Newspaper Page Text
- `gglcabforb 'aeportov•
Towaga, Wednesday, Feb'yiß, 1846.
DICKINSON ' S SPCKKK. on. the Natio - lid3k;EisTr
ces, and in reply to Mr. Benton, may be kind no- our
outside. It created in the Senate, at the tithe of its deli
very, the most profound interest and attention. for the
bold and statesmanlike measnra which he advocated, is
well u the enlightened and comprehensive view taken
of `he state of this country, and its position toward Eng.
, Correspondenre, Communi
cations, News items, &e., are deferred to make room for
the Oregon Correspondence.
The State Administration.
Until recently, no State in this Union; has suffered to
the extent of this, by- mal-administration. From a con
dition of great prosperity and - high reputation, in a few
years it ill to the verge of bankruptcy. Its honest, ins
&Mimi: and frugal citizens, were saddled with an enor
mous State debt, without the means in the Treasury of
meeting even the interest; and now, and for years to
come, will they sweat and toil, only to have large draughts
exacted front the earnings of their industry, to save the
State from being a total wreck. Our people have a high
regard for the honor and integrity of our old Common
wealth, and for her sake, will not shrink from any emer
gency, however onerous. Not while it is the duty of
tax-gatherers to call around, will they forget those, who
have contributed to this result; who made common plun
der on the treasury, until the state was witbont money
or credit. In this embarrassed stale of affairs, Governor
Shunk went into office. In his honesty sod Meta le
iulherance to correct principles, the most un'oundeticon.
faience every where prevailed. His political "ppiments
conceded to him honesty of heart and firmness of pur
pose, His election was the harbinger of better days for
the ..commonwealth, and sorrowful faces for the plunder
ers. One smiled with hope, the others gnashed their
teeth, as they drew their long arms for the last time from
the treasury. The Executive has thus far, and we have
no doubt will continue, honestly and faithfully to admi
nister the Government. The rigid economy which' he
enforces; his vigilant watchfulness over all the varied in
terests of the State ; his detestation of political vampires
.....who have hung like leeches, sucking the life-blood of
the commonwealth—ensure for him encouragement and
support from honest. hearts All this,however, does not
save Gov. Shunt: from the opposition of some. Nor will
it, so long as he is honest.
There is a certain class of men, to whom honesty is a
bane ; who have so long made use 'of political party usa
mend principles. as a machine, that the moment they
cease to contribute to their individual emolument, they
repudiate the whole system. The men who are abusing
Gov. Shank are out of fodder. They have no longer
access to the public crib. The state has no more con
tracts, no more spoils for them. They must go now to
Washington : Uncle Sam has a bigger treasury. Per
chance, there may be a contract to be had at Memphis,
or somewhere else. The Pre'sident will find no more
loyal set of men. so long as a contract is to be had; but
when this gate it shut down—look out!
No one pnsumes to make the slightest charge against
the official conduct of the Governor; none can do it;
yet there is a snarling, growling opposition coming from
the limner to which we allude. We expectto have a
full blast of it soon. at Harrisburg; then we shall he bet
ter able to know the extent of it.
The inlon .s‘..l.ewigton Republican.
r_j• Letter writers and rumor implicate Mr. Buchan
an in the rejection of Judge Woodward. Mr. Buchan
an owe. it to himself and to the democracy to explain
his position in regard to this appointment."
"We copy the foregoing paragraph from the Lewis
town Republican, and we confess we are surprised that
the editor should attempt to connect the name of Mr.
Buchanan with the rejection of Judge W oodwanl.—
It has indeed come to a pretty plus, if Mr. B. is to be
held accountable for the action of the Judiciary Com
mine of the Senate of the United States. Mr. Botha
nan has been charged by some with a want of activity
in securing places for his friends under the govern-'
ment. He is now accused of having aided in the re
jection of Judge Woodward. Both charges are with
out a shadow of foundation, and are circulated apparent
ly with no other object thanto slander a good man. We
venture to predict those who engage in this crusade will
in the end have their " trouble for their pains." "
The above is taken from the Democratic Union of the
7th inst. • Our object in transferring the remarks of the
Lewistown Republican and The Uuioe to our columns,
is, to assert the right of the former, and repudiate the as
sertions and attempt at intimidation of the latter. We
shall say nothing at this time, of the position of Mr. Bu
chanan, with regard to Judge Woodward, nor inquire
whether be is justly or unjustly implicated in the rejec
tion; but we may say, without danger of being awed
into silence—that the press has, to some extent, implica
ted Mr. Buchanan; and we presume, if the Unioncoults
investigation of the matter, they can have it, to their
heart's content." But what we desire chiefly to say
that the Union must not hope to intimidate others into
a dumb subserviency of any man. Neither honest men,
WI : an unshaekeled press, will consent thus to be muzzled.
