Pittsburg dispatch. (Pittsburg [Pa.]) 1880-1923, April 07, 1889, SECOND PART, Page 15, Image 15
zv M1 M!J THEUMOrOFDREAMS Visions That Are Prophetic of Actual Occurrences. PHANTOMS OP THE NIGHT Bringing Presages of Happiness or Forebodings of Evil. HELPED BI HER ANGEL BROTHER. The Strange Story of the Lady 171111 the Purple Eyes. ACCIDENTS FORESEEN AND FORETOLD tWWITlX rOK TBI DISFJLTCn.2 The following article has been prepared from material collected by the American Society of Psychical Research: The insight we have into our dream-life a life in which we pass fully one-half of our existence is at the best very incomplete. The keenest minds have worked at the problem, irom the Greek philosophers down, but in every case they have proved too little or too much. Multitudes of facts are known about dreams, sheets of statistics have been written, but our very material, founded as it is on actual experience, shows how infinitely varied are the conditions of dreaming. They seem to admit of no law. Some persons dream constantly, others not at all. Plutarch tells of Cleon, who lived to an advanced age without ever having dreamed. It would seem .sometimes as If onr dreams depended solely upon our bodily health, as in the case of a man mentioned by Locke, who, taken ill with a fever at 26 years of age, dreamed forthe first time. But as against this it has been gradually ac cepted that the most cemmon age for dreams is in the early twenties. Darwin de clared that our dreams toward morning were much more varied and colored than those of the early night. Again, it is said that in the deepest sleep processes of the mind are apt to fall into more normal operation and we have the most vivid dreams. Elsewhere we read of the sweet, dreamless repose of the laborer contrasted with the nightmares of the nervous and wakeful. THE LATVS OP DREAMS. In trying to deduce the laws, many a writer fias declared that all mental opera tions that are independent of the will may be active during sleep. But the very fact that we recollect our dreams proves th'at we have paid attention to them, or, in other words, have exercised our will. Others say that in our dreams the reasoning iacultv is absent, but we know of many a dream that would refute this assertion. Condillac, the eminent metaphysician, was more than once enabled to untangle, while asleep, problems that had posed him on the previous day. So Condorcet often solved his problems. Tartini composed his "Sonata del Diavilo" in a dream wherein the devil challenged him to play. But in spite of the variety of conditions attendant upon our dream life, many gener al facts have been collated. The nerves, so far as we know, varying infinitely in the de grees ot sensibility (the finest in the brain), are the most direct means of communication between the mind and body through which they run. The brain nerves, being much more susceptible to loss of energy through their extreme sensibility, must at times sus pend their operations and become repaired by sleep. 2sow ourMreams go to prove that this suspension is not always complete; that while the grosser nerves, susceptible of ex terior influences, may be inoperative, the fine branches are sometimes active, which seems to show that impressions too light to disturb the -coarser nerves can still be tar ried through them to the finer mechanism of the brain. Examples of this are com mon. Persons talkintr in their sleep are often led from one subject to another bv questions being put to them sometimes dis closing very dear secrets. 1,000 YEABS HT A NIGHT. Just as in this case of transmission throuch the sense of hearing, so all the senses may act upon tne Drain in toe sleeping as well as in the waking state, the difference being in the comparative vividness of the sensations. We do not hear loud noises in our dreams, nor are we conscious of brilliant lights; onr impressions are more subdued and quiet. How noiselessly we runl With what slip pery glides do we float down staircases and through doors! Another curions fact is that while the combinations of time or place, situation or incident, in dreams are generally incongru ous and confusing, the individual forms are never so. but are clothed in the same char acteristics that we recognize in our waking state. This confusion is accounted for by the depression of the discriminating or com paring power which serves in our conscious state to sift the probable from the improb able. Xet the depression or cessation of this power is not by any means constant, as witness the anecdote of Condillac above. Gabanis tells us th3t Dr. Franklin was wont to form remarkably correct estimates on personal character through his dreams, and so much so that he used to regard them almost with reverence. The rapidity of thought in dreams is sur prising. De Quincy declared that he had lived a thousand years in one night. Lord Brougham tells how, dictating to an amanu ensis, he often fell asleep between the pauses of the dictation to be awakened by the writer's repeating the last word. The in tervals could not have been more than a few seconds that is. sufficient time to write eight or ten words yet Brougham declared that his short-lived dreams covered immense stretches of time. PEOPHETIC VISIONS. One of the most difficult things to dispose of in dreams is the so-called prophetic or portentous clement; where events have either been foretold, or communicated at the time of or after occurrence through the sole medium of the dream. Records of such portentous dreams are at hand from the Old Testament times to our own days. The greatest men always had astounding dreams. Socrates, while in prison,"is said to have dreamt that a fair woman, clad in pure white, appeared to him and announced the day on which he should die. Tne dream was fulfilled exactly. Oliver Cromwell de clared that when very young, a tall power ful woman appeared to him at his bedside, and, After regarding him thoughtfully for awhile, assured him that he would grow to be the greatest man in England. We com monly put aside such stories as being of too uncertain coinage or, if on some founda tion, as being too plainly adulterated with coloring matter. Chance is an ample waste basket, and items of this kind even, when authenticated, generally find a resting place there. Very lately, however, some considerable serious interest has been aroused in collect ing strange cases of dreams and apparitions. So frequent is the occurrence of remarkable dreams, well authenticated by responsible witnesses, that societies of scientific men have been formed devoted to their examina tion. Their scientific researches have awak ened an enormous interest outside, as is evinced by the cases that are continually coming in. REBECCA IS KILLED. - DjInK iinn Foresees on Accident In Wblcb BI Wire Is Injsred. The following case, one of presentiment, was reported early in January, 1888, by a lady residiag In Jamaica Plain. Her father had been ill for some weeks, and she had had almost the entire care of him day and night. She says: "One sight I was awakened by a loud cry from Kim no un usual thing, for he was often delirious, and talced loudly in his sleep. 