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0 I). RAY,
O* ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Special attention given to the collection of claims.
Office adjoining Broqkerhoft House, 4-15
R FHOMAS J. MCCULLOUGII,
X ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Office in Albert Owen's building, in the room form
t .ily occupied by the Philipjbuig Bunking Company.
1). 11. lIABTINUS. w. F. BEKI>£R.
HASTINGS & REEDER,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Office otl Allegheny street, two doors east of tho of
fice occupied by late lirm of Yocnm A Hastings. 49-tt
8. R. t'KALK. u. A. M'KEK.
1 )EALE & McKEE,
X ATTORNEYS AT LAW.
3 l-tf Office opposite Court House, Bellefonte, Pa.
8. H. YOCITM. H. IIAUHIIHF.BC.EII.
VOCUM & HARSIIRERGER,
X ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Oilico on N. E. corner of Diamond and Allegheny-lit.,
in Hut room lately occnpiod by YonniijV
WILLIAM A. WALLACE, DAVID L. KREHS,
lIARKV P. WALLACE, WILLIAM E. WALLACE.
WALLACE & KREBS,
LAW AND COLLECTION OFFICE,
January 1,1881. CLEARFIELD. PA.
lALLIS L. ORTIS,
Jj ATTORNEY AT LAW.
OFFICE opposite the Court House, on the 2d floor of
A. 0. Furst's building. 3-stf
0. T. ALEXANDER. 0. M. UOWIR.
1 LEXANDER & BOWER,
J \ ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Ibdlofonte, Pa., may be consulted iu Euglisb or Oer
man. Officejn Gurmuu'. Building. 1-ly
.1 LAW AND COLLECTION OFFICE,
12-1 y CLEARFIELD, PA.
JAMES A. REAVER. J. WESLEY 081-ART.
BEAVER & GEPHART,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Office on Allegheny stroet, north of High. Bella
fonte, Pa. 1-D
• ATTORN EY-AT-LAW,
Last d.tor to tho left In the Court House. _ My
10IIN BLAIR LINN,
f J ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Office Allegheny Street, over Post (Uli. e. 21-ly
T L. BP ANGLER,
t J . ATTORNEY-AT-LAW,
BELLEFONTE. CENTRE COUNTY, PA.
Special attention to Collections; practices in ull the
Courts; Consultations in German or English. I-I)
• ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Ollice on Allegheny Street South sido of Lyons
a ture, Bellefonte, Pa. l~\y
X • ATTORNEY-AT-LAW.
LOCK HAVEN. PA.
All business promptly attended to. 1-ly
WM. P. MITCHELL,
LOCK HAVEN, PA.,
Will attend to all work in Clcurfield, Ceutre and
Office opposite Lock naven National Bank. 20-ly
• ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Office In Conrad House, Allegheny street.
Speeial attention given to the collection of claims.
All business attended to promptly.
ATTORN KY-ATI, AW,
All business promptly attended to. 1-ly
nK- HOY, M. D.,
. Office in Conrad Honso. alsive Fortney'e
Law Office, BEi.LEFONTE, l'A.
Boei i.il attention given to Operative Surgery and
Chronlo Diseases. ' l-'-l.v
nil. .IAS. 11. DOBBINS, M. D.,
PHYSICIAN AND SUROKON.
Office Allegheny St.,over Zelgh-r s Ihng Store
g.,f BELLKFONTK. PA^
OR. .1. W. RHONE, Dentist, c:tn
he found at his office and residence on North
side of Iligh street three doors East of Allegheny,
in Carman's New Block,
BKLLKFONTK, PA. Wly
I? P. BLAIR,
X • JEWELER,
WATCIIKH, CUCKH, JAWF.I.RT, AO.
All work nwitly exMuiited. Ou Alleghany street,
under Brockcrlmff Home. 4-tf
DEALERS IN PUBB DRUGS ONLY,
G: I ZELLER & SON, I
- 11 # DRUGOIBTB,
No. 6. Brocket hnfT Row. £
S All tho Standard Patent Medicines. Pre- <
£ scriptions and Family Recipes accuratel) -
ft prepared. Trusses, Shoulder Braces, Ac., Ac.
4 : T F S
c. HEMES, Pres 4 t. J- P- HARRIS. Casli'r.
T7IRST NATIONAL BANK OF
Allegheny Street, Bellefonte, Pa. 4tl !
