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VEDNESDAY. DECEMBER 17, 1845. a
A Valuable Almanac.
ti'e writer of the following letter has our thanks for
e Almanac enclosed. It will be published seconding
seq:se.stion, for several weeks, and will be found
'cable to 'oust n men and others:
Oawrott, December 10, 1845.
la r vvits. Enr-rons:—.l enclose for publication, if yoti
oose, a fir4ular Almanac, for 1846.
Three things, are, to me, desirable in the publication
tat. Compactness, distinctness, and neatness.
:lit That they be placed where .they may be cut nut
:Lb the teat.; possible mutilation or the paper. This,
a , the outer corner—either iop or bottom—of
e t hird pace; or at the back of the same location, on
31 That they be inserted more than one week—so
tit ,liffoent member. of a family, may, if they wish,
tare a cliy.
Dario; the time that your paper has fallen under my
~,m anon. I love seen no intimation of the estimate in
hreh v.. 0 hoWericinal articles, on subjects not mimeo.
with politic, or of the principles on which you insert
:rat. But the recent appearance of two or three didac
c li l e ugh a signature (C. S. A.) long familiar to
see of e s—iii,licates that on some grounds such articles
rrfurni.died, and are published. Are such communiea
.ons dewed t Are they published usually from your .
wirregard 01 their value, or to gratify the writers ! •
With regards, W. D.
Wcd , ..iirr original communications, are always will
to publish them, and would be glad to hear frorn.Mr
TABULAR AID ANAL
laNt a \, ;Sun
%Pr. DEI.. (rues!
i 1 i. 13
Iti I 17 118 19 I •2()
I; 1% ,
' ' 2.1 I 4 I 5
K.l 29 30 I
Iif:DERLY BOOK OF HA ND'S BRIGADE
FRONI WYOMING TO 'TOGA.
Ma I Qyarters. Tioga Aug. 21, 1'779
Ai itc. ORDEns.—A 4 a great number of bags
ail 'e watilinoi in order to carry on flour fur
dniiv, and to. there no other way procu-
I,: diem than cutting up teals and malting
aein into b,cs. It being absolutely necessary
the bags should be fticnished iminediattly,
me Commander-in-Chief requests that Gen.
Maxwell will direct as many tents cut up and
'Ands ealp:oyed as will complete TA bar.
Col. Seeley will furnish the same number
t 11 , .Yey writ furnish in same manner
tnin Hand's Briaatie.
Thu Qlarter Master is directed to furnish
ai v.,;tl pa:terns, needles, twines &c., fur
.le purpose. .
'itte number of tents would otherwise
:le been retrenched previous to our march,
trru. 'the present inconvenience to the troops
; reliucituz the tents can he very trilling. but
the inconvenience were ever so great it
ksubmitted to from necessity.
;he Genci'al requests the lavor of having
~ ,w .tness roompleted in all conceivable ex-
The state of MIT magazine and other
rtant motives urges 11.9 to pat a speedy
nn to' the carnonic.u.
wilo ;k are pwsessed, of kegs which
are not in 'immediate want of, are reques
!•!., sen d them to th^ ComMissary.
hie!' are private property shall be
If a nnrohcr •f tlifte kegs be not
will be impossible to carry on a
of salt Firosions and liquor for the
fewterN, noga, Aug. 22, 1779.
Fie:d Oflieer of the day. Col. Celly, Brigade
cad further order the commissary is directed
to issue no inure fresh beef to the army.
At a General Court Martial, whereof Lieut.
Dehart is President, Sergent Abbey of the
l't J'er=ev Regiment. tried for robbing the
State stores of liquor, found guilty, and senten
ced as follows,' viz : first to he reduced.to the
rat.ks. second to be stopped of one Tooth's
snare of state rum, and be accountablb to the
Sa:ea s if he had received it, and third that the
mode of his reduction be that the guard shall
him on the parade at the dead of his re
-7,-.at, that the Drum Major shall strip off his
and make him put it on wrong side out
'‘,rds, that a canteen be hung round his neck,
a:; I then turned into the rank s. "
Oaptain Wilson of the same Regiment; char-
EFd with being an accomplice accessary to rob
h:ng the State stores when commimilitit! the
Ford set over them, was found guilty and sen.
