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M EYELESS EDEN
Maintained by a Xew York Bachelor.
Who Bevels in Luxury
IN AN ORDINARY BALL BEDROOM.
Entrancing Effects of Portieres and Many
A PAXTKr OX THE FIRE ESCAPE
COEEESrOXDEXCE OF THE DISPATCH. 3
Xew Yoke, January 19.
OW easy it is to live
luxuriously and cheap
ly, even in this expen
sive city. I've just
been taught bow in one
delightful and valua
ble lesson. It was
learned in a room 14
feet long by 8J4 wide,
situated in one oi me
f most populous and ex
pensive parts of Iew
fork. 2ot far from the Filth Avenue Ho
tel this bewildering apartment can be found.
It costs its proprietor just 5150 a year rent
and yields him more than a thousand limes
that amount worth of comfort and pleasure.
By the merest accident I found myself the
other day enjoying the manifoid beauties
and luxuries of this domestic Adam's Eden.
Sot many women have been so fortunate. Yet
all womankind would be better off if they
could see, study and profit by the many les
sons in the exquisite art of decoration,
blending of colors and lovely shadings and
drapings there to be learned. It is all the
work of an old bachelor, and this veritable
fairvlaud is his home a real bachelor's
This apartment is undoubtedly one of the
most wonderful in its unique splendors of
any in the world, of equal size. Yet to be
gin with, it was but the New York hall bed
room of commerce. ICovr it is such a marvel
Interior View of Room.
of beauty and incredible economy of spare
that it becomes a national enflosity worthy
of the most elaborate description.
Before! saw it, I was told that it was a
bedroom, a drawing room, a kitchen and a
dining room. I imagined I would see a
kind of Christmas pantomime place, where
everything would fall out and fold up and
double under, as you touched bnttons or
pulled strings. Tiiat is not true. It is fur
nished with regular, proper Christian fur
niture. Come through tins hall and look at
it for yourself. Here is the usual New York
old-trshioned lodging house hall, tolerably
bare and dreary m the cold twilight of this
rainy day. Here is the door, pull, it opens
out, "there l no space wasted on it inside.
How dazzling the sight that is opened np to
you. Many solt lights, the subtle odor of
incense, the profusion of pictures and the
illusive effect of distance produced by bam
boo portieres, create a wondertul confusion
of the senses.
First fasten your attention on the side
board. There are a dozen decanters on it
and they are all fulL There are, however,
more reasons than the decanters why you
should look at it. First, it is so liir; and
then it is so handsome and wondcrtully
decorated. It is carved oak, beyond the
regulation size and fit lor the, extensive es
tablishment of a millionaire. Ye, it is not
too big for this one. There is a deal of
entertaining done in this fairy-land, and by
the magic peculiar to the place the side
board does not seem to take up anv rorm to
speak of. Just sit down a minute and look
around you. There is plenty ol room for the
whole party to dispose themselves comfort
ably on the four eavy chairs and then leave
space for a oecond series of visitors to come
and walk around, looking at the wonders oi
ECONOMY OF SPACE.
Naturally you don't believe that How
can you when you have had the bitter ex
perience of moving into a hall bedroom
furnished with a bed, a washstand and a
chair, and finding when you brought in
your trunk that you had to climb on the
bed to get to the door! It is not so here, and
that is why the place is so remarkable. The
massive furniture is arranged so as to leave
the center ot the room tree to the easv
movements of host and guests. The rich
bamboo portieres do wonders for this room.
There are two pairs of them, one only half
length. They divide the small apartment
into three, as it were, and lend an air of
size to each one. The lighting is a great
feature of the place as to effect.
The professional decorators and the
women who spend their days fixing up their
rooms ought to come here and learn a few
bottom farts on making a place look beauti
ful at a moderate cost It is with a room as
it is with a woman, a little mystery is a
great attraction. Now here there are an in
credible number of lights. A great chande
lier with eight burners, ornamented with
dark green bull's-eye shades, trom which
swing 112 double crystal pendants. There
are also five lamps of large size and rich de
sign. The lights are first ornaments, and
incidentally they illuminate the room; but
with such soft touches and curious effects
that they ornament rather than glare. Here
they glow warmly, there they reflect faintly
the wonders of the place, then romantically
they soften the shadows aud bring out new
charms Irom the hundreds of fanciful be
longings arranged about so tastefully.
AN INCENTIVE TO POEST,
Before going into the more practical de
tails of description, come over here to this
window seat: there i at extra foot of room
in it, every inch utilized, you see, and enjoy
the extra sentimental moonlight effect. The
host understands exactly how to give it the
tenderest touch. I wonder who he gets it
up for? AH this doesn't'seem exactlysuited
to a purely bachelor atmosphere. Down go
the gas jets; the beautiful blue-green Vene
tian hanging lamp over yonr head is turned
op further, and lo! how street the moonlight
'M' f It W K
sleeps upon this bank. One now begins to
quote poetry as naturally as breathing.
"See," says one enthusiastic visitor,
"while here is the moonlight, there is the
sunset," being sifted througn the rich bam
boo curtains by the big standing lararj !n its
red silk shadelarge as a parasol. It is seen
through the vista softened and lengthened
by the two Japanese bead curtains and seems
tar away. On the other side the main door,
standing on a large chiffonier, is another
lamp in a light green silk cover.
But moonlights and sunsets are npt the
solid attractions of this place. While we
asm - r . jjjj
are at the window just take a look out. On
the carpeted Sre.escape is an icebox and a
Yet, this is the kitchen, or rather the
pantry, containing many good things to eat
aud drink. There is nn awning for their
protection, andtbere these simple domestic
articles repose in this unaccustomed situa
tion as peacefully as if a fire escape were
their natural environment. There, just be
yond the window on one side of the room, is
a good, solid, two-leaved dining table.
Four, or eveu six, people can lie comfort
ably seated at it it its fall extent were util
ized, and four can be served with perfect
ease. A handsome. embossed velvet cover,
in rich, dark shades, of course makes it
merely a general convenience and ornament
when not engaged in its special mission.
The sideboard is covered with charming
wares, Japanese, Wedgewood, "Worcester
and Dresden china, anda glimpse inside
shows such a supply besides, and such an
array of magnificent stiver and linen damask
as might well make a housewitely heart
ache with envy.
