Bradford reporter. (Towanda, Pa.) 1844-1884, August 09, 1848, Image 1

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ttkimcsban Morning, clunnot 9, 1848:
Mr: Van BDmL's Letter on the Public Lands.
Nsw YORK, June 24th,,1848
- Hon. -Martin Van Buren :—Sir—The Industrial
Congress at its late session in Philadelphia, author.
ized and instructed its National Executive Com
mittee, there appointed, to propose to the several
candidates which then were, or might be-this year,
before the people for. the Presidency and Vice
Presidency of the United States, the accompanying
Weirould therefore, respectfully invite your at
ttentioh. to the subject of Land Reform, and (if con
sistent with your convictions of right and duty) your
signature to the pledge, to returned at an early
day. And we sdlicit at your leisure, a full exposi
tion of the views, to which you may have arrived
on this entire question of man's relation to the soil.
Chairman Nat. Exec. Corn.
JOHN H. Itsv-sEa, Seefetary,
" I, the undTsigned, candidate for
of President of the United States, desirous of restor
ing to man his natural right to land, will, hence
forth, use all my influence, whether in or out of of
fice, to prevent all further traffic in the pul•lic lands
of the United States, aild to cause the same to be
laid out in farms and lots, of limited quantities, for
the free and exclusive use of actual Rulers, not
possessed of other land!'
LINDENWALD,' July 20th, 1848
Sot: Yoni letter addressed to_ me by, you as the
chairman filithe Industrial Executive Committee of
the Industrial Congress recently held at Philadel
phia was' duly received. It is accompanied by a
pledge which I am asked to subscribe, as one of
the candidates..fOr the presidency, that I will hence
with use all iny influence, whether in or out of of
fice, to prevent all further traffic in the public lansjs
of the United States, and to cruse the same to be
laid out iuto farms and lots of limited inautities for
the free and exclusive use of actual settlers, not
possessed of other lands ; and you'alSo request my
Views,on the subject in general.
The nature of the reply which I design to make
to the communication with which you have honor
ed me, renders appropriate a reference to circumt
stances not immediately connected with the subject
of yhur inquiry.
In the years 1832, 1831, and 1840 my name was
placed before the country, with rimy own cdtisent,
as a candidate fOr offices in the federal government
—on the three occasion's first referred to for the
election, and on the last for a nomiration by a Na
tional Convention. On each occasion the right of
an elector to interrogate a candidate. who asks his
suffrage for a public trust Wasle.xercised chiefly by
political opponents, though! occasionally by friends,
to an extent"riet surpassed in this or any other coun.
try. 4. sincere friend to this right in its mot en
larged sense, and to s liberal exercise of it, I pre.
scribed no other condition to a compliance with the,
numerous requests of my interrogators, than that
the inquiries should be made in good faith, and
even that I overlooked in a great number of cases.
These questions and replies embraced nearly ifnot
quite every important point which had then arisen
or which in the opinion of the interrogators might
arise in •the administration of the federal govern
ment, were extensively published, and are of eou r i se
still before the country. Brought together they
would make a volume respectable for its size, and
the proof it would afford of my' respect for the
wishes of the people in this regard. I hare in ad
dition, occupied the office of President for fottr
years, of great political excitement, during which
period executive responsibility was voluntarily as.
in regard to the most important of these
questions whenever the -public interest required,
and was not unfrequently imposed in regard moth
ers by political adversaries of great tact and ability ;
preparatory to the presidential campaign of 1840,
when the importanceof the information to the pub.
lie service was not so apparent.
Ilad my name been presented to the country tin
der circumstances similar to those which accompa
nied its presentation on either of the occasions al
bided to, I should pursue the course now which I
then felt it ml duty to adopt.
But4he eireumstanCeli of my present position are
widely different, and are entitled, I think, to exer
cise a 'controlling influence over my obligations,
and the rights in this regard, as well of the Indus
trial Congress as of the numerous individuals who
. have already made similar applications to me.
111 could have been weak enough, in the first
instance, to believe that it Would be in my power
• tojender services to the country which could not
be as well or better performed by others; 1 should
i:nt have felt myself at liberty to consult only my
personal wishes and interests in deciding upon the
application of: my friends in I%rard, to making me
again a candidate for the Presidency i or if I could
have supposed that such ayse of my name by the
Vtica Convention was necessary, either to enable \ l
the democracy of this state to sustain themselves
against the great injustice which had been done to
them at Baltimore, or to the ultimate success ofthe
great, if not the only apparent issue . before the pub
lic,and upon the mainteiranc.etf which I believe the
honor and Wire welfare of the whole country de
pend, I ghoul& not, for similar reasons, have de•
dined to comply with ilse application made to me
lt), the New York delsgatien. Not being; able to
concur in either assumption, I did all in my pow
+.. unnecessary as it may hare been in rega r d t o
the•Balinnore Convention, to' prevent the use of
my name, either there or at Utica, as a candidate
for a place, which Though the most honorable in the
world, did not, in the absence of the motives, to
which 1 have adverted, possess for me a single at
traction, and which it was my earnest desire to
The rtica Convention, chiefly composed of men
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EYERY"wh i agri
:MORE • •
an4ribelleacCndants of men Irrihrt.hpysk betta my
political 'associates and. fast Ronde fietwibelcom:.
