Centre Democrat. (Bellefonte, Pa.) 1848-1989, January 04, 1883, Image 7

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A curious spring in St. Tammany
parish. La., runs clear, cold water all
day long, hut at sunset goes suddenly
dry, discharging no water till the sun
rises again.
A Montana paper has discovered a
gorge in tho Yollowstono where, it as
serts, the atmosphere is a non-conduc
tor of sound. No matter how loud
one shouts, ho can't be heard.
In 1770, or therealiouts, the tomato
was almost unknown in Paris. To the
southern French, who invaded France
at the time of tho Revolution, its accli
me'Jzation is due. It was a costly lux
ury at first, but at the end of 180:flt
was sold at Les Hallos by tho half
In several provincial districts of Fin- j
land a religious sect has appeared, based
on the fundamental principle of "female
supremacy and male subjection." Hus
bands and lovers bind themselves by
oath to wear whatever yoke their part
ners choose to place upon thein, and
furthermore to make unreserved con
fession once a week of all delinquencies.
A woman who has been chosen by her
sister rulers to exercise 110111101111 au
thority within the community allots the
penalty, which are [promptly indicted
by robust and resolute matrons.
The first notice of trades unionism in
England is found in an act of Edward
VI., 1548, which recites that "artificers,
handicraftsmen and laborers have made
confederacies and promises, and have
sworn mutual oaths not only that they
should not meddle with one another's
work and perform and finish what an
other had begun, but also to constitute
and appoint how much work they shall
do in a day, and what hours and times
they shall work,contrary to the laws and
statutes of this realm, and to the great
hurt and impoverishment of his Ma
jesty's subjects."
The blue jay is the boldest and most
mischievous of wild birds. Near Knox
ville, Tenn., recently, one was seen to
fly a number of times to a high picket
fence to attract a pair of kittens play
ing on the lawn. The kittens finally
mounted the fence and began a cautious
approach from picket to picket. The 1
jay let the first get to within eighteen
inches, then hopped over between the
two. The second kitten approached; {
the bird h<>pp>d over it. It turned, '
and the jay hopped back and between. '
The first kitten approached, and the jay
hopped back over it, and so kept it up
till one kitten gut disgusted and left,
and the other followed s<>on after.
Once or twice after the jay tried to in
veigle the kittens to another frolic, but
In a Russian Prison.
In the cells of the upper and middle
tiers .are put the least compromised
criminals. All the cells are of the
same size—ten feet long, seven feet
broad and twelve feet high. The doors
have each two openings—one large
enough for the daily food and drink to
lie put in through it and the other of
smaller size, to serve as a spy hole for
the jailers. The doors are also each
fastened with two padlocks—the key of
one being in the jailer's custody, while
that of the other remains in charge of
the commandant of the fortress. The
dish from which the prisoner eats is
pushed in through grooves cut in a
plate of iron which projects from the
interior of the door, at the height of
jfcit four feet from the floor. The
■ cannot, therefore. Is- removed by
■ prisoner, who must take his food
against the door—and this
a spoon which Ls attached to the
■e. The drinking water is put into
of jughingrd tothedoor. When
Hprisoner wishes to drink he must
■>wn upon his knees and turn this
upon its hinges or pivots. Food
mupplied at eleven o'clock in the
morning and six in the evening, and
ordinarily consists of oatmeal gruel and
a quarter of a kilogram of meat; besides
this there is a daily allowance of a kil
ogram of rye bread.
The prisoner's isil consists of a plank,
six by three, with a straw mattress, a
sheet so strong and coarse that it is
impossible to tear it, and a covering of
felt—all of which articles are taken
away during the day. The dress con
sists of a gray woolen jacket quite
short and tight-fitting; short panta
loons of the same color, and long felt
boots. For women the jacket is sup
plied, and a gray skirt added. The
prisoners must get up at six o'clock
and go to bed again at eight. It has
been ascertained, by means of the se
cret oliservations which are constantly
taken through the {icep-holrs that, as
a general rule, the prisoners spend their
long hours from their rising until
their breakfast in pacing to and fro
in their cells; after this they are wont
to remain quiet for an hour or so,
only to give way next to an excess
of dcsolatft despair which their pitiable
situation may wefl inspire.
A movement on foot-'I rftniliiflgcorn.