'PHE CENTRE DEMOCRAT '
BOOK and JOB OFFICE
IS NOW OFFKRINO
TO TIIOBB WISHING FIRST-CLASS
Plain or Fancy Printing.
Wo havo unusual facilities for printing
CARTES DE VISITE,
CARDS ON ENVELOPES,
AND ALL KINDS OF BLANKS.
by mail will receive prompt
jjQy-Printing dono in tho host stylo, on
short notice and at tho lowest rates.
\JT Opposite Court Home, BELLEFONTE, PA
TERMS $1.25 PER DAY.
kfooi Livery attached. 1-1.
Wilson, McFarlane <C Co., Hardware Dealers.
WILSON, MoFAEIANE & CO.
STOVES, RANGES 8 HEATERS.
Paints, Oils, Glass and Varnishes,
ALLEGHENY STREET, .... HUMES' IILOCK, .... BKLLEFONTK, PA.
BELLEFONTE & SNOW SHOE
H. It.—Time-Table in eiftjct on :ind after Mari li
I, 1882 :
Leaves Snow Shoe 5.3G A. M. .arrive* in Bellefonte
7.24 A. M.
Leave* Bellefonte 9.12 A. M.,arrives at Snow Shoe
11.25 A. M.
Leaves Snow Shoo 2.30 P.M. .arrives in Bellefonte
4.20 P. M.
Leaves Bellefonte 4.45 P.M.. arrives at Snow Shoe
7:25 P.M. S. S. BLAIR, Gen'l Sujieriiiteiulenrt
BALD EAGLE VALLEY RAIL
KOAD. —Tiuie-Tablo, April 21), lsso:
Exp. Mail, WKSTWAHI). EASTWARD. Exp. Mail.
A. M. P. M. P M. A. M
810 7 r2 .Arrive at Tyrone Leave 732 848
$.lO 55 Leave East Tyrone Leave... 7 3'.* 8 55
750 051 " Vail 44 ... 742 85s
755 047 M Bald Eaglo 44 ... 747 002
748 030 44 Fowler 44 ... 752 UOO
742 033 ...... 41 Hannah 44 ... 755 013
735 C 25 44 Fort Matilda 44 ... 800 019
727 Cl7 44 Martha 44 ... 807 025
7is p. us 44 Julian 44 ... 815 932
7 o 5*7 44 Eutonrillo 44 ... 823 939
700 543 44 Snow Shoe In 44 ... 832 945
6 665 45 44 Mtlesburg 44 ... 8349 4S
46 535 44 Bellefonte 44 ... 843 957
.i 30 525 4 * Milesburg 44 ... 85410 08
r25 515 44 Curtin 44 ... 90010 19
j. 18 510 44 Mount Eagle 44 ... 91219 25
0 501 44 Howard 44 ... 920 19*37
?55 450 44 Eaglevilie 44 ... 93810 40
i6O 445 44 Beech Creek 44 ... 940 19J54
134 433 44 Mill Hall 44 ... 95411 16 ;
r. 20 430 44 Flemlngtou 44 ... 957 1 1.29 i
g25 425 44 Lock Haven 44 ...10 01 11 25
PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. I
—(Philadelphia and Erie Divihiou.)—On and
after December 12, 1877 :