Mencernent the termitniiiiin 'ofriefpolltrcal.ii
reer„blheyingthalth'e iiise4 my name art.s.caac,
dictate orthe Presidency was - essential to the.pre.
per support of theirprincipleil i and the maintenance
of the indeptinjrnt positior( . #'hielt they had tieeti
driven by rho injustice otOthets to assume,,eiertpl i
and exercikeil the right of so employing it. That
they could under existing circumstances, do this
without, exposing their fidelity to their old assOcia.
tee in politics to just impeachmentom,easidid mind,
well infonnd upon the subject will deny, and I
understand them too well to question the good faith
of theit.prciecediida Islthaw`theiraleirdlfit;they
would have respected my - known wishes M the
matter;if they had sUpposeii . tiieVcOnicl do so with
justice to themselves aria' t o their cause. Placed
as theii; fellOwcitii,en,in the same • situatien,:and
bound to them by.the.,strongest gratitude • and or-.
spect, and'ihrilding the same opinions, for-entertain.
ing which they had been. virtually 'expelled -from :
all communion with their Old asioeinteii
political field, I could not hesitate the
declaration that I should not feel myself se liberty
to interpose any farther obstaile in ibeitproceed ,
inv. 1 could not but anticipate that this dee'giiiti
might ili.satisfy,many sincere friends in all partsof
the Union, who had entitled themselves to
spect aid warmest gratitude, and-who weretiate
rally more intent upon triumphing over their afire.
sary, than upon their doings at paltimore. To the
fullest extent of their opinion en the matter, 1 had
neither the right nor the disposition to object. thave
therefore received the reirremstrances,:hoirever
able, which were made, with that: recent forthe
light opinion in others, which honest hearts and
pure minds seldom fail to exercise, with no 'ether
feelings than those of profound respect, that circum
stances beyond my control had put it otit of my
power to conform to the conflicting wishes of friends
for whom I felt equal respect and regard. O'oliged
to conform. my action in this particular matter tothe
1 wishes of one or the' other class of friends, whose
difference among themselves was irreconcileable,
it affords me satisfaction to reflect that I inclined to
that portion of them who seemed to have the leaSt
at their disposal, and who were at the moment
struggling for .their political existonce, against in
justice and attempted degradation. Of the course
pursued by those who manifest their displeasure by
•• a resort to personal abuse, but little need be said.-
That only, to be pitied, which allows its
victim to imagine that a•inan who_for more than
I forty years, Whilst he possessed a strong personal
interest in the result of political contests, had .
dily pursued through floods . of calumny what he
believed to be the path of duty, can now, when his
! political aspirations are fully satisfied, and when
the public taste in such matters has been so greatly
improved, be deferred by personal invective: from
pursuing the same course. .
‘My name having been brought before the peo
ple in the_ma-iner and under the cirputustauces I
have described,(and I have • made the description
the more fell, as I hope to have this communication
kis a reply also to many similar applications,)lsan
not, I think, deceive myself in believing that Island
justified in decliniur, as I respectfully do, all further
explanations of my
. political views opinions:
And erpoeire to the imputation of having changed
my wishes in regard to a •estoration to office, by
thus seeming to make terms for political support,
would of itself be a great objection to answering in
quiries as to the manner in which I should, if elec
ted, cli,charge the duties of President of the S,
But the unprecedented extent to which I have
on former occasions replied to such interrogatories,
and the indications of nit official cotrse in the very
MTh e in que.,,tion, will, I am very sure, be regar
ded by candid and liberal miuda as justifying my
dee.sion. So comprehensive have they been, that
it would require not a Intle skill to shape any interro
gatory into any palitical question, touching which my
opiniotie may not, with reasonable certainty, be
-derived from them. The subject upon which you
have addressed me will serve to illustrate the truth
of this remark. in August, 1333, when first a cau•
didate for the Presidency, I said in seply to the in
! terro'iatories of roy political opponents, that I regar
i ded " the pubic domain as a trust fund belonging
to all the states to be disposed , of for their common
' benefit" That ample authority for that purpose had
been conferred upon Congress. That in making
such disposition, that body should act upon the prin
ciple that the people of the Cp : ileaf States have a
grealet interest in arf early settlement and substan
tial improvement.of the public lands than •in the
amount of revenue which may be derived from
them. That "to accomplish this object, the accu
mulation of large tracts of a few hands should be
discountenanced, and liberal facilties afforded for
the acquisition of small portions by such of our citi
zens, whereever residing, asare in good faith desi
rous of possessing them as homes for themselves
and their familieS." The substance of these views
was repeated in my first annual Message to Con
gress. To save large portions of 41 \ e \ public lands.
