Pittsburg dispatch. (Pittsburg [Pa.]) 1880-1923, March 17, 1889, SECOND PART, Page 10, Image 10
s WfJW 1 FinsBTmf:cmDYWGMmWS -. 10 tow the schooner down the bayou ou,t of danger of the fire ! Man the boats 1 Hove the schooner I" There was no danger that the order would not be heard. The dead could have heard it, if anything is ever heard bv the dead. Orton" came near losing his guard when that burst of startling sound broke from the old man's bearded mouth. The edge of the cutlass reached his bhoulderlightlv, but did not sever the covering afforded by his jacket. As an experiment the young man now tried desperately to disarm Bochon, but the rapier was too light and Boehon's hand too strong for that. The effort save the old man an advantage in the end which cost Orton a wound, slight, but painful, on the top of cis Head, while be in turn pricked liochon in the left shoulder so degp that the blood spun forth rather freely. Both men felt that the struggle must soon end, and each felt confident that it would end in his favor. The action became furious, as if to keep time with the grand crackling and bellow ing of the fire now leaping in one broad, ritnplcd, lapping tongue, slanting far across the bayou. The men had promptly obeyed llochon's loud order, and the masts of the little schooner were moving slowly through the rolling current of smoke to a safe dis tance from the fire. The creaking of ropes and the clacking of rowlocks were blended with shouts and cries. All the smaller sounds of the night xreie swallowed up in the tempest-like throb of the flame. The two wary and straining combatants felt the intense heat of the melting house, and this, with the exkausting muscular and nervous effort, caused the perspiration to leap from every pore of their bodies. Breathing became husky and rapid, a hoarse panting that told ot rapidly ebbing strength. Bound and round thev fought, giving and receiving wounds, "bleeding ireely, glaring at each other, clink, clank, swish, whack! back and forth, lunging, thrusting, feinting, slashing, each trying to keep the dazzling fire behind him, each thinking that surely the other must soon be exhausted; cut, parry, thrust, parry, prime, qnarte, high. low. the blades notched and clanging, the wrists aching, the throats dry and scorched, the white foam spraying from lips and beard, and the broad chests palpi tating; on they fought, keeping their strength by sheer, desperate will-force, each thinking only of killing the other. Yes, Orton had another thought the Lilly of Bochon. He could not (if he had tried) have forced the vibion from his inner bight. He saw her, sweet and tall, like a lily, in deed, pass back and forth before his'cyes, smiling and calm, and all unconscious of the awlul stress of his situation. Neither combatant as yet had received any serious wound, though very narrow had been the margin of life at nia'ny a point in the fight; but Bochon begau to realize the possibility of "failing be.ore the wonderful vim and tenacity of his younger and suppler antagonist. Something told Orton what -was going on in the old man's mind, and, gathering all his reserve of strength, he made a mighty spurt, pressing desperately upon him, forcing hum back rapidly toward the pale of the garden. He, too, called up his last resource of energy and returned the dash with interest, driving Orton for a moment and almost breaking him down by the weight of his attack. The reaction weakened both men greatlr. They stag gered clumsily here and there, but kept their guards with wonderful persistence, fencing feebly but accurately, and still maneuvering for the best light, while slowly the fast-burning house settled down into a heap of glowing and melting brands. Host of Boehon's men had returned (save those who never would return) and were busy with looking after their dead and wounded comrades, whom they bore to the boats. The moon aserted itself a little as the fire grew dull and red. Somewhere in the distant hollows of the woods a great owl hooted dolefully. Still with faltering weakness the fight went on between the two staggering, tottering, almost exhausted men. Now and again one or the other tried to rally and spurt, but it was only to stare a little more malignantly and to lunge or thrust all the more impatiently. Their blades clinked with a thin weak sound, irregularly and with desultory rasping and dragging. The white clots of "foam on their chins and lips were streaked with blood, their hats were gone, their hair matted, their clothes torn and cut to shreds. And yet out of their startling and vigi lant eyes flashed the indomitable will of the born fighter, the spirit of the un conquerable animal man. Yet even in this desperate extremity Orton was thinking of Telicie Bochon; scarcely thinking either, but simply and sweetly conscious of her and of the precious tenderness she Bad engen dered in his life. Down sank the burning brands into coals and embers, the work of but a few minutes indeed, so rapidly had the dry resinous pine of the houje melted in the heat, and up sailed the white moon, freeing itself from the shifting wisps of fog and pouring down upon the landscape a strange, silvery brilliance that shimmered on water and marsh and flashed on the waving foliage of the dusky magnolias beyond the slough. Bochon swung his cutlas feebly and made a dogged slash at Orton, who parried it with spiritless weakness. Their blades were high and the two men stumbled to gether, struggled clumsily and fell, Orton below, Bochon above. The mere weight of the old man held his foe down, but in the jail their weapons had dropped from their nerveless hands. Struggling was over with both men, neither had strength to do more than lie there and pant chokingly. Con siderable blood had been lost by each and the red tide was still trickling from a num ber of ugly but not necessarily dangerous wounds. Probably Bochon was less hurt than Orton, and it is quite possible that, despite his years, he was even less affected by the tremendous strain of the encounter. Moreoter, the old man had been used to dangerous and even deadly combat, and so was more apt to keep well in mind his pur pose to kill and the will power to bear it out. He fumbled numbly for the sheath knife in his belt, and had barely strength draw and lift it, but be tried in vain to send its point into Orton's throat. The weapon sank into thesoft sand "beside his neck. "I am at your mercy," gasped the young man, "kill me ifyou like, but but " He had to gather breath before he could go on. "Send word to my father, General Horace Orton, at New York." "What did you say?" growled Bochon, trying to recover the knife for another blow. "What do you want, ch?" "Let my'father, General Horace Orton, know of my death," Orton repeated with great effort. Bochon had worked his left hand down upon the young man's throat and was try ing to choke him; but when be heard the name of General Horace Orton, he slack ened his grasp, if grasp it might be called, just as his foe fainted from exhaustion and loss of blood. Bochon thought him dead, and slipping from his body sat there grimly looking at the pale, motionless face up turned in the moonlight As in dreams we live through a long series of dramatic experiences in a second of time, so old Bochon, during the moment that he glared into the young man's coun tenance, with the phrase: "General Horace Orton" ringing in his ears, lived over again a strange adventure of his