1 heard him sav: 'Is she killed? Stop himl and when I ran to his bedside I found him trembling violently, bathed in a cold sweat, and yet seemingly awake. I tried to soothe him, but he clung to mv arm, repeating his cries. I said: "What is it, father? No one is killed. You are here with me!' 'Oh, nol Rebecca, my wife, is hurt Do you not see the horse running? The hueerv is all bro- Jken and Bebecca is lying there. Gfo to her ana see it sue is Killed. J. tnea in vain u quiet him; he moaned and cried, repeating: 'The horse is running, and my wife is hurt. It must have been a half hour before I could awaken him sufficiently to know he was at home and mother upstairs safe. Then he would say: 'It was so real so reall' In the morning I asked him if he remembered his dream. He said he did, and that it seemed as though he was awakeall the time. Then he said again: 'I thought "mother was in South Middleboro the adjoining town, and that the horse ran away and she was thrown; but I could n6t see if she was alive; she lav on her face, but the horse ran awav down the road, and the buggy was broken all to pieces.' "I told my stepmother that father dreamed she had been hurt by the horse running.and we both thought no more about it then. But about 10 o'clock my stepmother prepared to drive to South Jliadlehoro.saymg she would be back by 12. Father seemed rather nerv ous after she had gone, and when 12 o'clock came and mother had not arrived he seemed very much troubled, and begged me to watch at the window for her. An hour later a messenger appeared with the news that the horse had become frightened and had ran, throwing Mrs. W. from the carriage, and that she had been taken up unconscious, and was unable to be brought home then. Inquiry showed that all had happened as my lather dreamed. The next day, when she was brought home most severely cut and bruised, she told us that during all her drive she had thought of father's dream, and felt a sense of danger. This was my father's last illness, for he never recovered even enough to leave his room between January and the following July." THE LADY WITH THE PURPLE EYES. Dreaming of a Japanese Actress and Then Meeting Her in New Tork. Here is a case wherein the narrator hap pens upon the living counterpart of a strange dream creation. His letter, dated from New York, December 8, 1887, was, in substance, as follows: His dream carried him to Japan. He appeared to be in a theater or in some hall where a play was being given. Near by he noticed three young women, one of whom attracted his attention particularly. His description is minute: "Her face was of a very light yellowish hue; her hair was very yellow, strangest of all was her eyes they were perfectly round, the white ot the eye showing very little; they were purple in color, and they were without pupils the iris appeared to have grown all over the eye. The young lady separated herself from her companions and I followed. We came to a bridge over a small gully; as she reached the center of the bridge she stopped and leaned over the hand-rail, which in stantly broke, and she fell into the gully. I awoke a few minutes before 8 o'clock, with the face and peculiar eyes still before me. I lived in Thirty-first street then, near Eighth avenue. After breakfast I got into an Eighth avenue car to go down town. At Twenty-second street the car stopped to let a gentleman get off; he was lame, and moved slowly. The driver became impatient. Unknown to the driver or conductor a young lady was wait ing to get on the car, on the same side the gentleman was leaving. As soon as the gentleman was off the car, the conductor pulled the bell strap, and the same instant the young lady attempted to mount the step. I stood upon the. platform and saw her face distinctly. It was the young woman I had seen in the dream of the night before, absolutely the same in every feature except the color of the skin. At the instant she put her foot upon the step the car started quickly and she was thrown violently to the pavement. Several people went to her aid, and the -car continued on its way. I had never known her or any body resembling her. I. had completely forgotten the incident, when, as I was doz ing upon the sofa, I fell asleep, and in a moment I saw the young woman again; this time in her own home, sitting in an easy chair, and her husband standing bv a grate fire holding a little girl on his snouiaer. iter eyes were exactly lite those of her mother, whom she creatlv resembled. I have never seen this young woman ex cept tnat one instant when she was thrown from the car. I have searched dilieentlv. but I cannot find a trace of her. Perhaps I snail near inrtner irom you. A MOTHER'S VISION. Hearing From Her Dcnd Son the Story ot His Murder. Differing from the cases just cited is this one, an extraordinary instance of thought transference. The particulars were con tributed by a thoroughly responsible person, and seem to be amply supported. During the fifties, a certain Mr. and Mrs. Stewart were residing at Bushford, N. Y. Their only son, having just finished his school days at the time of this story, had left home for Kansas. This State was in the midst of the slavery troubles, and the boy found him selrdeep in the turbulent excitement of the time. The mother, far East, felt no little anxiety for her son, and as the Kansas troubles increased her worrying began to prey seriously upon her. One night not far from midnight, she woke her husband with a scream. He always addressed her as mother. "Mother, what is the matter?" said he. "Why! don't you see Johnny there? He says to me: Mother, they've shot me. The bullet entered right here,' and he pointed to a hole right over his right eyel" Mr. Stewart (the man's name) replied: "I don't see any thing, mother. You've been dreaming." "No, I have not been dreaming. I was as wide awake as 1 am now." He tried to calm her, bat she wept all the rest of the night "The next morning he called me In," writes a friend, "and they both told me of her experiences, she still maintaining that she was wide awake. They always slept with a lamp partially turned down in their room. She maintained that she both saw 'her son (Johnny) and heard his voice. She be came more calm, however, after a few days, and quite likely nursed a hope that Bhe had been the subject of a hallucination. Two weeks afterward, however, the yourig man that went with young Stewart to Kansas re turned. The first thing he did was to visit Mr. Stewart at his law office, and to narrate to him there that on a certain day, at 4 o'clock P. M., s. Missouriau shot Johnny, the ball entering his head just above the right eye. Moreover, the day of the shoot ing proved to be the very day on which Mrs. Stewart had her vision, at night, about six hours after the shooting. I was their nearest, most familiar and most trusted neighbor. I never knew that before this she entertained anv ot the superstitions of the low. I think not Prom that expe rience, however, she became a stanch be liever in spiritualism. 