Pittsburg dispatch. (Pittsburg [Pa.]) 1880-1923, June 16, 1889, SECOND PART, Page 9, Image 9

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    M3t
lW
pgw
THE PITTSBURG DISPATCH.
r:
wl
SECOND PART.
" PAGES 9 TO 16.
' 1
HOMES OEALL AGES.
A Fantastic but Interesting Feature
of the Taris Exposition.
THE DWELLINGS OF MANKIND.
Eepresentations of Unman Habitations of
All Ages.
PB0SH0D5TA1H CATEENS 10 PALACES
nrriTTKK rou the DisrATCH.!
N" the midst of the
Paris Exposition,
and forming a promi
nent feature of it, is
a strip of ground
covered with a gro
tesque pile of build
ings representing the
dwellings of mankind
from the earliest
known periods to the
prcitui time 2 e er did a happy family
present a more striking diversity a more
fantastic unity. The solid masonry of the
Bgvptians shadows the thatched and
matted huts ot the lake dwellers, the
graceful architecture 'of the Greek goes
hand in hand with the practical lives of its
old Boman conqueror, stately Aztec piles,
flimsy Japanese, Hindoo palaces and Chero
kee wigwams, all stand on common ground
nnd on equal footing. Here is every build
irg material that man's ingenuity ever
PEHSIA
sought out or contrived; granite, sandstone,
limestone, marble, sun and kilned bricks,
tiles, adobe, plaster, mud, thatch, wattles,
and straw, and wondrous combinations. It
is an object lesson within the grasp oi all,
appealing alike to the wondering country
man and the skilful architect These his
tono dwellings have been designed one and
all by Mr. Cbarlcs Gautier, the designer of
the Grand Opera, and the leading architect
of France, and the masterly w?y in wWh
Cliff Dwelling.
he has performed his work entitles him to a
high place among the heroes of the Exhibi
tion. THE CAVE DWELLEES.
Everybody is interested in the history of
man how he lived in the earlv d.ivs. when
the advantages had no chance with" the dis
advantages, and every man was self-made.
Prehistoric man had a hard time with nature
and her creatures. In those days each
struck out for himself, and man found that
the first requisite of lire was to keep out of
harm's way. He must have a hiding place
where he could be secure when off his guard.
He had often Jaken shelter from the tempest
and storms in hollow trees or under the lee
of rocks and cliffs, but these were unfit for
dwellings, as they offered no protection from
wild beasts and men. Caves, however, fitted
JAPANESE
his wants exactly. A few hours' labor with
rocks and stone, and he had a defensible
fortress within which he conldcook his din
ner with comfort and security. When he
went fishing he would block up the entrance
to his cave just as we would lock tb front
door, and feel tolerably sure of finding
things as he left them. The cave dweller,
or troglodyte, did not wander abroad, but
hunted and fished in the country around his
dwelling place. In Colorado and the South
west we find many of these clefts and caves,
with very distinct
Much more secure were the homes of the
cliff dwellers- As sate as the goat on' the
roof, they had little need to block up their
doorways. But their immunity was bought
at the expense of a steep, hard climb. The
cliff dwellers were not content, however,
with natural caves, but in many instances
built houses and towers of mud and stone
on the narrow shelves of the cliffs, some of
two stones, but the majority of about six
feet in height Arizona was the great land
ot the cliffdwellers. Here 1,000 feet above
the valley of Jtio Mancos
THE CLIFFS ABE HONEYCOMBED
with these prehistoric habitations. Some
that look like little specks from the valley
,v
I ii in .hi i
below are utterly beyond reach. The traces
of winding trails can be seen in the face of
the cliffs, but time has so changed the struc
ture of the ground that it would be madness
to attempt the climb. Some of the dwellings
are isolated, some in groups of two or three,
others clustering into little villages. At
intervals along.tbe higher ridges are the re
mains of round stone signal towers. The
houses within reach have been most thor
oughly investigated, and evidences of con
siderable civilization have been found.
Many of the houses have plastered walls,
the plaster evidently being spread ith the
hands, as the imprints of human fingers are
often traced out The walls thus stuccoed
are in many cases adorned with highly
colored designs and hieroglyphics. Re
mains of pottery and stone implements have
been found in considerable quantity, but no
trace whatever of the cliff bnilders them
selvesnot even a bone. Without donbt
these ancient people were fire worshipers,
and burnt their dead. At their dizzy height
the cliff builders had a broader horizon than
their valley fellow-men, and an earlier
chance at their sun god.
The cave and cliff dwellers are supposed
to be the ancestors of the Aztecs. The relics
of grand monuments in Pimeria and Zaca
tecas have often been ascribed to the Aztecs,
but evidence goes to show that the early
Aztecs in their wanderings southward came
upon these buildings that they were the
work of much more ancient people. The
Aztec built crudely at first, modeling his
hut out of reeds and mud. As the race
grew more prosperous through fishing and
commerce they commanded better building
material, and bamboo and sun dried bricks
came into vogue. The roofs were formed of
long reeds, closely matted, or azave leaves,
each projecting over the other after the fash
ion ot tiles. These rnde habitations had a
single room that served the purpose of an
entire suit, including the stable. Gradu
ally as wealth increased the hut builders
contrived strong masonry underpinning, in-
DWELLING
creased the number of rooms, added store
houses and cranaries. Stones took the
place of brick, while plain pillars cut
from a single stone and devoid of base and
capital broke the monotony, of the walls.