Odd Evidence.
A witness wns once called on a trial
to prove an alilii. 110 solemnly swore
that the prisoner, on the night and at
the hour in question (twenty-live min
utes past eleven at night), was at home
and in I ted. Nothing could shake his
testimony, for he said he had looked at
tho clock just as the prisoner went up
stairs, ami had set the dock right with
the church clock himself the same day,
and it was certainly twenty-Ova min
utes past eleven at night l etc.
"I'ray what do you make tho time
now?" blandly asked the counsel who
cross-examined, pointing to a great
white dial over the dock. No answer
was given.
"Don't be runfused—take your time.
I ask you again—what is tho time by
that clock now?"
The question was repeated several
times, and the witness was eventually
bound to confess that he could not tell
the time at all. Singularly enough the
clock was standing at twenty-five min
utes past eleven when lie rnado this
We remember a country witness be
ing called at the assizes to prove that
at a particular hour on a certain night
the moon was shining and at the full.
There happened to be no almanac in
court, but the evidence seemed to bo
satisfactory, for lie had obtained his
information from "a regular good al
manac. When asked if lie had liought
this almanac recently, lie replied :
"My father pasted it behind my
kitchen door nine years ago—tho day 1
was married."
It need hardly ho said that informa
tion its to the moon's ago during a day
in tho curront year was of iittio value
from an almanac nino years old. >\*
remark that all evidence of a "circum
stantial" character is received with
groat caution, and no doubt rightly so,
on a trial. Take, as an illustration of
this, the evidence offered against a
prisoner of footmarks. Nothing is
more commonly found than tho impres
sion of IhHits and shoes near to a mur
dered body, or to premises which have
lieen broken into. A policeman is
called as a witness on the trial, who
deposes that he took tho boots off the
prisoner ujion his arrest; that he com
pared them with the footmarks near
the place of the alleged crime, and that
they corresponded in every particular
"You nun pared them, I suppose,"
usually asks the judge, "by placing the
boots in the impressions, and found
that they corresponded?"
"Yes, your honor."
The answer is fatal t<> that branch
of tho evidence, for the placing the
lmot in the impression found, very JH>S
sibly caused the similarity relied upon ;
the prudent officer places the prisoner's
boot leside the footprint, pD-sst-s it into
tho earth, and then removing it, com
pares the impression made with the one
lb-en llrhen Out of their iliisiness.
Anmng the lat<-st victims of foreign
competition are the bei-s of llus-i.i
Under the baleful influence of the free
importation of a spurious kind of wax
called cercsina. manufactured in Aus
tria, tho native industry is dwindling
at a rate which threatens it with ex
tinction. of eeresina, which 1 tears the
same relation to genuine wax that o|e<-
margarine does to dairy butter, no )e
--than I,' * ** • |w>unds are annuallv
ini|Hrt<s|, chiefly for nse in the manu
facture of tapers, which figure so prom
inently in all Russian churches. The
price of wax has fallen under strpss of
competition vvith eeresina from thirty
to seventeen roubles per |Hiund. At
this price liees are regarded as hardly
worth their keep, and in one ilistriet
the honey crop has ialb-n from ir>.'**>
to t>,(Xk) pound* per annum. Ity tiie
new tariff an import duty of a rouble
a pound has been imposed on eeresina;
but, according to the if wow fiacrfte,
it will have to bo raised to ten roubles
to give the jHxir bees a chance.—l'ull
.Villi (in:rtfe.
Queen Victoria'* Hold l'lnte.
No living monarch, Kurnpean or
Asiatic, not even tlt** (,'xnr of all the
liussias, can Ixoist of such a service of
plate as that nwmd bv Queen Victoria,
to whose guilts it is often exhibited
on huge buffets at either end of the
banqueting table in St. (leorge's Hall
vas-s. plateaux, cuj.*. a.id condelabra.
all wrought in the precious metal, the
net value of which is said to exceed
two millions sterling. Conspicuous
among the trophies are the mimic lyre
bird and tiger's head, taken from Tip
jtoo Haiti eighty odd years ago, and pre
| seated to her Majesty's grandfather,
KingOeorgo 111. The lyre-bird's l>ndy
and tail are composed of solid gold,
richly studded with brilliants, rubies,
emerelils, ami pearls. The tiger's head
once served Hyder Ali's masterful son
as a footstool. It is a life-sized model,
fashioned In solid silver, richly gilt, its
tusks of rock-crystal, anil its tongue of
pure gold. Like the lyre-bird, it fell
Into the hands of the Hritish at the
storming of Heringapatam, w here Tip
! poo, its valorous owner, met bis death.