Opposite it is a commodious writing desk
of inlaid ebony, over which is a large man
tle draped with peacock blue plush, em
broidered in gold. On the desk is a late
magazine, a new novel and an assortment
of pens, seals, etc., while its pigeon holes
ffid drawers are filled with a variety oi fine
stationery, and irom it steals the odors of
delicate sachets. Its presence adds a dis
tinct vote of elegance and refinement to the
general luxury. On one side, under
tjhe lid of the desk (no room lost again you
see), is the gas heating stove. On the other,
on a little brass stand in the niche between
the desk and the table, is the gas cooking
stove. It is of a new pattern and decidedly
ornamental. There is an oven goes with it,
and you can simply cook anything, Irom a
poultice to poultry, on it. It is not usedf as
a matter of tact, for much beyond ho, water
for coffee, punches and boiling eggs or oys
ters. The drawing room, the dining room and
the kitchen have been described; but, I have
said nothing yet about the bedroom. It is
all here in the utmost perlection. The bed
is the one piece of trick furniture in the
place. It is a folding one, but such a fold
ing one! It is a great big, solid double
affair, with beveled mirror iront that even
when it is shut up has an air of substantial
comtort. It does not pretend to be a cabinet
organ or a bookcase either; it is just a band
some bed, with a grained oak casing match
ing the sideboard. Opposite to it was a
door; now there is a clothes-press, though
you would not know it. The door, as
in all these old-fashioned houses, is set well
back in thick wall. There was the batch
elor's opportunity. That recess was not
going to be lost. He just hung np his
trousers and his nightgown in there and
draped some modern Gobelin tapestry cur
tains over them, and there was the place
more magnificent than before and with a
At the entrance end is the chiffonier and
the stationary washstand. A screen and a
bamboo curtain hides them from the main
part of the room. But that is a mere con
cession to conventionality.and a gratuitous
exhibition of power, for this is one of the
cutest corners. The chiffonier is draped in
(esthetic blue plush and silk: a mirror in a
beautiful metal frame rests upon it, and
silver backed brushes lie about.
Turn around here and see what other uses
besides-making a sunset "in a shady place"
this giant silk-shaded standing lamp has.
Here is a hint for you when you go to buy
one. Its staff is surrounded half way up by
a succession ol little circular shelves in the
same fine-beaten brass work that constitutes
the essential frame ot the lamp. A station
ary washstand takes up but little room, but
then it affords bnt small space for the vari
ous bottles and manv toilet articles that
accumulate in a'dressing room. Of course,
this Admiral Crichton ot a householder has
not neglected to put a richly dressed shelf
above the washstand, but aiter all it is in
full sight, and the lower ones on the lamp
don't parade their contents to the view.
Stoop down, there is a blacking box and
brush, but you ( must look for it to
see it. I'm beginning to catch on to the
points of this household economy. Yon can
be looking out for a place to tuck things
away even in buying a lamp. The orna
ments of this lovely place are not generally
specially expensive. They are such as most
people of refinement have about them,
pretty photographs and prints of one kind
and another, with a little specially bache
lorfied touch here and there occasionally.
Japanese umbrellas for- the ceiling, vases,
some gilded palms, a pair of beautilul buf
falo horns, some very handsome artificial
flowers massed on the chandelier and shad
ing the light somewhat, that wonderful
light that is so skillfully disposed as to en
hance a hundredfold the charm of every
The only fad displayed, unless you call
the lamp a fad, is for "clocks. There are
four different style clocks in the room, each
a work of art, "and their bachelor owner
avows that he is going to have another, a
high, corner, cuckoo one. These all have
that low. street voice that is quite as excel
lent a thing in a clock as a woman. They
chime out the hours in soft, musical tones
that add to the effect of the lights and the
perfume and the sideboard.
Here is another idev for making home
happy, burn incense. Those delightful lit
tle joss sticks you can get so cheap. Very
few people use them, and they much em
phasize an atmosphere of luxury. I want
women to do these things. One man like
this is enough. He'll never marry till
kingdom comes. Just think what a hus
band he'd make! This room of his is not
only the work of his ingenuity and his taste,
but of his hands. He covers these brackets,
he puts up these pictures, he drapes these
curtains as weft as runs that cooking stove.
Think what a handy person he'd be to have
around when the baby carriage wheel came
off, or when Biddy departed for her cousin's
funeral on the afternoon of a dinner
party to your mother-in-law. Bat he
will never" be there. It is a tale of what
might have been. A man that has got him
self fixed like this, and above all, that has
got so interested in his fixings, is hopeless.
He is in love with that room and small
blame to him. He entertains himself for
hours together thinking what he will do to
it next. He is a great original genius in
the field of furnishing and decoration, and
he is taking it all out in this uniquely su
perb hall bedroom. He has not oegun to
think of extending his field yet, he says.
"O, you must come and see it when I get
my music box, another lamp, and the tall
clock and a velvet enrtain here, and " he
hesitates, a dreamy look comes into his eyes,
he is off through the trackless fields of the
imagination in searchof new ideas for the
He comes back from his reverie as we
move to the outer door, and as he pushes
back the rich plnsh portierers far as he can,
he bids us good-bve and cordially invites
ns to come again. We turn on the threshold
and take one lingering look at the lovely
dream-like room, as poetical as a woodland
bower, as luxurious as an Oriental monarch
could give his favorite, and once more we
are in the hall in the every day world of
common prose. Mabion Hood.
PINE TBEES VALUABLE.
How Worn Ont Fields alight be Made Ex
"I've got an idea that will be worth
millions of dollars to the next generation if
it is only carried out. It is this: Fine
trees are valuable. They are getting scarce,
and will be much more valuable 50 years
hence than at present. My idea is to plant
little pines in all the old fields in the coun
try set them out in regular rows and culti
vate them. They will naturally grow much
faster and become larger and prettier when
properly planted and cared for than when
lelt to struggle for themselves in a wild aud
"I would advise farmers to plant pine
trees in every available place and cultivate
forests of them. Thev may not become val
uable in time to yield the planter a profit,
unless be be a boy but they will continue
to grow, winter and summer, until some
fine morning their owner will wake up and
find himself rich. Fine will always be in
demand, and will continue to increase in
value. This idea," concluded Lorn, "would
be worth millions of dollars to the next gen
eration if the present one would act upon
it, and all I ask for it is that a grateful
posterity erect a monument over my tumble
MADE ElCfl IN THIETI MIXITES.