:eared to be reduced to the :ranks, to be strp-
Ped of one month's State stores as in case of
S'rg't Abbey and • run the gauntlet thro' Gen.
Thomas Perry, Private. in the same Reg't,
was tried for, and found guilty'of , robbing the
State Stores of rum, while!t'sentry over them,
aad sentenced to be stopped as in the other two
trstances • and run the gauntlet through Gen.
) 11 twell's Brigade.
Wm. Weston and John Flinn of the same
Regiment, tried for robbing the same stores,
and found guilty of only partaking of them, at
the same time knowing them to have been
Plundered, were sentenced to be stopped as be
The Commander-in-Chief approves the gen-.
lfaces, and orders that punishment be inflicted
<<,s evening at roll call.
The Court of Inquiry, of which Major Ed.
wards is appointed president, to set tomorrow
Morning at 10 o'clock.
BRIGADE Ortusns,'f'ioga, Aug. 23, '79
The Commanding Officers of Corps are de
sired to pay particular attention to see that
their packsaddles are examined, and those that
are bad be repaired immediately, that they
have a sufficiency of lash rope, and their pack
:horses are collared.
Head Quarters, Tioga, Aug. 24. 1779.
Field Officer, Cul. Ogden, Brigade Major,
Col. Cortland's Regiment is annexed to
Gen. Clinton's Brigade, Col. Aldens to Geri.
Poor's, the 4th Penna. Reg't and Rifle Corps
to Gen. Hand's Brigade.
The Brigade Comtnissary to draw thirty
days flour anal salt to-morrow, exclusive of
what may be used by the troops this day and
to-morrow. They are to see that it be put up
in bags and the Brigade Quarter Master's are
to have it properly slung to he put horseback,
as the army will move on Wednesday morn
ing ; the Quarter Master and Commissary
General will have the articles in thaw depart
ments perfectly ready to he moved off. A pro
per number ofaxes, seythes'and fasrine hatch
ets, to be drawn this day and ground fur use.
t The pouches and powde r horns which are
not absolutely necessary for the troops who
have drawn them. are to be immediately re
turned to the Commissary of Military stores to
supply the troops who have no cartridge boxes.
The troops to draw a proper number of flints
and a sufficient quantity of ammunition to fill
their cartridge boxes. Also one hundred and
fifty rounds each of spare cartriihres are to he
drawn for them. The Artillery to draw the
same quantity of flour and salt as the other
troops. Col. Proctor will have arcflnunition
fixed for the six three pounders, the two how
itzers and the Coharns, the six pounders are
to he left in this garrison.
Col. Bond to have all ;the horses collected
this day which have not been already assigned,
that Gen. Clinton's Brigade may he supplied.
As the troops should move as lightly as pos
sible, the officers are reqested to leave at the
garrison all the baggage ,they can possibly
spare. All the women and children to remain
at this post, and the commanding officers of
the Garrison will have orders respecting them.
The officer's servants who conduct pack
horses are each to drive five horses. The
field and other officers will make this arrange
ment among themselves.
As this is a campaign where everyone must
expect to encounter difficulties Tar surpasqing
those of common 'campaigns, the officers
ought not, and the Commander-in-chief trusts
they will net think of diminishing the strength
of the army by a multiplicity of servants or
impede its progress bv unnecessary baggage.
'Flue troops aho want shoes or overalls are
to make returns this day and draw them.—
The Commissary and Quarter Master General
are directed to have all their stores moved to
the Garrison this day.
The troops to draw six. days salted pro
visions to-morrow in the lOrenoon. Two
days of which are to be cooked in tile evening.
Two hundred and fifty men properly officered
exclusive of Boatmen, to be left as a garrison
at this post. Col. Chreve to take command of
those men to parade to-morrow, morning at 7
o'clock, and immediately afterwards more up
and take post. The hospital to be immediate
ly removed to the garrison.