ERIE MAIL leaves Philadelphia 11 55 pm
14 llarrisburg 425 a m
a• Williainnport 835a in
u •• Lock Haven 9 40 a in
44 Reuovo 10 56 a in
arrive* at Erie 7 35 p IU
NIAGARA EXPRESS leaves Philadelphia... 7 20 a ni
44 44 llarrisburg.... 10 60 a in
" 41 Williamsport. 2 29 pin
9 arrives at Itenovo 4 40 p in
Passengers by this train arrive iu Belle
fonte at 4 35 p ui
FAST LINE leaves Philadelphia 11 45 a iu
9 9 HarriHburg 335p ni
44 Williainnport 730p in
14 arrives at Lock Haven 8 49 p m
PACIFIC EXPRESS leaves Lock Haven 6 40 a m
4 44 Williainnport... 7 66 am
44 arrives at llarrisburg 11 65 a in
" 44 Philadelphia.... 3 46 pNI
DAY EXPRESS leaves Honovo 10 19 a in
" 4 * Lock Haven 11 29 a in
9 44 Williiimsport 12 40 am
44 arrives at llarrisburg 4 19 pm
9 " Philadelphia 720 pm
ERIE MAIL leaves Renovo 8 35 p in
44 44 Lock Haven 945 p m
44 44 Williamsport 11 95 pm
44 at rives at llarrisburg 2 45 a m
4 44 Philadelphia 700a in
FAST LINK leaves Williumsport 12 36 a m
44 arrives at llarrisburg 3 68 a m
44 44 Philadelphia 735a in
Erie Mail West. Niagara Express \\ Lock Haven
Accommodation West, and Day Express East, uiak<
close connections at Northumberland with L. & 11. It
R. trains for Wllkesbarre and Scranton.
Erie Mall West. Niagara Express West, and Erie
Express West, and Lock Haven Accommodation West,
make close connection at Williamsport with N.C. R
W. trains north.
Erie Mail West, Niagara Express West, and Da>
Express East, make CIOM, connection at Lock Ilavon
With H. K. V. R. R. trains.
Erie Mail East and West connect at Erl) with trains
on L. S. A M. S. It. R.. at Corry with O. 0. A A. V. R
It., at Emporium with 11. N. Y. A P. R. R., and at
Driftwood with A. V. R. It.
Parlor cars will run 1 etween Philadelphia nnd
Williamsport on Niagara Express West, Erie Express
West, Philadelphia Express East ami Day Expres*
East, ami Sunday Express East. Sleeping cars on al 1
night trains. WM. A. BALDWIN,
sZhwL J 3
V -*>- \
2-FTM • RKLLEFONTE, PA.
MONEY To Loan at 6 per Ct.
RAY/11 -1J I „ Y T!IE MUTUAL LIFE INSUR
ANCE CO. OF NKW YORK, on flint mortgage, on
Improved farm property, In nnn not lew than *2,000.
and not exceeding one-tlilrd of the prreerit value of
the property. Any portion of Ihe principal can bo
paid off at any time, and It line boon the cu.tom of the
company to permit the principal to remain an lotiK a
the borrower wleliee, If the Intercut I. promptly paid.
CHARLES P. BHKTLMAN,Attomey-at-law,
627 Court, street. Heading, Pa.,
orto DAVID 7. KLINE, Co.'. Appraiser,
3-tf Bellefonte, Pa.
A FARM containing Fiity Acres,
and having thereon erected a TWO-BTORY
FRAME lIUILDING and ont building*. Title good.
Inquire of A. J. A T. R. GRTKBT,
1- I UnlouvilU, Centre county, Pa.
A NOTUB IIITT TTNTITI.KD WOMAN. "
[From tho Booton alobe.]
M* w*rs. Editors.
The above is a good likeness of Mrs. Lydla F. Plnk
hom, of Lynn, Ma>s.,who above all other human beings
may bo truthfully called tho "Dear Friend of Woman,"
as some of her correspondents lore to call her. Sho
Is zealously devoted to her work, which is tho outcome
of a life-study, and is obliged to keep six lady
assistants, to help her answer the large correspondence
which daily pours in upon her, each bearing Its special
burden of suffering, or joy at release from It. Her
Vegetable Compound is a medicine for good and not
evil purposes. I have personally investigated it and
am satisfied of the truth of this.
On account of its proven merits. It Is recommended
and prescribed by the bent physicians in the country.
One snyss 44 It works like a charm and naves much
pain. It will cure entirely the worst form 0 f falliug
of the üb-rus, Leucorrhcea, Irregular and painful
Menstruation, all Ovarian Troubles, Inflammation and
Ulceration, Floodlngs, all Displacements and the eon
sequent spinal weakness, and is especially adapted to
the Change of Life."
It permeates every portion of the system, and gives
new life and vigor. It removes faintness, flatulency,
destroys ail craving for stimulants, and relieves weak
ness of the stomach. It euros Bloating, Headache*,
Nervous Prostration, General Debility, Sleeplessness,
Depression nnd Indigestion. That feeling of bearing
down, causing pain, weight and backache, la always
permanently cured by its use. . It will at all times, and
tinder all circumstances, act in harmony with tho law
that governs the female system.
It costs only sl. per bottle or six for $5., and is sold by
druggists. Any advice required as to ai>eclal coses, and
the names of many who have been restored to perfect
health by the use of tlie Vegetable Compound, can be
obtained by addressing Mrs. I\, with stamp for reply,
nt her home In Lynn, Mass.
For Kidney Complaint f eithtr sex this com|ound Is
un/urjaased as abundant testimonials show.