from speculatiors in them, and to, secure them to
actual settlers, I was the first President *hareem-,
mended the paluagO of ate-eliHpticin la‘r ; tux, in
a degree adopting it as tilis.sieteM Or the goVem 7 - .
meat; and•gave my. atuseffew to one if On APosst.
I liberal acts uponithat aulject that had ever. Woo
passed by conms. I went further.l=;-Yor
avowed purporee - Otbringing
ring an independent home within the reach of many
who are unable to purchase at , present prices,". I
earnestly rind perseveringly recommended to Can
gress to "cage the value of the public lands in the
old districts, which had been for a certain time in
market, t, belpfiraised and classed in two or •
rates, below the yeesent minimum price." Thee
feet of whieh Carried - out in the spirit of the,retriffi'•
mendation, would have been to bring ;huge find'
valuable portions of the public lands within the
reach of those who wanted theni . for a home at
priCei but little if anytft,beyarid theixien yes Of,
, surveying and locating the m.
to , a-stik,A7l34iiival vs•titri-,
T-14„sgvne.. tvriorsitirm 1.4 w rial=lll.--,-,, t .
7:= e§ ll,4 i - tad qt*llltoollll.ll2lll4lP DkllinntMimi mom iiinuineB4 , -
7,1-arriti vwrt Ti.,-czt at iIS/ 5, .4. f' ftaf.l4lo-2t.
Vita 4 6 .6 44tf A
my Plitaanielnjw:ticia,,
object in view i which do so , Mucdriumor.tolhaper+
!timing effite*Mythirearta
tYjii)tral#2 iklhe 14 7 414 14p41
4:f a r-4,44SAPAzu l 4 oo ..,o9nAdcPutist€ol7 Mith
thaleonatiaakwand the spirit-of enr.institutiona, , It
was also in furtherance of this great object, toldforti
toTtfitarM !tilfl6"rtftiOarltyilty:TOiritt4
the public tworka.whetheriaboromormachanics, bet
equintd - to artnic only the mitriber' of , hours pre
scribed by tba " ten hour sytttae - AndAt aria'r
9t tr. 4 4 1 : 1 t 7i B o 4 ; l 944A4Wmil:uxleifit,retlie . Mast
as fat ealde,pentiasilmoathe-Presidentpa g ai na t. t h e
lash withenst the inYentitn of a entrt,. watt •-a part of
the same"pOlicy—a policy
• which I can eonseiert
tiorittrysaLima: been witla me a favorite one Mita
the beginning tnthe.end of my public-life
I havere ferret! to these facts** the 'reason T have
already assigned, to slid* my respect for the mi ., :
. *..t of your inquiry, awl with no expectation that
they will exercise the slightest influence on your
COMM in , the coming election. You and your as
sociates litrinlilivady publicly selected a philanthro
pic and:l4lly, - gala sitizen,, on Awn you in
tend to bestow lour votes, because you have -rea
son to believe that he will mene:effietnatly early'
out your tieWs of the public interests. This is the
princkplo upen my earnest desire that
the whole people of the United States should act,
and of which I shall be the very last person to
complain ; for be assured that if these invaluable
politicsl i,ii,tilptions Of ours are to l made perpet
ual, it can only he done by an honestarat straight
forward employment of the right of suffrage on thi
part of those who partake of their blessiwgs—a right
inestimable to freemen, and formidable to tyranis
I am, very rePpeetfelly,
Your obedient servant,
To. Mr. A. E. Bovay, Chairman-Nat. E. Com
riety of distant- regions by which our every-lay
comfort's and luxuries are supplied, is a geographi
cal lesson familiar to our earliest infancy. TI;3
child knows dull the tea it is dtinking canto from
the estate of a mandarin, and-ha_• possibly travers
ed half the course. of the Van -tse-kiand in i s pas
sage to this country. Its coffee was grown by
swarthy Arabs within the sound of the muezzin's
voice. The snowy crystals of sum were extract
ed from a cane in Jamaica by Christian Africansy•
or on th# banks of the. Ganges by Pagan s Hindoos.