Str. Buchanan, or any other man, be his distinction what
it may, cannot by a hireling press, compel us to tremble
before his power; to stifle the utterance of honest convic
tions and swing OW hat in shouts of praise. We pay
adulation to no man ; dime may do it, who in hope of
office, or spoils, or plunder, divest themselves of every
feeling of self-respect, and are ever ready to shout " up
with him," or "down with him," as they follow, dog-like,
by the stringe of their leaders. This state was cursed
by such kind of parry-ism, until it had become worse
than bankrupt; until honest men stood no more chance
than "sheep among wolves." We toil at our ease; we
expect by it to get a livelihood; we ask for no offiee—
we hope for none; we shall do justice to every faithful
public officer, but we are not of the number to go at the
bidding of others, nokrs tokas. When it coma to piss,
that the "divine right" of kings is attached to men in
high stations, we may then obey theirorgans. •
We are not about to speak of these gentlemen, mere.
ly "to mend the trumpet of praise." We adulate no
Men. or set of men, but shall be prompt to do justice to
all our public servants. Without intending any dispa
ragement to their predecessors, we believe our county
has never been more ably represented than it now is, by
Messrs. Wens and PIOLLLT. The former has the ex
perienceuf maturer years ; which with a discerning and
discriminating mind, assisted by a natural earnestness to
discover and test the truth, by its effect on the political
and rodsl rendition of society, enable him not only to
understand and appreciate the wants of his constituents
and of the Conitermwssith. but also to meet them. Col.
Piollet, although of term years, is not wanting in any
thing that distingmatres l i la c olleague. Possessed of
vigorous mind arid a warm heart, ho is ardent to entltn
.sism in his exertions to discharge his duty. Both have
s aceision of character and honesty of purpose, which
jetty entitle them to the high consideration and regard,
settieh is expressed for them, by. their wociams in the
I;l;iatature. While they are respected abroad, they re
Lot forgotten or esteemed less, by an honest and worthy
amstbsette7 at borne.
Brilliant Debut of Mr. Wilmot.
We leap trotp 'Wahl!)It"; that Mr. Wilmot made
his iebutin Caogiep Solorday ihol7th kW, eta
thobgh mass node nerve*e eheinnetepette, was a
most tenant :0d maiteely amt. We ban - seyetre.
tacked no repOrt . of tuie:remitiks. but shalt embrace r in
early Opp/Inanity orilitifyint his 'cimstipents by pub.
raj:it 1)6'4;46. Mionwhito ire inbj.un the tetiutiki
of the correopondent of the HarrisbUrg Reporter takeit
from smog -the very flittering notices of the prep.
W aim soros, February 7
DEAm ISIR :—Amang the 14 speakers who occupied
the floor of the House of Representatives to.day, were
two of the distinguished orators from Pennsylvania—
Gen. Foster and Mr. Wilmot. The form!, °Winded
the flow early in the evrutng; but t h e latter not until
o'rhek at night. As Gen. F.h.b.r is an obi member
and his fame bralreadi known. I will let his speech car.
ry with it its own endorsement of his superior powers
as a public debater. Mr. Wilmot having obtained the
floor at i late hour, when the Reporters were.wom out
with fatigue, and most of them alsetd, Arid this being
his first ell'ott, I will write more at length in regard to
his speech: the regular report of which, I have no doubt
will hill far short of its teal
• Mr. Wilmot's light hair and complexion and full Glee,
gives him something of a youthful appearance, and be,:
ing from a that ict in the remote interim. there was but
little expected from him among the members as an orator;
but when they heard his dear musical and commanding
voice, "and saw his dignified and impressive manner—
grave when tempered by counsels of prudence, but ani
mated when invoking the spirit of patriotism—they cease
ed their side tele-a-tete and began to cluster closely around
him. Hie views towered aboveNie narrow-smiled bub
bling* of ranting demagogueism, and assumed the frank
and lofty aititutle of the sagacious statesman; prompted
equally by a sense of national justice and integrity. as
by the quickening impulses of national interests and ho-
Whatever, he odd. our title might once have been to the
whole of this territory, ho feared that 2 years of nego
tiation and 4 distinct offers to compromise oh the 49th
parallel of north latitude had impaired its moral force if
not its legal validity. He contended that "clear and
unquesthomble" rights were things of so micornpromi
sing a nature, that they could not he subjects of compro
mise or surrender ; or even a negotiation without a surren
der of sovereignty, and that high chsracterwhich we as
a nation should ever maintain. He asked in case Great
Britain should claim the right to interfere in our impost
laws, and demand a reduction of duty, if such a demand
could be made the subject of negotiation He said
charly not, without u virtual surrender of our national
sovereignty. He preferred to believe that there might
be some question of doubt or difficulty surrounding the