"Mrs. I'inkham's IJver says one writer, "are
thrbrst In the teorld for the euro of Constipation,
Biliousness and Torpidity of tho liver. H*r Blood
Purifier works wonders in Its special line and Mda fair
to equal the Compound In Its popularity,
i All must respect her as an Angel of Mercy whose solo
ambition Is to do good to othors.
k Philadelphia, I'a. fl) Mrs. A. M. D.
/ Y'Fot pain la tha limbs, back, stomach, V
< breast, side or shonldcr blades, taha Fa- >
j •"For cramp of the stomach, colic, fllar- i
/ rrioca, or vomiting, tako I'jeiicn A." MMB \
/ •"Forrongh, asthma, night sweats, short-
' nessof breath,takorkßUh'A. ,
/ "For chronic catarrh, bronchitis, pleurisy, \
j and sore throat of any kind—l'tHusA." MM \
"I'EnnvA la the purest, most prompt and ,
f efficientmodlclno known toman.'' \
/ "Pebcna. Is tho best appetizer, purest V
f tonic, finest Invlgorau.r of tho body and >
I rulnd." \
, "If you can't sleep, take Pebuxa tlf i
y weak or worried mentally, can't rest, take \
y Ptutnta." v
"i "SIOOO will bo paid for the least Impurity or .
/ mliLoral that inay bo found In Peuuna." MB \
y Bold ererywhere. Fnrpamphletwrlte to 'v
' B. IS. UAKTMAN A CO., Osborn, Ohio. >
/ If you are sick, feel badly, or in any way \
> unwell, take PKnuiiA and rcgulatv tho bow- V
y els with >
We continue to act as Solicitors foi Patents, Caveats,
Trade Marks, Copyrights, etc., for tho United states,
Canada, Cuba, England, France, Germany, etc. We
have had thirty-live > ears' experience.
Patents obtained through us are noticed In the Set-
Kntihc American. TliW largo and splendid illus
trated weekly paper, $ 3.20 a year,shows the Progress
f Science, is very Interesting, and has an enormous
Hrculatlon. Address MUNN A CO., Patent Solict
ors, Pub's.of Scientific American, ■'!? Park Kow,
yew York. Hand book about Patents free.
A Pennsylvania Newspaper for
tho General Public.
Th • DAILY PATIIIOT Is tho only morning ftftwiquipnr
piihli• L< <1 n 11- Slat* Capital.
Th" DAILY PATRIOT maki-aa specialty of Ponhsyl*
' v uilii news.
Tho DAILY PATRIOT publisher the Associated Pros*
tie vs nin! siiocirtli* from all point*.
Tho DAILY PATRIOT giv-n apodal Attention P.grain
and produce mat koti*.
Tho DAILY PATRIOT opposos monopoly, boftfium
and (vntrnll/Jitiou ot polltionl power.
Tonus: $6.00 per annum, (strictly in advance,) or
|7.00 nr atinum If not paid in advance. Tor 1103
period IPH than 110 year nt proportionate rates
The WRKKLY PATRIOT is a large,eight page paper,
devoted to literature, agriculture, science, nmntifac
turos, news, markets, etc. During 1882 each number
will contain an Illustration of sumo prominent topic
or event. This is an attractive feature which run not
fail to please. Terms $1 <N) pet annum, Invariably in
advance. One copy of the WKKKLY PATRIOT and
one ropy of llio Philadelphia WKKKLY TI.MKS will
lo sent one year for #2.00 cash in advance, tlms giving
(lie two papers fur the subscription price of the latter.
One copy of the WKKKLY PATRIOT and one copy of
the COTTAMK HKAIITII,an excellent monthly mag
azine, published at Ronton at fl.fiO per annum, w ill ho
sent our year for It iIU ueh in niidvutice. Send in your
siihsriptiousat once. Address
PATRIOT ITIILTSIIINO CO.,
By I>r. Frazier's Mfiffir Ointment. Cures n If by
magic, rimple., Black llphi 1. or Ornlm, Blob-be
Htid Eruptions on the fact*, leaving the .kin clear,
healthy imd bmulifiil. Al.o en re. Itch. llnrbpr . Itch,
Suit Ulrerrrn, Tetter, Ringworm. Hcnhl llcel.Chatipotl
flan.lt.. Sore Nipples, wire Ulp, old, obitluate Uloera
Hurl gores, Ac.
K, DrHkp, Keq.,Cleveland, 0., .nderwl beyond nil d
.criplirti) front i< .kin di.ea.o which appeared on Ida
llrttrrli, head and f.ce, arel nearly rle.troyed hi. eye.,
lire timet careful docterfug lalhm to help him. amf af
ter all hud fill led 1>" need Dr. Krarier'a Magic Ointment
and was enred by a lewr appllcntiona.