The roof, too, took on
A MOEE SUBSTANTIAL AIE,
being formed of stout timbers, making a
level terrace for an evening's siesta. There
were commonly two entrances to each dwell
ing, but no doors, curtains being used to
screen the interior from the street But
like all early civilized nations the Aztecs
succumbed to barbarous but more powerful
races, and their architecture suffered a like
degeneracy. The Pueblos, Zunis and
Moguls are the degenerate relics of the
Aztecs. Like the ancient cliff builders, the
Mognis have their ., habitations in the high
rocks. Again, they follow the ancestral
style in that their huts are built of mud
and stone and -entered by ladders. The
Zunis build on the slightly raised ground
on the plains. Their houses are strongly
built ot adobe, but what is curious is that
they are entered by ladder at the second
story. Once in a while you find
a ground door. The windows are
mere holes, though in some in
stances isinglass is fastened in.
The Incas built their dwellings low and
solid. There was nothing pretentious in the
uuisiue wans, wnicn were, tor themost part,
of rough hewn porpherv and grauitc, fitted
at the jointures with exquisite nicety. The
roof was commonly bell-shaped in form, and
built of tood and rnshes. Few buildings
ever reached a second 6tory, for the immense
area of ground built upon gave ample ac
commodation. The rooms, which opened
upon a square court, were lighted by means
of the doors above, and the latter were
curious as resembling close r the Egyptian
With dflnflnn cMn- .3 .!!..!: L l J i. . .
"--" --. "ua "uu uiiuiuisnea lintel.
he plain outer walls gave no idea of the
splendor within. Gold was abundant in the
mountains about, and most generously was
it lavished throughout the rooms, from top
to bottom. Niches about the walls held pots
and flowers of gold and silver, chairs and
tables, dishes, even parterres in the gardens
all glittering with these precious metils!
.No wonder the Spaniards brought home
wondrous tales of this El Dorado this
golden kingdom across the sea.
One of the most interesting models at the
DWELLING.
Exposition is a reed like structure resting
on poles in a miniature lake. This repre
sents the home of the lake dweller, whose
prototype existed in prehistoric times in
Switzerland and Ireland. Evidence goes to
show that these lake dwellers were descended
from a very ancient race that covered the
shores of the Baltic a rude race who did
not have the building instinct, who protected
themselves from wild beasts by means of
fires along the beach. Tney buried their
dead in stone chests, as did onr lake build
ers after them. As they grew more civilized
they ventured farther and farther into the
interior, and came finally to settle on the
Swiss lakes. While the first race left noth
ing but stone relics, we find implements of
bronze among the latter. The traces of this
ancient race of the bronze age have been
discovered very recently, and since the first
investigations thousands and thousands of
relics have come to light From the preser
vation of the piles and stakes at the bottom
of the lakes and the numerous relics,-wecan
construct a Lacustrine dwelling with toler
able accuracy.
The lake dwellers sought the lake for
safety, building their houses on platforms
fastened upon piles. The frames of the
louses were circular in form, 10 or 12 feet
in diameter, and covered with a mixture of
clay and wattles. Prom the remains of
parallel rows ef states from the plattorm
pues to tne snore we Know that the dwell
ings were connected with the mainland by
narrow bridges easily defensible in time of
danger.
Herodotus gives us a sketch of the Paro
nian dwellers on Lake Prasias, who must
have lived in somewhat the same way. The
Irish lake dwellers were of late origin.
Their huts were built in the midst of
swampo, shallow water being chosen in
preference to deep, as the former could be
filled up. Thus the Irish holder made an
artificial island for himself stockaded it
and dwelt like a baron in a castle with a
moat The modern race that most resemble
the ancient lake dwellers are the inhabitants
of New Guinea and Central Africa, where
the huts on the river are built both on piles
or on earth spread on the long grass.
There is a great gap between the prehis
toric and the historic periods, and we have
not as yet collected enough materials to
bridge it over. The Egyptians are the earli
est race of which we have anything like
definite knowledge, but sadly enough, the
records of the dwelling houses of this race,
as well as of the Assyrian, the Persian and
the Greek, are very deficient -The Egyp
tians were pre-eminently a building race,
and we know them from their buildings
alone. "We know, however, that the Egyp
tians bestowed as much nains on the houses
as they did on their rock-cut tombs, pyra
mids and obelisks. There was the same ex
actness in measurement the same nicety of
jointure. The earliest Egyptian houses
were built of sandstone, but later limestone
and suu-burnt brick came into rogue. A
common type of Egyptian dwelling
was a three-story structure, or more
correctlv, two stories, with an open
gallery.flankedwith miniature columns. The
better class of nouses were generally built
about a court on which rooms opened on
three, and sometimes four, sides. The open
courtyard held a reservoir for water or often
times a fountain. The visitor entered the
house through a massive porch, and could
pass by means of the staircase, which ran
through the center of the house, to the open
terrace above. Some times the houses con
tained two courts, one for visitors, the
other for the exclusive use of the women.