vouth, in which one Horace Orton, of 2? ew York, had been a chief actor. He had not seen the man since then; bnt here was his exact likeness in the still form before him the same stal wart frame, the same swart face, the same long curling yellow hair. He owed his life and more to Horace Orton, and here lay Horace Orton's sou stark and lifeless by hi3 act! Not much conscience had grizzled old Gaspard Bochon, no wells of sentiment bubbled in his iron breast, bat some remote sense of that honor, which is said sometimes to actuate thieves, stirred his callous heart. He roughly wiped the foam and blood from the young man's lace and then staggering to his feet called huskily but loudly for help. His lion strength was returning rapidly.and with it his will power and executive energy. He shook himself, much as a great wild beast might have done after a victorious struggle with a dangerous prey, and looked about him, grimly surveying the ruin he had made of Garcin's possessions. The moon was nowwell up the eastern sky and was shining with great power. Five or six men with their weapons ,ready came rnn jning up to where Bochon was standing. T&ke this dffifl TYIOW tA Ua colinina.. !, - ... V MW BVMWUVI, commanded gruffly, "and see that you treat him decently." They promptly took hold of-Ortou and lifted him in their arms. He was very heavy. "Be careful there," growled the old man with a rolling oath, "carry gently every one of you, and be careful, do you hear?,' The last stragglers came in from pursuing Garcin and his men, the dead and wounded were cared for, the boats were manned, all was ready, and the triumphant little flotilla slowly made its way down the bayou. Orton lay, all unconscious, on a bed of sailcloth in the open air on the deck of the schooner, and old Bochon, with his hands locked behind him, stood by, gazing at the young man's face. Some wounded men were groaning and cursing, others smoked their pipes stolidly while their hurts were being rudely dressed, and yet others were singing ribald song and making ghastly jokes apropos of the victory just won. In deed, it would be hard to imagine a more striking and savage scene than the slow moving fleet presented as it wound its way down to the open water of the bay. Once in generous sea room the little schooner flung out her white wings m the moonlight, and, gathering in the light breeze, drew away from the rowboats and was soon at anchor off Magnolia Point, with Bochon place in full view. CHAPTEB YL A PBISONEB OF BOCHON. It will be well for the reader, who would like to realize in the best degree the events sketched in the foregoing chapters, to re member that it is not of to-day that we are writing; for although the woods are still wild and of luxuriant growth around Bay St. Louis, and although comparatively slight changes have come over the physical features of the dreamy landscapes there about, there has been a great betterment, of course, even among the most degraded of the population. In fabt nowhere in the world will you find to-day a more refined, a more hospitable or a more lovable people than those of the Bay St Louis region, once the home of buccaneers, pirates, smug glers and wreckers. We move rapidly in America. It is but a lapse of 75 or SO Tears since old Bochin was king of the Bay Coast Now the beautiful bluffs overlooking the gray-green water are the sites of am ple and luxurious cottages, the summer homes of rich people from New Orleans, or the winter res idences of Northern folk who come from Chicago, St Louis and Cincinnati to avoid the bitter weather of hose cold cities, and 'to enjoy the balmy Carribean breezes and the never-ending procession of flowers. The whole gnlf coast, from Mobile to the Bigo lets, is indeed another Biviera, so far as climate is concerned, a region basking in the most grateful sunshine and perfumes, blown over by salt gulf winds, and by resin ous winds from the lar-reaching pine woods, high, dry, salubrious, a very Eden for the tired and the sick in winter, and a luxuri ous bathing place and resting place for city weary people in summer. A broad, beauti ful road, paved with shells as white as snow, runs for a dozen miles along the airy bluCs between broad-armed oaks and cedars on one hand and hedges of oleander and Cherokee roses on the other. Eastward some ten miles distant you see Ship Island, famous in the military history of the coast, while far southward lies the curious cres cent of the Chandeleurs. It is all very sweet and quiet and peaceful now; but at the time we write it was as wild a nook as might be found in that wildest part of our country. Orton opened his eyes, as if from a heavy, bewildering sleep, and, looking languidly around, saw some curious old pictures on the walls of the room in the middle of which, on a bed whose heavy mahogany posts were hung with filmy curtains, he lay weak and helpless. It was night, and two or three myrtle wax candles filled the air with a pe culiar, keen,ne fragrance and with a soft flickering, yellowish light Near the bed a negro boy was dozing in a chair. A bit of almost purple sky, studded with flaring stars, was visible through a broad, many mullioned window. The deep booming swish of the bay was blended "with the rustle of long Spanish moss and satin-like magno lia leaves. A mockingbird in a treebeside another window was lazily piping a dreamy nocturne. Orton was aware that his head was bound up and his limbs and body bandaged. He was stiff and numb, with a sinking sensation in his breast He could not think clearly; the mere effort exhausted him and he slept The last thing his closing eyes saw, was a small shapely glove lying on a table beside a phial and a spoon. Prom some opening a barely perceptible current of cool and soothing air was creeping over him. In the corner of the room a tall old clock was ticking with loud measured strokes. When he again opened his eyes it was mid-morning of a fine clear day with a good sailing breeze pouring around the house and rattling the windows, and the first object that met his eyes was the supple, symmetrical form of Pelicie Bochon stand ing near bis bed. Her bacK was turned to him and she was arranging a large vase of flowers on the table, her small taper hands moving gracefully and flashing the dia monds and rubies of some exquisite rings. She wore a simple pale gray morning dress- (of some costly material) touched with dull red here and "there. Her abundant yellowish brown hair was fluffy with half ringlets in front and done into a large knot low upon her neck behind, where shone a tall jeweled comb of gold. He could see the merest sketch of her side face with its delicate complexion and soft curves, just the hint of a nearly perfect Greek profile, with a forehead a trifle high and a chin possibly a little too heavy, but beautiful and magnetically tender and sweet in every line. Orton felt no pain now; a sense of extreme weakness and lassitude, however, forbade any effort to move or speak. He lay quite still, content to gaze with half open eyes upon the fair vision before him; nor did he speculate upon the chances that had Draught him here. That he was in a room of the Bochon mansion he could have no doubt Slowly enough recollection of the dreadful combat at Garcin's came into his mind, and then he realized 'that he was old Boehon's captive. His first thought was of his sketches and the portrait of Lalie Garcin, then he remembered how he had carried them out into the