A sT . nal will be given by one cannon from
the Park, to-morrow at 3 o'clock in the after
noon, striking the encampment when All the
troops will move to their respective places
with their baggage loaded ready for a march.
Every thing is to be in perfect readiness.—
Provisions to this time, that the business may
be condensed with order anti expedition.—
Second gun from the Park will notify the army
to encamp in stk.}, order as to he able to move
early the next morning without confusion, and
agreeable to the plan or order of march and
battle delivered to the officers on the 24th of
, The right flank of the army to be composed
of '2OO chosen men, commanded by Col. Du
bois, the left to he composed of 200 chosen
men, commanded by Col. Ogden, and to he
selected from the line, and in addition to them,
the German Battalion is to he divided into four
equal companies, two of which to be on the
right and the other two on the left of the army,
annexed to the flanking division. The com
manding officers of the flanks will direct those
divisions to he completed to fitly men each
from the flanks, two of which are to march
about ten rods within the front of the flanking
divisions, and two of the same distance within
the rear of the flanks ; the business of these
divisions is to gain the rear of the enemy with
out loss of time when the flank to which they
are annexed are attacked.
The German Battalion to be replaced by two
companies of light infantry from Gen. Clin
ton's, one from Gen. Maxwell's, and one from
Gen. Poor's Brigade, consisting of fifty non
commissioned officers and privates, each these
to be chosen troops and annexed to Col. But
ler's Reg't. •
The covering parties for the Ist and 2d line
to be drawn out and officered as also the flank
ing divisions at 12 o'clock to-morrow, and up
on the teating of the drum assemble, which
will be in an hour• after the gun. The respec
tive corps and detachments may take their pro
per places, the troops that compose the cover
ing parties and flanking divisions are to be
furnished tt•ith proper proportion of tents that
they may encamp in order of march or battle
as circumstances may require : the proportion
of tents for this expedition is to be one tent for
every 8 men.
The Brigadiers will see that no more tents
carried on for the officers than are absolutely
necessary. The Gen'l flatters himself that the
officers will from their zerl to service, cheer
fully assist in retrenching the baggage of the
army and removing every obstacle to its march.
• Lieut. Col. Reimer is appointed sub-Inspector
in this army and to be respected-and obeyed
BEWARE of the wicked and ungodly, for they
wilt lead thee into temptation. .
PUBLISHED EVERY WEDNESDAY, AT TOIVANDA, BRADFORD COUNTY, PA., BY E. 0. & H. P. GOODRICH.
" REGARDLESS OF DENUtiCIATION FROM ANY QUARTER."
Customs and Manners of the. Chinese.
[The following sketches of Chinese manners and cus
toms, and some account of their country and government,
will be fount! ly interesting to ...out side barbarians,"
who of necessity,Nid almost totally unacquainted by
the Celestials. They ant from lectures lately delivered
by Mr. Fletcher Webster, at New York, and are excit
ing much attention. Mr. Webster accompanied Mr.
Cushing in his mission to China, and had an op[mnu
nity "rarely offered, of observing this people, so peculiar.
ly our antipodes imevery thing.]
Mr. Webster commenced his lecture by an
allusion to the difficulty he experienced in ar
ranging is materials of information respect
ing aco ntry so vast. so populous, so important
and yet eo little known. re thought that
the heat course would be to adopt the
narrative foiru, interspersing the narration with
occasional remarks on the manners and habits
of the Chinese.
The legation of which Mr. Webster was a
member arrived at Macao, after touching at
Ceylon, the 23d of February, 1844. So soon
as they were burly established, and the requir
ed visits of ceremony had been made, a letter
was despatched to Canton, to the high Com
missioner Ching. on the important subjects
embraced in the commission entrusted to the
legation. Macon Mr. Webster described as a
city about a mile in width. on the South side
of the bay into the which the Canton river
empties itself, distant about seventy miles from
the city of Caution, and connected with the
island of Hunan. It presented a striking re
semblance to the village of Naliant in the Uni
ted Stales. It is an ancient Portuguese settle
ment, not belonging to the Portuguese, but
held by theca on a sort of ground rent, paid to
the Chinese Government. It is defended on
three sides by the water, and on the other side
by a high wall stretching across the narrow
beach. Beyond this wall Europeans must not
pass. It bas about 20,059 inhabitants, three
torts, and an army of 4000 men. Both the
Chinese and Portuguese have a custom house.
and both exercise municipal authority over the
people of their respective 'inous. • The streets
the principal one excepted, are narrow, dirty
and dark. Macao bears to the entire empire
about the same relation that a small town at
the Southern extremity of Florida would to
the United States.