Two Brothers Strike a $100,000 Mlno by
Disglng Down Two Feet.
Chicago Tribune. 1
S. It. Soger and his brother left their
homes near Hastings, Mich., about fourl
years ago and went to Breckenridge,
Col., where they worked in a stamp mill.
They got possession of two claims, the
"Iron Mask" and the "Kewanee" and
worked them during spare hours, put
ting considerable time and money into them.
The claims had been worked previously for
six years by an old miner, who failed to find
paying ore. Boger recently put a man in
the loner one and went to work himself. In
less than half an hour, alter digging about
two leet, be struck gold and silver bear
ing carbonate of silver,aid to be the most
valuable and easily worked iu that State.
The vein was followed to the surface,
when it was found that all the previous
year's work had' been within 18 inches of
the vein. The Boger Brothers have been
offered $100,000 for the two mines, but want
8200,000. "Within a week after this find
5,000 men were on the spot, establishing
claims, but the Rogers have secured many
of the most desirable. The mine is on the
east side of the mountain and the snow nec
essitates keeping it roofed over.
Turkish Snprrmtlllon Abont the Dead.
St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 3
Preparations for the funeral are begun as
soon as life is extinct, as the Turks believe
in burying the dead as quickly as possible.
The eyelids are closed and the lower jaw
bandaged; the arms are stretched down the
sides and feet tied together. The priest and
his assistants are now summoned to wash
the corpse. As with us, no matter how a
person may have been kicked and buffeted
through life, he is handled very tenderlv
after all sensibility has departed. The
Turks are even more careful ot this, because
any lack of tenderness in handling a corpse
would bring upon them the curse ot the
dead man's soul.
Bcnulifol Engraving Free.
"Will Tbey Consent?" is a magnifi
cent engraving, 19x24 inches. It is an
exact copy of an original painting by Kwall,
which was sold for $5,000.
This elegant engraving represents a young
lady standing in a benutilul room, sur
rounded by all that is luxurious, near a
half-open door, while the young man, her
lover, is seen in an adjoining room asking
the consent of her parents lor their daughter
in marriage. It must be seen to be appre
ciated. This costly engraving will be given awav
free, to every person purchasing a small
box of Wax Starch.
This starch is something entirely new.and
is without a doubt the greatest starch in
vention of the nineteenth century (at least
everybody says so that has used it). It
supersedes everything heretofore used or
known to science m the laundry art. Un
like any other starch, as it is made with
pure white wax. It is the first and only
starch in the world that makes ironing
easy and restores old summer dresses and
skirts to their natural whiteness, and im
parts to linen a beantilnl and lastiug finish
as when new.
Try it and be convinced of the whole
Ask for Wax Starch and obtain this
The Wax Starch Co.,
Suits to measure from $18 up. Pants to
measure from IS up. Satisfaction guaran
teed at Jackson's Star Tailors, 954 and 956
Liberty street. rrsu
PITTSB - OUG DISPATCH,
UNCLE JOHN GIDEON.
The Squarest and the Biggest Book
makers on the French Turf.
FRENCHMEN NATURAL GAMBLERS.
Reminiscences of the Famous
A TEEI HIGH OPINION OP KILRAIN
rWWTTES roil THE DISPATCH.
ONE of the biggest
bookmakers, as he is
also one of the best
"old chappies" in the
world, is coming over
here in February on a
visit to America for
the first time. "tTnole
John" Gideon, Wright and Saflery are the
big bookmakers of the French turf, and I
do not suppose there are three other such
lasers of odds to be found in England or
the United States. Two or three days be
fore I left Paris Saffery won on one bet at
Longchamps 525,000 and the next day, at
Auteuil, he carried off almost as much
more. He is a rather interesting person at
French races. When he first came to Paris he
was salesman in an English clothing house,
just opposite the Presidental mansion.
There he commenced taking bets, won
more in a year than he earned as a clerk,
his salary being only 8200, and soon he quit
the shop to become an out and out booK
maker. Since 1874 he has prospered finely.
One day Wright came over from London
for the 'express purpose of smashing Saff ry,
who had done him a bad turn in some
racing speculation. But instead of smash
ing he became near being ground to pieces
himself, for he laid 66 to 1 against a starter
in the Cambridgeshire, and S.ifiery took him
for $1,000. The colt thus backed at such
long odds won easily and it took Wright
some time to recover. However, he is all
right now and is worth his millions.
Mr. John Gideon has lived in Paris 25
years, and during all that time never has
the slightest breath of suspicion blown
against him. He lives with his family in a
magnificent house in the Champs Elysees,
the aristocratic part of the capital, and his
three or four sons are made of the samegood
stuffas the old man. He, too, sold clothes
in early life, and his father was a Hebrew.
The first book he ever made t& on the
Lemington stakes, in 1848, when Mr. Mur
rey's Miss Ann won, aud then his book
summeJ up 5; 15s, out of which he had to
pay 5 10s over to the winner. From that
time on his success was such that he followed
bookmaking in the ring and left the shop
in L.ondou to take care of itself. In 1862 he
commenced betting in Paris, and was led to
do so through the following circumstance.
That year he received a commission from M.
Lupin to back his horse Dollar for the North
amptonshire stakes, so he put on 200 to
win, at a price averaging 30 to 1, also laying
700 for a place. Dollar won and Gideon
carrried the money over to his employer.
The dav after his arrival was a Sunday, and
there was racing at Longchamps. Of course
he went out, soon discovered it was good
enough for him to stay and enjoy, and so he
settled in Paris.
"In proportion to thenumberof persons,"
said he to me, "that is to say, in proportion
to the comparative populations ot London
and Paris, the people here bet ten times as
much and ten times bigger than they do in
England. All classes of people attend
French races habitually, not perhaps from
any particular fondness lor horses, or be
cause they know much about them indeed,
it seems to me that some ot them can't tell a
horse from a donkey but because the
French are natural born gamblers. Indi
vidually they bet heavier than does any,
Englishman, and backers of horses can get
longer prices in Paris tor the reason that,
while in England the run is on only two or
three favorites, here all horses are backed
and bookmakers can give long odds easily.
Bets of 20b, 500, 1,000, 2.000 and 5,000 Iouis are
notinfrtauent. the amountof thebct depend
ing, of course, on the price of the horse, for
it the odds are too long, one cannot often
take such wagers as I have just mentioned.