The grounds round about were worked over
into conventional gardens with artificial
ponds, trees in pots, etc., very much after
the fashion of the Japanese to-day. The
modern Egyptians have dwellings resem
bling, in a small way, those of their ances
tors. Here you find the two courts, the flat
roofs and the "open galleries, but the struc
tures are far less substantial and imposing.
Assyria has grand ruins, but ruinsthey
were early destined to be from the perisha
ble quality of the material. Sunburnt
bricks were universally used, and to secure
solidity the walls were
BUILT OP TEEMEXDOUS THICKNESS.
The Assvrian dwelling, as erected at
Paris, shows the type of the early private
houses. They were many stories in height,
had no windows on the lower story, the only
opening being at the entrance. As a rule
the roofs of the Assyrian houses were flat,
though early reliefs show us structures
capped with hemispherical and oval cupo
las the light being admitted through open
ings at the top. Within the walls, spread
with a layer of plaster and painted, were
set off by friezes and borders of glazed tiles.
The Chaldean clay was most admirably
suited for tile making, and from the relics
of the glazing that have come down to us
we tnOW IBannBClirijttaivuniu "" u-wi.
been roasters of the art The palaces of the
Assyrians were almost universally built of
Baton Pwgnyiruiis g "SV. , -Ty.
LAKE DVVi.L,LlG.
sun-burnt brick, with revetements or cov
erings of hewn stone, and from the preser
vation of the latter we learn considerable
about their architecture. The private
dwellings, however, were without this sub
stantial veneer, and nothing but rubbish
heaps mark their site. Theie is little temp
tation for the antiquarian to poke around
these mounds, when, by working at the old
palace sites, he can possibly unearth
a bit of sculptured revetement, rich with
suggestions of past centuries. Modern
Assyria, then, is a land of ruins and rub
bish. From the brick heaps scattered gen
erously about near and far the Assyrians of
to-day have gathered the materials for their
houses. The rounded and bruised corners
of yellowish-red bricks attest their age, and
the walls thus reconstructed are very
picturesque in their roughness. Like the
ancient piles, the houses rise to good height;
there is the same lack of windows, and the
entrance is very insignificent It is not an
uncommon sight in the Assyria of to-day to
see a projecting window over the highway
after the fashion of our American bow win
dows. Here the well-to-do Assyrian,with his
curling hookah, reclines at his ease, and
looks far up and down the 'street, or talks
with the passing neighbors. Often houses are
connected across the way. Again do we
find the custom of building the house about
a square interior court. The supper and
the sleeping rooms are all open to the air,
for in that climate there is little fear of
cold, chilly winds. So hot does it olten get
that many of the houses have subterranean
rooms.
BUILT ESPFCIALLTTO KEEP COOL IN.
The furniture of an Assyrian house is
simple. If a man is very well off he usually
affords the luxury of a bed raised on four
legs. The women are not regarded with
much deference. The children generallv ,
sleep on a mattress together, while the ser
vants have to be content with a simple mat.
Comparatively nothing is known of the
architecture of the early Persian dwelling.
They were without doubt built of very per
ishable material were simple and unosten
tatious in design. Of the roval dwellings
r we get some information. These were built
upon a grand scaie. J. no pian was common
ly oblong, with a square hall, the ceilings of
which were upheld by columns. The back
and sides of the hall led into apartments,
and in this respect the dwellings were very
similar to the better known Soman houses,
A modern Persian village is a very
cheerless place. The outside walls of
the houses are grim and uninvit
ing, they having no windows on
the street side. They are mostly structures
of unburnt brick, color of mud. The Per
sian proprietor, however, is satisfied with
decorating the inside walls, preferring to
make himself at home rather than cater to
the passer-by. He covers his sitting, or
living room, with soft felting, dots the floor
with great jars, big enough to play hide-and-seek
in, filled with grain and peas. In
one corner the silk quilts and the bedding
are neatly tied, up In bundles ready for the
night, while down from the ceiling hang
herbs and spices and fruits. Here and there
in the walls little alcoves are cut for the re
ception ot preserves and dishes. At one
end ot the room is a fireplace, but the most
common heating apparatus is what is known
luakorsee. XMsua shallow dish filled
HETTSBIERG-, STJITDAT, JUNE 16, , 1889.
with charcoal, over which is placed a
wooden frame hood, two feet high, open at
the sides. A quilt is then thrown over the
whole, and the family get together in a cir
cle and tuck their feet beneath the coverlid.
Sometimes an unlucky individual rolls
about in his sleep and gets his head under
the quilt, and is pulled out dead in the
morning.
OBIEXTAIi ABCnlTECTTJBE.
Let us turn now to the architecture of the
far East One of the most striking of the
exposition models is a tall, double-cupolaed
Hindoo dwelling, whose lower story strongly
utssyrian Dwelling,
resembles the Egyptian. The approach is
much more pretentious than the Assyrian,
but there is the same piling up of stories.
The distinctive feature, however, is the bal
cony tiers and the curvilinear pitch roof.