The first impulse of a European or an
American in the streets of Macna is to seize
the Chinese pedestrians by their ridiculous
queus and pull teem. They have a very swag
iering gait, their long tails, made still longer
by braids and ribbons intertwined, sweep
klong the ground and wave front side to side
until the temptation becomes almost irresisti
One day it was announced that a letter from
Clung was on its way to the American minis
ter, borne by fear high officers from Canton.—
Every thing was prepared, said Mr. Webst , r,
and m e sat waiting for our important visitors;
at length. hearing sonic discordant noises, we
peeped -throne' the blinds of the verandah
that we might observe their approach. Two
ill looking fellows, with wire caps my their
heads—one of them with a whip. and/he oth
er with an ace in his hand—led the proression.
These were the executioners, who always pre
cede a high officer. Next came a score of
poorly dressed and very dirty soldiers, with
spears and shields, and halberts. Then two
or three men on wretched ponies, whose hair
stood out in all directions, and whose manes
and tails were ignorant of brush or currycomb;
then the hand of music, and finally the sedan
chairs, on which were borne four large, fine
looking persons. wlio proved to be the high
officers. They were dressed in light colored
crapegowns. fastened round their waists bytgue
silk girdles, buckles and precious s tones.
We stood tip to receive them with our hats
on, for it is Chinese etiquette to he covered.—
' They entered with their raps on. displaying
Itheir red and Moe buttons and peacock's feath-
I ems. The button is fastened to the top of the
cap, ami the kather hangs down behind.—
l'hey approached, shook their hands at us, and
the chief preseuted the letter to the Minister.
I In receiving it. he motioned to them to he seat
ed, and take off their raps; which. observing
carefully our own movements, and keeping ex•
act time with us, they did. One of the inter
preters now read the letter, and alter a short
interval of silence, such conversation . as can
be carried on by means of interpreters, and
looks, and signs. took place.
The first civility was, on their part, asking
our names [laughter ;] this information being
given and reciprocated, they proceeded to
shock our notions of good breeding by asking
our ages! This. however, is an indispensable
attention, and we returned it at once. Alter a
few minutes' conversation, a luncheon in the
Chinese style, was announced, and we enter-
ed the dining roam; our guests, according to
Chinese etiquette, seated on the left. Chop
sticks had been provided for I:II-of us, and we
made our first experiments with them, to the
unrestrained amusement of our guests. They
showed little inclination to eat, but a decided
taste for the ba rbarian- liquors , champagne and
cherry bounce, [laughter.] We were, aston
ished at the very loud touc of their voices; it
must have been easy to hear in the street every
thing said by them. As it is a point of polite
ness to empty one's glass whenever drinking
with a friend—and they each drank with all of
us—they becaine, gradually, as elevated. as
Civilities were now exchanged with the
greatest urbanity. One we would have gladly
dispensed with. It is in the fashion for every
one to help himself with his own chop-sticks,
from any dish on the table within his reach ;
and when he feels desirous of offering a testi.
monial of regard. as well as respect, he reach
es out and seizes something with his own
chop-sticks. and motioning to the individual
for -whom he.designs the favor to open his
mouth, puts the morsel, whatever it ts, between
his teeth. As they are not-particularly nice in
their eating, and their teeth are by no means
pearls, we would have pardoned the omission
of this attention. It was, however, not to be
escaped; all that was left us was retaliation,
which we immediately practised.