A BIG BET.
"The largest single bet I evar laid was
10.000 Iouis ($40,000) to 7,000 louis against
St. Blaize for the Grand Prix, and the colt
was not even placed. I do not think there
was ever more money staked in any
country than on the Grand Prix of 1881,
when Mr. Keen's Foxhall won. That colt
was backed lor a terrific sum, and the ring
came near being swamped, but we managed
to pull through all right, although I lost
"Everybody bets in France, from the
highest nobleman down to the commonest
laborer. The betting here is both book and
ready money betting, and we do as much of
the one as the other. Both kinds are settled
every Saturday evening at the Salon des
Coufses, in the Boulevard des Capucines,
and the way that that institution is run
stands pre-eminently alone in the turf
world. There is nothing like it anywhere
else that I have ever heard of. It is a sort
of clearing house ot the betting trateanity,
nut all the members do not settie there.
f some of them preferring to do so individ
ually with each other, ice .Pans-mutuel is
a great failure, because people do not know
how much they are going to receive until
the race is over, while by taking odds with
bookmakers they know exactly how they
will stand. There is something paradoxi
cal about this Paris-mutuel system, for the
more money you put on a horse tne less you
are bound to receive. I think, however, the
system will be kept up, as it seems to suit
small backers, those who can only risk 5 or
10 francs, and who are always hoping to
catch an outsider. I have watched and
studied the thing closely, and I am sure
that in most cases what the Paris-mutuel
pays is about two points below the odds
given in the ring."
THE POLICE AND THE BOOKMAKERS.
I asked Mr. Gideon if the bookmakers
were having any trouble with the Paris po
lice, and he answered me in the negative.
"The fact is," said he, "the Government
soon found out that a mistake had been
made in trying to stop betting at the races,
and so a test case was accepted to show the
legality ot tne proniDition. some of us
were arrested at Iiongchamps, tab'n before
a magistrate, convicted, and all the money
in our possession was confiscated. The case
was appealed, and last October the convic
tion was quashed, we were acquitted, and
our money was returned. At the hearing
the prosecntion advanced the, argument that
all bookmakers were thieves and vaga
bonds, without visible means of existence.
My lawyer met this by stating that I paid
$10,000 a year rent for the house I occupy,
and that my personal taxes in Paris alone
amounts to nearly as much more."
Then "Uncle John" turned philosopher
for awhile. "Why," he asked, "are book
makers ostracized, so to speak, in society?
In what is a man more honorable who bets
on a horse than he who bets against it, and
whence comes it that one who believes Fox
hall will arrive first is regarded as infinitely
superior, morally speaking, than an indi
vidual who has reason to believe that Fox
hall will finish no better than second or
worse? Of course it wouldn't look nice to
see a member of Bang-up Club standing,
pencil in hand, holding his book and crving
out all sorts of odds between 2 and 5 o'clock of
an afternoon, but this Is a question of
morals and fair play, not ot m seen scene.
Moreover, is it not quite as proper and agreea
ble to be a man who does pay you yemr money
it you win. as it is to be one who sails yon
stocks and shares at $100, which, later on, you'd
be glad to get rid of at tne price of old paper?
THE HEENAN-SAYBE3 FIGHT.
We then talked abont the'Heenan-Sayres
prize fight, in which historic event Qideon was
one of the umpires. He hopes that there Is no
longer any feeling in this country against him
because of his connection with that affair, and
I tried to assure him that there was not. I
told him he would be welcomed heartily, not
SUNDAY, JANUARY 20,
only by the bookmakers but by all true sports
men, and I beg to commend him to tbem In the
sinrerest possible manner. "Tell me about
that fight,1' I said, and here is his reply:
'That mill was fairly managed from first to
last; there was no question raised concerning
it at the time, and 1 do not know that there has
ever been since. It lasted two hoars and six
minutes; 35 ronnds were fought, and Sayres
went through 28 of them with one hand, bis
right having been disabled in the seventh.
When the fight was over, Heenan was so blind
he had to be led to his carriage by his seconds.
For several minutes afterward Sayres sat on a
stool drinking champagne and eating cold
fowl, banded him by Harry Bronton and
Jemmie Welsh, his two peconds. Those wno
knew Sayres well never doubted for a moment
that ho would win the fight, but some of his
backers bad not the same confidence and tbey
broke, into the ring.so it was necessary toileclare
it a draw. During the round when Heenan
tock the hug on Sayres, a man who bad a lot ot
money on the flgbt became afraid of losing It
and cut the ropes. This was no other than
Johnnie Carr; he is alive now and is a well
known swell mobsman. He Is very rich, but he
only got out of Courtland prison two years ago
ier serving a long sentence.
SAYRES' EAKIT TIGHTS.
"My first real days of friendship with Sayres
began when he was matched to fight Harry
Poulson. I backed the latter at 7 to 4 on, and
lost, bnt was so well pleased with the way Tom
fought that I made a match for him with Aaron
Jones. After that we were inseparable friends
to the day of bis death. He was the greatest
fighter the world has ever produced, and until
1 saw Jake Kilrain fight last summer with Jim
Smith on an island in the Seine, I never met
anyn here near so good a man. In Sayres' da J
a man only reached the championship throne
by battles won not with gloves but with bare
fists. He as a natural born fighter, never in a
hurry to finish, and fairly illustrated the real
art of self-defense. As a sparrer with the
gloves, he was, as the saying goes, 'not in the
bunt,' and I have teen limi bested at all points
in such set-tos by men whom be could have
whipped in the ring with one hand tied be
hind his back. He copied from nobody, and
never sparred while in training. Hiscross
connters were simply terrific: he would get up
to his man, baulk him twice if he stood it
fall back as if to bis corner, then meet him and
nut on the right Ho was the fairest fighter l
have ever seen, and I have seen scores and
'scores of such contests. I have nothing in the
world "to say against John Snllivan, 1-ntthe
fairest flghter have seen since the days of
Tom Sayres is Jake Kilrain. My friend had a
secret that he put to use in training, which has
never been told by me to anyone. His great
strength lay In the fact that when in training
he consumed an enormous quantity of Russian
isinglass. He used to take as much as a quar
ter of an ounce in his morning tea, then as
much more after dinner, and then an additional
quantity when ho went to bed."
THE MITCHELI-SULLIYAN TIGHT.