title north of 49th degree, to betting compelled to believe
that our Government had offered to surrender up tied/
entirly clear and beyond all doubt or question. A great
nation was aot suffered to purchase or offer to purchase
peace at the expense of a surrender of indisputable rights
—to do so would be an acknowledgement of weakness,
that amounted to a humiliation and"sharneful surrender
of our independence and sovereignty as a nation. He
was therefore compelled to believe. that although our ti
tle was the better, still, that north of 49, there might be
some room fur controversy—soinething about which men
could if not fairly, at least plausibly, dispute : and thus
the subject be legitimately left open for settlemect by ne
Suppose, said he, that Great Britain should offer to
acede to our proposition, as he believed she would, and
accept of the 49th parallel, could we as a just and high
minded nation refuse to accept our own proposal three
times sulemnly.and formally offered? Could we expect
that the moral sense of the civilized, world would sustain
us in going to war after such an offer I Could we, un
der these circumstances, invoke the support and all-sus
taining power of the God of Hosts I He saw clearly in
the President's message an indication and hope that this
subject would be amicably adjusted by negotiation. Give
the notice said he—carry out spirit of the recommenda
tions of the message in relation to this subject—affording
protection to our emigrants on their way to Oregon—ex
tending over them our laws and protection in their new
homes,--carry nut that wise recommendation in the es
tablishment of an Indian agency, and above all, perfect
your coast defences, and augment the present naval es
tablishment, by a strong steam power force, and then ne
gotiate. Then. and not till then, would we be in a con
dition to negotiate this subject to an honorable adjust
ment. He spoke of the power of the English navy, and
deprecated the neglect of our-Government in this par
ticular; and said, if war did come, he solemnly believed
it would be. brought upon us by our weakness in this
He spoke of the 49th parallel as the ultimatum.—
Hence, he said, he would ha his stake and never 'amen
der one inch below it, w long as the Republic had an
abiding place in the family of nations. The value of the
harbors and ports of Puget riound was also brought to
view, as the keys of the Pacific, and destined to com
mand the vast commerce of the Indies. When these,
said he, are surrendered, let Now York and Boston be
suirendered with them—they lost and allL should be lost.
As he spoke of the vslor,of our navy, and invincibili
ty of our army in the late war, them was a fervid elo
quence in his swelling voice which was truly thrilling.'
He passed an interesting encomium on the chivalry awl
civic fame of the South, but expressed a prekrence for
the green valleys, rugged soll, quiet virtues and judos-
Uial pursuits of his own constituency and his own na
tive state, to all the attractions of
.the sunny South.—
When he closed, there was a general rush of the mem
bers to congratulate him and shake him by the hand.—
Well may Penhsylvania he proud of her present talented
delegation in the popular branch of Congress.
MONEOI LODOI, No. 137, of the 1. 0. of 0. F. was
opened and the officers installed in regular farm. on
Thursday last, at Mooroettm, by the R. W. 13.11:6;M.
The ceremonials of the occasion are spoken of as gra
tifying; the decorations of the Hall appropriate and ele
gant; and the opening highly auspicious for the perma
nent prosperity of the first Lodge of Odd Fellows estab
lished within our borders
The designs of the furniture, the painting and decora
tions, are by Wm. H. :Buickland and reflect credit onhia
an and taste.
Thursday afternoons and evenings are the regular
weekly meetings of the Lodge.
We wish the pioneer of the Institution imoog
success in every effort: b. extend the fellowship of good.
Tna DICMOCIIATIC. USION miseepreemms the Resolty
dons of our County Meeting as " declaring that the
Senate of Pa.,in approving of the tariff act of 20th Aug.
'42 has attempted a usurpation of power &e."
Our Resolution goes to the point of the Pennsylvania
Senate's employing the acne language of instruction to
Senate» and Representatives in Congress, of which this
is the first instance within our knowledge, and are de.
serving the rebuke of demacmcy on the threshold of
Tee Connasposozacz.—We this week insert the
correspondence between Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Nino.
hem, retake to Oregon. We initto attention to it.
Proceedings of the enn a. egui attire.
- [Conespoodeoce-of ths.Bradtanl Mimeses.]
liatuatsveo. February 13,4840.
GENnexteseFhe prineipet of
getieril juiciest transacted siodei mfbet het
boen the *coon of die two Hutiziei of the.eab
jest etthe:FariV s s
. The House voted down the amendments of-
fered to the resolutions of the Senate by 114 r.
Burrell and Mr. Piollet. when. the resolutions
were agreed to by a vote of 79 to 14—Messrs.
Bird.• Campbell. Daly. Emu). Far/eft. Kline. -
Knot. Merrifield. l'iollet. Samuels. Thomas.