It has been ascertained that the first
experiment with air balloons was made
at Avignon by Montgulficr the elder In
November, 1782. He sent up in hi*
room a parallelepiped of canvas con
taining forty cubic feet of air heated by
burning paper inside. The room is
still in existence.
Experiments by Koch and Wolfhugei
to determine the disinfecting power of
hot air have hsl to the conclusion that
so high a temperature and so long an
exposure are necessary to secure disin
fection that most articles—such as
clothing—are liable to serious damage
by the operation.
According to tho 3fe<liral Heixird,
"the blue appearance which milk some
times presents after standing a few
days is due to an organism whiob is
allied to bacteria, and can be trans
planted into other samples of rnilk and
various solutions. The blueing occurs
only in tho presence of oxygen, and is
attended with evolution of carbonic
It is held by Mons. P. de TchihatehclT
that the great deserts of Asia and Af
rica are not recently raised sea beds,
but were uplifted at remote geological
epochs, their sands being tin* product
of rocks disaggregated by atmospheric
causes, instead of showing a marine
origin. The Asiatic deserts are much
older than tho Sahara.
In a recent paper Dr. Prysdale, of
London, showed that it could no longer
he a matter of doubt that humanized
lymph should be entirely abandoned in
favor of calf lymph for vaccination, as
has been done in the United States.
Several physicians of wide experience
testified in 18s<) that animal vaocin.v
tion was a perfect preservative against
sinall-|M>x, but the lymph taken front
human subjects very often fails to
A report of the Rritish Association
Committee on underground tempera
tures states that the result of fourteen
years'otiservation shows that tho in
i rease of heat under the surf;we of tho
earth varies in its rate. A great many
records were taken, and as near a* pos
sible the mean increase of tem|>ernture
is set down as 1 degree Fahrenheit for
every sixty-four feet.
Coral Fishing.
The best mral fisheries are along the
coasts of Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco,
from two to ten miles from shore, in
from thirty t<> 150 fathoms. Good coral
is also common at Naples, near Leg
horn and Genoa, and on various parts
of the sea, as Sardinia. Corsica, Cata
lonia. I'rovence. etc. It ranges in color
from pure white through all the shades
of pink, red. and crimson ; the rose
pink is most valued. For a long time
Marseilles was the market, but now
Italy is the great centre of the trade ;
the greater nutnlier of Nats hailing
from Torre del Greco, while outside
persons are forced tit pay a heavy tax.
The vi ssels are schooners, lateen-rigged,
from three to fourteen tons. Large
nets are usetl, which, during tha
months between March and October,
are dragged, dredge-like, over the
rocks. A large crew will haul In a
season from tvxt to '.too pounds, To
prevent the destruction of the industry,
the reef is divideii into ten parts, only
one Ling worked a year, and by the
time the tenth is reach is 1 tha first is
overgrown again with a new growth.
In 1*73 the Algerian fisheries alone,
employing 3,150 men, realized half a
million of dollars. The rhnire grades
are always valuable, the finest tints
bringing over si*$ i* r ounce, while the
small pieces, used f,,r necklace*, and
•ailed collette. are worth only $1.50
;wr ounce. The large oval pieces are
sent to China, where they are used as
buttons of office by the mandarins.
The fashion of framing the front
breadth of a skirt gives great scope to
the employment of an inconsiderable
quantity of handsome materia], and
many "short lengths" of rich brocade,
velvet or satin may le most advan
tageously „ Ho ,| j„ this manner. The
Lidice is often of the same material a*
the panel; hut where this cannot I*!
accomplished, a |Hirtion can le in trie
duced a* trimmings, such as rovers,
plastrons, or pelerine and cuffs.
Quito rute in A ram in tu: "You are
such a strange girl!" said Charley;
"really, I don't know what to make of
you." "Well, then, I'll tell you,
Charley," replied Araminta; "make a
wife of me." Charley did so at tho
earliest opportunity.