If the cream is the production of Middlesex, the
butter not improbably was churned and kneaded
by Dutch or Belgian scans. The material of the
urn was perhaps found a quarter of a mile deep in
Cornwall or Anglesea, but that of the tea-pot and
the spoon was excavated by Indians from the heart
of the'Cerderillas,,and separated from the ore by
means of 'Hungarian quicksilver. The table was
formed from a monrh of the woods which had
seen a thousand years in-tne solitudes of Honduras,
and attained its prime before Columbus was born.
The blade of the knife came from the pine -clad hills
of Sweeden, but its haft was borne fur half a centu
ry in the mouth of an elephant which probably
never saw man. The table-cloth is a contribution
from the Neva and the work ofbearded serfs., The
carpet is thh work of Armenians in the dominion
of the Sultan. The child's frock has passed through
the hands of Virginia slaves. while the Italian sub
jects of Austria. furnished its sash. Its coral came
from ati . Australasian reef, its pearls from the bot
tom of the Persian Gulf. The lesion is endless.
Almost any comfortable house in this metropolis
has levied contributions on every people and clime.
Countless trams names, conditions, manners, and
religions rise op to the memory as we walk through
the rooms and ask of each object in succession,
c• W here did this come from r'—[London Times.
Ax Ho sr Bor, r -That " honesty is the best po
licy," was illustrated some years since, under the
following circumstances, detailed by the Rochester
Democrat. A lad was proceeding to an nocle'S,
to petition hum for aid fora sick s sister and her chfi
dren, when he found a wallet containing fifty dol
lars. The aid was refused and thedistressed fam
ily were pinched for want. The boy revealed the
fortune to his mother, but expressed a doubt about
using any portion of the money. - His mother con-
firmed the good resolution—the pocketbook• was
advertised, and the owner found. Being a man
of wealth, upon learning the history of the family,-
he presented the fifty dollars to the sick mother,
and took the boy into his service, and he is now
one of the most successful merchants in Ohio. Ho
nesty always brings its reward to the -mind, if not
to the pocket.
A Posen.-•--A calm blue eyed, and aclicomposed,
young lady in a vill4cr"down east," received it'
long call the other day, from a prying old spinster
wbo alter prolonging her stay beyond even her own
conception of the young lady's - endurance;eamo to
the main qtteeliett,..w.bicb' brought tioilrOier
T have been asked a good may times if you'viraa•
.engaged to Dr. C. , 4Tow if folks inquire agitv•Whe
their fon be - or 'ltot, - vittitt stall 1 rettilthiOk
- " l rctiTibOrn a '' sitiro iheioUng
calla:dile...rye in. itutinaiiiou
.inquisitivefewurea Ad her interrogator, ". tell 4hrun
th k at you think "y6tie , delft 'Arrow, - and that ratite.
sr tit "ri - bhe prycitii"busineti,.'?"'
Crnit ron ILL Tcmvin.=—A sensible teoinan, the"
doctor's acquaintance, [the mother of a ycmugla
miljr,] entered so - lar into hie views upon this sub.
ject that she `taught her children nom their earliest
childhood to ctider ill humor sit disorder which
was. to beAttrt;d ks PtiTsio• Ac,c9rdingly) she h°4
always smell doeee ready, and thelittle peliepts,
whenever it was thought 'nee4ful, took-rintlairb foi
the crossness. No pUniehment- was required,
Pee*iithneet or,lll-tenitietildut tbdbhib irefelsesn:
ciatCd in their alga alit a 4 cause sad elTect
• •
fi n e r
- • Ragowtotor
-- • rr:-
lAlritsienuf.--41tvettidltig fer d huat,lfie tripper
otif Arith tie 'nee r etehirY equipment,
tr. 1 4 1 .-ofl; t l fOioNradOil.forla's or cone
cifi -that petty tradei:s.,aiiiareuts des-bais—.-whe he.