The fight between Mitchell and Sullivan
would never have taken place, so I think, but
for John Gideon. He was one of those who
met the party at Amiens, where be soon saw
that there was likely to be no fight at all. So
he determined to return to Paris by the 3:10 P.
jr. train, and was seated in a railway carriage
with the representative of a London sporting
paper, when a cnule of gentlemen came up
and said: "You remarked this morning at
breakfast that if it bad been left t-i you, you
could have brought this fight off to acer
taintv." "Yes," he replied, "I said that and I
could have done so."' Thereupon they intro
duced him to Sullivan and Mitchell and both
men agreed to leave the aSair in bis hands.
He told even body qnietlrto leave Amiens tbe
next morning bv the 6:10 train for Pans,
but to get oil at Creil. Ho left that
same night, got to Creil at S o'clock, and before
going to bed bad found the spot on the train
ing grounds ot Baron Rothschild where tbe
fight actually took place. Had tbe men not
fought that Saturday, perhaps they would
never have done so. Sullivan would have re
turned to America, where gold would continne
to shower upon him, and Mitchell would have
been ruined for Ife, because everybody in
England would have said be was a coward and
atraid to meet tbe American. So you see tbe
prosperity of the one and the at least tempor
ary downfall of tbe other, was due to Uncle
John Gideon. We went together to see the
tight between Smith and Kilrain, and he never
tires of talking about that contest. He has
high admiration of Sullivan as a boxer and a
quick fighter, but he thinks Kilrain a most
wonderful man. Henry Haynie.
EISE OP AMERICAN CITIES.
Where 100 Years Abo 100,000 Persons Be
sided There Are Now 0,000,000.
Boston Herald. 1
The fact that there are so many cities to
govern is one of the most astonishing in his
tory, said Prof. Albert B. Hart recently. A
century ago tbe whole population of the
United States was less than 4,000,000, of
whom harbly 100,000 lived in cities. Now
there are in this country not less than 350
cities, having a total population of nearly
6,000,000; the cities have increased 60 times,
and their population nearlv 60 times. It is
evident that in this rapid dispkeement may
be lound an explanation ot some ot tne
problems which our cities present.
It is not too much to say that no city in
the United States owes its growth to its
situation, for of the ten large cities seven
are exposed to attack by sea, and but one is
sufficiently protected. The second reason
tor the location of cities is the convenience
of commerce. A very interesting resume of
the comparative advantage ot Boston, New
York, Philadelphiaand Baltimore followed,
and the commercial and manufacturing
places of their rise ami growth were touched
upon. It was of lar less importance that a
city should grow than that it should grow
intelligently. Manufacturing cities were
always more densely populated than com
mercial cities, anti the overcrowding of
cities was one of the most serious problems
of the day. The libraries and schools ot
Boston would attract one class, while low
theaters and dance halls would attract
There were, in 1880, according to the cen
sus of that year, 286 cities with,a population
of over 8,000. One hundred of these had
12.000; 131 had between 12,000 and 40.000,
while the remaining 45 ran trom 40,000 to
1,200,000. The number of cities increased
but slowly from 1790 to 1840, but in the
next decade the increase was as great as in
the 50 former years. Large cities attract
more than their share of the total growth of
Interesting figures in regard to the dis
tinction of cities were then given, as well as
the figures showing the comparative growth
of the principal cities of the United States..
Up. to 1820 Philadelphia was the first city in
the Union. The Erie Canal was finished in
1825, and the rapid leap of New York in
population from 103.000 to 268,000 in 1830
followed. In a careful estimate, based on
the Presidental votes of 1884 and 1888, New
York has to-day 1,600.000 people. Phila
delphia numbers 1,000,000 population now,
but has to include her suburbs in this
estimate. Brooklyn is a phenomenon, with
its 782,000 people. Baltimore and Boston
are rivals, but the former now leads by
IN A STRANdf MEDICAMENT.
The Singular Social Adventure of a Fair Des
Moines Yonnu Lady.
From a Des Moines Letter.
An accomplished young lady of Des
Moines made a call upon somebody the oth
er day, and she avows sjie passed a very de
lightful afternoon. Who the person was
that she called on she does not know. All
she knows is that she started nut to call
upon somebody else and by mistake she got
into the wrong house, where she met with a
very cordial reception from a young lady
who evidently knew her very well. This
young ladv rushed up to her when she en
tered the door and told how awfully glad
she was to see her, calling her by name. She
also entertained her guest so pleasantly and
everything appeared to be so agreeable all
around that the latter did not have the
heart to break the spell by asking who her
unknown iriend was, and the unknown
iriend never knew that she was not known
by her guest.
"Say, mister, is der ice strong enough ter,
hold me an' Mickey ?"if. -
THE ST0RT OF STEAM.
The Ancients Knew Its Power but
They Conld Not Afcply It.
AN ENGINE INVENTED IN 1705.
How Watt Solved the Problem and ad
vanced the Industries.
BIS STEUGGLES ASD FINAL TBIUMPH
tWBITTKf FOB THE DISPATCH.
HE power of steam
was not unknown to
the ancients. There
are continuous refer
ences to its power,
and certainly the
steam engine, existed
in Spain and England
as early as the fif
though in a very crude form. It consisted
simply of two boilers which were alternately
filled with steam through pipes and then
alternately cooled by the passage of air
through them, condensing the steam. By
this nieaus a slow-acting force pump was
made, chiefly valuable for mine drainage,
but of no use iu ordinary manufacturing
, lines. The first engine really worth the
name was that invented by Thomas Jewco
men in 1705, when, instead of two boilers,
the cylinder was first used. It was a combi
nation steam and air engine the piston was
forced up by steam and down by atmos
pheric pressure. The steam entered the
cylinder to supply the up-stroke pressure,
and was then condedsed by the outward ap
plication of cold water, leaving the atmos
phere to force the piston down through the
vacuum left by the steam. But the con
densation was soon after accomplished by
means of a jrt of. cold water.
The valves were at first worked bv hand,
but in 1718 the automatic valve Came iu
by attaching it to a rod joined to the beam.
This was a great improvement, and this en
gine is said to have been so lar perfected as
to supply from 15 to 20 strokes per minute.
But it must be noticed that the modern use
and power of steam was not understood.