The rag business in New York has
assumed enormous proportions. It
amounts to $110,000,000 per annum.
There are 2,000 ragpickers in the c'ty.
Last year there was over $10,000,000
worth of rags imputed.
An exchange wants to know:
"What are our young men coming to?"
Coming to see our git Is, of course.
Duty never frowns hut upon those
who shun her. On those who follow
her she smiles.
Death is tho antagonist of life, and
tiio thought of tho tomb is the skele
ton of all feasts.
Life Is a battle. From its earliest
dawn to its latest breath we are strug
gling with something.
The proper way to check slander is
co despise it; attempt to overtake and
refute it, and it will outrun you.
Every day a little helpfulness. We
live for the good of others, if our liv
ing be in any sense true living.
There will always be something that
sre shall wish to have finished, and be
nevertheless unwilling to begin.
Flattery is often a traffic of mutual
meanness where, although both parties
intend deception, neither are deceived.
We cannot be too much on our
juard against reactions, lest we rush
from one fault into another contrary
We must distinguish between felicity
nd prosperity, for prosperity leads
tften to ambition, and ambition to dis
He who swims securely down the
it ream of self-confidence, is in danger
of being drowned in the whirlpool of
Foppery is never cured; it is the bad
j itamina of the mind, which, like those
I if the body, are never rectified; once a
| joxeomb, and always u coxcomb.
What real good does an addition to a
fortune already sufficient procure?
Not any. Could the great man, by
having his fortune increased, increase
j also his appetites, then precedence
j might L- attended with real amuso
( mi nt.
licautiful is old age, beautiful as the
j tlow-dropping mellow autumn of a
| rich, glorious summer. In the old man,
nature has fulfilled her work; she loads
' him with her blessings; she fills him
• with the fruits of a well-spent life; and
' surrounded by his children anil his
I children's children, she rocks him
j softly away to a grave to which he is
followed with blessings.
Don't try to get cool too quickly after
exercising, is advice given by I)r.
Foolt's H'ulth Monthly.
, To remove coldsores, rub the finger
oehind the ear close to the part which
is joined to the head, and then rub the
sore. The secretion removes the sore
in a short time if applied every twenty
To make giod sticking plaster, put
two spoonfuls of balsam of Peru to six
>f isinglass, melted with very little
| water, and strained. Mix these well
i together in a small stone jar over the
' Ire. Pin out some black Persian or
' sarsenet on aboard, and,dipping a brush
into the mixture, pass it over the silk
five or six times; then hold it to the
fire, hut not very near, and it will soon
become black and shining.
When an artery is cut, the red blond
spurts out at each pulsation. Press
'.he thumb firmly over the artery near
i he wound, and on the side toward the
"mart. Pr> -s hard enough to stop the
: bleeding, and w ait till a physician
j somes. The wounded person is often
able to do this himself, if he has the
, requisite knowledge.
Hoarseness and tickling in the threat
u* best relieved by the gargle of the
| white of an egg. tieaten to a froth in
i half a glass of warmed, sweetened
| water.
Wanted, a Husband.
In the papers recently appeared an
account of a young woman in Dakota
I who advertised for a husband in the
characteristic slang of the Far West.
Another story of a similar character
comes from this wild, untrammelled
land. An officer of the Seventh Cav
alry Regiment at Fort Lincoln, Da
kota, received a letter front a woman
who owned a ranch near Mandan,
which in substance read as follows:
"Dear Sir: My man, perhaps, you
know, Is dead. I buried him Thurs
day. It is coming on spring now. and
I am a lone woman with a big ranche
and tho Indians about I don't mind
the Indians, the red devils, but 1 have
: too much work for any woman to do.
If you have any sergeant about to he
mustered out, or a private, if he is a
; good man, I would like to have you in
form me about him. If he is a steady
tnan, likes work and wants a good home,
I will marry him, if we think we ran
get along together. It's a good chance
for any man. Please answer."
About 1,500 miles of new railroad
were put into operation in the Southern
j States last year. The gross earnings
' of the Southern reads nvu-hed $68,000,-
000, and the net carningsmcreased from
$18,000,000 in 1330 to more than
Utilizing Hun Ray*.