After an hour at table. of shouting conversa
tion on their part, and of -.nods and becks and
wreathed smiles" on ours, we rose and moved
to the verandah, where a new seri.:4 of delicate
attentions surprised us. They now began to
examine our apparel, piece by piece—cravat.
coat.- waistcoat, shirt-bosom. trousers, sword.
belt, gloves. all in turn were Inspected. For
tunately, our good genius, Dr. Parker, told us
this was- the very acme of politeness, Mid to
be imitated Without delay. We therefore ex
amined their caps and buttons. and peacock
feathers, their little embroidered bags,--whiefr,
with fan-cases and snuff-boxes. they hang from
their girdles; their thumb.rings crfagate, their
silken girdles and jewelled buckles.
One of them.- Tung Lin. a Tartar, made
himself merry with a sword-belt belonging to
one of us. lie put in on to show how much
too sma:l it was, strutted up and down to show
us his portly figure. struck his full-chest, anti
told us in a - voice of thunder that he was a
lklantchou—a . terror spreading Tartar general.
After two hours of intellectual intercourse of
this sort our friends retired. The procession
re-funned, gong's heat and pipes squealed, the
executioners yelled, he little ponies were pull.
ed between their rider's legs, and we were left
to reflect upon Chinese men and manners.
The population of China has beck variously
estimated, the hest-informed writers differing
so much as to render any conclusion unsafe.—
The difference between some of them exceeds
100,000,000. According to some there are not
less than 350,000.000, while others [Towle
this number to 180,000,000. The Chinese
-compute themselves at 300,000,000. :Ur.
'Webster thought the computation of the Chi
nese correct, and to show this, nonpareil Chi
na with other countries. He said, take France
for instance, which, with a surface of 200.000
of people—or 150 to each square mile. Her
soil, climate, &c., are no more favorable than
those of China—nor are her people more in
dustrious, frugal or temperate. China proper
is as fertile and as well cultivated as France.
Its Southern portion produces two crops a
year ; and it was as well tilled, when Cmsar
conquered Caul as now.
kler people are the most industrious and
frugal in the world. For 200 years they have
not heard of war 4 marriage is encouraged. and
emigration is strictly prohibited. China Prop
er is thus capable o f maintaining a population
eight times that of France. In Chinese Tar
tary the people are more nomadic, and are of
course comparatively sparse. Suppose then
that this part is peopled two thirds as densely
as Russia, which has 20 to the square mile. if
China proper is as dense as France,it would con
tain 240,000,000 ; and Chinese Tartary 60 mil
lions more, making 310.000.000 in all. Or
giving to all alike a density one third that of
France, the population would exceed 250,000.-
000. The Chinese had ample !means 01 tak
g the census, and he saw nu reason to doub:
the accuracy of their statistics.
Canton itself, Mr. Webster described as sit
uated on a low piece of ground, hardly above
the level of the river. Lofty hills approach it
on the East. and an eminence is close to r% on
which is a Tartar military station. Its streets
are seldom over eight feet in width ; the hou
ses low and dark. The city within the walls
is said to be smaller titan the suburbs. One
cannot discover which is the city, and which
the suburbs, until informed. The walls, which
are high and very massive, form the Ilacks of
shops anti stores, built along them. I walk
ing next the walls one sees nothing but shops.
Even the gates are not noticeable, of which
there are many in the suburbs, as well as arch
es crossing the streets. The factories of the
merchants are situated on the very bank of the
river, and are much the lineal and largest build
ings that he saw excepting the temple.
Mr. Webster gave an cruising history of
his search for a teacher. lie was aided by
Dr. Parker, and one was at length found. He
was not a native Tartar, but was a tall well
favored man, and, said Mr. Webster, I augur
ed very favorably our success with him. I
noticed that om,hia first arrival there was tin
appearance of mystery and concealment. The
Chinese who introduced film seemed very anx
ious. There was a whispering and shutting
of doors; and a great many injunctions. appa
rently, and assurances, exclamations and ges
tures. However, we sat down to our task at
last, and got through the alphabet, for the
Mantchou language has an alphabet.