(of Susquehanna) Weest and;Webb, voting in
the negative.. , : -) : •
04 tootion'of Mi. Piollet. The house by
vote of 52 to 40-again went into . etnnesittee of
the Whole for the porpose of inserting the fol
lowing additional tesulution uttered by Mr.
Resolved. That our Senators and Represen
tatives in Congress he further instructed and
requested to oppose the establishment of a Na
tional bank.thp distribution of the proceedsol the
pulthc lauds. and to vote for . the separation of
the Goverument from the Banking institutions.
and for the creation of a constitutional treasury
as the best . meaus pointed out by the people
and experience to keep the currency pure. to
guard the people's money from speculation.
and to preserve unimpaireethe protection af
forded by a just tariff law to the industry of
The resolutions as thus amended were adopt
ed by the following vote.
Yetis—Messrs. Armstrong. Bachman, Bar
ber. Bunghner, Boyer, Bright. Buruside, Bur-,
rell, Campbell. Chesnut. Clark. Cross. Daly,
Donaldson. Dons, Dieu, Fassett l Fernott,
Forsyth, Funston, Galloway. Gray. G win,
Hallowell, Haymaker. Hill, (Fayette,) 011.
(Montgomery,) Ilineline, Hoffman, Ives,
James. Keller. Knox. Levan. Means, Murphy,
McAbee. McClelland. Owen, Power. Ritter,
Rupert. Samuels. Snyder. Starr. Steller. Slee
art. (Lycotoing.) Tire. Van Heti, Wadsworth.
Warman, Worrell, Patterson•-•-54.
Nsys—Messrs. Bird, Kline. Piollet, Webb
Mr. Piollet. made an able and eloquent
speech against the instructions in favor of the
Tariff. as it will shortly appear in full in one of
the Harrisbing papers, I refrain from giiing
von a synopsis of it.
During the discusiiion Mr. Magehan assail
ed all who differed from him on the Tariff
question, and particularly the members trout
Br (Hord and Tioga, classing them with
church-burners, robbers. murderers, &c. Mi.
Webb in reply said he did not knoW how he
could better answer the epithets and denuncia
tions which had been heaped upon the North
ern members by the gentleman from Cambria
(Mr. Magehan) than by saving to him as :he
quaker said to the sailor. whom he heard curs
ing and blaspheming his maker. That is
right." said The quakers addressing the sailor
• that is right," friend ; get that foul stuff out
of thee as fast as possible; thee can never be
pure as long as it ts within thee."
You will perceive by the final vote that the
wlsigs, in their fondness fi.r a national hank,
deserted their poses. and, after all their bluster
ing about the protective system, abandoned the
Tariff and left it in the hands of the Democrats.
The House amendment to the resolutions
was taken up in the Senate yesterday. Mr
Gibbons of Philadelphia. took the floor and
made a -violent political speech against the
amendment, in which he endeavored to con
vict the Democratic party of inconsisteney.—
He was replied to by Mr. Chapman, who ad
ministered to the Senator from the city, a most
scathing rebuke. Mr. C.. is one of the ablest
and certainly the most eloquent member of the
Senate, and he gave the whips good cause to
writhe for their temerity in suffering their
champion to get up a political discussion.
Mr. Gibbons offered the following as a sub
stitute for the amendment of the House.
•• That fur the purptise of preventing. a re
duction of the Tariff of 1842, and of relieving
the people of Penn Sylvania as much as possi
ble from the heavy tax:ation that now oppress
es them, our Senators and Representatives' in
Congress he further requested to sustain the
measure of distributing the money arising from
the sales of the public lands among the respec
tive States. undo which Pennsylvania would
be entitled to receive, as appears by the official
reports for the last year. The sum of two hun
dred thousand dollars annually."
The motion-wis rejected by the following
YEAS—Messrs. Carson, Cornman, Crabh,
Harrah, Darsie. Dunlap. Gibbons. Jordan,
Morrison. Quay. Sanderson, Smith, Sullivan,
Wagenseller and W illiantson-15
Nsys—M essrs. Anderson. Benner, Bigler.
Black Chapman, Creacraft, Dimmiek,Ehaugh.
Fegely. Gillis. Hill. hoover. Rahn, Ross,
Sterigere and Sherwood Speaker-16.,
The question recurring is t p agreeiag to the
House amendment, a division of 'the question
The first division. against a national bank
was agreed to yeas 19. nays 9. as follows:
YEAs—Me.srs. Anderson. Benner. Bigler.
Black, Chapman. Creacraft. Dimmickhatigh,
Fegely, Gillis Heckman. Hill. Hover. Rahn.
Ross, Sanderson. Sterizere, Wagenseller. and
NA:re—Messrs. Carson. Darragh, Darsie.