The modern Hindoo houses feel the in
fluence'of this early style, for to-day we see
the pillared verandas running up to the
heightof three stories. The modern houses
are built of brick, coated with cement, and
in manycases are connected by long stretches
of terraces, bounded by railings. Similar
railings border the flat roofs, a favorite re
sort in the warm evenings. The rooms are
generally very nigh studded and supplied
with a generous quantity of doors, many of
the rooms having a door pierced in
each wall. The Hindoos have a
curious method of cooling their, rooms.
Down from the ceiling and about seven feet
from the floor hangs a broad belt of Dainted
canvas called a pnnkah, with a rope aft
tached to swing it by, A few nulls at this
with the aid of the cross drafts from the four
doors, sends a delightful breeze through the
room. What paradise it would be lor the
lazy Hindoo to lie on his divan and refresh
himself with the cooling air from one of our
wooden revolving fans. Hindoo furniture
is heavy and richly carved, but what strikes
the traveler as queer is that each piece is set
perhaps a foot, from the wall. This is done
to protect the lipids and necks of the family
and their visitors from the attacks of in
sects that drop from the pictures and the
walls.
In Benar s, one meets with verv high
stone structures, sometimes built to the
height of seven stories.
A r ere is a very pretty model oftt Japanese
j dwelling at "the Exposition. Everything
connected with this unique race is interest
ing. The houses are not of a substantial
build, earthquakes and consequently fires
are too common. Wood and a combination
of clay and chopped straw with cement
nmsh are the most common materials,
very house is encircled by a balustraded
veranda on to which all the rooms open, and
in the better class of buildings a pretentious
portico shades the doorway. The gardens
that adorn every house are laid out witn
Painful exactness. Mountains and rills,
forests and fish ponds abound in miniature
on? aoscaPe f extraordinary diversity.
o ". are utlea UD scantilv within.
Stnfied straw matting cover the floors, and
here the Japanese squat and paint queer
pictures or eat their rice. The vjilnnhi" "f
Hindoo Dwelling
the household, instead of adorning the
house are stowed away in a separate fire
proof building on the "grounds. This store
room is covered with a coating of mud on
the outside one foot thick, while the win
dows are closed with metal shutters. To
further provide against fire the Japanese
keep a vessel full of liquid mud with which
to plaster their treasure-house at any given
moment
The collection of models at the Exposition
is very complete. Space does not allow to
describe the Greek and the Boman, the
Gothic and the Romanesque and thework
of the renaissance. But with these the
reader are familiar, for the continent is cov
ered with their monuments, and every
manual of architecture is -rich with their
history.
"I want 2,000 girls to pick straw
berries," was an advertisement in a Cincinnati
paper which sent about TOO girls on a wild-goose
chase to the country. Someone had done it
for a job on an old farmer.
IBS Jsibnir-Cf
wSBpMKbII H WPtflHiffltriiFf
HClWaMM iMKWW EOF
lTBfiliriii
' ' '
''' - -IF
G.W.CHILDS OMEANT
Some Pleasant Recollections of the
Great Commander.
HE DID NOT WANT A THIRD TERM.
AdTocatins the Appointment of the Electoral
Commission.
HE KETEE SAID OK DID A MEAN THING-
Goorge W. Childs, in next month's Lip
pincott's, will state his personal recollec
tions of General Grant Among other
' things Mr. Childs says:
General Grant was qot an ardent student.
Early in life he was somewhat of a novel
reader, but latterly he read history, biogra
phy and travels. ' He was a careful reader,
and remembered everything he read, but he
had nothing which could be distinctly
called cultivated literary taste. He was a
great reader of newspapers. I remember
once his coming to Long Branch when Gen
eral Sherman's work had just been pub
lished, and I asked him if he had read it
He said: No, he had not had time io read
it; and one of the persons present observed:
"Why, General, you won't find much in it
about yourself. He doesn't seem to think
you were in the war." The General said: "I
don't know; I have read some adverse criti
cisms, but I am going to read it and judge
for.mysell."
After he had read over the book carefully
and attentively, I asked him what he
thought of it. "Well," he said, "it has
done me full justice. It has given me more
credit than I deserved. Any criticism I
might make would be that I think he has
not done justice to Logan, Blair and other
volunteer generals. These men did their
duty faithfully, and I never believe in im
puting motives to people."
While living in Long Branch there was
hardly a Confederate officer that came to
the place without visiting the General. He
was always glad to see them, and with those
men he invariably talked over the war. The
General had a very high opinion of General
Joe Johnston, and always spoke of him as
being one of the very best of Southern Gen
erals, and at one of my dinners I had the
pleasure of getting Johnston, Grant and
Sherman together.
THE ELECTOEAL COMMISSION.
General Grant was staying with me in
Philadelphia during the canvass oi the
election between Tilden and Hayes, and on
the morning of the momentous day after the
election, when the returns gave "Tilden a
majority of all the electors, he accompanied
me to my office. In a few moments an emi
nent Bepublican Senator and one or two
other leading Bepublicans walked in, and
they went over the returns. These leaders,
notwithstanding the returns, said. "Hayes
is elected," an opinion in which the others
coincided. General Grant listened to them, j
du( said nothing. Alter they had settled
the matter in their own minds, he said,
"Gentlemen, it looks to me as if Mr. Tilden
was elected." He afterward sent for me in
Washington, and said, "This matter is very
complicated, and the people will not be
satisfied unless something is done in regard
to it which will look like justice. Now,"
he continued, "I have spoken of an Electoral
Commission, and the leaders of the party
are opposed to it, which I am sorry to see.