1 had, myself, in 1856, lost a little daughter. 9 vears of ace. and after her son's death she told me that Johnny came to her window one night, tapped oh it, and she asked, 'Who's there?' The reply was, 'Johnny. I have found Plorett' That was my daughter's name. FOREWARNED OP DEATH. Strange Visions Preceding a Visit From the Grim Reaper. Often the visions point to no definite con clusion, as in an instance cited December 28, 1887, at Westerville, O. The writer had lost his daughter nearly two years previous to .the event about to be related. "My son," he writes, "lived at Paris, Ky., about 220 miles from us. We had contemplated visit ing him about Christmas, but on the night of November 22 I dreamed of seeing my daughter at aome distance; then, in a fen- THE moments, I saw in my dream my son and daughter meet together just in front of a heautifuMmght cloud; thea, inlay dream, I called to my wife and said to her, 'O, Mar garet! look, yonder come Johnny and Martha, coming hornet Come and see, quick!' Then, in my dream, I -took hold of her to show to her our dear children. Then, in my dream, when I turned and looked for them they had disappeared ont of my sight I then woke up, and the clock struck 12. The dream impressed me so I could not get it off my mind, and at 10 o'clock next morn ing we got a telegram that our dear boy had been thrown from a buggy and killed. Now, as to anything further, when I related my dream to my wife at the breakfast table the morning after the dream, she said to me: 'Mr. James, I don't know why it is, but the college bell disturbs me so I can hardly eat, and has ever since yesterday, saying, 'it sounds like it was tolling for the death of somebody.' Ity about two hours after that we got that dreadful telegram telling us of the death of our dear son, who died and passed out of my sight just as I awoke out of my dream. Whether there was any thing in the dream tending to warn us of the death of our dear son or not, I shall never forget the strange dream or vision I had in regard to his death and our daugh ter meeting him. One thing I do know, God is able to give us visions and tells us what He does. Now we know not.but shall know hereafter: so we will take God at His word, trusting in Him, and waiting for His revelation hereafter. Very often a tendency for strange dreams, or presentiments, seems to run through a whole .family. In the instance just cited among letters received corroborating what had been stated was one from a married daughter of the writer of the above. This lady, who, by the way, persists that she is not at all superstitious, declares that some days before her mother's death she distinctly saw a hearse roll up to the door. The hearse was drawn by white horses. This vision made a deep impression upon her; so much so that upon relating it the next morning she remarked that she knew some one in the family would die very soon. Again she had seen this strange vision shortly before the death of her husband some years previous. A CHILD'S DREAM. Her Dead Brother Helps Her la Her In fantile Distress. In all the cases so far cited the dreams have foretold a calamity. It is pleasing to turn to a child's story, a story that is as beautiful as it is simple. The dream has been thoroughly investigated, and the truth of the case is beyond doubt The writer is a Southerner, residing in Texas. He says: "About five years ago I lived with my four children, one boy and tnree girls, on a farm in Massachusetts. This only son, at the age of 14 vears, lost his lite in an accident about six months previous to this narration. The youngest of my girls was) the pet sister of his since her birth. My wife had died some six years previous to this story; being motherless made these children unusu ally affectionate toward each other. One day I had occasion to buy for my girls each a very small lady's knife, about 2 inches long. A few days after ward the girls received company irom our neighbors' girls, some five or six of them. My youngest one, some 8 or 9 years old, was so delighted with this, her first knife, that she carried it with her at all times. During the afternoon the children strolled to the large barn, filled with hay, and at once set to climbing the xnow to play, ana jumping on the hay. During the excitement of the play my little girl lost her knife. This ter rible loss nearly broke her heart, and all hands set to work to find the lost treasure, but without success. This finally broke up the party in gloominess. In spite of my greatest efforts to pacify the child with all sorts of promises, she went to bed weeping. "During the night the child dreamed that her dead dear, beloved brother came to her, taking her by the hand, saying: 'Come, my darling, I will show you where your little knife is,' and, leading her to the barn, climbing the mow, showed her the knife, marking the place. The dream was so life like that she awoke, joyfully telling her sister that her brother had been here, and showing her where she would find her knife. Both girls hastily dressed, and, running to the barn, the little girl, assisted by her sis ter, got on top of the hay, and walked direct to the spot indicated by her brother, and found the knife on top of the hay. The whole party said they had all looked there many times the day before, and insisted that the knife was not there then." The little girl, when questioned, declared that, on awaken ing after her dream, she felt really sure that she could walk right to her 'knife. After reaching the loft she ran'ahead of her sister, and without the slightesfchesitation, reached down for the knife, saying: 'Here brother picked the knife up out of Uhe hay, Uh, here it is. SIFTING THE EVIDENCE The Care Exercised by the Psychical Society. In Its Researches I In testing the mass of cases and evidence reported experience has taught the Exam ining Committee exactly where to look", for error1 exactly how far allowances are to be made. Inaccuracies spring mainly from two sources, error in narration and error in memory. The percipient may be a most trustworthy person, but in his enthusiasm he may so desire to convert his readers o his view of the phenomena as to uncon sciously color his narration. Again, a strong desire to interest the reader may influence' the percipient to assume a graphic stvle.and, thus while the interest is heightened the1, details lose in accuracy. Counterbalancing these tendencies are decided motives for ac curacy. The percipient who takes the trouble to write down his experience and collect his