Gibbons. Jordan, Morrison, Quay. Sullivan
The second division. against a division of
the proceeds of the sales of the public lands.
was rejected, yeas 15. nays 17, as follows :
YEAS—Messrs Anderson. Benner. Bigler,
Black, Chapman. Crearraft, Dimmick. Fegely,
Gillis, Hill. Hoover. Rhan. Ross,
and Sherwood, Speaker-15.
Ners—Messrs. Carson. Crabb.
Darsie, Dunlap, Ebaugh. Gibbons. lier)4n,in.
Jordan, Morrison. Quay. Sanderson . Smith.
Sullivan. Wagenseller, Williamson and 'Corn
The third division, in favor of a separation
of the government from the hanks, and of a
constitutional treasury. was agreed to. yeas 17.
nays 14, a. follows :
Ykss—Allisers. Anderson. Benner. Bigler.
Blank. Chapman. Creacraft.Dimmiek.Ebangh.
Fegely. Gillis. Heekman. Hill, Hoover. Blinn.
Ross. Sterigere and Sherwood. Speaker-17,
Nsys—Messrs. Carson. Crabh, Darralt.
Hassle, Dunlap. Gibbons. Jordon; Morristm..
Quay, Sanderson, Smith. Sullivan, Wageneet
ler and Williamson 14.
So the House amndment as amended, was
These rates show that two Whies (Messrs.
Sanderson and Waganselier) voted for the in
struction against the establishment Of a Nation
al Bank: and that two Democrats (Messrs.
Heckmatt and t Ebaugh) voted against the in
structions to oppose the destrihution of the
public lands among the several States.
• The bill granting the nght o way tie
Baltimore and Obto Rail Road Company
_through ,Pennsyleanitiln Pittsburg has been
under disetwaitin., for sere* days in the . Ben
i*. This bill? has been,)thly Beet used y its
-friends - and tipnrient#. `lt s y e t-uncer
tain. amendmen tin'tto Pandinftwislake?
the bils vnid m Cain:ohnn!! certain aMinin nf
-Caphal 'Shall he subleribed 'and'paidin befisre
the first let of June. 1847. by such company
as may be ineerporated during the presentees
'lion of the Legislature fur making a rail mid
front Harrisburg to Pittsburg.
The Gill granting the right of way through
the Northern counties of Pennsylvania to the
New York and Brie . Rail Road Company,,is
Under viOnsideration in the El ouse. . •An amend.
ment to make the grant - rontingent upon the
Stale of New York seitiring a connection be
-4weenl the North Branch and the Chemung
and Chenango Canals was voted down, yeas
40 nays 46.•
A large number of private bills have been re
ported and partially acted upon. B.
. to Oregon.
TRANSMITTED TO CONGRESS. BY
THE PRESIDENT: IN COMPLIANCE
•WVITH A RESOLUTION PASSED 3D
OF FEBRUARY,-1848, BY THE 11. IL
To the House of Representatives of the U. S.
In compliance with the;request of the, House
of Representatives. in their resolution of the
3d hist. therewith communicate a report from
the Secretary' of State. With the accompanying
correspondence which has takeit 4tlace
tween the Secretary of , State and the minister
of the United States at London," and, "'be
tween the government of Great Britain and this
government, in relation to the country west of
the Rocky mountains, since the last annual
message of the President" to Congress.
JAMES K. POLK.
Washington, Feb. 7, 1846.
To the President of the United Rates.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE.
Washington, Feb. 5. 1846
The Secretary of State, to whom has been
referred a resolution of the House of Repre
sentatives oldie 3d instant. requesting the Pres.
ident to communicate to that House, "So far
as, in his opinion, is not incompatible with
public interest, all correspondence of Great
Britain and this government. or by or between
any of the officers of said government, in rela
tion to the country west of the Rock Mountains
since the last annual message of the President
to this House." has the honor to lay before
the President the accompanying papers.
All of which is respectfully submitted, •
Mr. Buchanan to Mr—McLane.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, December 13, 1845
Stn: e • The President has receiv
ed information, from a variety of sources.
which he cannot disregard. that Great Britain
is now making extensive warlike preparations.
As her relations with all the powers of Eu
rope seem at present to be of a peaceful char
acter. the prevailing and natural inference here
is that these preparations look to, a ruptute
with the United States on the Oregon question.
It is of vast importance that this government
should, as early as possible, ascertain theit„
trite character. You are therefore instructed to
embrace the first opportunity of bringing this
subject to the .notice of the Earl of Aberdeen.
iii such a Manner as you may deem most,ex
pedient.lN " • ' The president is also anx
ious to leirn your own opinion upon this sub
ject with the least practical delay.
I am. &c.. JAME. BECHANAN.
LOEB McLANE, Esq., &c. &c. &c.
Mr. 211cLane to Mr. Buchanan.