imentehe aceetenpeoeuttyze- This equipment 'did+
silt "'t ofivrti thirelioniei"oetittile
for Paid 4iV f . 04kpris for .packs- 7 .antl. Sl4 .traps,
Which are carried a 14of leatlii.r.called a trap;
saok.,,,Aatiounition, a few ponds of...tobaceo,
dressed deerskin for rnomtecintr,are, area carried in
e• *eller kir dressed bullalo-skiticalled 3' Bible=
stia ?jig elposiibief "triPsaek 7 ' are geuer
all)!..carried on the saddle-mule when hunting, the
ethers being - packed with-the furs. The. et:lnme
OrtlriMpper is a hunting shirt-of dressed buckskin,
ornamented' with long fringes.; pantaloons, -et the
same, material, and decorated with porcupinis quills,
and longfringes down theontside of the' .k.g
flexible felt hat 'and inctea - sins clothe" his eirtiemi
()veil his left shinildet and under his . right arm
hang his powder-horn and bullekpouch in which he
carries his balls, - flint and steel, and odds rind ends
dal! kinds. koond the vrftist is a belt, in which
ia , .,atuek a large butcher-knite'in aSke&th of bidlalo
hide,,madelast to the belthy - a chai4 or guard of
steel ; which also.supporta a little Wick-skin case
containiega *bets:tone. A thmahavek is also often
added ; and, of course, a long .h e avy rate( is
Pirt of.fas equipoient. I had nearly forgotten the
pr -holderwhich bangs round his neck, and
generally a gage d'amour, and a triumph of siihity ,
workmanship in shape of a head, gerroshed With
besda and porcupine-quills. Thus provided, "and
having determined the locality- of his trapping
around, he starts to the mountains, sometimes alone
sometimes with three or four in company, as soon
as thu,breaking up of the ice allows him to corn
meuce operations. Arrived on his hunting ground,
he follows the creeeks and streams, keeping a sharp
look-out for " sign." If he sees a prostrate cotton
wood tree, he examines to discover if it be the work
of beaver—whe her " thrown" for the purpose of
food, or to dam the stream. The track of the
beaver on the mud or s and under the bank is also
examined; and if the."sign" be fresh, he sets his
trap on the run of the animal, hiding it under water,
and attaching it, by a stout chain to a picket driven
in the bank, or to a bush or tree. A " float-stick"
is made fast to the trap by a cord a few feet lor.g,
which, if the animal carry away the trap, floats on
the water and points out its position. The trap is
baited with the "medicine," an oily substance ob
tained from a gland in the scrotum Of the beaver,
but distinct from the testes. A stick is dipped into
this, and planted over the trap, and the beaver at
tracted by the smell, and wishing a close iuspec
moil, very foolishly puts his leg into the trap. and
is" a gone beaver." When a lodge is discovered,
the trap is set at the edge of the darn, at the point
where the animal passes firm the deep to shoal
water, and always under water. Early iu the mor
ning the hunter niounasbis mule and examines the
traps. The captured animals are skinned, and the
tails, which are a ,great dainty, carefully packed.
into camp. The akin is then strephed over a hoop
or frameworks of osier twigs, and is allowed to dry,
the flesh and fatty et:dstance beinecarefully scraped
(grained) When dry, it is folded into a square
sheet, the fur turned inwards, and the bundle con
taining about 19 to 20 skins, tightly pressed and
corded, and is ready for transportation. During the
hunt, regardless of Indian vicinity, the fearless trap
der wanders far and near in search of " sign." His
nerves must ever be in a state of tension, and his
mind ever present at his call. His eagle eye
sweeps round the country and in an instant detects
any foreign appearance. A turned leaf s a blade of
grass pressed down, the uneasiness of the wild an
nimale, the flight of birdi, are all, paragraphs to
written in nature's legible hand plainest lan
An intelligent class can scarce ever be, as a class,
vicjons; never, as a class, indoierd.---.The excited
mental activity operates as a counterpoise to the
stimulus df sense and appetite., The new world of
idei,is; the new views of the relations of things ;
the astonishing secrets of the physical properties
and mechanical powers, disclosed to the well•in.
formed mind, present attractions, which, unless
the character is deeplysstmk,,are sufficient to coun
terbalance the taste for frivolous or corrupt pleasnt es;
and thus, in the end, a standard of character is
created in the community, which, through it does
not invariably save each individual, protects the
virtue of the mars.
A Cnsascrra.—Dont you know, or bavenit you
seen precisely such a person - es this, in the whole
course of your life 1 We bare :-. 7 .11e is acquainted
with everybody, but knows nobody ihe in always
talkingi but never says anything; it; pirpetualty pit
ting itrinTe rnydetitinterropalon fr . areye , foryrit
.5431550iif/t-q putting
nother. His brain is a kind or rag shop, receiving
and returning nothing On. rubbish.
.otut Causutas u •licavasr.—As -the shepherd
thought,more of the 'sheep that was loot than of
theiiiiitity•aidis what - Wire isaftq lbe woman
realizeddit'l,4ina:btrufiiplecett ofatier
that remained in her anxiety foe—the-one - that • was
missing ; so it has ever seemed to the bereaved
parent, that the flowers which heaven , claims in
thtsip a ttittia. tif:nfaiicyTafe''-faireit rai d sweeter
t*tirT , surv# 4 4. l he 04 1 3,0404 h*can,
and bear fruit in the chilly atmosphere of time.