evidence will, from the desire t o create belief, stick closely to the actual facts. Moreover, his narrative is in black and white, and he measures carefully what he states. Errors in memory, however, are very frequent. Imagination is often the cause. The percipient may be a super stitious person, and unconsciously exagger ate very ordinary coincidences. He makes definite perhaps what was really far from being definite. The chief points are round ed into, form: details change, or perhaps are left out altogether, and all this most un consciously. To decide the value of a case, open as it is to such inaccuracies, is very nice work. In a large number of cases, how ever, the chance of error is utterly removed. Prof. Bnrney, of the English society, writes: "One of the points to which we have throughout our inquiry attached the highest value, is the proof that evidence of the percipient's experience was in existence prior to the receipt of the agent's condition. This prior evidence may be of various sorts. The percipient may at once make a written record in a diary or in a letter which may 'have been preserved, or he may have men tioned his hallucination or "impression to some one who made a note of it, or who dis tinctly remembers that it was so mentioned. Evidence of this class affords comparatively little opportunity for the various sorts' of error which have been passed in review. Vn amount of carelessness or narration, or of love ol tne marvelous, wouia enable a wit ness to time his evidence in correspondence with an event of which he was ignorant, nor to fix on the right person with whom to connect his alleged experience. But apart from the actual record of the experience in writing or in some one else's memory, it may have produced action of a sufficiently distinct sort on the percipient's part; for in stance, it- may have so disturbed him as to make him fake a journey, or write at once for tidings of the agent s condition; and even if he has done none of these things, yet it he describes a state of discomfort or anxiety, following on his experience and preceding his receipt of the news, this must at any rate, be accounted a fresh item of testimony, connrmatory or the mere state ment that such and such an unusual expe rience had befallen him." J. B. M. PITTSBjbkGr DISPATCH, KIYALS OF TEE SUM. Methods of Illumination Used in All Ages and Countries TO THROW LIGHT IN DARK PLACES. Using Sea Shells and the Stalls of Animals for Lamps. THE FUTURE OP ELlSCTBIO LIGHTING Just what the first attempts to produce light were are unknown at the present day, but it is certain that for a long time they were of a rude and primitive character. Wood fires, kept constantly burning, torches, rush lights and faggots, are first spoken of in history as the means most com monly employed. The most primitive of lamps were the skulls of animals, in which fat was burned, and certain sea shells formed admirable lamps for those who could procure them. In some of the cottages of Shetland, at the pres ent day, shells of the roaring buckle are still in use, and undoubtedly form the most ancient kind of a lamp now in existence. When pottery and metal began to be used the principle of the natural lamps was for a long time retained, as seen in the ancient Egyptian, Greekund Roman lamps, and in the stone boxes and cups of northern nations. The invention of lamps some writers have attributed to the Egyptians, but, more probably, they received it Irom the older civilization of India. Among the northern nations of antiquity lamps were in use, but the difference in cli mate necessitated a different kind of lamp. These were in the form ot stone boxes, and solid fat being placed in them, a wick was thrust in the middle, which being lighted consumed the fat The Esquimaux still form square boxes of soapstone and use them in the same way. The North American Indians, in their journeys through the caves of Kentucky, used cane joints filled with tallow for ligkt Succeeding these lanfps of antiquity came the various forms of lamps for burning whale oil. CANDLES I THE CATACOMBS. Although candles are spoken of as in use at a very remote period, it is thought that the use of the modern candle really began during the early persecutions of the Christ ians. Being forced to seek hiding places in caves and catacombs, the need they found for some form of artificial light brought about this result. As late as the sixteenth century candles were used to a very limited extent, and as late as 1800 they were considered a great luxury. About this latter date candles had become the light largely employed at pub lic meetings. They were the thick wicked variety, and demanded the constant atten tion of some one to snuff them. The divine or lecturer qf that period was often com pelled in the midst of his discourse to resort to that operation in order to obtain sufficient light. While candles have for many years lost the place they once held, yet for certain occasions they still remain unrivalled. During several centuries a certain class of philosophers, styling themselves al chemists, flourished in Europe and else where, and in their vain and foolish at tempts to find the philosopher's stone stumbled upon the facts which led to the discoverv ol gases. But the honor and merit of the first ap plication of coal gas to nsetul purposes, though disputed by one or two others, seem to belong to William Murdock, a resident of Redruth, in Cornwall. This gentleman, who had lighted several buildings in an ex perimental way, constructed gas works and lighted an extensive manufacturing estab lishment in 1802. In this case the gas proved so satisfactory as to immediately take the place of all other forms of light The following year he lighted another estab lishment at Soho, on the occasion of a gen eral illumination in honor of peace. This peace proved of short duration, the bloody battles of Trafalgar, Austerlitz and Jena following within a few years. COAL GAS IN PABIS. In 1802 a Frenchman named Philipe Lebon lighted a house in Paris with gas. This created the greatest wonder and amaze ment from the thousands who witnessed it, and the local newspapers were loud in their praises of this new means of producing artificial light French authors still claim forliebon the honor of having first sug gested that gas could be used in a practical way. These demonstrations in England and France, made by Murdock and Lebon, by means of the press became rapidly known in various parts of Europe, and attracted the at tention of a certain German named Wintzler, whoatterwardbecametheorginatorofthefirst gas company in existence. His offices and laboratory were located in London, and under his direction on the 28th day of Janu ary, 1807, a number ot the streets of that city were lighted with gas. Shortly after this a fund of 20,000 was raised and a petition presented to the King asking an art of incorporation. From