garden before the fire began. While this was flitting through his brain he was watching Mile. Bochon ar range the flowers. Presently by a consider able effort he said, in a half whisper: "Mademoiselle Bochon." She turned quickly and looked at him with a bright, startled, inquiring smile on her face. She did not appear so tall when she stood thus, and indeed she really was but little above medium height, though there was a certain lofty stateliness in her bearing. She placed her finger on her lip to signify that he must not speak, and shook her head for the same purpose. Coming promptly to his bedside she bent her head low and said: "Monsieur, you must not say one word; you! must be yery quiet, very." A slight glow ol color crept over her cheek as she spoke. "You have been extremely ill, Monsieur," she went on very gently and sweetly, "and1 the least effort will be bad for you." Her presence and her voice were soothing to the feeble -and emaciated man. He obeyed her implicitly. "Shut your eyes now and go w sleep," she said, after letting fall through his lips a few drops of some cordial, "all that vou need is rest" It was the voice of tender, solicitous authority, so often heard at the bedside of a,sick child. She drew the light cohering of the bed close up to his chin, then turned and walked noiselessly out of the room, leaving in his mind an impression never felt by any but the young and the imaginative, and by them only when love sets its charm in the soul. He closed his eyes, as she told him, and fell into a deep, sweet sleep. Continued JVext Sunday, Copyright 18S9, bv Maurice Thompson. I caught her hands: "Now listen, Nan nie. Why is it, dear, you sweeter grow? She said and laughed, "It'sPrangipannl, Which comes from Atkinson, you knovrl" sa . i . -... &i3t:tfK. .--,. ;' .., -J. :f w.Mja!'' W-4ik&a- mMmtsmd.L . ' AkV--, - , fe .W.-'j. 1 . &V .? t i-.u .iiW'. i v.:-- CHINA'S CHEAP LIBOR Wages, Honrs and Work of Celestials in the Flowery Kingdom. FARM HANDS AT $12 A TEAB, And Women plenty, at Two Cents -p Day, "Willing to Do Men's Work. HOW THE CHINESE LABORER IITES. Various Other Matters Pertaining to Capital ani labor fa China. - . rCOERESPOh-DEXCX OP TlttniSPATCn.3 ANTON, China, Pebruary 6. I have come to Canton to see how. our Chinamen live and work at home. I no longer wonder at Chinese immigration to America, for I have had a taste of Chinese cheap labor in China. It is from this district that the bulk of our immigration comesand there are coolies here and to spare. This province is one of the most thickly settled or the provinces of the Chinese empire. It not quite as big as Kansas, but it contains one-third as many people as the whole United States. Canton itself is bigger than New York City, and a 12-mile radius from its center embraces, I am told, .a population of 3,000,000. There are villages outside as big as "Washington or Cleveland, and many of the small towns of the province have been living for years upon contributions from American Chinese laundries. How the people swarm. Almond eyed, yellow-faced men, women and chil dren tramp upon one another's heels, and the thousand streets of this city are more crowded than Broadway infront of Trinity Church at the busiest hour of the day. Every one is working, from the half-naked, bare-legged man who, with a hat as big as a parasol, carries great loads upon his shoul ders, to the woman in pantaloons and short skirt, who sculls the boat on the riyer, and to the keen-eyed merchant who, in round black cap and gorgeous silks, stands sur rounded by his shelves of fine goods. Every branch of business goes on and Canton is on of the great manufacturing cities of the world. With the rudest of tools these long fingered celestials turn out the finest of carving in wood and ivory and with the weaving machines of 1,000 years ago they make dresses for modern Europe. I' saw a Canton lumber mill this afternoon. Two men sawed logs into boards with cross-cut saws. They were naked save a breech clout and they moved up and down all day for 10 cents a piece. "Wages here and ail over China are at the lowest ebb, and this great human bee hive containing .from one-fourth to one-third of all the people in the world goes on with its labor as quietly as though J America did not exist Wonderfnl Worker. What wonderful workers they are and how the tug and pull and boil their keen brains from morning until night all oyer the Empire. Prom Peking to Canton I havo found the streets of every city and village filled with a pushing, hurrying throng. I have seen half-naked men sweating in car rying loads that would be heavy for a cart horse, and delicate women doing the work of drays. Human muscle, does even more work in "China than in Japan, and the donkey and the mule are replaced by man. Hong Kong is located at the base of a mountain, away up the sides of which the wealthier residents have sntnmer homes. The angle of the incline is one of nearly 45 degrees and all the building materials for these houses are carried miles up by the coolies. Women in Hong .Kong carry two great baskets of stone fastened to poles which they swing over their shoulders, and of the 30,000 people who make up' the boat population oi the Hong Kong Bay, the chief workers are women. They row boats with basics on their backs, and I see them standing and sculling with their little ones tied to their shoulders. Somcthlnc of tho Wage Paid. The cities are beehives of work. The streets are made up of cells open at the front and full of manufacturers and traders. Everything is done by hand, and the work ing hours are from daylight until dark. I have made inquiries into wages, and I find them so low that they would hardly pay for the tobacco and coffee of. our American laborers. Coolies employed in foreign families get as low as $3.50 a month and board themselves. Skilled cooks receive $1 a month, and at Poo Cboo, one of the wealthiest Chinamen of the city told me that the wages of masons were 18 cents a day, and the best carpenters received but 20 cents. Women engaged in making grass eloth, a sortj of linen, are paid from 2 to 3 cents a day, and an old missionary tells me he can get ten men to work a whole day for $1 and leave 10 per cent to the man who hires them for him. Here in Canton the chief means of conveyance is by chair. The chairs are made of wicker and covered with cloth so that they look like a box. This box is swung in the center between two long poles resting on his shoulders and another walks behind holding up the chair in the same way. The regular native wages for such men is $1 a month and less, and in the in terior the prices are still lower. Ordinary field hands get from 3 to 4 cents a day with food, and skilled workmen, receive from 5 to 6 cents. Doctors who get as high as 20 cents a visit in the cities come down to 10 cents a visit in the country, and engravers and painters re ceive from 10 to 12 cents a day. Theater actors aie paid proportionately low rates, and there are no $5,000 a night Pattis or Henry Irvings in China. The theaters, you know, last all day and half the night, and a troupe of 30 players will play for 48 hours for $30. Silk weavers and silk reelers are among the highest paid men, and their work can only be done when the cocoons are ready for reeling. During this time the men work for weeks day and night, and they receive from $1 to $2 a day. The grand average ot skilled labor runs, however, about as follows: Master workmen