Bscnr.was.—Dr. Johmmn eyes the philosophy
of. marriage in a few words : ec..A married .man;",
stye he, *t has many cares ;butt bachelor has no
pleOures., Cutting himself off S d
ite(' life's pine
and most exquisite enjoyments for feur of some
iriaing annoysnee, be emulate.the :sagacity al the
wiseeete who amputated.his leg toseente himself
frith ixinic"
- iteltiktyrx.Tbeileiire'erneilde, id which lie
lats all the fine gold of a man's nature. •
• kiiiialnistriba'
• . did
t • •
rryanle e 4 NefetseA nilt r ,te,
; .t k Orilhe
0t nik
of a:Vatly, irpe , e4hle and errtilel
oa4n4et t i hrotejtont 14k;
• L.• , 1.01 - 4:44
d agpro tton. There ,wpr? Jts wow
'• ex c artined 61.
"1.1 1 t .,.." a 11 , ; '
tavnt; too recent!). entered the ineitu
e any. Their tiaines, ne'ivell as the
c'an 4- iliklates'are omitted:
Itookt of
. . ; .
or iniereitl
some, y 121111:
wiihto #i•ei
Premium's were awarded as follows
Orthogroiihyli-'•llo.lagi!:'Oierhitityiegif&ino, Mis
sesiMar 't A llen, Bitzbasnum; syns*us.-Sesde,
Montrose, a, Eliza Wells„Pw9pei,Jfibacku*Col-:
lios f gri _ idl e, Pa., Sophia Boyte,,tieor I,l4iai,
Pa. Pre,mi En for
_improvement exsegeo, Misses
Adeline Lo IllossiJurg, Pa., and: Psira Du Bois,
Ticvs Co. I - • . •
2nd class 14 premium, exaegng,
31i s;t;{iza
beth More • , Bainbridge, Georgia, Maryann .
Hundley, ew York, and:,..Fautnes Couiur, Bing
Deforif: lst rem ium ..e.Tacairo,„ il•se-s Mar-.
garet C ly, New York,,Maria4lason, Monroe
ton, Pa., F .-s Jackson ; Binghruuton, Eliza Wells,
Sophia Boy e, Rosanna Zher . ..idark,„„lSayi„.l 7 ,tgkoind
I leleti Dior _ fi1agt94.444 ••''
Reading. jstclas.” let premitunexaequo, Mis
ses Louisa kfinP, Key W i est,, Florida, and Helen
norgarl. d. , dir,ision; .f is}_ premium exaeque,
Miss", bat , . Kertnry, *r-heater, 'Laura. Ballard,
Troy. Pa., I "zrie )Vall, ) Key West, Florida, and
2nd elk c ;
,;Ist premium, KIM • Julia .Daygan,.
Bingliarato,. 3d class; Ist premium, - Miss Elea-
nor Ricker. son, New York. • , •
Writing.-t- Ist 'class; Ist premium exaequo,Mis
ses M. Alen, J. Collins, F. Jackson, and Elyabeth
Riurdon, Brooklyn. Ist premium for improve.
men; Miss Louisa Twine.
2nd class; Ist premium exaequo, Misses E Du-
Bois, Mary E. Dunn, Binghamton and J. Searle.-
3d class , Ist premium, Miss Callieriue Kelley,
lluuesdale, l Pa..
AriMmet —IAI class ; premium exaequo, Misses
Laura Stee , Appalachian, Pa, and, L Aloyle.—
Premium i iiitprovemeut Miis Eliza6eili.l. Law
lor,Autmti. . 2nd division ; lit premium, exaequo,
Misses JolUmna Searle and J. Collins Premium
for improvement exaeqno, Misses E Wells, and
M. _Nissen. • 2nd class; let premium exaequo,
ItLCasserly, ;gm. pinnelly,
;eamey. Ist premium for ini
Ldeline Lobse. 2nd division ;
E. Moreheiid. Premium for im-
Dußois. .
Ist premium emeriti°, Misses
drone, Pa, and Laura Steele.—
ivement, Miss Amanda Ballard,
Tray Pa. !
A/gcbra.4-Ist class ; Premium for excellenco,
Miss E. Sgarie. 2nd class y Ist premium exaequo,
Misses L. !teele and E. J. Lawlor. salE4le n Searle.
English IGrammar.—lsteli,ssj, Ist premium ex
aequo, Muses 3. Collins, L. Steele, L. Boyle, M.
Allen, an d M . M. Mason. Premium for improvement
exaequo, lisses M. Casserly, and M. E Dunn.-
2nd class ;I Ist premium, Miss Ellen Kearney, Ro
chester. 2nd class ; Ist premium exaeqno, Misses
E Richardson, and C. Kay.
4th class ;... Premium for improvement exaequo,
Misses Mary and Julia:Whitney, Binghamton.