LONDON. Jan. 4. 1846
: 1 received on the 29th of December
your despatch. dated the 13th of that month ;
and on the day following, I sought an inter
view with Lon! Aberdeen, in order that, in
conformity with your instructions. 1 might
bring to his notice the warlike preparations
making by Great Britain, and, if possible, as
certain their real character and object.
It will not escape you that upon such a sub
ject it is not always easy to obtain very cate
gorical answers, or entirely definite official in.
formation; and I did nut doubt that a frank
personal conference was the hest, if not the on
ly mode, of obtaining any satisfactory informs
In introducing the subject. I adverted at the
same time 10 the information the President had
received Prow a variety of sources, of the ex
tensive warlike preparations. making by Great
Britain, and the natural inference upon his part
that in the present pacific slate of the relations
of Great Britain with all the powers of Europe,
they could only look to a rupture with the
United Stales on the Oregon question. a • *
Lord Aberdeen said very promptly and,
frankly that it would be-improper to disguise
that with the sincerest desire to avoid it. they
were obliged to look to the possibility of a rup
ture with the United States; and that in such
a crisis the warlike preparations now making
would be useful and important ; but he stated
at the same time, Yen- positively and distinct
ly, that they had no direct reference to such a
rupture ; and would have been made in the
same way, and to the same extent, without
regard to the relations of Great Britain and the
United . States.
He also adverted to the fact that such prep
arations as were actually making had been
commenced before the relations between the
United States and Great Britain had become as
serious as they now appeared to be, and the:e
fore could not at ' that time have had any con
nexion with difficulties which had since grown
out of the Oregon question. He thought, Inch
that die representation as to the extent of the
preparations must have been exaggerated. Ile
denied that they related particularly, as I had
been informed, to a distant „service ; or that
they were making any addition to the old form .
of Marine. He stated that the most extensive
and inrmidable parts of their preparations were
the fortifications of the principal and exposed
ports and stations, which lie thought could
hardly be . foppose to guard against invasion
Iron the United States; and to the increase of
the number of iteain vessels in lieu of the old
craft, which it appeared other nations Were
about . to adopt, and which he confessed he
thought a matter of dmibthil policy.
In short, lie assumed the preparations in pro
gress to be only part of ii wise and pruileni
system of national defence and protection, and
of preparing in time of peace for the exigencies
of war.irit should unfortunately come from any
quarter repeated his 'disclaimer that they hal
particular reference to a rupture with the Uni
ted Stales on the Oregon unestion , or any Mitt
-In regard to my own opinion upon this sub
ject. which the President has been pleased to
desire. - * ..• .*.• it is altogether , probable
'that the possibility of other difficulties 'Gum
totheirvarters inEurope * 'niay have
Its-influence=in,tlictating the poliSy ihe r ix.,
lensiiie preparations in progreis ip aliparhrof
:the Kitigthina ; aid. with unabated confidence
in thi L franlittesti and straight fdrwaidireaeof
Lord Aberdeen. and without meaning to dia.
visit in the 'slightest , degree Ihe , sincerity of iris
iliscfaimeni in our recent coniersation.l do not
think it aught mite assumed by any one that
warlike preparations upon such a scale as that
upon which they are undeniably making here
could _not have,even an indirect reference to the
'possible itintingency of a: rupture with us.—
And at the same . time it is perfectly obvious
that they are in a great degree,' 'and especially
so fir as, they consist of an augnaentation, in the
number of steam-vessels and of the naval ma
rine generally, precisely of the character to be
the moat appropriate and the must useful in a
war with our country.
I ant not prepared to say, nor do l'aeem it
material to decide. heti far we have a right to
expect an explicit disclaimer of the character
and purposes• of the warlike preparations now
waking by Great-Britain under the circumstan
ces. They-may be the dictates of various mo
tives of policy. and the result of many causes ;
and, without attempting to assign to each its
particular influence. 1 ant by no means prepar
ed to admit that die . apprehension of difficulties
with the United States had no share in them
and it is very that if a rupture with the United
States should grow out of our present difficul
ties, this country will be as fully and effectual
ly prepared for it at all points. and for all pos
sible purposes, as if that, and that alone, had
been the object of all her warlike preparations.
She well be in a situation to act and strike.as
promptly and signally as she could have been
with her energies exclusively directed to that
end; and I feel it my duty to add,that not to ex
pect. in case a rupture becomes unavoidable,
that this government, thus in complete armor,
will promptly and vigorously exert her utmost
power-to indict the utmost possible injury up
on our country and all its interests, would not
be doing justice to such a crisis. s a *
I think it ought to-be expected, indeed from all
I learn. I cannot doubt, that. in case of. hostili
ties, the aim of this government will be to
strike its heaviest blow at the commencement,
in the expectation of being thereby enabled to
shorten the duration of the, war. a a a
I have the honor to be, &e.,
The-Hon. JANES BUCHANAN.
Secretary of State, Washington.
Mr. Packenhant to Mr. Buchanan.