reeeive $3 a week or $15G a year, and workmen un der these $1 50 a week or $78 a year. Youngsters and females get 50 cents a week, and these are considered good living wages. Por them the laborer does not growl as to the honrs of work, and the labor unions of China regulate the hours only in the case of men working by the piece and not by the day. Xmbor Most Thoroughly Organized. There is no country in the world where labor is so organized as in China, and every branch of employment has its trade organi zation or guild. There are 1,700 men who run passenger wheel-barrows in Shanghai and the guild that these belong to regulates the rate of fare and the hours of work. Weavers "have a guild, the barbers have their trades unions, and even the beggars have their associations presided over by a president who assigns to each his beat and who can punish with his bamboo such as re fuse to obey him. These guilds are very strong and their demands are respected by the Government The barbers were for 'a long time prohibited from the literary ex aminations, which are the only passports to office, on the ground of their, being'engaged in a menial occupation. They combined to? gether in different partj.of the empire jind the Government had to come to terms. One' of the great luxuries in which the Chinaman delights is the having the back of his shoulders and neck kneaded after his head is shaved. The barbers concluded that this was below their dignity and their union forbade it They also prohibited barbers from ear cleaning daring the last six days of the year, as at this time there is so much head shaving to do, preparation for the New Year, that there is no time for dirty ears. The Most Barbers In the World. - China has, perhaps, tore barbers than any other country in the world, and the Chinese head needs more attention than any other head on the globe. The Chinese dude has his head shaved daily and the man .is yery poor who cannot afford his weekly shave. A place is left at the crown about as big around as a tincup and the hair which grows on this forms "the cue. The Chinaman has his face shaved even to the forehead and about the eyes, and you find the barbers on the streets, in shops, in the country and in fact everywhere. Itinerant barbers carry two small red stooUmadeof boxes in the shape of a pyramid in which they have drawers containing their razors and basins. They shave without soap and they use a two-pronged pieceof iron with which they make a noise like that of a mammoth tuning fork as the sign of their trade. You hear this noise everywhere throughout China, and one of the common est sights of the streets and country roads is one of these barbers at work upon a patient. The Chinese razor is in the shape of an isosceles triangle. It is made of rude steel and many of them are pounded up from wornout horseshoes which are imported from Europe by the thousands of barrels.and which are used in making all kinds of Chi nese implements. The rates ot shdving are very low, ranging from a few tenths of a cent to 10 cents and more, according to the class to which the barber belongs and to the standing of the customer. The barbers unions fix the rate ofshaving fortbeir mem bers and they have fines and penalties. Apprenticeship Lam. These labor unions regulate the laws as to apprenticeship. They fix the number of apprentices that one master may have, and the silk weavers' union forbids tlje teach ing or employment of women. Apprentices receive no wages. They work from three to five years and get only food and lodging. No man can employ an apprentice who has not served out his full tinie,and some trades provide that only the sons and relatives of the workmen may be taught them. The usual penalty for acting contrary to the rules of the guild is for the guilty member to pay a fine to the guild, or to furnish a supper or a 'theatrical performance. These are, however, for minor faults only. In serious cases there is no punishment too severe, and an employer 'ho violated one of the rules in regard to apprenticeships was not long ago bitten to death in Soo Chow, a city not for from Shanghai. This employer was a gold-beater, and there was a great de mand for gold-leaf for the Emperor; This man took more apprentices than the rules of the union prescribed, and in seeking a pun ishment for him the workmen concluded that death was a necessity. They thought that if a number of them engaged in the killing it would not be possible to punish them all, and biting in China is not a capi tal oflence. There were 123 men in this guild, and the$e rushed at the employer, each taking a bite. One man. the leader of the affair. stood over the rest and in order that all might be implicated, no one was allowed to qnit the place without his gums and lips were bloody. The murderer who took the first bite was discovered and beheaded, but the others went free. Colonel Denby has sent a report of this affair to the State De partment at Washington. Opposed to lUncblnery. The Chinese trades unions are against the introduction of machinery. A sewing ma chine for the making of Chinese shoes was destroyed at Canton not long ago, and a strike was caused there by the importation of 'sheet brass for the making of cooking utensils, as this would injure the business of the brass hammerers. As a rule, how ever, strikes are not common. The organi zations of both employers and laborers are such that it pays to settle matters by arbi tration. The officials of the cities are, as a rule, on the side of the workmen in cases of trouble, as the employers are the capitalists, and by having a cause against them they are able to squeeze money out of them for the settle ment. Por this reason the employers wish to have as few labor troubles as possible. The Employers' Unions. Speaking of employers' unions, all classes of Chinese business men have their guilds, and these are almost as old as the country. One of the finest clubhouses of China is that of the Canton merchants of Poo Chow. It is made up of a great number of finely finished rooms elegantly fnrnished in Chinese fash ion and located in the best part of the city. Here the merchants come to drink tea and chat, They have a temple and a theater con nected with it, and the club consists of 500 members. I visited at Shanghai some of the finest specimens of Chinese architecture I have seen. They were guild halls belong ing to tea and rice merchants, and they had wonderfnl gardens of caves and rocks built up in the busiest part of the city. These guilds regulate the commerce of China. They fix the rate of interest, the time on which goods may be sold, the weights and the standards of goods. j. uieiuuer usiu umerent scales than the one prescribed is fined, and a maa acting contrary to the guild can, in many instances, not go on with his business. One of the druggists' guilds has just adopted some new rules which lie before me. These prescribe that accounts shall be settled three times every year, and that a discount of 5 per cent may be allowed on cash trans actions. No member in the guild shall be permitted to trade with.the others while He is in debt to a member of the guild, and any member who violates these laws shall pay for two theater plays for the guild and for drinks and a feast for 20 members. Some of these guilds prescribe that prom isory notes shall be dated on the day of sale and all of them fix the rulesof giving credit. The bankers guild fix all matters relating