that time for ward the manufacture and sale of gas made rapid and constant progress. Coal gas was first introduced into the United States at Baltimore in 1816, and tor some time its progress was slow and unsat isfactory. General Charles Roome, still connected with the Consolidated Company of New York, stated in an address which he delivered in 1876, that when he first became connected with the Manhattan Company of that city there were but four or five com panies in the country. This company at that time lighted less than a dozen private dwellings, and there were but tew street lights in which gas was used. i In contrast to this there are now over 1,000 gas companies in the United States, which furnish employment to more than 25,000 men. , I DISCOVERY OP "WATEE GAS. n 1793 a French chemist named Lavois ier, in a series of experiments, stumbled uponUhe process by which water gas is made) He passed steam through a body of chatcoal which had been highly heated and obtained, as a result, water gas. Just how far he might have pursued these investiga tions can never be known, as he perished by theguillotoine during the Reign of Terror in the lollowing year, May 8, 1794. On his way to the place of execution he begged to be allowed one day more of life to make known to.the world an important invention, but the party in power refused to grant his request Sundry experiments similar to those of Lavoisier were made from time to time, but while coal gas came rapidly into use and its manufacture rapidly increased, the produc tion of water gas in a practical way and its introduction as a means of illumination are quite recent. As late as 1873 Prof. Lowe built the first water gas works in this coun try. Four years later the Municipal Com pany erected, water gas works in New York, adopting what is known as the Tessic da Motay process. Perhaps no better illustra tion of the growth of this business can be furnished than the facts which relate to this company. If now uses the buildings which contained itsjoriginal works as a store house; its business lias increased enormously, and one of the group of its holders is the largest in America. I While it it true that natural gas has not been used far practical purposes iu this part of the world until within a verv few vears. I - ..U 1 1 . JiL.'l T it is equal' y iruo luai it una oeen Known ite extensively in some parts of and used rf Asia for a r ery long time. In China, for m time immemorial, it has been instance. : used for 11 hting. and for boilin? the brine yielded bj salt wells. PITTSBUEO'fl GLOBT. The fir worshipers of Persia have for cen turies mfcde pilgrimages to Baku, onthe Caspian fiea, where the natural gas blazes forth, awl was venerated by them as holy fires. iListory tells us of a gas well in SUNDAY, APPJL ' 7, France, which wa)s burning at the time of Julius Csesar. The first recorded discovery of a natural gas well in the United States of America re sulted from borings made within, the present limits of the city of Charleston, B. C, in 1815, but in tr.'s case the gas does not ap pear to have been put to any use. In 1821 natural gas was discovered issuing from a spring at Fredonia, in New York State. From the dawn of history petroleum has been known to mankind. This was true in the ancient cities of Egypt, Persia and Mesopotamia. There is also strong evi dence that it was known in Peru before the Spanish conquest, as a mummy oi date Srior to that event, now in the Peabody fuseum of Harvard University, has been prepared with it The Indian tribes dwelling in the vicinity of our great lakes called the attention of the earliest explorers to petroleum in 1629. In 1750 the French commander or a fort in the oil regions ot Pennsylvania wrote thns to General Montcalm: "The surface of the stream nearby is covered with a thick scum, which, upon applying a torch to it, bursts forth into flame." THE SLIPPERY Tt,V10. While petroleum, or rock oil, has been found to exist in various parts of the world, the bulk of it,, as is well known, has been obtained from wells in Western Pennsyl vania and the region about Baku, in Russia, Prof. Lesley, in a recently published ar ticle, says: "I take this opportunity to ex press my opinion that the amazing exhibi tion of oil and gas which has characterized the last 30 years, and will probably charac terize the next 10 or 20 years, is, neverthe less, geographically and historically, a van ishing phenomenon, and one which young men will live to see come to its natural end. And this opinion is the result of active and thoughtful acquaintance with the subject, as I have been professionally familiar with it ever since Colonel Drake sunk the first well on the plains of Titusville. The science of geology may well be abandoned as a guide it such a production as our sta tistics exhibit can continue for successive generations. This can not be. Our chil dren will merely, and with difficulty, drain the dregs." Directly opposite views are taken by Hon. Lorin Blodgett, who has also given great attention to the subject. He says: "I venture to assume that a long period will elapse before the supply of oil and natural gas will fail. The force with which the gas comes to the surface is great yet is uniform and continuous, such as a constant supply alone can create." ELECTEIC LIGHTS. The electric arc was first discovered and commented upon by Sir Humphrey Davy at the Royal Institute in London, in 1808,' on which occasion he made his famous experi ments with a battery of 2,000 pairs of plates. In some early experiments by this same man he speaks of heating to Inminosity cer tain wires, which principle forms the basis of incandescent lighting. The possibility of economic lighting by electricity is due to the fact, discovered by Faraday in 1831, that the motion of a mag net, in relation to a conductor, would de velop a current of electricity in the latter, and in this way electricity'might be devel oped by the expenditure of mere mechani cal energy. Thus coal burned under a boiler to generate steam, which steam was to be used in turn to generate electricity, became in that way a direct rival to coai placed in a retort to produce gas. From the wonderful improvements made in the system of arc and incandescent light ing within a comparatively few years have sprung the electric lighting business as we see it to-day, and its practical development and constant and rapid growth give evi dence that both of these systems have a great future, before the close of the first century in which they have been known to man kind. 1 A CHAPLAIN TURNS JESTER. The Han Who Pray for Minnesota Legisla tors a Fanny Fellow. Minneapolis Tribune, j Chaplain Lathrop, of the Senate, sat in the Senate during the debate on the bill re quiring inspection of animals on the hoof yesterday. He came to the conclusion, early in the debate, that the bill would pass, thereby driving refrigerator beef out of the