The principle on which all these old "en
gines ' worlced was to make use of the
steam simply to fill a spare and then evacu
ate it in order to let the atmosphere act, and
had no reference to the expansive force of
steam as a vapor. On such a principle an
engine could not be built to suit the fast
stroke required in modern manufacture,
and, moreover, it was attended with enor
mous waste of water. The cylinder had to
be heated and cooled with every stroke. It
was this problem which remained for Watt
WATT LED TO INVESTIGATE.
Watt was a maker of mathematical in
struments at Glasgow. He had considerable
trade at the University there, and acquired
from his associations a considerable knowl
edge of scientific principles ot his day. A
friend suggested to him the problem of try
ing to save fuel in the use of the engine.
As earlv as 1759 the idea seems to have oc
curred to him that if this problem could be
successfully solved steam could be readily
applied as a force in locomotion. It was
with this idea in mind, rather than the in
vention of any stationary engine for use in
the manulacturing arts, that he started
upon his series of investigations. After
considerable difficulty he secured a working
model of the Newconien engine then in use
(1759), but it was not until after six years
of oatient effort (1765) he btruck on the
His first endeavors were directed toward
the fuel-saving problem, but at this time
the expansive lorce of steam vapor seems to
have occurred to him as a motive power.
He at once threw overboard all idea of the
alternate heating and cooling of the cylin
der for each stroke. This new idea led him
to close both ends of the cylinder the idea
of a double steam stroke. In 1769 he took
out his first patent described as designed
for the saving of luel in steam engines. One
named Roebuck aided his early efforts. He
was the owner of mines which had been
flooded by water, ana aided for his own sal
vation. Bui in 1772 a crisis came on, and
Boebuck failed. Among his assets was this
interest in Watt's invention. A capitalist
aud iron manufacturer of Birmingham
named Boulton was among his creditors.
After personal examination, be thought the
idea was good, and, to the joy of the other
creditors, be agreed to take this interest as
his share of the assets.
ONE FORTUNATE INVENTOE.
Watt then removed to Birmingham, and
the engine took the name of the Bo ul ton
Watt engine. Two years after (1774) the
engine was in working order, and from the
successful experiments conducted, it was
widely known, and was coming rapidly for- f
ward. Uraers oegan to pour in in advance.
In 1775 the patent was extended to 1800,
and in 1776 the first order was filled. Tbe
orders came in rapidly especially from
Cornish mine owners. Then came an order
for use in a grist mill, and it rapidly
worked into other manufacturing uses. It
was not until 1785, however, that profits be
gan to be realized, but a: this time they
were getting very large, and by 1800 a con
siderable fortune had been realized.
Watt continued his efforts until 1819',
when he died. In his business success he
presents an exception to the ordinary run of
inventors, lor he left a large fortune. He
seems from the first to have had a clear con
ception of his objective purpose. He un
derstood the principles of the later inven
tions and seems to have known that steam
could be successfully applied in navigation.
Many had tried to solve the problem and
failed, but he seems never to have doubted
its ultimate success. The atmospheric en
gine had been tried, but was lound too
clumsy. As soon as the perpendicular
stroke'of the engine bad been turned into a
rotary motion the successful application of
steam to locomotion was assured. Watt did
not try himself to solve this problem, but he
suggested the possibilities and encouraged
the efforts made.
In the period 1787-1800 many trials were
made in Eugland and America. When
Pulton made bis invention he purchased a
Boulton-Watt engine, brought it to New
York, and used it on the Hudson. Fulton
made the invention, but the principle and
idea lived belore hint Watt started with
the idea that steam could be used for loco
motion on land by using a sort of carriage
on ordinary roads. In Cornwall an .attempt
was made to draw coal cars in this way, and
though it bad some success, it bad not
enough to justify its use. Even before this
time the miners in Cornwall had laid
wooden rails, sometimes covered with iron
straps. It seems strange, indeed, that the
connection between these rails and the
steam engine should remain unnoticed for
"WATT'S GEEATEST TEOTTBLE
seems to have been in procuring models to
teat his work at the different periods in his
progress. This illustrates well tlie state of
the mechanical arts in those days. He
needed lor his purpose a cylinder with cir
cular perpendicular sides. But the ma
chinists of that day could not produce such
a thing steam tight. The invention and
construction of these greatly delayed his
work, and hampered his efforts. To-day
any sort of model is easily turned out by
thousands of expert machinists.
The early use and application of steam
power is another instance in which England
got a great start over the other countries.
We have alreadv noticed the crippled state
of France just abont to start in her revolu
tionary path, and the wretched and hopeless
condition of the rest of Europe. As late as
1810 only 16 engines were at work in France
in the mines aud the steam engine was
not applied to the cotton industry until
1812. Prnssia. one of tbe most advanced of
the German States, though she had engines,
was no tin. a position to nse them effectively
until 1830, and down to 1809 they were little
used in the United States.
The accompanying table is intended to
show the dates ot the important inventions
of the period. Thoufh coming separately
and independently, they acted and reacted
on each other in a complex way. The intro
duction of steam had a wonderful effect on
the iron manufacture and the cotton and
woolen industries, and the latter in turn
had produced great effect on tbe former, in
the great increase in the use of iron and ma
chinery. It simply illustrates the fact that
every great improvement works in wide
circles, and that its eflects and results are
olten shown as much without the circle of
its immediate application as within it.
174017,300 tons iron produced.
1737 Iron melted by coal at Coalbrookdale.
1759 Watt at work on tbe steam engine.
1764 Imports of raw cotton 3.900,000 pounds.
176H Pig iron converted into bar iroi by coal.
17t9 Arkwright takes out hi pat ml and
Watt patents bis condensing engine.
1770 Hargreaves patents tbe "tipinaing
1771-75 Im orts of raw cotton 4.7C0.00I pounds.
177-Watt sells the first engine.
1777 Cast iron bridge at Coalbrookd lie.
1770 Urompton patents the "mnle jinny."
1785 Imports of raw cotton 18,400.C0 pounds.
1783 Steam blast in full w-e in ip-n manu
facture: Iron production 61,3 JO tons
three-fourths made by coal.
1792 Imports of raw cotton 33,400,00) pounds.
1796 Iron production 125,000 ton.
1S00 Imports of raw cotton 56,000,000 pounds.
1S0I Power loom at work.
1808 Iron production 250,000 tons.
18U7 Fulton's steamboat.
l&S-Hot air blast used.
THE EVILS OP TIPPING,
of tbe Greatent of Small Nuisance
the Country Has.