The next day, agreeably toappointment, he
came again. and there was the - same closing of
doors, and looking behind and around, and
springing up. if any one entered, and in short
such a mysterious air about the whole thing,
as if we were conspirators in some plot. I ob
served he was nervous and much aginued.hard
ly able to crw - nand himself, and laboring evi
dently under some very great excitement. He
Jurnited up at any noise, as though he appre.
[tended imminent danger, or some one was
about to spring opond)im from behind. How
ever, we got through our lesson.
Tho next day he was missing at the appoint
ed time. The day following he appeared; and
with more perturbation than ever. Ile could
hardly speak or stand. He had grown, hag
gard ; his eyes were swollen. Never certain
ly was mortal fear of something,l did not know
what, more plainly depicted on a man's face
than on his. He was accompanied by Dr.
Parker's attendant. They entered carefully
and softly, closed and fastened,the door, made
sure that:no one was in the room, and then
his friend, in a low tone, told me the nature of
the case. He was afraid of losing his head for
coming to teach a foreigner Mantehrro. He
begged me to receive back my money, which
he brough in his hand, and let him Igo. He
could not come again. He told me. and I be
lieve it, that he was an the. point of taking poi
son to rid himself of his trouble. That ho had
eaten no rice, and taken no sleep since he first
came. He expected every moment to be seiz
ed by the mandarins, and carried off to, be be
headed. There was no arguing with him, no
comforting or assuring him ; and . the only
thing to be done was to let him go.
Mr. Webster subsequently found two Tar
tars who had no fear of the mandarins, and who
remained with him long after all idea of going
to Pekin was abandoned.
While at Carton Mr. Webster visited the
country seat of a Chinese gentleman. known
as Pun-nn-pia. lately created Duke Await.—
(It may bens well to say that we make as good
a guess at the orthography of these names is
we can.) The villa was named Puntong and.
was situated on the river, about three miles
above Canton. It was about 100 acres in ex - -
tent in the middle of paddy fields, covered
with water. The approach to it was along a
canal leading from the river. The were sev
eral houses. and detached out buildings. Long
wooden bridges, such as are represented on
dinner pities. connect the various buildings,
which are all built on piles, of a sort of glazed
brick. The main house was perhaps sixty
feet qn ire, two stories high, with numerous
apartments. The large drawing room was
handsome and handsomely furnished. In the
rear (I ibis building was a theatre: the stage
fronting, the windows of the back drawing
Between the two buildings is a fish pond. an
indispensable requisite in Chinese country
place. On nights of performance long pules
are thrust into the mud at the bottom of the
pond, with !antdins at their tops. There was
an aviary made of wire, filled with gold and
silver pheasants of extreme beauty. A tame
deer, two beautiful adjutants and a monkey,
Made up the collection of animals. The gen
eral P I)pp:lr:ince" was pleasing, hut there was
nothing like what we call cum fort.
Fifty or sixty women, all of the small feet
kind. assembled either to see the place or to
see the American party. They fled at the ap
proach of the latter, and huddled together in
distant apartments. The American party sur
rounded two or three in a corner, and the la
dies managed to keep them still, so.that their
costume and dresses were examined. The
description given of them by Mr. Webster cor
responded very closely with the published ac
counts and pictures. They manliest, said 51 r.
%V.. as much surprise at the small waists -of
our ladies as we did at their small feet, and in
quired with equA anxiety if they were not
thus compressed with great pain.
This fashion of small feet is not confined to
rank—indeed there is no distinction of rank.
Any parents having a daughter, with promises
to be beautiful, bandage her feet and compress
them, or rather prevent their growth.
The 'children of more ordinary pretensions
are not exposed (b this torture. Every Chi
nese, so soon as he can afford it, takes a small
footed wife. lle sends for some old lady,
whose well known and, recognized, and there
considered respectable, trade is that ofa "go
between," and impires who among his neigh.
hors has a nice daughter who would do for a
%vile. The lady mentions one and gives a
description of her appearance. She then
sees the young lady whom she think he
would prefer—some Miss Lee Nang pr Non
Seen, and describes the merits of the gallant
Noo Chung. The parents then, with her help
arrange the settlement, and the bride is given
away with as great ceremonies and rejoicings as
the means of the families,will the husband first
sees her face when he meets her at the door
of his house, and taking her out of her sedan
chair, raises her veil.