They say if an Electoral Commission is ap
pointed jou might as well punt in Mr.
TflaeaV r w5uTd sooner ffave Mr. Tilden
than that the Bepublicans should have a
President who could be stigmatized as a
Iraud. If I were Mr. Hayes I would not
have it unless it were settled in some way
outside the Senate. This matter is opposed
by the leading Bepublicans in the House
and Senate and throughout the country."
President Grant Invited the leading Be
publican Senators to dine with him to meet
me and to get their views. He said to me :
"You see the feeling here. I find them
almost universally opposed to anything like
an Xiieciorai commission. J. named a
leading Bemocrat in the House (Samuel J.
Bandall), who was perhaps one of the most
prominent men in the country, a man of
great influence and of great integrity of
character, whom it would be well for Gen
eralGrant to see in the matter, and the sug
gestion was acted on. I sent for Mr. Ban
dall to come to the White House, and put
the dilemma to him in President Grant's
name as follows : "It is very hard for the
President and. very embarrassine to men on
his own side that this matter does not seem
to find favor with them, besides having
Democratic opposition. Bepublicans think
you might as well count Tilden in, but, as
the feeling throughout the country demands
as honest a count of the vote as possible,
this Electoral Commission ought to be ap
pointed." PIGHTING FOE HIS PAETY.
The answer at once was that the Demo
crats would favor it, and it was through
that gentleman and General Grant that the
plan was carried through. There is another
point of politics not generally known.
During General Garfield's canvass Garfield
became very much demoralized. Then fol
lows a record of the part taken by Conkling,
Bandall, General Patterson, etc., in the
matter of the Electoral Commission, after
which Mr. Childs remarks: He said that
he thought that the Bepublicans would not
carry Indiana, and he was doubtful if they
would carry Ohio. During that emergency
strong appeals t ere made to General Grant,
and he at once threw himself into the
beach. He saw his strong personal friends
and told them they must help. There was
one very strong man, a Senator, whom Gen
eral'Grant sent for and told him that he
must turn in, and, though he first declined,
at General Grant's, urgent solicitation he
entered the field and contributed handsome
ly to the victory. General Grant went into
the canvass with might and main. The
tide was turned, and it was through General
Grant's personal efforts, seconded by his
strong personal friends, who did not feel
any particular interest in Garfield's elec
tion, that he was elected.
As to General Grant's third term, he
never by word or by letter ever suggested to
anyone that he would like to be nominated
for a third term. Neither Mr. Conkline
nor General Logan nor Senator Cameron
had any assurance from him in any way
that he wished the nomination, and they
proceeded in that fight without any author
ity from him whatever. His heart was not
on a third term at all. He had had enough
of politics. After his second term he told
me. "I feel like a boy out of school." At
first General Grant intended to decline. In
his conversation with me he said, "It is
very difficult to decline a thing which has
never been offered," and before he left this
country for the West Indies, I said, "Gen
eral, yon leave this matter in the hands of
your friends." He knew I was opposed to
a third term, and his political friends were
in favor of it, not merely as friends, but be
cause they thought he was the only man
who could be elected. There is not a line
of his in existence in which he expressed
any desire to have that nomination.
Toward the last, when the canvass became
very hot, I suppose his natural feeling was
that he should like to win. That was nat
ural. But be never laid any plans. He
never encouraged or abetted anything
toward a third term movement
He was very magnanimous to those who
differed With him, and when I asked him
what distressed him most in his political
life, he said, "To be deceived by those I
trusted." He had a gooda many distresses.
TUB FATAL CANCEB.
When attention was first directed to his
disease he told me ho had a dryness in his
throat and it seemed to trouble him and
whenever he ate a peach, of which he was
very fond, he always suffered pain. I said
Dr. Da Costa, one-of the most eminent phy
sicians in the couptry, was coming down to
Long Branch to spend a few days with me.
He was an old friend and would be glad to
look into the matter. Dr. Da Costa, on ar
riving, went over to the General's house,
examined his throat carefully, gave a pre
scription ana asKca tne uenerai woo nu
lamiiy pnysician was. uenerai uram saia
Dr. Eordyce Barker, and he was advised to
see him at once. I could see that the Gen
eral was suffering a good deal, though he
was uncomplaining, and durinr the summer
several times he asked me if I had seen Dr.
Da Costa, and seemed to want to know ex
actly what was the matter with him. Gen
eral Grant, after he got worse, said to me:
"I want to come to Philadelphia and stay a
few days with you and have a talk with Dr.
Da Costa." He was not afraid of the dis
ease after he knew all about it, and the last
time I saw him, just before he went to
Mount McGregor, he said: "Now, Mr.
Childs, I have been twice within half a
minute of death, -I realize it fully, and my
life was only preserved by the skill and at
tention of mv Dhvsicians. I have told them
the next time to let me go."