Rhetoric-Ist premium exaequo, Misses M. Ma-
son, H. MOrgan, and F. Jackson. .
Prose C mposition.—lst class; Ist premium., Miss
Mary Ali a Meacham, Owego. 2ml class ; Ist
premium xaequo, Misses Louisa Tatine, Laura
Ballard, and Johanna Collins.
3d class, Ist premium, Miss M. Connelly.
Poetical ‘, c r .lnpositioii—lst premium exaeqtak;Mis
ses Laura W . Daniels, Union, ant E. Riordan. -
Geography—lst class ; Ist prernium astrequo,
Misses A l
Lohse ' M. Handley, J. Collins: and L.
2nd alas; Ist premium exaequo, blisses
Morehead! and Tatine,• Key West Florida. •
3d efas.; lit premiuni,llliss 'Catherine Collier
Ist premium for Improvement, M.isa . E. Kelly:
Ancient Geography.-Ist c • Dremium,_
Miss L. - - -
Astro= class; 7.lst premium exaelno,
Missei E. M. Riordon, M. A. Allen, and L Steele.
let premium, Mies J. Collins
2nd cl
Tracin : the constellation r.- - Istpreiniam eraequo,
Misses M' Alason, L. Steele, R. Sheridan, and E.
Bk. Riordim. , let premium. tor improvement, Miss
A.:. Bawl.. -----------
_. - -
Ristory.t—lst elttss :.Ist pretninin for attention ex
aequo. it,. ‘es IL Morgan, A. Ballard, L :taupe,
and K. b Ftiordon. 2nd asset Alt .premium for
,aegoo, ; Misserty. Collier,,' H andley
turd F.: Boat. "'. .' . '' - ''' "` ''''''
A r ajunil Pidagotil- --18 t 0t55it , ..44..-PetAliain,
Miss S. 80y1e..:.,2nd clime; list premium. mega,
Misses M. E. Duna; and J. Searle;-- Wilms; Ist
Premium xsteriuo, Misses MrCiainrlly; Ellen and
Kate K.eapey, and F. Collier. "
•Cheraistry.-42nd, class; let premium •exaequo,
Miister it. Ballinl, nitd - EAVOIs. 2n division ;- 114
A 410 - 3. Viiel..! /1 6 '31P• t,.:, :..
F., ~ • .184!Classt Ist..premium esnecitio,Misses
A;:Loitse &E.:Bit/Mon. Premium for improve.
stint lir E.lL:Lawlor.:
~ '- ' -
' 2nd 4 1 'Ol premium eiaequo, Misses U. Al
len, L. 1 1 tatiiE. Wells, J. Collins, M. Connelly
and L B lard.
; lerprerninar exruitino; . Misces 11:.• Mor
the,: )stlclass, French Translation,
' , lst premium in' french
In' !Woe L . W. Daniels. '
Isle' glass '_ let leierfiltini".ttiis 41. A.
Miss M..
Awesmiuirti•idas-F. ;ackacms
Brmt4L • A.
8 0 2
4..010 4 4,
• , IVlttehaa; ptemium, Mimi F. Jactsrini . ' •
TapesdrY—limmitun ; Miss Maria Mason. ,
IP,rqtri.4: it 1 rirOrnr,— 'stela:it; .%at premium ei
akithr' Mimes :L: - TaKtie; ii - ' Wail, and 'A. Ballard.
Premium for i . provement Miss A. Lohse.
thid. class -, .rreilling..,, Ist premium ,ex aequo,
mistiailk.. SA bias ..o -4 .41 1.. t.tthi(r 1 .
it i .
• 3 a-crass ;- inlittitim filr improvement ex aequo,
- Alisseall.Sheilslan.lud . L Seirk -
Pirinfiririri biti.-11* elasl§; is premium, ?dies
L, W. Vaal' '-'' ; '
.-' • _ •
211.1 : Ist premium for improvementeme
gm,' Slimes LI Wall and M. 11fason., • ,
. i'aintiai if-iailotediader.—lst class; Ist premi
uM, Miss,l2 B.?S' . Putrid.% ° • .
Nati— TheOrotiorl.-,lst class: Isi premium es
aequo, Missei A: Ballard, E: Fliordon, A: Lohse
and M. Masoni. Prernicen exaequo; Misses •E. J.
Lawlor and F. Jackson.. 2nd division ; premium.
exaequo, MisSe4iL. Ballard and M. Handley.
2nd Flags; Ist • premium exaequo, Misses M.
Conndly and J. Collins:,
3d class: isi premium exaequo, Misses E. Wells,
E..ftlehardsoit, J. Searle, L. Steele and M. CasserlY.