State. . ' "What's going to become of this dressed meat?" someone asked him. "Thev are going to put the foreign dressed meat all in the soup," replied the chaplain, w,ith a face which was as sober as it is when he is offering prayers. C00LEI ON THE PENCE. The Lake Erie Will Stick to the Party Kate for a While at Least. Judge Cooley has not yet actually decided that the party rate is illegal. He merely says it is "bad policy," and calls it a "per nicious practice." However, the Balti more and Ohio and Pennsylvania, like the sinner! who fleeth when no man pursueth, have abolished the 2-cent rate for parties of ten or more. Until Judge Cooley puts his .decision on record, the Lake Erie will continue to issue this rate on its own road, but the officials' will not ass other roads to accept the rate, STILL AHEAD OF LAST IEAR. Bad Western Roads Cat Down Eastern Freight Shipments. Division Fre'ight Agent E. T. Affleck, of the B. & O. at Columbus, was in the city yesterday to confer with General Freight Agent C. S. Wight on freight matters. Mr. Affleck said the freight business is a little slow at present, but the volume handled is still ahead of- last year. The Eastern shipments are light, and Mr. Affleck said this was caused by the bad roads in the West The farmers are unable to take their products to the railroad stations. GOOD FREIGHT BUSINESS.' Western Shipments Much Heavier Than Those Coming; East. Division Freight Agent Means, of the Panhandle, said, just before he went East the other night, that the freight business is improving, and so far has been better than last year. For some reason the shipments west are very heavv, but those coming east are comparatively light Mr. Means did not care to be quoted on the Carnegie letters, but he thought Mr. Carnegie hadn't any reason to complain. Closing Ont at Great Sacrifice Fine and varied assortment of lace cur tains, portier curtains, furniture goods, poles, etc. Elegant styles in Madras and silk curtains below cost Call soon to se cure choice patterns. Entire stock must be sold in next 15 days, to vacate store. H. Holtzman & Sons, ttssu 35 Sixth street Wanted An experienced clothing salesman, capa ble U dress windows; also four experienced clothing salesmen. Liberal salary; steady position. Address, stating experience, Bronner Bros., 401 to 418 Main St., Buffalo, N.Y. V. The Pittsburg Beef Company, agents for Swift's Chicago dressed beef, sold at whole ale, for the week ending April 6, 125 car scasses; average weight, 640 pounds; average price $5 68 per cwt. In Yonr New Home. Don't worry about the baking while you are getting settled in your new home. Give Marvin's bread a trial and you will never use any other. Fresh every day at your grocers. Thssu Dbsss Goods A positive bargain, gen uine West of England cloth suitings re duced this week from (25 to only 916 a pattern. r HUOUS & HACKS. liwrsa 1889. HERE'S AS ARGUMENT Faith Templeton Excepts to Gail Hamilton's Idea of the SCIENCE OP, CHRIST'S MIRACLES, And Asks Why, if They Can be Duplicated, No One Has Obtained a PATENT TO MAKE WINE FROM WATER WBITTEX FOB THE DIS PATCH. 1 It was argued and decided in last Sun day's Dispatch; that the miraeles"of the New Testament were neither unscientific nor unreasonable, but in strict harmony with God's laws. It is refreshing to have tbjs fact established with so little difficulty and apparently beyond a peradventare. Still, as assurance is not always set down as argument, perhaps we may be pardoned for asking a little more Jight upon certain points, not so clear to us as to this trained "thinker" and-scientific expounder oi pro gressive theology. She says: "With the wider and higher views that theology shares with and learns from all other sciences, theologians see that a miracle is not the violation of law hut the action of law. Miracle is not even a deviation from known law." "The wont of science is not to deny the ap pearance of the delation but to account for it" Now, will Miss Hamilton, with her thorough knowledge of the modus operandi of miracles and the processes of the Deity, for the benefit of those who have not at tained to her state of mental proficiency, deal a little more in specialties and a little less in generalities in her next letter to the public? A TTMELT DISCOTEBT. Will she tell us, in regard to that first miracle upon which she touches so lightly, yet comprehends so clearly by what pro cess of reasoning she sees "that instead of being inconceivable, it is conceivably credi ble and scientific?" Water was instantly turned into wine of the finest flavor, with only the action of pouring it into jars and drawing it forth again. She modestly con fesses that the science is not her's, bnt we would suggest that she make a careful study of it, in view of the amendment being car ried, and the marvelous industry that would result from a comprehensive knowledge of this special science in the near future. She informs us not in the concise man ner of one who says of God's work in the creation: "He spake and it was done; He commanded and it stood fast" but we gather this one idea from a column or more of verbiage, that Christ was an advanced scientist playing upon the credulity of the ignorant by flashing his superior knowledge of the chemical affinities of elements He had created upon the world; 'and never pretended any miracle more absurd to all but the credulous than to hear a man talk ing 100 miles away." Without this positive assurance we should undoubtedly have continued in the ignorant belief that not one of the miracles of Jesus Christ had ever been duplicated; that not a single patent bad ever yet been taken out upon even the least of these, by any erudite scientist of any age or nation, appropriating the idea involved, with slight variation of process, as bis own. Will Miss Hamilton, in her next treatise upon science and theol ogy, cite to us an instance of this kind, and explain the analogy between either miracle and any known science, with which she is so competently equipped. FOB CHINA'S SAKE. Will she inform us how five loaves and two small fishes can be made to satisfy the hunger oi 5,000 people? Such knowledge would be the salvation 'of famine-stricken China atJthis moment The natural and easy acquirement of walking upon the water, if properly understood, would be come a saving act, in the event of a sinking ship at sea; and any hint aiding' in the at tainment of such knowledge would be grate fully appreciated by ocean travelers, and generally utiliied in all cases where toll bridges embarrass the pedestrian. In the realm of medical science, instan taneous healing, we might suppose, had never been so successfully and and perma nently performed, in cases of original mal formation or pestilential disease, as in the few remarkable instances recorded in the New Testament Scriptures. But these and all other miracles seem minimized, as in fancy we stand beside the