The government of China is pattiarchial,
'twit it is a pure unalloyed desputi-nn. The
Czar of Russia wields a powerless uncontrolled
titan that oh the Emperor of China. He reigns
absolute and supreme. and knows no restraint
upon his will. The laws are mere expressions
of his pleasure. The soil of all China is his
' own inheritance. The lives, fortunes and hon.
or of his subjects are in Lis hand. As theirfath
!er and sovereign lie may take either of all
from them, by nil arbitary stroke of his vermil
lion pencil. His power knows no checks or
balances or bounds. Ile is besides, to his peo
pie, the representative and rice-roy of the Al
mighty—the }mid of religion—the eon of heav
en, in immediate - communication with the Su
preme, and the only being authorized to hold
All religious observances and rites, as well as
municipal laws, derive their sanction and obli
gations from him. In'short, he is invested with
every attribute that unlimted power can extort
from the fear and ignorance of subject millions.
His vast empire, for the purposes of government.
is divided into great provinces. At the head of
each of these is a high officer, responsible imme
diately to him for its order and good government.
Each province is again subdivided into districts,
districts into towns, villages and hundreds.
Each of these subdivisions has its proper
head, who is•responsible. to his immediate supe
rior for the conduct and condition of those un
der his rule. In, case of crime, or even acci
dent, punishment is made to fall not only on the
guilty themselves, but on those whose duty it
was to detector prevent it. For a serious crime
ordisturhance, not only on the guilty themselves,
but the heads of the towns in which it tank
place. and the district in which the town lies,
and of the province in which the district is in
cluded, are punished in various degrees:
The blow from the Emperor is felt through.
nut the whole chain. Families are held respon
sible for the behavior of each member of them.
It seems to us cruel to punish a fatally for the
offence of ono, or to ravage a district fora crime
of some of its inhabitants. but the theory is
that all the members of the.empire are bound to
preserve order and peace, and are responsible
for its infraction ;its in England and in this
country, where towns are hell liable for prop
erty destroyed by mobs. And in China this'
theory is nevo allowed to become a dead letter.
and harsh as it may seem. it cannot be denied
that experience has proved it of wonderful effi
cacy in . ffie preservation of quiet and tranquility.
Mr. Webster related one instance to illustrate
its operation. On some occasion, when there
was unusual excitement among the people at
Canton, a large mob surrounded in the evening
the foreign factories.. An American, who had
been out on the river, was obliged to make his
way through the crowd to reach his home.
On getting into his hong, as they call each
•trierelrant's residence, he found that he Indbeen
robbed of his watch. When, or by. Whom it
was taken among that crowd of Chinese—all
dressed alike. alllookine alike, and closely pack
ed touether c ki the dark, no.one of whom he had
t- • •fbefore see- n. or would probably see rikain—
L of course he could not tell.
All be could say was. it had been-taken by
:+oloe one among the hundreds jammed togeth.,
er in the square. The probability of receivevirg
it was very remote, but lie made y his complaint
to the proper Chinese 'functionary, and stated
the ease. The mandaliu told hint that within
so many days lie should have his watch. That
very day all the place officers in that part of
Canton. to the number of one or two hundred,
were seized upon and imprisoned. One of
them was then brought before the mandarin, and
the robbery !stated to him, and he was informed
that he must find the watch and bring it back,
and that all his comrades would remain in jail
until he did.
Each one of the poor fellows thus confined
had a family dependent on him for support; and
friends and relations interested in his release.