:On the Pismo.--lst class; premium for excel,
Waco, ;Miss L..W. Daniels: Ist premium for im
pyovement Miss A. • Lolise, .
• "tat elkSsi iliremium for irnprovemen't ex aequo,
Misses ‘.•l'atinei 1,.. Wa11,.y., M. Riorden, E. Kest !
ney and K. Kearney, . .
• 3d Clasii 14 premium forimprovement ex aequo,
111i,4ses 'AI. Cdnnelly, J. Collins and M. Mason.—
Premium for 'improvement ex heqno. Misses C.
Kelly, Richi+n, and Julia Eldridge, Binghamton.
On the Gaitar.-Premium for improvement, Miss
- L. W.. Daniels
;Premium.---For amiable deportment anitobser
vance of school rules.nivattled by the votes of their
school-niates:, in the service class. to Miss &vista
Boyle, and in the junior, to,Nlis.s Mary E. Dann.
The next session of this establishment opens on
the first Monday in September.
Letters addressed to tbe_Missei White and 6rif
fin, Binghamton Broome Co.. N. Y., will .receive
immediate attention. •
Binghamton, July 21st, 1818.
TH6 lIERRING.—Certtin , fish lead an almost stk .
dentary • life, and remain always in the locality
where they Were produced ; others are always *au
daring, and'a great number of these animals peri
odically make journeys of greater or less length.
At the time for spaw3ing, they generally approach
the coasts or tint= the rivers ; and in this manner'
they sometimes elect an extremely keg
. r.saage:
Every year, towards the same period larg7-nnm
hers of migrating fish arrive in the same places ;
and it is generally believed that several of these
species regularly migrate from the north towards
the south, and prom the south towards the north,
following a determined rcnee ; but perhaps it would
be more tree to,believe, that when they disappear
from the shores, they only retire into the venter
depths of theisea. The herring is one of the most
remarkable fishes in this respect, as well as . the
most celebrated omaccount of the importance of
the fisheries of which it is the object It inhabits
the northern seas ; and arrives every year in innu
merable legions upon different parts of the coast of
Europe, Asia. and America; but never decends be
low the 45th ;degree of north latitude. Some natu
ralists think that all these shoals of herrings:period :
ically retire beneath the ice of the polar seas, and
set out from this common retreat. in an immense
column, whin:ill subdividing itself, is spread out
over nearly gill the coasts situated above - theparallel
which we have mentioned. They hare even goer
so far as to trace Upon the chart the journeyings of
these shoals , but this long migration, and this com
mon rendez;us in the antic regions, are fai fiom
being demonstrated ; and there is reason to believe
that these events do not take place in this manner.
It is very near our coasts that herrings deposit
their eggs, and it isprobable that the young very
soon retire into the depth of the sea, and there di
irect themselves towards the north, wffere they meet
in great abundants' with the small Crustacea and
Animalunkr, which are fitted to serve them as food:
In the spring y other wants bring them towards the
shore, and cduse them to seek shallower and war
mer water. They!collect themselves into immense
shoals, and descend towards the south; but after
having arrived in the Baltic upon the coast of Hol
land, anti even - as ifar as Britfany, We do not see
them retake he riots to the north, to pass the win
ter under they ice (it thepole, and to recommence
in the following spring their pretended periodical
journey. However this may be, in the months of
April and May, herrings begin to show themselves
in the waters of the Isles of Shetland ; and, towards
the end of June and July, they arrive there in an
incalculable number„forming large shoalrs, which
sometimes cover *e surface of the:sea to an extent
of several leagues' and which are Several hundred
feet in thiekness. SoOn afterwards, these -fish are
spread along the asts of Scotland and England.
During the thonth of September and October until
the end of thh ye , they abound in the north coasts
of France, princip fl y from the Straits of Calais to
the mouth WI the hie. In Julyand August, they
generally, rerhain in the open sea : but they then
come into shallow; water, and seek a convenient
place for laying their eggs, where they remain until
towards the month of Febuary. The old herrings
deposit their spawn the first, and the younger ones
afterwards ; but temperature and other circumstan
ces also appear to have some inhuenceon this phe
nomenon ; for in particular localities,' we find eggs
during nearly the whole year. After this period
they are thin and but little esteemed ; fishermen
then called theta ri ishotten herrings." Their mil
tiplication is! prodigious; there have / been found
more than sity thousand eggs in the abeomen of
one single fentale of moderate size. We are told
that their spawn satitietimes covers the surface of
the sea for a' great extent, and at a distance att?ears
very much, Its.if saw-dust had been spread there.
Very little is known of these fish at an early period .
—Eng'ish riper.
M 1 3 M
~• TV 76'4