to interest, and these different organizations m'ake the dealings of foreigners with the Chinese more safe than such dealings would be in other countries. The Chinaman re spects his contract and if he does not his guild makes him. The Honr of Work. As to the hours of work in China carpen ters work 11 hours in summer and nine in winter, and masons work half an hour longer. There is no Sunday here and your Chinaman works week in.and week out At the last of the year he gets about ten days off. and altogether he has less than a score of holidays. On the Chinese farm, every one of the family works, and children of six and seven have their daily labors. Parm laborers get from 10 to 15 cents a day and meals, or from 75 cents to $1 05 a week. By the month they are paid from $1 50 to $2 00 and board, and $12 a year and board and lodging is big pay. If a Chinese farm hand, working from daylight to dark the year through, can save $3, he does well. And as it costs him only about $4 a year for his clothing, he is sometimes nbleto do this. At the end of perhaps 20 years he has saved enough to buy himself a farm, and the average Chinese farm in many of the provinces is not more than two acres. In some cases the holdings are as low as asixth of an acre, and tenant farmers rent 'out a number of these tracts for half the crops. The stock of a small Chinese farmer con sists of a couple of pigs, a few fowls and a water buffalo, a sort of a cow which is used here for ploughing and working. A man and wife and two children can live well off two acres. Their diet is rich, vegetables and tea) and at festive times they hare a bit of pork, a fowl or 'some eggs. .How-, tho City .Laborer lives. The living of the laborer inthe'eities is 1 'even worse than this, and the mud hut of me isrraer js petter tnan the borne 01 a city workman. The average laborer of the city has three meals a day, and these consist of salt fish, vegetables and rjce. He eats meat only three or four times a yeaiyandthe house in which he lives rents from $2 a year and upward. Many families own their own houses which have jgrown through genera tions' and which include the whole clan within their walls. Some such houses have from 15 to 20 little rooms and 100 occupants is not -uncommon. A Chinese house with three rooms has a kitchen, djuing room and bedroom. Its furniture consists of a rnde table, benches without backs, a kang or ledge covered with matting upon which the people sleep and beneath which a fireburns, and a range of brick with an opening for cooking. In tfie southern provinces beds of boards are used instead of kangs. A piece of mat ting is thrown over this and the sleepers lie with wadded comforters wrapped around them. Such accommodations make them fairly happy, and there are millions in China who are satisfied with them. Poverty of the Boat People. As an instance of the poverty of the boat people of China, in coming' from Hong Kong to' Canton we anchored in the midst of a city of boats. It is estimated that one third of a million people are born, live and die upon the waters of the river at Canton. They live from what they can earn and pick up upon the river,-and they carry on a reg ular business, employing their assistants. The average wages cY boatmen are from $10 to $12 a year and food, and during our voy age tno rats which were killed oft the ship were thrown out to one of these boat fami lies. They were grabbed at with avidity and the thanks oui; captain received were un bounded. Long before you have read this letter they will have done their part in making muscle for the boatman who ate them, and dog and cat meat are among the other foods which sustain the lives of these men. , Tho Rudest Machinery. I have pursued my studies of labor in Canton largely in company with Consul Seymour, and I went yesterday to see tbS flouring mills which here compete with our Minneapolis millers. They consisted of a series of mill stones, one lying above another and two constituting a mill; the motive power was a water buffalo, the ugliest sneciesof cow that God ever made and tlfe driver was a half-naked coolie. A dozen of these buffaloes and coolies and two dozen stones made up the big establishment we visited, and it is in this way that a greater part of Canton's flour is ground. The rudest of machinery only, is permitted in China. The people will not allow steamboats to go on the rivers in the interior except in those places laid down in the treaties and the small cargo boats which do the trade of the canals have paddle wheels which are turned by gangs of men, and the other boats are moved by oars and sails. " Anyone in traveling through China can fierceive the ignorance of the people as to aBor-saving appliances, and the learned Doctor Macgowan, who has lived in China for nearly halt a century and to whom I am indebted for many ot the figures and facts of this letter, tells me that a free press would do more than anything else to bring the country to an acceptance of the best things in our western civilization. PBANfc G. Cabpenteb. HOiVEST THIEVES. How FonrUnempIoycd Worklnsmen Forced n Loan From n Spanish Landlord, Spanish Letter In Philadelphia Telegraph. An anecdote is related by the Opinion, of Tarragona', which gives quite another picture of the unemployed agitation. At Liria, a little town in the neighborhood of Valencia, four workmen, who were really in great difficulties, called upon a rich landed proprietor and begged him to lend them each the sum of $1, so that they might obtain a little bread for their children for at least a few days, The landlord, how ever, lost his temper, received the men bad ly, and exclaimed, ''If you have not enough to eat, why do you not help your selves?" At this cynical suggestion the men. with downcast looks, retired. The night brought counsel; and, after due consultation, they returned to the landlord on the morrow and again asked for the loan of a dollar." They were received in the same manner and with the same answer. But this time the men did not retire in sor row and confusion. They told the rich pro prietor that, under the circumstances, they were now prepared to follow his advice, and would help themselves; then, drawing the weapons they had concealed under their clothes, they summoned him to deliver over the keys of his cash-box. In this manner they relieved him of $50 in cash and tri umphantly marched away. But the four workmen were no thieves. They had never robbed before; they did not desire to rob on this occasion. They only wished to feed their children and give the landlord a les son for inciting them to "help themselves." Consequently all four mejiwent off at once to the parish priest, expjtjned to him all that had happened, and gave him $46 to be returned to the landlord, with the explana tion that they had kept $4 for themselves as a loan. Purthcr, they each gave in a re ceipt acknowledging the compulsory loan which they had thus obtained. The landlord, no one who knows Spanish customs will be surprised to hear, thought he had got over the difficulty easily. The loss of but $4 instead of $50 was a pleasant surprise; and there is some chance that he will be paid back even these $4. Therefore, nothing has been said to the police about the matter. The four workmen are free and in the lull enjoyment of their $4. Public opinion is on their side. They only did what the landlord himself suggested starv ing men should do. The laugh is against the landlord, so