All there at once became most active in their
exertions to discover the watch and set free the
prisoners. Their friends and their friend'•'
friends were interested ; the army of police offi
cers increassd geometrically. 'the whole peo
ple became thief•takers, and, and at the end of
three days the wz.tch was found, in an obscure
hut in the country, twenty Miles from Qanton,
and restored to its owner. In other cases of
theft. a similar, though harsher course, is some
times pursued. but the result is generally the
discovery of the thief and tl.e testoration.of thit
Ot , l'fi
If a theft takes place in a house, on complaint
to a mandarin all the servants are arrested and
taken before hint, and both the guilty and inno
cent banit:toed, till the really guilty at last
confesses. rite cruelty of this course nct un
frequently; indeed generally, among foreigners,
prevents complaints being made. The Chinese
code both civil and criminal, is immensely vol
_union-ills and detailed. There is apparently
nothing which can be done or starred that is
not provided for.
The second Lecture, which we shall publish next
week, will be found equally novel and interesting.
JEwish ANECDOTES.—T he following anec
dotes are translated from an interesting work,
published at Paris, entitled Lea Alatinlea du
Samedi. (The Saturday Morning's,) written by
G. Pen Levi, for the use of the Israelitlsh youth
David in the wilderness-4 legend
When Icing David was flying across the De
sert of Ziph, pusued by Saul, he grew impatient
at the odantity of spiders' webs which he had t to
break, and one day. when he was - picked by a
worm, he cried nut in his passion. " Great God!
why hest thou created flies and spiders. which
are of no use, and only serve to hurt me ?" " I
will make you understand," answered a pro.
Some time afterwards, he descended Mount
Achill, and ventured by night into the camp of
Saul, to deprive hint, while asleep, of his arms
and his cap. After having succeeded in this
project, he was about to retire, when his fonthe
came entanaled in the legs of the faithful Abner,
who slept beside Saul. Great was the embar
rassment of David, how he should disengage his
foot from the hold of Abner, without awakening
this valiant servant, and to find himself surprised
thus, alone, in the ramp i of the enemy.
David's anxiety was at its height, when a fly
hit Abner on the leg, and the pain which the
warrior felt, made hint make a movement, of
which David availed himself to withdraw his
foot ; he then fled quickly, thanking God for
having err a:cd 11 es.
Saul, however, pursued him into the Dees ;t,
and ty escape him, David had skipped into a cay.
ern, when God sent a spider, which wove, its
web across the entrance of this rock. Saul and
Ahnar were quickly in the footsteps of the fugi
tive, and Ahnar having said, he is doubtless
conceited in this rock ; Jet us go and seek him
It is useless," answered Saul, •• do you
not see that the entrance of this cavern is coy.
ered with a spider's web, and that no one could
have entered without breaking this delicate tut.
You are rieht," answered Abner, and they
retired, to continue their search in another part of
Then David cast himself nn the ground, and
cried, " Lord, pardon me, for having doubted
thy wisdom : henceforth my feeble understand
ing shall not cease to humble itself before the
sublime harmonies of creation. Lord, the small
est of thy creatures are of uie to . man : the spi
ders and the flies themselves have a part to per
form in nature. - Lord, what thou sayest is well;
what thou doest is just."
KEEP GOOD COMPANY.—There is a certain
magic or charm in company. for it will assimi
late and make you like to them by much con
versation with them. if they be good compa
ny, it is a great means to make you good, or
confirm you in goodness; but it they "be bad,
it is twenty to one but they will corrupt or in
fect You. Men or women that are greedy-of
acquaintance or hasty in it. are often shared id
ill company before they are aware, and entan- •
gled so that they cannot - easily get loose from
it after, when they would.
CHARCOAL tiN ANTID 'IS' TO Polsox.—An old
English paper "contains a statement.that char
coal possesses the power of counteracting the
effects of mineral poison. Fite grains of arse
nic in a half glass of strong mixture of charcoal
were swallowed fastirg. Pen and thirst fut.
lowed. but the pain was allayed by swallow.
ing another glass of eliorcoal mixture. At
noon no had affects were felt. Let it be tried
in casea of mineral poison.
MAERIAGE.S.—In all marriage notices, the
name of the officiating minister should always
'appear. 4. Western papers objects to this
aoctrine. and says, by the lame rule, every
obituary notice Should have the name of the
attending physician. A proposition which
would find no favor with the faculty.