grave of Lazarus, with bowed and reverent head, surrounded by a group of mourners and hear the anguished voice of Mary, the broken-hearted sister, sobbing out (he des pairing thought: "Lord, by this time he stinketh, for he hath been dead four days." And then to listen to the simple appeal to the Father, and thrill to the magnetic and startling cry: "LAZABUS, come fobth!" And to behold the solid earth rent and the grave to give up its dead I We should have exclaimed with another: "Surely this man is the son of God!" At the summons of that voice, we are told, Lazarus came forth, bound hand and foot with the cere ments of death, and the Master only said: "Loose him and let him go." Will Miss Hamilton tell us now that this voice that broke the dead was but the key note of sound, for which patient search is beipg made, the vibrations of which are con fidently expected to yet revolutionize the forces of nature? We wait her lucid expla nation of these rather marvelous events. Mrs. Humphrey Ward says: "Miracles do not happen." We agree with her. They were specially designed by omnipotent wis dom to establish the divinity of Jesus Christ and to set up His kingdom upon the earth, and the history of almost 1,900 years is incontrovertable evidence of their ef ficiency. " Faith Templeton. A IHntual Benefit. Francis P. Dooly, formerly of Hugus & Hacke, and subsequently of Messrs. Jo seph Home & Co.'s Penn Avenue Stores, is pleased to inform his friends and "the Ladies" of bdth Pittsburg and Allegheny City that he has entire charge of the dress making department connected with Messrs. Truesdell & Co., of No. 20 West Fourteenth street, New York, importers and retailers of not only drygoods generally, but the choicest costumes of every leading house in Paris, London and Vienna. Hats and bon nets imported to match every garment. Street, reception, evening and ball cos tumes manufactured at the shortest possible notice. All orders promptly attended to and samples of silks, dress goods, etc., sent gratuitouslv to any part of the country. N. B. Magnificent opening in all de partments on Wednesday, the 10th inst Bespectfully, yours, FbjsJcis P. Dooly, 20 West Fourteenth street, New York'City. Look to Tonr Interest. Those contemplating buying furniture will look to their own interests and save money besides getting the best quality of home-made goods bv coming direct to where this furnitnre fs made. We have, and can shqw you in our large warerooms, the greatest line of best-made chamber suits and wardrobes, as well as all other kind of furnitnre that is needed in a house. We have had many callers and buyers since opening ourretail department. All expressed their greatest surprise to, use their own words Why, what a placet we had no idea of such a place being in the city. The large roome, the nice goods; why, it is jut grand. If you are looking for furniture come and see for yourself come to the largo furniture works ofM. Selbert & Co., Lacock and Hope street, near railroad bridge, Allegheny. Gloves fitted to the hand, and every pair guaranteed. Come to tha grand opening to morrow. F.SchoBnxhal, 612 Penn aye. K0TES OPART SALES. Proceeds of the Blelman Collection as Largo as Its Predecessors fHoro Plet nres br Modern Master Secured for Pittsburg. All local lovers of art were glad to know yesterday, when Mr. Bleiman packed up to go away, that the sales from his collection aggregated as much as from the Eeichart or the Collins, which preceded it. Mr. Bleiman brought 23 good canvases here, some of them excellent, and .everybody must be pleased to learn that a majority of of the best remain with us. He sold, alto gether, 11. Pittsburgers and Alleghenians of taste and wealth who take these fine paintings are not indulging solely In selfish gratification. They are providing delight and instruction in the future for thousands whom they possibly do not now even now. It is seldom alone the owner of a good pic ture who derives gratification from it, or even his immediate circle of friends. If in our American cities we have not as yet any great public art galleries, such as are common in European towns of less means and population, there is growing a worthy enstom of loanex hibitions, which, at seasons, to some degree serve the purpose. An admirable opportunity for one ot these is presented by the coming Pittsburg Exposition. On that occasion all paintings of any merit -in Pittsburg will no d ubt be cheerfully loaned: and some of the best products of bright artists from abroad will also be sent on to be viewed by more than a million of residents of the two cities and country surrounding. V Popular taste runs in waves. .Never have there been so many collections ot fine jpaint ings offered at sale in New York as in the past six months. At the sale of several of the collections the prices realized were enor mous. In others they fell below expectations. Hot all the pictures with great names, loudly advertised, are deemed valuable by the con noisseurs. Ic is an open secret as to some of the modern masters that there is a good deal of forgery abroad. Works purporting to be by Corot, Diaz, Forhany.Daubigny andsome other celebrated artists, are too numerous to comport with the possible executive capacity of these artists, allowing them to work 25 boars a day. But the genuine paintings by these artists are rarely doubted. Their history is known to col lectors as thoroughly as the pedigree of race horses to lovers of the turf. They always bring large figures. The forgeries impose only on the ignorant Reputable dealers or Intelligent buyers are seldom caught by them. . The house of Allard & Son, by the way, which has gotten into trouble about duties in New York, is one of the best known in the country. It has elegant rooms on Fifth avenue, where the visitors ring the bell and observe very much the formalities which would be required in calling at a private house. No particular display of paintings is made in the parlor fronting on the street, but if tha visitor inquires he will be shown to a back room where tremendously large canvases .are on exhibition bearing the most eminent names, and offered, many of them, at prices that would mean a fortune to people in ordinary circum stances. The visitor to Knoedler's and Reich art's places, in New York, and to Haseltlne's, In Philadelphia, is struck by the money repre sented on the walls and in the cases of these houses. Mr. Haseltme alone has a capital of 31,500,000 in his business. . Besides the Diaz, the Jacques, the Perez and theMunier pictures which were sold by Bleiman early in the week, he was yester day gladdened by disposing of a Yibert, whose price he had put at $4,000. This will be remembered as the picture of a couple of red-coated schoolboys struggling on a green sward. To the same purchaser, an East End gentleman resident not far from Hiland avenue, was sold the beautiful interior scene by Heger and