he has wisely resolved to suffer in silence. All these facts point, how ever, to a great want of organization, to the necessity of labor bureaus or some such in stitutions to regulate the distribution of la bor, and prevent congestion in one district while there is work neglected in other quar ters. A Queer Question. New York Sun.: "Which of the great characters of old would you like to marry?" This is the question that was brought under debate the other night in. the Blank Socie'ty, and half a dozen members of both sexes indicated their choice, and the reason for it. One bold man of mature years and marital ex perience selected Xantippe as the woman of his preference: another selected Cleopatra, and a third the Queen of Sheba. Of the three ladies, one made the choice of Samson, anMhpr nf TTArpnlM anil a M-1 Tl. rpu- question will be further debated, and every member of both ratps hplnntrtnr a tl. a . ciety is to be required to make a choice of a life partner from the great characters in history. On the Beservatlon. Little Pimbroke (to Miss Sayre) "See what a fine-looking squaw that is. I wonder if she speaks English?" Laughing' Two-Eves "White woman put her papoose on thiS.boaid. , Make him'a legs fijraigni," xiuage, 'AMERICAN PRTJD False Ideas of Over-Propriety are Undermining the Frank INDEPENDENCE OF OUR GIRLS. The Hue and Cry" is Robbing Them of Their Greatest Charm, THEffi UNCONSCIOUSNESS OP WRONG rwBrrrEN pob the dispatch. 3 HAT is or is not proper is becoming a tremendous question amongAmerican wom en. The lines of social etiquette in America are far more distinct than those of any other country, and hence the perpetual and never ending discussion of what a lady may or may not do, and still be considered above reproach. It is a pity that the old-time habits of American women are becoming hampered and prejudiced by so cial customs. The day when an American woman did exactly what she chose has gone by. No body thought the worse of her for her free dom and courage. On the contrary, a charm was added to her long list of attractions by this very trait of her character. That the day has gone by when she (an do what she pleases was well illustrated last week by a party of Vassar g"irls who came to the city and went fo a matinee. The only thing that the newspapers disagree upon con cerned the number of the young women who visited the theater. A great conflict is raging between the col lege authorities and the theatrical man agers. The number 'of girls who attended the matinee is placed at various figures from 2 to 82. What surprises me most is that anybody should care a rap one way or the other. Suppose a lot of college girls did come to New York and attend a first class theater. The light opera which Van presented was of a thoroughly inoffensive nature, the music pretty and dashing, and there was absolutely nothing to which any sensible man could object in the whole performance. Since wheu has it become a crime for girls to attend a matinee? It re minds me of the war of words which en sued after the hansoms were introduced in New York. DBATVEfG THE-IINE. Por at least a year a very large and con--stantly growing class ot people have been writing to the papers persistently saying that it was a disgraceful thing for any woman to appear in public in a hansom. There was no particular reasn for it, of course, as the hansom is a comfortable, roomy and plCasant vehicle, and a thousand times more pleasant than a stuffy cab, and at this time no one sees any harm in them. In deed, the best and most careful women here, as elsewhere in the world, rather fancy the two-wheeled vehicle, and yet if anybody were to turn to the files of the newspapers aoouc two years ago ne wouia una tne most hot-headed and violent criticisms against the use of those hansoms. Another phase of the matter may be seen in the time at present about the inaugural ball and the subject of wearing low dresses thereat. The women of to-day do not dress half so low as their grandmothers did, and more important than that, the young girls of to-day do not dress low at all. The pop ular theory in New York City is that young girls go to balls and dinner parties with dresses that display a lavish expanse of bust, back and arms. Jit is true that young matrons and married women wear lbw dresses here, jnst as they do in every great city in the world; but the voung girls and debutantes always have the neck of their bodices filled in with lace. This perpetual harping on what is sup posed to be indelicate in the attire of women is a particularly unpleasant phase of criti cism in my mind. I do not know whether I am particularly obtuse or thoroughly hardened in such matters, but I must admit that I have not been able to see the evil which men and women so constantly com plain ot in the attire of American girls. BATHING ALL EIGHT. I have been on all the beaches from Maine to Cape May and seen a great many thousands ot women in bathing costumes. I have read glowing accounts from various correspondents of tho awful suggestiveriess of the costumes of the young girls at Long Branch, Narragansett and Atlantic City, and I have seen some of the bathing suits that were so vividly described. I believe it all to be a lot of arrant humbug. Why is there anything more suggestive in a well fitting' bathing suit than in a big and voluminous one ? After a woman has once entered the water the outlines of her figure are revealed whether her jacket is an exact fit or made ten times too big for her. I can not see the awful indecency of the thing either. American girls, as a rule, are lithe. supple and graceful to the last degree. Their actions in the water and on the beaches are those of happy and unconscious girlhood. It seems to me it is a wilful effort of a perverted imagination to ascribe to them such nasty motives and to cry out for ever against the indecency of their attire. In the detail of the neck, for instance, 1 have never yet seen a bathing suit on a woman in America which was cut down like a. ball dress, though descriptions of such have been numerous. The necks are always high and the skirt is usually ample enough to cover all the needs of propriety. It is this sort of criticism which will event ually rob our girls of their greatest charm, and that is their unconsciousness of wrong. It must be said in a general way that an American girl can go anywhere and do any thing with perfec.t indifference to the mis construction of carping criticism. A few nights ago I had an apt illustration of the thorough confidence which American girls exhibit in their ability to take care of themselves. I was returning home quite late from the opera when I discovered a light in a window of a big bachelors' apart ment house on Broadway. A man lived there to whom I wished to say good-bye be fore leaving for Europe, and I ran up "to see him. When he was 21 years of age he came into a fortune of nearly a half million' dollars. CONVENIENT EELATITES. It took him nearly six years to spend it all. He worked industriously and inde fatigably. Not'a penny of it was' turned to any particular good. After he lost his money relative died -at convenient inter vals and kept him more or less supplied with funds. He is the sort of a man whom women describe as dangerous. I don't know whether he has much conscience or not, but I'do know that he has many charm ing qualities, and that his friendship is worth having, and he is ..the mot amiable and amusing