WAIMINOTON, Dec. 27. 1845
An attentive consideration of the present
state of affairs, with reference to the Oregon
question, has determtned the British govern
ment toinstruct the undersigned, her Britan
nic Majesty's envoy extraordinary and• minis
tei plenipotentiary, again to represent in press
ing terms to the government of the United
States the expediency of referring the whole
question of an equitable division of that terri
tory to the arbitratitin of some friendly sover
eign or State.
'tier Majesty's goi/ernment deeply regret the
failure of all their efforts to effect a friendly
settlement of the conflicting claims by direct
negotiation between the two governments.
They are still persuaded that great advanta
ges would have resulted to both parties from
such a mode of settlement, had it been practi
cable, but there arediflieulties now in the way
in that course of proceeding which it might be
tedious so remove, while the importance of an
early settlement seems to become at each mo
ment more urgent.
Under these circumstances, her Majesty's
government think that a resort to arbitration is
the moat prodent.-and perhaps, the only feasi
ble step which could be taken, and the heat
calculated to allay the existing effervescence of
popular feeling, which might otherwise great.
ly embarrass the efforts of both griverninenis to
preserve a friendly understanding between the
The government of the United States will
see in the proposal which the undersigned is
thus instructed to make, a proof the confidence
of the British government in the justice of their
own claim. They will also see, in it a proof
of the readiness oi . the British government to
incur the risk of a great sacrifice for the pres.
ervatien of peace and of their friendly relations
with the United States It is made in a spirit
of moderation and fairness of which the world
will judge. -
The British government confidently hope
that the government of the United Slates will
not reject a proposal made with such a friendly
intention, and for a purpose so holy.
There is t>lt ling in it, they are convinced,
not perfectly compatible with . the Strictest re
gard for the honor and just interest of both
parties, particularly when it is considered of
what small value to either is the portion of the
territory which in reality forms the subject of
controversy, compared with the importance of
preserving a state of peace and good will be
tween two such nations.
The undersigned takeiadvantage of this op
portunity to renew to the Hon. James Buch
anan the assurance of his high consideration.
The lion. JAMES BUCHANAN, &C. &C.. &C.
Mr. Buchanan to Mr. Packenham
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington. Jan. 3. 1846.
The undersigned, Secretary of State of the
United States, has the honor to acknowledge
the receipt of the note of Mr. Pakenhain, her
Britannic Majesty's envoy extraordinary and
minister plenipotentiary, dated the 28th ultimo.
by which. nnderinstructions from his govern.
,proposes to the government of the
United Sttnes " the expediency of referring the
Whole . qUestion of an equitable division of'that
(the Oregon) territory to the arbitration of
some friendly Sovereign or State."
- The undersigned has submitted this note to
the President, who. after having bestowed up
on it that respectful consideration so eminent
ly due to any proposition emanating from the
British Giivernment, has instructed him to give
it the following answer:
ThearitisCgovernment do not propose to
refer to the arbitratioa the question of the title
to the Oregon territory, claimed by the tw
powers, respectively. It is a proposition to
refer to a friendly sovereign or State, merely
the partition or " equitable division" of that
territory between the parties. It assumes the
tact that the title of Great Britain to a portion
of the territory is valid, and thus takes for
grar.ted the question in dispute.
Under this proposition, the very terms of the
submissiati would contain an express acknoWl
tnent of the right of Great Britain to a portion
o f t he territory, end would neceisarily p r Wi tei
the United States from claiming the wbot,4g
.fore-the arbitrator. This, tco, in the fat e
`the note .of the undersigned:to Mr. P ac k e 4 r;
"of the 30th August last, by which- the p it ,
dent hid asserted, in the most solemn fong,,
title of the United States to the whole terry
lhen albeit were not other eonetoiht
reasons rtit declining the proportion. the 1 6 4
would be deemed sufficient by the Preside,:
The President ,heartily eoneuri with t t
British government in their regret that ali t ,
tempts to settle the Oregon question by nt ,..
tiation hare hitherto He cannot, h t „ .
ever. concur with that government hod* 0p,..1
ion that a resort to arbitration. and esp et i 4 ,
on the terms proposed, would be followed
happier conseqtieuee . s. On the . contrary,
belaying that any attempt refer this qu et it ti
to a third power, woultionly iniolve it in en
In declining this proposition, the
refers to the sentiment expresed in the notes
the undersigned of the 30th of August he, t ,i
which rllusion has already been made, thatk e '
"cherishes the hope that this long•pega 4 ',
controversy nia . Ypyet be - finally adjusted
such a manner ai not to disturb the peace,,,
interrupt the harmony DOW so happily subsir,
ing between-the two nations,"
The undersioned avails himself to this a h
sion to renew to Mr. Pakenhant - assurancs t
Right lion. RICHARD PAKENLIA3I. fitc.. &c.