The uenerai had great will power, ana
the determination to finish his book kept
him up. He quickly made up his mind
that his disease would prove fatal, but he
was resolute to live until his work was done.
He said: "If I had been an ordinary man
I would have been dead long ago."
In good health General Grant would
smoke a dozen very large, strong cigars a
day; but he could stop smoking at any
time. He told me' that toward the latter
part of the summer of 1831 he was smoking
fewer and milder cigars, perhaps two or
three a day. In February of 1885 he ex
pected to pay me a visit. He wrote saying:
"The doctor Will not allow me to leave
until the weather gets warmer. I am now
quite well in every way, except a swelling
of the tongue above the root, and the same
thing in the tonsils just over it. It is very
difficult for me to swallow enough to main
tain my strength, and nothing gives me so
much pain as to swallow water." I asked
him about that and he said: "If you could
.imagine what molten lead wonld be going
down your throat, that is what I ieel when
I am swallowing." In that letter he
farther said: "I have not smoked a cigar
since about the 20th of November; tor a
day or two I felt as though I would like to
smoke, bnt after that I never thought of It"
HIS CLOSEST TBIEND.
The man who was perhaps nearer to him
than anyone in his Cabinet was Mr. Hamil
ton Fish. He had the greatest regard lor
the latter's judgment It was more than
friendship: it was genuine affection be
tween them, and General Grant always ap
preciated Mr. Fish's staying in his Cabinet,
as Mr. Fish, if he had been governed by his
own feelings, would not have done so. I
know it was General Grant's desire to have
Mr. Fish as his successor to the Presidency.
Apropos of the Indian matter, he told me
that, as a young Lieutenant, he had been
thrown among the Indians and had seen the
unjust treatment they had received at the
hands of the white men. He then made up
his mind if he ever had any influence or
power it should be exercised to try to
ameliorate their condition, and the Indian
Commission was his own idea. He wished
to appoint the very best men in the United
States. He selected William Welsh, Will
iam E. Dodge, Felix Brunot, of Pittsburg;
Colonel Bobert Campbell, of St. Louis, and
George H. Stuart, ot Philadelphia. They
were of the Indian Commission which he bad
endeavored to establish, and they always
could count upon him in. aiding them in
every possible way. He took the greatest
interest always in the commission, and
never lost that interest. Even to his last
moments he watched the progress of the
matter, but it was a very difficult affair to
handle at anytime, and then especially, as
there was a great Indian ring to break up.
He was of a very kindly nature, generous
to a fault, I would often remonstrate with
him, and say, "General, yon can't afford to
do this," and I would try to keep people
away from him. In the case of one sud
scription, when they wanted him to con
tribute to a certain matter which I did not
think he was able to do, I wonld not let
them go near him. Some injudicious per
son went, and he subscribed $1,000.
General Grant's home life, his veneration
for his mother and family, his unjust treat
ment by General Halleck, his lite at Long
Branch, etc., are then related, and Mr.
Childs, resuming, says: Once he had two
cases of petition. He said, "I did a thing
to-day that gave me a great pleasure. There
was a poor Irish woman who had a boy in
the army, and she came down from New
York and spent all her money. She had
lost several boys in the army, and this one
she wished to get out of the service to help
support her. I gave her an order and was
very glad to do it," but he did not add that
he gave her also some money. "In contrast
to that there was a lady of a very distin-
fuished family of New York, who came
ere and wanted me to remove her son from
Texas. He was an officer in the army, and
I told her I could not do that. My rich
petitioner then said, 'Well, could yon not
remove his regiment?' This would have in
volved a cost of 8100,000." General Grant
didn't hesitate a moment to refuse a rich
woman's unreasonable request, bnt it gave
him pleasure to grant the petition of a poor
Irish woman.
KIND TO THE POOB.
He was very kind to the poor, and in fact
to everybody, especially to widows and
children of army officers. I gave him the
names of quite a number of army officers'
sons for appointment in the navy or army.
He said: "I am glad to have these. I
like to appoint army and navy men's chil
dren, because they have no political in
fluence." One-tenth of his appointments
were the children of deceased army or na
val officers, yonng men without influence to
get into West Point. There was hardly an
army man, Confederate or Union, who was
not a friend of General Grant. For Gen
eral Sheridan he had an affectionate regard,
and I have often heard him say that he
thought Sheridan the greatest fighter that
ever lived, and if there was another war he
wonld be the leader.
As to General Fijz-John Porter's case, I
spoke to him during the early stages of it,
at a time when his mind had been preju
diced by some around bim, and when he
was very busy. Afterward, when he looked
into the matter, he said that he was only
sorry that he had so long delayed making
the examination he ought to have done. He
felt that it ever a man had been treated
badly Porter was. He had examined the
case most carefully, gone over every detail,
and he was perfectly well satisfied that Por
ter was right He wanted to do everything
in his power to have him righted, and his
only regret was that he should have neg
lected it so long and allowed Porter to rest
under Injustice.
There are few men who would take a
back track, as General Grant did, so pub
licly, so determinedly and so consistently
right through I had several talks with
him in regard to General Porter, and he
was continually reiterating his regrets that
he had not done justice to him when he had
the opportunity. He ran counter to a
great many of his political friends in this
matter, hut his mind was absolutely clear.