M. William Calver, q mining expert
living in Washington,has junt patented
a new discovery which premises large
results. it la very simple, consisting
<•1 an arrangement by which the ray*
of the sun are reflected from any num.
iter of mirrors upon a common focus,
lly accident Mr. Calvor directed the
light from two ordinary looking
glasses upon the same surface, and he
immediately observed that the result
ant heat was about doubled. Continu
ing his experiments in this direction,
he succeeded in reducing wood to
ashes; and inetal to a liquid state,
merely by concentrating upon them
the reflected rays of the sun from
twenty Hinall mirrors with flat sur
faces. Mr. Calver does not pretend to
explain the principle, he has simply
pursued his experiments until he has
brought the process to a point where
it can be patented.
A reporter of the Washlngion Post
has seen the model in the Patent
Office, and has witnessed some of the
experiments. The model patented Ly
Mr. Calver consist* of a number of
small looking-glasses arranged in rows
upon a frame so lixed that they can be
converged upon any one point. A
working model, of which he has a
number, was exhibited to a reporter in
tlie yard in the rear of his residence.
Forty innocent, guileless-looking, fif
teen-cent, gilt-fraim-d mirrors, each
three and three-quarters by five ami
three-quarter in<h<*. were arranged
ujKin a frame projiped up like an ar
tist's ease), and bearing a striking
resemblanee thereto. Facing the east
was the fragment of what was once a
barn-door, also propped uj>, and partly
covered with a worn and failed sheet
of zinc that boreuiuiiistakahle'evidence
of having lieen burned through in
several places. It was but the
work of a minute to converge the forty
mirrors ujiou a space three and three
quarter inches by five and three-quar
ter inches ujKin the barn door, and
then the revelations liegan. As each mir
ror cast its quota of sunshine ujmn Un
common store, the parallelogram of
light grew white and more dazzling,
until at last it I..okcd like a patch of
electric light. Hut little patience wa*
re-quired to await results. In less than
thirty second* a thin curling puff of
smoke gave evidence of the progress of
the experiment. In a minute th<-
board wm bursting out in flames. The
focus was then shifted upon the zinc.
In a few minutes it L-gan to turn color;
then shrink, as if anxious to get away
where it was cooler; and then, in less
than three minutes, the entire surface,
covered by the focus, was literally
melting, drop by drop. To melt zinc
requires a temperature of 7<ri degrees
Fahrenhi :t.
I he light projected upon the focus is
wonderfully white and brilliant. Each
mirror adds its quota, not only of heat,
but light, until the cUn I pmduced is
more dazzling t.t.m that of the electric
light. Mr. < alver has produced more
than four hundred degrees of heat with
his mirrors, and it is shown by calcu
lations that 1,000 iiiirr-rs, cacti a t<* t
square, will melt iron and stisfi almost
immediately. Even this heat can be
condensed and made to produce n
inarkablo results. The mirrors will
project more heat in winter than in
summer, and they may L- utilized for
producing power cheaply bv doingaway
with coal and Wood. Indeed, the mir
rors, if they will do all that Mr. Calver
expects, may lie regardid as the employ -
merit of a new force to minister to the
necessities of man.
How She Itersmc Rich.
The Dowager Duchess of Calleira
not long since L-stowi-d two splendid
estates on the Pojie. The way this old
lady tx-canie so rich is curious. The
late Duke possessed a fortune of 300,-
000,000 francs, which would by the
ordinary course of revolution go to his
only son. The heir, however, in his
father's lifetime, declared that he in
tembsl to renounce the world. Instead
of retiring to a cloister, as he would
have done in the middle ages, he went
irt his twentieth year into the territory
of Nice and applied for a situation as a
village schoolmaster. His father re
garded the thing as a mere freak, and
sent his son every year 300,000 francs.
The young man, however, sent this
sum every year to I'aris, requesting
that it should Is- expended on the poor.
After three years the Minister of In
struction. finding out who the school
master at Nice was. ap|s.inted him toa
high official post, and his father dying
about the same time he became Duke
of Galleira and the owner of immense
wealth. He declined the post, and
allowed his mother to use the fortune
without interference, eontent with his
|>o*ition and income as a teacher at
Ohio produces upward of 25,000,000
pounds of wool, or nearly one-sixth of
the whole product of the United States.
California follows next with 16.798,-
036 pounds, and Michigan third with
11,858,497 pound*.
Where He Kept His Revolver.