a little pastoral work by Troyon. An Allegheny purchaser, who was also a lib eral patron of the Reichart and Collins sales, took a study of a head by Henner at a hand some price. The result of the several sales at Gillespie's within the past ten weeks is that works by Vibert Schreyer, Kammerer, Van Marque Diaz, Jacques and Troyon are now for the first time owned in Pittsburg. The"se alone would make an interesting nucleus for the Exposition Loan Gallery. The interest shown in these sales continues to stimulate the market for the local artists. It also puts them on their mettle to do their very best when their productions a'o to show alongside of those by men whose renown is In ternational. Fob a finely cut neat-fitting suit leave your order with Walter Anderson, 700 Smithfield street, whose stock of English suitings and Scotch tweeds is the finest in the market; imported exclusively for his trade. su ODE SUCCESSFUL GABEER Must be 'attributed' solely to our efforts ta please our many patrons. ' WE HAVE THE GOODS, i No matter what price, from the cheapest ta the most expensive, at prices that sell on sight No person who wishes to buy leaves the store without purchasing. OUR CARPET DEPARTMENT Is teeming over with brilliant designs and, beautiful colorings, 4and whole handfuls ofi wool for the money. Also all styles of Rugs, ' Lace and Turcoman Curtains, etc. Our Bedroom Furniture Department Is not to be excelled in Pittsburg for variety of styles and woods; as for prices, as we say above, no one leaves the store without buying. Our Parlor Furniture Department Every piece in this department is our own make, personally superintended by one of the firm, who spent 12 years at the business, and we can safely say that the truck you see ad vertised at such extremely low prices is dear at any price. We take special pride in the manufacture of Parlor Suits or odd pieces. Our stock is now full and complete in Refrigerators and Ice Chests. We also have an T 1 r . 11 mDy carnages at an SOLE AGENTS FOR THE HOPPER BROS. & CO. PIONEERS OF tjasjn. 02? -ffry rT UU VV i-MJU. J3U. OU" N. B. A discount of 5 o ciock noon. - 'hi- 15 ATE NEWS IN BKIEK There has been no change In the Rochester street car strike. A. few cars are running: and. all is quiet. Captain Otto L. Hein, the new military attache to the United States Legatlofi is Vienna, has arrlved-at his post. The Northumberland mine owners have de dined to grant the 1(1 per cent advance in. wages! asked by their miners. The outlook, is uncer tain. -W. H. McGinnis, ot Ohio, has oeen ap SolDted Superintendent of the Railway Mail ervice, and assigned to duty In the. office of the Second Assistant Postmaster General. The body of a wood ranger named Gildorf harbeen found in the river Nore, at Kilkenny, with the skull crushed. It is believed that tha man was murdered on account ot agrarian troubles. Captain Wissman, the German Imperial Commissary, has assumed supreme command on the mainland at Zanzibar, Admiral Deis bard, the commander of the German squadron, consenting. Dald Klein, an old shoemaker, lies In a dy ing condition at Bordentown, N. J., from tho effects of drinking' coffee which contained rough on rats. Bis wife is supposed to navel administered the poison. FShe has fled. Do tectives are nowlooking for her. The President made tha following appoint, ments yesterday: Eben . Rand, of Maine, to be Appraiser of Merchandise in the district of Portland and Falmouth, iie.: George C" Sturglss,ofWestVirglnla,to be Attorney of fbo United States for the district ot West Yb ginia. A dispatch from a friend who accompanied Colonel Livermoro from London to Paris (Colonel Livermore representing the Calumet and Hacla in the negotiations for the reorgan ization of copper affairs), datd Paris, April 4, has been received In Boston, and reads:. "Nothing final yet Proposition now before bankers to establish price at lu and curtail output" A man named Wheelock was married at Chester Center, Iowa, Wednesday night and party set out to give him a charivari, armed, with the usual improvised musical instruments. The noisa was kept up until about 12 o'clock, when a young lady relative of the parties went out of the house, and, returning with a shot, gun, fired a charge into the crowd, fatally wounding Fred Bacon. Following the recommendation of Com missioner Stockslager, the Secretary ot tha Interior has requested the Attorney General to cause suit to be Instituted to recover title to the lands known as tie Des Moines River. Lands, in Iowa, provided the Attorney Gen eral, after examination, is of opinion that suctt suit could be maintained, and that such action, would be to the interests of the Government The black sand placer mines near Lampoc, CaL. bid fair to bo a miniature bonanza ac cording to reports just received. A contriv ance for taking out 90 per cent of the gold has been invented. Four men washed out fl,S00 in four weeks, and one miner is said to have se cured $50 a day. Each tide washes in a fresh supply ot the gold-bearing sand, and every Inch, of beach is taken up. Tne sand is black in color, very light, and magnetic Great excite ment prevails in that region. Ex-Governor Porter, recently appointed Minister to Italy, is quite ill at his residence in Indianapolis, and his physician will not permit anyone except members of his family to sea him. Three days ago Mr. Porter took a long, walk, and when he returned his feet were so swollen that he could hardly remove his shoes. The next morning the skin began to peel off, and great and continuous pain followed. Dr. Jamleson was called, but so tar he has not been able to make a satisfactory diagnosis of the disease. The list of losses by prairie fires In Dakota increases, and the descriptions of hairbreadth escapes are very thrilling. In Yankton county alone the damage is placed at 5150,000. Near Rapid City, Prof. G. E. Bailey's ranch was de-. stroyed. The fire came up so suddenly that the inmates were compelled to run for their lives. Mrs. Bailey and William Ashton, tha hired man, had a very narrow escape with th'eii lives, and both were badly buxned. Eloisa Madison, a yountr girl, was caught by tha flames and her clothes burned off. It la doubt f ol if she will recover. Away with Tom, Dick, Harry's grand mother's recipes. Take Dr. Bull's Cougbii Syrnp. Passover Bread, Pure and wholesome, made especially fat the Passoyer season. It won't pay yon to bake your own when you can order direofc from your grocer. S. S. Maevtn & Co. Thssu Wash Goods The finest printings ancj latest designs in fine American and French sateen from 12c to 40c a yard. hwfsu Huotra & Hackk. Gloves fitted to the hand, and every paif guaranteed. Come to the grand opening to morrow. F. Schoenthax, 612 Penn ave. . elegant assortment oil rfs,2l prices. DAVIS SEWING MACME. U'-.k LOW PRICES.1 cjn?ec3JLtL ,.", crj- rrYsit4 per cent to all buyers befdreVi:. jj ,.- t WMi t 1 J,. y&- ..