Not one man in a thousand would go back
ou his record in such an affair, especially
when he was not in accord with the Grand
Armv or his strong political friends. Gen
eral Grant went into the question most care
fully, and his publications show how
thoroughly he examined the subject, but
he never wavered after his mind was set
tled. Then he set to work to repair the in
jury done -forter. It General Grant had
had time to examine it while he was Presi
dent he would have carried it through.
That was his great regret. He felt that
while he had power he could have passed it,
and ought to have done it When General
Grant took pains and time to look into the
subject no amount of personal feeling or.
menosnif ior others would feepumirom
-'i.C
doing the right thing. He could not be
swerved from the right in any case.
A PUES MAN.
Another marked trait of his character was
his purity in every way. I never heard him
express an impure thought or make an in
delicate illusion. There is nothing I ever
heard him say that could not be repeated in
the presence of women. He never used pro
fane language. He was very temperate in
eating and drinking. In his own family,
unless guests were present, he seldom drank
wine. If a man were brought np for an ap
pointment, and it was shown that he was an
Immoral man, he would not appoint him, no
matter how great the '"pressure brought to
bear by friends.
General Grant wonld sit in my library
with four or five others chatting freely, and
doing perhaps two-thirds of the talking.
Let a stranger enter whom he did not know,
and he would say nothing more during that
evening. That was one peculiarity ot his.
He wouldn't talk to people unless he under
stood them. At a dinner party among inti
mate friends he would lead in the conversa
tion, but any alien element would seal his
tongue. This great shyness or reticence
sometimes, pethaps, made him misunder
stood. I never heard him say, nor did I ever
know him to do, a mean thing. His entire
truthfulness, his perfect honesty, were be
yond question. I think of.him, now that he
is dead, with ever-increasing admiration: I
I can recall no instance of vanity, of bombast
or self-laudatlon. He was one ot the great
est, one of the most modest, of men.
DIPOfiTANT PAPEES LOST.
Some of the Cartons Legal SeaaoU to the
Flood.
There are other losses, difficulties and em
barrassments beyond all yet Jndicatsd that
may come in the wake of this deluge, says
the Philadelphia Ledger. Great numbers
of Important papers and documentary evi
dence have been washed away and in part
or wholly destroyed evidences of debts due
or of credits claimed notes, bills, bonds,
agreements, contracts, book accounts
memoranda of work and labor done--and
papers relating to all of the great variety of
relations between debtor and creditor and
employer and employed. It will require
the highest exercise of honesty, eqnity and
forbearance to bring justice and right out of
the coil that might come from the loss of
such a mass of papers. Fortunately, Johns
town is not a county seat, or there might
have to be added the destruction of court
X MODEiar
dockets, the records of deeds, wills, leases
and other documents relating to the titles of
real- property which would have caused
enormous trouble.
But the greatest ot all the embarrass
ments yet to be mentioned that relating
to the inheritance of real property
growing out of the impossibility of proving
the precise'moment of the death of any
property owner, husband, wile, father, son,
sister, brother, who was overwhelmed, and
who perished in this cataclysm; the kin
dred impossibility of proving which of sev
eral direct or possible heirs, grantees, or de
visees perished beiore the other: and the still
further impossibility, in the instances of
unrecovered or unrecognized dead, of prov
ing even the fact of death itself. These un
provable facts touch and affect the descent
of property the inheritance of property
and there must be a large number of in
stances wherein such questions must arise,
seeing that the major part of whole com
munities, as well as whole families, have
been destroyed hundreds, perhaps thou
sands, at the same instant, so far as we can
tell and other hundreds, and perhaps
thousands, have gone out of human sight
nobody can tell where.
Only lawyers can fully understand what
dlthcumes, whit long-continuea litigation
and losses may arise from the uncertainty as
to whether the father perished first or the
child; whether the wife was the first to die
or the husband; whether a brother or sister
lived a moment longer than the father or
mother; for upon such survivorship depends,
in many instances, the direction that prop
erty must take under our inter-State laws
or in the execution of wills; for here all of
a family, or all of, them, at least, who did
Iierisb, went at one fell swoop, without
eaving sign or trace as to the moment of
the decease of anyone of them. And what
an opportunity there is for pretenders and
false claimants of kinship.
THE C0C0ANUT CEAB.
A Thief Whose Depredatlona Are Carried on
In the Acalaliland Groves.
Scientific American.!
On the Agala Islands, in the Indian
ocean, there is a very strange crab. He is
known to science as the birgus Intro, or
thief crab, and his depredations are carried
on in the cocoanut groves, which abound on
these islands. This crab grows to be 22
inches long, measuring from the tip of his
tall to the end of the long claw, and resem
bles in general appearance the hermit
crab. The abdomen is fleshy and not cov
ered with a shell, and in order to protect
this it is the habit of the thief crab to take
forcible possession of a shell of the Trochial
family, in which it lives.
