of Posse
on newspapers, pamphlets, peridicats, aud Abet
printed diattet shall be modified, and so me reduc
tion thereon made. •
It cannot be doubted that the p propoqed reiterl'P l "
will, fur the pr s.nt, din , inish he revenues of die
departmen , . It is 'believed that the deticienc7 ol/ '
tet t the surplut already accumulatel shall be : 1 :
hallsled.may he almost-wholly met. either
istang the existing privileges of sending 'free cot
ter through.' the mails, or by, 'papal:: or " I tie
Treasury G the - Post Mire :Department a , u°
equivalent to' s the postage of whiell it 1 , dello ed
such privilegek The last is ttnpi. ,, ed 'it) beth e ,,
preferable mode, and will , it not- o ' l4l
supply that - delicleiney as to mfie any furtberar-
Pr°Priaiime that rosy be found nerr,:ary se le'
sideratne its to form no obstacle to the proinfsed
due:nuns. . •
I entertain no doubt of the anthewity of Coa,m" l ,
to make a . ppropriatioras for leading o hreti te e . '
class o'f public Woks. comprising what are usua l
'called works of int e rnal improvement. This
thority I suppose to be derived chit lewd
power of regulating commerce with for opt ugh::
and among the States., and the poU•er of layiec 3 ..
collecting imposts. W herecom met ce is to be;
tied un:andimposts calleeled, there must be .
and harbors, as well as wharves and custom he;
es. If ships, laden with valuable cargoes, sPl"' 1 "
the *hoer, or sail String the coast, tight homes
necessary at Bramble points for the protee w° o
life anti properly, Other facilities .4d
for commerce and nav'gst ion. are hardly less gi r;.
taint' mid those clactses of the Comtitutioa. tht
foreito which I hale refeered,. have 7 , eeirof (f°l_