correspondent that I ever had. The elevator boy at the house knew me, and I went direct to his apartments. Be fore I had reached the door I- heard a tre mendous yelling within'and I had to knock three times tolbe heard. Then the rounder's voice in a stentorian tone bade me come in, and I walked into his bachelor rooms to find him walking up and down excitedly and dictating like mad to a 'stenographer. He wore a smoking cap over one eye, puffed a cigar and gesticnlated with tremendous force as he reeled off what was apparently a love scene in the most dramatic fashion. He gripped my hand, pushed me into a chair, shoved a box of cigars and some matches to ward me and waved a finger at me excited ly. The pantomime meant that I should keep still for a minute until he got through with his sudden burst ot inspiration All about were evidences of luxury and wealth. There were magnificent bronzes and bric-a-brac and a vista of the rooms showed that the bachelor was well and' comfortably housed. Then I looked at the stenographer ? , "oaenly realized that ir-was nearly 1 u clock in the morning. She was a girl about 19 yearsfwithbig blue eyes, perfectly clear siqn and a beautiful figure clad in a tailor-made dress. She was writing at a. rate that wonM have startled the stenographer of the United States Senate, Her brows were knit in a scowl that was half excite ment and half anxiety, and her pen fairly flew over the paper. A. GOOD EVENING'S "WOBK. Her petty fingers were stained with ink and whenever my friend stopped in his ex cited delivery and asked her to read back a fewlines so as to get him on the right track again she read the notes in precisely the same style as he had delivered them. It was wonderfully funnj; to hear her uncon scious imitation of his dramatic tones and robust inflections. 7t is not at all unlikely that he would have gone on dictating all night if she had not stopped to remark that she was all tired out. Then he suddenly recognized her existence, rang for the jani tor, the girl rjnt on her wraps, bade us both good night with a charmingly frank smile, and departed for home under the old jani tor's escort She remarked before leaving that'it had been a good night's work as they had dic tated nearly 10,000 words since dinner. Hero was a girl earning her living in a thoroughly honest and honorable manner and taking risks which would appal a woman in any other country than America. Yet she was utterly unconscious of any dan ger whatever. Neither she nor the man who was employing her had any other idea than an honest one about- their work, and hence she wrote away in his apartments whenever he needed her services, without anv undue alarm. The girl was so pretty that she would not have dared to walk al'one in the streets of any European capital after" 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Yet here she could do anything because she was an American. That tvni- -fied the old-time spirit of the young women 01 mis country, ana it is a crying shame that the prudery and affectation'ot some of the alleged society women who have been on the other side and absorbed foreign notions are driving out the feeling of independence and security which was formerlythe most valuable heritage ot an American girl. Blakelx Hall. TOSSED BY AN ELEPHANT. A TouncEnglisbman'sNarrowEscapoFrom Being Gored to Death. The Youth's Companion. When an elephant goes mad he makes things lively. A company of Englishmen were out on a tiger-shooting expedition, and all at once were startled by a shout from one of their servants: "Bun, run, Sahibs! the tusker has .gone mad. He has broken loose." Mqst of the company got out of the beast's way, but one fellow was still in the tent Over the river we could see the brute in a frenzy of rage, kneeling on the shapeless heap ot cloth, furniture, poles and ropes and digging his tusks with savage fury into the hangings and canvas. We had little doubt that poor Mack, lay crushed to death, smothered beneath the weight of the ponderous animal, or mangled out of all likeness to humanity by the ter rible tusks that we could see flashing in the moonlight It seemed an age, this agony of suspense. Everything showed as clear as if it had been day. We saw the elephant tossing the strong canvas canopy about as a dog would worry a doormat. Thrust alter thrust was made by the tusKs into the folds of cloth. Baisrng his huge trunk, the brute would scream in the frenzy of his wrath, and at last, after what seemed an age, but in reali ty was only a few minutes, he staggered to his feet and rushed into the jungle. Just then a smothered groan strnek like a peal of joybells on our anxious ears, and a muffled voice was heard from beneath the folds of the shamiaha: "Look alive, you fellows, and get me out of this, or I shall be smothered 1" In trying to elude the first rush of the ele phant his toot had caught in one of the tent ropes, and the whole falling canopy had then come bodily upon him, hurling the camp table and a tew cane chairs over him. Under these he had lain, able to breathe, lirtf nnt rlnvlnrr in til" .. His escape seemed miraculous. The cloth had several times been pressed so close over his face as nearly to stifle him. The brute in one of its savage, purposeless thrusts, had pierced the eronnd between his arms and his ribs, pinning his Afghan choga or dress ing gown deep into the earth; and he said he felt himself sinking into unconscious ness, when the brute happily got up and rnshed off. "How did you feel?" I asked. "Well. I can hardly tell you." "It must have grazed your ribs?'J "It did. After that I seemed to turn quite unconcerned. All sorts of funny ideas came trooping across my brain. I could not lor the life of me help feeling cautiously about for my pipe, which had dropped somewhere near when I tripped on the ropes. X seemed, too, to have a quick review cf all the actions I had ever done, and was just dropping off into a dreamy unconsciousness, after pull ing a desperate race .against Oxford with my old crew, when your voices roused me to sensation once more." TA1UABLE PAYING. & Description of a Solid Silver Wagon Boad In Colorado. "You may talk about nickle-plated rail roads," said L. T. Stanley, "but what do you think of a solid silver wagon road? The Horseshoe mine, in Colorado, has one, al though when it was built they didn't know it would pan out that way. They had to have a road from their mine, a distance of three miles, over which heavy loads had to be drawn. They took the rock that had been taken from the shafts they were sink ing and which lay around in the way, and macadamized the road all the way through. The wagons passing over the road ground the rock down. "One day they had a heavy raicstorm,and when tmngs got dry again alter tnis rain, the wind blew the dust off the road, and all mavb that loose rock that lay around those shafts! They sent away a lot of it to be assayed, and when the report came back they found that their road bed was worth $200 a ton. It was a liftle expensive to drive over, but they had to have the road, and I suppose they've got it yet, if their mines have held out" Her Hat Was Not New. Cbicaco Herald. Mr. and Mrs. Simpkins at the theater. Mrt S What are you doing? Mrs. S I'm going to take off my bonnet and hold it in my lap. "I never saw you so considerate of any one's pleasure before." "Umph! Yon needn't think it's that I'm the only woman in the house that hasn't got a new spring bonnet, and you ought to be ashamed of it" At a Chicago Wedding. Mr. Calumet "What in the worjd are you doing, Louise?" His Bride (marrying her sixth) "Just cutting a" notch for the occasion, you know. I'm to awfully forgetful." Judge. M iifl atonoll Id iter -4jr -jr? "" f Sm "1 TOBEfBEAW H0 Evelyn Malcolm oa tne Art of Pre serving ft Fair Woman s Face. AN IDEAL FORM OF L0VELINESS.