A traveling man writing to th 4
Commercial Traveler? Journal gives
an account of how two men nought to
roh a drummer out Went. They didn't
roh him quite an much an they thought
they would, ilin mum: wan Finher, and
'he was making a trip through tbo
vvcetera country, where if roeklean
men ever caught a drummer in a safe
i place ami could get the drop on him,
| they were pretty certain of a good haul,
an the victim always had money.
I Finher had left the hotel and had
j wandered down a little creek to enjoy
i the fresh air, and had ncared a little
clump of trees.
Two men were nltting under the
tres*s watching bin heedless approach.
As he got within a few paces of them
they suddenly jumped up and one of
them leveled a long navy revolver and
told the unfortunate commercial
traveler to hold up his hands. Fisher
was probably the most astonished man
in the State at that moment. Ilia
knees smote together like he seemed to
grow shorter—sink into himself, as it
were—the perfect picture of fright.
His bands, however, went about that
shiny plug hat instantly, He was not
too badly scared to listen to persuasion,
hut there they trembled and waved up
and down like a sycamore leaf in a gale
of wind. It was a comical sight to see
them, limp arid whiten, "flapping"
around through a space of a half a foot
or more. The brigand thought so too,
: and could not help raising his eye from
his pistol to look at them. Fisher,
! through his half-closed eyelids, saw
' the movement of the robber's eyes and
' then that trembling hand seemed to
| flash down liehind the tall black hat
' ba<k again, with a glistening something
in it. There were two reports as tne
hand came down before, instead of
ix-hind the [dug. The highwayman
threw up his hands and sank back with
a bullet hole between his eyes, while
the tall shining plug rolled off the back
of Fisher's head with a clean cut across
the crown, where the bullet from the
long navy had ploughed its way.
The other robber obeyed a gruff
order to hold up his hands with an
j alacrity born of excellent judgment,
for Fisher had lost that wild look, .and
had drawn a bead on that chap that
meant business. The fear and trembling
was but a clever ruse, and when the
highwayman took his eye from Fisher's
to watch that trembling, white hand,
his surviving partner learned why the
commercial traveler wore coats made
of stiff goods, cut so as to make the
collar stand out free from the back of
the neck.
A Touch Witness.
During a recent trial, it was thought
important by counsel to determine the
length of tirne that a certain quarter of
lwi-f remained in an express-wagon in
front of plaintiffs store before it was
taken by the defendant. The witness
under examination was a Herman,
whose knowledge of English was
limited; hut he testified in a very plain,
straightforward way to having weighed
the meat, and to having afterward car
red it out and put it into the wagon.
Then the following ensued :
"State to the jury how long it was
after you took the meat from the store
and put it in the wagon ln-fore it was
taken away."
"Now 1 shoost rand dell rial. I
thinks 'limit dwelve feet. I say nc
nearer as dat."
"You don't understand me. How
long was it from the time the meat left
j the store and was put into the wagon
lief ore it was taken away by the
defendant ?"
"Now I know not what you ax dat
for. Der wagon he was lack up mlt
dat sidewalk, and dat's shoost as long
as it was. You dell me how long der
sidewalk was. Den feet? Dwelve feet?
Den I dells you how long it w as."
"I don't want to find out how wide
the sidewalk was. bnt 1 want to know,"
s]eaking very slowly, "how long—this
- meat—was- -in—the—wagon—before
—it—was—taken—away f
"O,dat! Yell, now, 1 not sold my
meat so. I all time witgh him; neve*
measure meat, not yet. Hut 1 dinks
about dree feet. 1 know not, sheuUc
mens, how is ilis. 1 dell you all 1 can,
shoost so good as I know."
"Look here. 1 want to know how
long it was liefore the meat was taken
away after it was put in the wagon?"
"Xow you dry and get me in some
scrapes. Dat meat, was shoost so long
in der wagon as he was in der shop.
Dat's vot I told yon. Dat mwt vas
dead meat. He don't got no longer In
den dousen year, not moock."
"That will do."
Kaleigh has 138 factories, employing
4,456 hands, and is about to have a new
cotton factory with 20,000 spindlea
Its business for the year ending August
HI amounted to $75,000,000, against
971,000,000 the preceding year.
Time is a good deal liko a mule. It
.is better to be ahead of um
1 behind lima