Hew York Evening Snn.l
America is a growing country Sn every
respect. Cities grow, literature g. ows, art
is sprouting, but most luxuriant of all are
our nuisances. Our great nuisance., are be
ing grappled with more or less sncc.ssfnlly,
but our small ones flourish unduly.
Take that of "tipping," for instijnee.
There is no greater small nuisanct in the
whole history of nuisances than thi. and if
it is not taken care of immediately )nd en
ergetically it must result in our beci ming a
nation of bankrupts.
Just look the tipping evil squarely in the
face for a moment. It is an individual at
tempt to pay wages to the who.e com
munity. Tou enter a restaurant, call fervour
lunch, and at its conclusion pay the waiter
from 10 to 15 per cent of the amount of yonr
check for doing bis work properly or im
properly, as the case may be.
You hire a cab and ride a few mil's, and
as a reward, possibly for keeping his horse
alive, or to pay him for the wear aid tear
upon his feelings induced by the language
he has been compelled to nse in the coarse
of events, you tip the driver, yon give what
the Frenchman calls a "for-drink" in addi
tion to his fare, to which he has himnelf, in
all probability, added some 20 or 30 percent
for the sake of his family.
What a ridiculons custom it is worse
than ridiculous, ic is criminal becnuse it
subjects the poor man who cannot aflord to
throw his money away to bad service at din
ner, to vile abuse from bis cab driver.
Carry the system to its logical conclusion:
How you would ridicule a member of
Congres who dared propose that the Presi
dent of the United States be handed a check
f )r $10,000 at the end of his term as a re
ward for doing what he has been already
paid for doing.
What a preposterous notion it would be
to require members of a church congrega
tion to tip the organist, choir, sexton and
rector himself at the conclusion of divine
service, because they had done their duty
Do you ever tip the salesman at the collar
and cuff store because he has not insisted
upon yonr wearing linen four sizes too large
and a season or twooo late?
Do you ever add anything to the total of
your plumber's bill because Jie has served
you well ?
Are vou ever tempted to pay yonr coal
dealer 6 a ton for coal when the market is
at $5 50?
Do not shoulder the responsibilities of the
restaurant and hotel keeper yourself, and if
you have any money to spare save it, devote
it to charity "or give it to yonr wife.
Have you ever been so far out of your
mind as to send a bonus to your tailor?
Probably not; but there would be quite as
much reason in your doing one aud all of
these things as there is in giving your cab
driver his "for-drink" or in bribing the
waiter in the restanrant not to drop tbe but
ter iu your lap and pour yonr coffee down
If you do not wish to incur financial rain,
If you tip waiters because you think they
are underpaid, start a movement to seenre
better wages for them.
How He Would Treat a Burglar.
From the Lewlston Journal.
The report of a daring burglary started a
talk about robbers and such unpleasant
things, around the table the other day.
"What would you do if you should wake
up and find a burglar in yonr chamber?" I
"I should pass him my wallet and my
watch and beg him to leave the room," said
"But suppose you had a loaded revolver
under vonr pillow."
"I should pass him the revolver too,"
replied Doughby, with obvious sincerity.
Marie a Forcible Impression.
She (softly) I shall never forget
night and this ball.
He (tenderly) Tell me why?
She And that last waltz.
He You delight me!
She And vou!
He You entrance me! Then I have im
She (more softly than ever) Yes! You've
about smashed two of my toes!
Sweetness and Light.
"I know we are poor, dear pana," said
Evelvn, nestling her head against his
shonlder, "but Athelstane is brave and
hope'ul, and he says that love will make a
"I know it will, "said old Hyson, grimly;
"it's made away with six tons of parlor
coal and 5 worth of gas since Christmas,
and it's next winter that's worrying me."
Tbe Habits of Oar Cotemporarlei.
Foreman (New York daily) We need
one column more to fill out the second
City Editor That so? How mafy inter
views with Channcey Depew are in?
Foreman Only one.
City Editor Oh, well, run in another;
his glass leg hasn't been mentioned in two
The Flutter at Hajtl.
General Invalidity (of the Haytian army)
Whad jer want?
U. S. 'Naval Officer We want redress?
General Invalidity Cain't git it yere,
chile. I's wearin' d' only hull o'mplete
unifohm on d' lslan'. Judge.
IN POLITE SOCIETY.
Mrs. Sherwood Answers a Kumber of
Questions Abont Etiquette. . .
WHEN TO WEAR TEA GOWNS,-
Some Valuable Hints About Dinners and
HOW TO GET IXT0 GOOD SOCIETY.
rWBimS TOB THE DISPATCH.!
BOX a number of
questions I select the
following this week:
There is no reason why
a lady shonld not ha
addressed with her
own initials If her hus
band is living. An
swer Mary Smfth,, .
"Mrs. Mary Smith,
"Mrs." being simply-.
contraction of mis
tress. It is not ont of.
place to call a single
woman "Mrs." Tbe
Englisn writers did it as "Mistress Margery"
in the old plays, etc
"Florence Faille" writes: "I would lite to
be informed If upon receiving cards, one wbich.
says, 'Mrs. John Smitb, at home December 28 .
from i to 7,' another inclosed saying, .'Mrs.
John Smith, Tuesdays in January, if it is
necessary after attending receotion to also call
upon oue of the Tuesdays in January. Also,
in sending cards to a mdther and daughter
must there be a card addressed to each one,
separately, or can it be Mrs. Smith and family
or Mrs. Smith and daughters?" - -
Address your card "Mrs. Smith, the Misses
Smitb," and send on her day. It is not incum
bent on you to call on Tuesdays after the re
ception; thev are merely added on to the invi
tation to give those an opportunity of calling
who could not get to the reception;
"Violet" asks "if it fs proper to usa a tea .
gown in the evening." No; it is not. Jn.En
gland ladies sometimes wear a very smart tea
enwn when dining alone with their husbands,
but tbey would not wear one to receive evening
A reader asks "tho latest thing in evening
dress." This is an almost impossible question
to answer. Young ladies wear lieht materials,
with no sleeves and neck cut V shape. Mar
ried ladies wear brocades and satins, with per
haps some drapery abont tbe neck and arms,
but the stylesare endless to a fashionable dress-
"Mrs". C." would like to know whether a
widow should continue to use her husband's
initials or her own Christian name. This Is a
mooted point In our country. If she bas a son
who bears his father's name she should use her
own Christian name todistinguish herself from
her son's wife. In England she would be
"Dowager Lady Ely," or "Mrs. Margaret Ely."