- Proper Treatment of the Eyes, Teeth, Hair and Complexion. ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS FOR A DIMPLS twarrrcji yoa toe eispatch.i P he devil were asked wha Is beauty," says Voltaire, "he would answer, 'A coupls of horns, four claws and a tail.' " If this is so, then his earlier education has not served him any; Lucifer is de generated and fallen indeed. We have accented tfm Greek type of beauty as perfect, and the de grees of beauty all over the civilized world are decided by this infallible standard. What is more exquisite than a marbls "Venus? unless it be the Venus vivified with color in her lips and light in her eyes, playing tennis or dancing to one of Strauss' waltzes, when she is not only exquisite, but ' entrancing. Porm is most important. Coloring and fine skin will not make a fine face strictly ' beautiful unless the features are regular and the head and face of perfect contour. . The eyes should be set horizontally, haT ing neither an upward nor downward in clination, not too far apart, nor too close to gether. The nose should be placed at aa even distance between the eyes, joining tha forebeadin a subtle curve, the lower por tion straight, to emphasize the surroundin" curves of the cheeks and lips. The "mouth like a Cupid's bow" is very beautiful, per- ' haps the most beautiful in a girl's face, but there is another mouth which vies with it, where the lips, boldly curved, but not turned upward at the corners, meet in an expression of dignity and sweetness. Tha under lip should always be a little fullex than the upper. THEEE ESSENTIALS. The distance from the eyes to the tip of the nose, and from there to the chin, should each be one-fourth the length of the face; the mouth should be set at one-third the length of the nose-and chin; the chin should taper slightly to form an oval outline of face Nevertheless, with features which do not come up to the ideal, a girl will be con sidered "pretty" if she has smooth, clear skin; bright, animated eyes, and good teeth. These are the three essentials. It is in everybody's power to possess them, unless suffering from an incurable disease. In regard to eyes, they can be improved to a wonderful degree by care. The beauty sleep, which is secured before midnight, U of the greatest importance. In the morning iuc eves are penecuy rested, and it a short walk in the fresh, bracing air is taken for 15 minutes before breakfast they are left clear and sparkling. Bathe the eye's in cold water every morning, keeping the lids shut There is no excuse in these days of per fected dentistry for ugly teeth, whether dis colored or crooked. Unless discolored by a long-continued use of medicines, they can be cleaned by a dentist, and if crooked they can be straightened. Clean teeth and clean nails are significant marks of refinement Never neglect them. The teeth should be brushed two or three times a dayandalways on retiring. I know of no tooth powder better than plain, camphorated chalk used with a little white castile soap. I-BICTION TOE THE COMPLEXION. In regard to the complexion, a skin spe cialist says: "A certain amount of friction aDnlied to the ftire rimlv vill Ar mn.h t. keep the pores open and prevent the forma tion of black and red spots, so common in" young people. I generally direct that the lace be rubbed to a degree short of discom fort, and that the towel be not too rough. ' The same authority advises the use of soap in washing the face, but it must be good soap. Be particular regarding the quality, and never mind the scent Cheap soap, per fumed to hide iU-rancicLqualities, has dona more toward ruining complexions than any thing else. An hour's rapid exercise every day will give a color to the cheek like that of a blush rose. Skating is an excellent pastime for health and beauty. The arrangement of the hair has much to do with the general appearance of a woman's face. People with long faces should never part the hair in the center, while it improves a woman with a face remarkably short It is better, however, not to part the hair at all. If naturally wavy.let it fall as it will, shading the edge ot the forehead. There are not many women with hair of this order, which will give the classic, softening effect we notice in Grecian statues, but a very similar one can be obtained by cutting a small portion of the front hair, curling it loosely and letting it lie in love locks on the brow. This custom is carried to an ugly extreme in the thick, straight bang which many women wear almost to their brows. If it were their intention to' oblit erate any intelligence they posse's in ex pression they could not hit upon a better josuiuu mou me uaujj at lis worst. A beau tiful ear should be twice as long as it is broad; it should incline slightly backward and lie close against the head at the upper point Por ears that project in an unsightly manner there appears to be no remedy. BUTTING DIMPLES. A high authority on art states somewhere that it is strange that dimples so admired in these days are not portrayed in any antique ideal of any consequence handed down to us. Can it be that the old masters saw no beauty in dimples? It seems unlikely, for there is certain roguishness in a dimple impossible to resist A teacher once said tome: "You see that little girl in the corner? It is by an effort that I bring myself to punish her when, she does wrong, for when she looks at me with a faint, regretful smile and the dimples come and go in hei cheeks I want to kiss her instead." Our modern belles have realized this fact, and cry: "Hey, for a dimple ! Can it be bought?" Yes, maidens of Gotham, it can be bought Have you $100 to pay for a dimple? If so, go forthwith ana" buy it for somewhere in this town, and no doubt inmany others, you will find a physician who will make a dimple in your cheek in your shoulder, in your arm for $100 apfece. I once saw a woman who had a dimple near the left corner of her mouth which she had purchased for that sUm. By a very skillful operation a little piece of the muscle had been taken away, and the result was a dimple which seemed perfectly legitimate, and not the base little fraud it really, was. Evelyn MalTxilm. A'Tew Cold Draft. Chicago Maltj t On a suburban train going to Hyde Parish last night two young men stood up in th'ajfe aisle talking. One of them was very hoarsaW and the other said: S? , "I notice you have a severe cold, Johnl'.'jSg xes, said John, "a very oaa one, too.S "jjrait in the omce, I suppose "Draft? Well. I should say so: one ttierS ieS to-day that gave every man in the officeTa cold." x&b "You don't tell me. Must hays beeala terror." F "That's just what it was.'' - -' . "Any idea where it came from?" . 'if "Yes'. It came from the bank and wad. for $50,000. We all caught cold." VY- "Oh! I see. Here's my station." J" 4 Hard on the Nose i Sew York Mornlnz Journal. . v A pretty girl living on Maiisoa avaini. , with nez retrousse, but a little too mieh 10 has had an ivory clothes-pia mdead&teaf it oa her little bom for two tovrs Mk'cUr, r . , A - . . - . . -i,i)m7--'"''1"MiL'"i uU,ffWWrTWttff..iXL .Trf"