It is nocturnal in its operations, and has
the faculty of selecting the trees having the
finest cocoanuts upon them. Climbing up
the trunks, frequently for 25 feet, it reaches
the limbs and severs the stems which attach
the nuts to the branches. These are fre
quently as thick as your three fingers and
would reauire a strong knife. Havine
.brought down the cocoanut, the crab now
descends to the ground, digs a hole and rolls I
the cocoanut into it. lie then commences
to tear off the husks, fiber by fiber, until
the nut is completely exposed, and then
breaking in what is known as the eye be
eats the meat completely out The fibers
stripped off the cocoanut "by the crab will
frequently fill a bushel basket, and they are
gathered for making mattresses, and are also
twisted into ropes.
Cocoanut groves are cultivated by those
who make a business of extracting the oil
from the nuts, to be used for illuminating
purposes, and the depredations ot the crab
are of a very serious character, in many
cases the efforts of the natives to extermin
ate them proving fruitless.
Out Hnntlna.
Judge.! '
"My dear fellow, you can't imagine how I
felt the first time I caughtsight of a squirrel
area, live squirrel! My heart jumped
into my throat WhatjoyI What emotion!
I raised my gun to my shoulder, took aim
and fired. The gun went off-all right"
- 'Tesjlhopeyon didn't mus"
.o-uu so uiu us squirrel.
HOW DOTH THE BEE?
Some Interesting Facts About the
Bnsy Gatherer of Honey.
A BATTLE BETWEEN TWO QUEENS.
Winged
Brigands Bobbing Each. Other';
Stores of Golden Dew.
THE APIAEI'3 LIMITED 3I05ABCIT
Lwsrrrzx job tub dispatch.!
DID you ever
stop to think
when yon are
tickling your
palate with a
morsel of honey,
of the enormous
amount of labor
expended in fill
ing thetiny cells
that go to make
up a comb of
honey, of tho
trips over hill
and valley,
clambering into
blossoms and out
again, toiling;
with a persist
ence and energy
1 1 fmtbat has through
H a proverb? I
spent a day not Ion; since on a bee farm or
apiary in Lawrence county and there
learned a great deal of these interesting
creatures.
While seated upon a bench under an apple
tree I listened for hours to my friend the
bee farmer telling of the wonderfnl ways of
his pets. I observed quite a commotion
among a number of the bees at the entrance
to a hive, and in answer to my question,
"What seems to be the trouble there?" my
informant said: "Oh, they have got hold of
a stranger there, and.as he is not loaded np
they will not let him in, as they conclude
he is a suspicious character. I tell yon bees
APIABT.
know more than men,
at least than some
men I know."
At this little burst of enthusiasm I said
nothing, and he continued: "If he was
loaded they would let him in and deposit '
his load, and if he stayed all night he would
be accepted as one of them. It is a young
one and he has struck the wropghlve, a
thing they seldom do, but if he stays all
night he knows better than to go back home,
as his own family would then have nothing
to do with him."
A ITKKVE TESTES.
At this juncture one of them came
buzzing nervously near, at which I became
uneasy, but was told to keep quiet and not
get scared, and it would not bother me.
Then, as if for the express purpose of testing
my nerves, the little fiend came buzzing
right up to within six inches of my nose,
where he poised himself on wing. Sum
moning up my couraze I looked him steadily
in the eye without flinching.
"It is" just coming over to investigate.
Keep cool and it will not sting yon," said
the farmer. -
My nerves were by this time at a pretty
high tension, as I was expecting every mo
ment to get it on the end of the nose, when
it suddenly started off, much to my relief.
"I have to be very careful when taking
off honey," continued the farmer, "for, if I
should let any drip on the grass, they would
soon detect it, and quickly come to the con
clusion that there were robbers in camp, and
the only way to get even would be by re-
IHetureaque Old-TasMoned Hive.
taliation. Then comes a desperate attack
on some weak hive, which, if they can over
power, they will break open the comb and
rob of its last drop. Sometimes, when a
hive is weak and not able to protect itself, I
take a quart or so of bees from some strong
hive and put them in about dask. After
staying in all night, they will fight lika
fury for the very hive they Were trying to
rob the day before. I tried
SHTJTTEIO THE BOBBERS IIT
Ktr Tmftint ft hiapa nf Tiri net flr tllft en.
trance, but the rascals immediately began to
hand the honey through the bars to their
companions on the outside, so I had to
double the net, putting it about an inch,
apart, and then 1 outwittea tnem. J. nave
to be very careful not to get robbing started,
as it is "so contagious I can hardly get-it
stopped."
"When do they commence to swarm?" I
asked.
"Well, that denends on the weather. Bees
like warm weather, and June and July are ,.1
the months when the most swarms come on;
hut I have taken off swarms in April, which
is not a common occurrence in this lati
tude." "Is it not a .dangerous business to hive a
swarm?"
"Oh, no; not if yon understand working
with bees. Ot course I use this veil. Ton
see His fastened to the brim of my hat and
I just tuck the ends under my coat collar
and then they cannot get near my face or
neck, although tbey sometimes strike
against it in such numbers and with such
force that it feels as though some one was
throwing hahdfulsof gravel at me. I al
ways wear this hat in case ot an emergency.
The other day I was out here mowing clover
hmmiMY4
miiraii
HliVll7 Jlltn
-Vivntl' illlll
'r'JIML'sdt witSZ3L swot x
M
- .