People differ in their opinion on this point. It
would be impossible to decidn it.
A BOY'S cttli. dbess.
"Xovice" asks: "What is full dress for a boy
of 16?" A ronnd jacket and collar and high
hat at Eton, a Prince Albert frock coat and
derbvbat in America. It shonld depend on
his size and looks. Keep to tbe round jacket
and collar as long as you can; it is so very
"Inquirer" asks: "What is the custom or
etiquette when an expectant bride receive!
many presents? The wedding has been several
times postponed has been indefinitely post
poned. Shall tbe presents be retnrned to tbe
donors!" Yes; It an engagement is broken the
wedding presents are all returned.
"Ignoramus" asks if a full dress suit is proper
for New Year's day or afternoon calls.
Never, in this country. In Paris it would be '
proper for New Year's calls.
A Reader No one says "Yes, ma'am, no,
ma'am" aa longer except to the Queen of
England. Every one answers her with that
old fashioned formula.
Say simply ye or no. You can make it re
spectful by the inflection of your voice.
"Elmo" asks if, after ber marriage her wed
ding having been strictly private it would be
proper to send cards to young gentlemen whom
she has known before her marriage.
Of course, if she desires to continue the ac
quaintance. The question is also asked when shonld new
comers in Washington call on the official la
dies. It is etiquette in Washington for the
new comer to call first, or it is proper to call on
tbe days noticed In the nepapers.
C. W. D. asks: "If a lady presides at a pnblio
meeting how shonld she be addressed, etc,
'.Mrs. President" or "Miss Chairman?"
Neither; she sbonld be addressed by her
Videttk. Lead your cards.
"Mrs. Mackenzie" writes: "How shall my
guests go into dinner; do I go first?"
No; the host goes first, with tho lady to whom,
the dinner is given. Tbe hostess always last,
with tbe principal gentleman guest. All tho
gnests should bave tneir places marked by a
card, and in the hall or anteroom each gentle
man should find the card indicating which lady
he is to take to dinner.
AS TO DICKERS.
"Mrs. Mackenzie" also asks: "How long
should a dinner be?"
It is not kind to keep guests over two hours
at dinner. Tne French dinner rarely lasts more
thm nun hnnr If. 1ft hMtpr tn rl a ftor fh
"dessert and serve coffee in the drawing room.
in some nonses smoKinx is aiiowea in tne
dining room, in others a smoking room Is apart
from tbe rest of tbe bouse. The practice of
the ladies retiring first is an English one the
Russians and French consider it barbarous. It
i, however, the custom in tbe best houses of
New York and Boston and Washington, and it
isa question II tne ladies do not like it as well
as the gentlemen. Tbey enjoy a little chat by
So many questions refer to tbe same subject
that we may as well group them. At least ball
the questions refer to the great topic: ''How
shall we get into society?" It is a curious
phase of the present condition of American,
etiquette that certain people seem to imagine
that society is a room with a door, wbich 13
closed with a Cbubb lock, and If tbey can only
get tbe combinations of that lock thev can get
into society. It is more like a fort defended
with great guns. One needs tact, good manners
and often mncb assistance to get Into society.
Still, as a fortres is no stronger than its weak
est point, so tnere are many weaic points in
society where a skillful strategist can strike a'
blow. Those get In who often might better
have been kept ont. We are on a sliding scale
in America. No one knows with thorough,
exactitude where he stands. Socially, where
he 13 to-day be may not be to-morrow. The.
social aspect of New York changes every ten
vears. It a person have a sumption, arrogance,
pretense, be may assume to be a great person,
and may by his manner Lnrt the feelings of
some modest person. We call such a persona
"snob," and be deserves the odious name, yet
be may be a social expert and prove a very
gieat hindrance to any modest person's en
trance in society. :..
HffW TO TELL A LADY. ,
The lady who is fully satisfied as to her birth .
and breeding, who has bad respectable ances.
tors, and who has always lived in the best so.
clety, is never afraid to bow first, to call first,
and to treat even one with kindness. She knows
that courtesy is the most beautiful of virtues,
that politeness is one of the most Christian of
graces. She never insults anybody. But ber
next door neighbor, who may. although rich,
bave very poor Dlood in ber veins, and who may
not be at all sure in ber own mind that she de
serves to be in society she will affect to not
know those whom she had once known: she
will ignore her own past; she will make (t diffi
cult for tbe modest newcomer to succeed; she is
a vulgar snob, no matter where she happens to
stand in the ranks of fashion.
"To get on in society." involves much that
aannot ba written down, that it i imnnsslble to
formulate in rules. It is quite safe to say, how
ever much you may wish to succeed, do not
push, ao not do anything which betrays a lack
of self-respect. Do your part toward getting
well iiitroduced,andtben do all you can toward
tbe pleasures of your cet aud leave the rest to
fate. Some people are always laughed at. Some
are wrongfully put down. Some are mysteri
ously successtul. No one can tell why, but cer
tain it is that no one loses anything by a mod
est, serene courtesy, a civility which never
flags and a good temper, a willingness to put
the best construction and Interpretation upon
tbe attitude of society. For many of the so
called "slights wbich patient merit of tbe on
worthy takes" comes from an overcrowded so
cial lite. A popular person, a social leader, eoon
becomes a person of many engagements, and:
with much more toda than she can do prop-
erlv. We would say to the neophyte in siciety,
forgive such a person a long time foranj
seeming incivilitj; remember that she cannot
always bave time to attend to you. Nor is she
always able to remember a new face. Therefore
be not afraid to impress jourself on such a per,
son bvyour excellent manner", your readiness "
to forgive, and by acts of civility that are So
modestly offered that they cannot be called
These acts.will never be mistaken for snob
bery if neither of you are snobs.
The same gentlemen, with a proper modesty,,
assume that it is not their place to bow to a
lady unless they have been introJurcd and nn
less she has bowed to them, but here tbey are.
wrong. The mistake may arise from too great
repect, but it is a mistake; a lady is never
offended if a gentleman raises his bat to her. -She
is offended, and properly so, if she is re--ceivingat
any public place we will say the
White House and he passes her without bow
ing, which be ought to do. It has the sanction
otSIr Walter Raleigh.,
M. E. W. SHESWOOO.