Mr. Packenham to Mi. Buchanan.
WASIIINGTON. January 8. 1846.
The undersigned, her Brittannie Majesn't
envoy extraordinary end minister pleuipsl; t
nary, has had the honor to receive the note
the Secretary of State of the tinned States.‘
ted the 3d. instant, in answer to that of dues
dersigned dated 27th ultimo. containing a pri,
posal (or referring the question of an equitahle
partition of the Oregon territory to the arbitn•
Lion of some friendly sovereign or bate.
The undersigned will take an. early moat.
nity to transmit this communication totter
jesty's g overment. „
The undersigned has the honor to renew
Mr. Buchanan the assurance of hie distinguiii,-
ed consideration. K. PAKENIIAI.
To LION. JAMES BUCIIANAN, &c. &C. &c.
Mr. Pakenham to Mr. Buchanan.
‘VASILINGTON. Jan. 16. 184 G.
With an anxious desire to contribute by e r..
ry means in his power to a satisfactory Cont.lt
sion of the question pending between ti' two
governments respecting Oregon. the um' :rein.
ed, her Brittannic majesty's envoy exrsortiu•o-
ry and minister plenipotentiary, has refertrj
on the contents of the note addressed to tom
on the 3d. instant, by the Secretary of Stated
the United States. in answer to that which the
undersigned had the honor to address to him
on the 27th of last month.. •
The note of the undersignelproposea m th
govern , t of the linited States. that the m
question of ap-elinitable partition of the Or
gh.n territorf i•hould be referred to the ar[ral
tion of some friendly sovereigol'or stare.
In his answer. the Secretary of State kat ,
meat the undersigned that his proposition cot
not he accepted. That it did not propn:ie •
ref.r to arbitration the question of the tier
the Oregon territory claimed by the two r•
era respectively. That in proposing to re,r
to a friendly sovereign or state merely the pv•
titbit] or equitable division .of the territory
tween the parties, it assumes the fact that i.e
title 01 Great Britain to a portion of the tern:,
ry is valid; and thus takes for granted the Teri
question in dispute.
That tinder this proposition the very term ,
of the submission would contain an express: ,
knowledgement of the right of Great Britain.
a portion of the territory, and would neressar
ly preclude the United States from elaiinin:
the whole territory before the arbitrator;
this. too, the Secretary of State goes on to ob
serve. in the fade of his note to the undersiu•
ed of 30th august. by which the President II.:
asserted in the most solemn form the ,tole t)
the United States to the whole territory.
It is not the purpose of the undersigned rr
the present note to renew the dismission PS
the title of either party. Great Britain or the
United States, to the whole or to any part of
the Oregon territory.
lie must, however, beg leave. , with refer
ence to the observation which he has just quo
ted. to remind the United States Secretary - 0(
State that ii the government of the Cone-
States have formally advanced a claim to t !,
whole of the Oregon territory, it is no less rer•
lain that Great Britain ha. 4, in a manner rivm
lyjgrnonl, declared that she. too. has rights ni
the Oregon territory, incompatible wall the
exclnsise claim advanced by the U. States.
This declaration. arising from a conviction
equally sincere. will, the undersigned is per
he 'viewed with the same consider -
tion by the government of the United Stites•
as they expect that their own declaration
should receive at the -hands of the goverareem
of Great Britain..
This premised, the object of the undersigne
in addressing to Mr. Buchanan the present
communication is to ascertain from him wileth•
er supposing the British government to enter•
lain no objection to such a course. it would
suit the views of thelinited States government
to refer to abitration, not, as has already been
porposed. the question plan equitable partition
of the territory, but the question of tide in eith
er of the two powers to the whole territory ,
subject of course to the condition that if neith•
er should be found, iu the opinion of the arts
trator. to possess a coorplete title to the whole
territory, there should in that case, be assigned
to each that . portion of the territory wllrb
would, in the opinion of the arbitrating pole'.
be called for by a just appreciation of there•
spective claims of each.
The undersigned has suggested a reference
on the above principle to some friendly sover
eign or state.
This the undersigned believes to be the
course usually followed in such cases: is"
that which has already been resorted to hy the
two goverments. (and more than onre.)
there may be other forms of arbitration. rec•
haps. more agreeable to the government of the
filhere might be. for instance, a mixed coin
inission. with en umpire ap,.ointed by main"
consent ; or there might he a board, c omposed
of the most distinguished civilian and jurists&
the time,timpointed in such a manner as should
bring all pouding questions to the derision DE
the ino.t - enlightened, impartial and indeplv
(n the present p illion of affairs , and folio;
how much the int rests of both countries re
quire an early as w las an amicable and satis
factory adjustment - f existing difficulties. the,
undersigned earnestly invites the Secretary 01