O-Tlie flrat and only [meitlve cure for akin dlsoaaca
Sent by mall on receipt of price. Firrr Cists.
lIKKKV A Co . Sole Prnnr'e
t',2 Veeey St., New York.
For Blind, Weeding, Itching or Ulcerated I'll p. Dr.
William'! Indian Ointment la a .tire cure, l'rlc*
fi rm, by mall. For eale by Druxgtata. ti-l-ly
(inn A WKKK. sl2 a day at home easily moile
tb / a Costly Outfit free. Address Titl!K A CO.. An
gusta, Maine Idly
©lie tfrntw gmsrrat.
NEWS, FACTS A NO SUGGESTIONS.
RAT TEST BE THE NATIONAL WELFARE IS Till INTELLI
GENCE AND HROBPERITY OP THE rARMER.
Every farmer in his annual experience
discovers something of value. Write it and
send it to the "Agricultural Editor of the
DEMOCRAT, Reliefonte, I'enn'a," that other
farmers may have the benefit of it. Let
communications be timely, and be sure that
they are brief and well pointed.
IF you propose to make a crop of
clover seed, and so will not have any
second-crop hay, it will be well to
put away, in an easily accessible
place, a few loads of early-cut clover,
for the winter feeding of the cfflvcs,
store pigs, and ewes with early lambs.
Cure it in the cock as much as possi
ble, and don't dry it too much
Then in mowing it away, put
a foot thick, of old, bright wheat
straw between the loads. If you
have plenty of this on hand next
spring, you will not have occasion to
IF you have never tried grinding
the hoes, try it this year. It is hard
on the hoes, to be sure, but it is much
harder on the weeds, and very much
easier for the man who does the hoe
ing. We prefer Cling to grinding,
because it is so much more readily
done. Put the groove neck of the
hoe in a vice, or fasten it in any other
convenient way, and use the file on
the upper or inside. A sharp, new
file will give you a cutting edge in a
few moments. We generally take a
small file to the field with us to dress
up the edge when it gets battered on
a stone. It pays big.
HAYING and harvesting bring into
use much of the most expensive and
complicated machinery of the farm.
Of course good farmers have all this
in the best of order before it is put
into use, but many, even of these,
subject it to neglect in the hurry and
rush of the work which follows.
This is a wasteful error. Let all the
machines not only be cleaned and
oiled and sharpened before being put
at the work, but let them be kept so
while at it. We remember that in
the era of scythes and cradles, the
old hands would tell us "there is no
time lost in whetting," and it is true
of a reaper or mower, as of a cradle
or scythe. Sharp knives and plenty
of good oil (nothing better for warm
weather than three parts crude castor
oil and one part common coal oil),
put on very often, and a very little
at a time, will add much to" the life
of the machines as well as the horses,
and causes all the work to go faster
and more satisfactorily.
T he patent laws, as they have long
existed, were intended to protect
patentees in their lights and proper
ty, and give them the substantial
iienelits of their inventions. This is
right am! proper, and no right think
ing person would desire to have it
otherwise. Hut it also afforded sharps
and sharpers a splendid opportunity
for swindling innocent purchasers,
and extorting from them, in many
cases, several times tho value of the
patented articles they had purchased
and honestly paid for. This was
manifestly wrpng and improper, and
we arc very glad to see that the
Lower House of Congress has passed
a bill, which, if it becomes a law,
will put a check upon the scoundrels*
The isolated conditions of farmers,
and the fact that very many of the
tools and implements used by them
are patented, rendered them, more
than other classes, liable to the impo
sitions of these patent pirates, and
the law alluded to will specially serve
as a refuge for them. Under tho old
law unprincipled manufacturers were
practically permitted to steal patents,
and flood the markets with the ar
ticles made under them, while the
patentee could sit quietly by, per
haps, winking at the transaction, and
then pounce upon the innocent pur
chaser of single articles, and compel
him to pay tho second time. The
now law will compel patentees to
look to the manufacturers and ven
ders of the pirated articles, who are
the real transgressors, for redress.
It is possible that this may, in some
cases, works, injustice to honest pat
entees, but not a tithe as often as the
old law did to innocent purchasers.'
As laws should be enacted and Xv
ecuted with a view to securing the
greatest good to the greatest number
and per contra , inflicting the least in f
jury upon the smallest number, the
new law is better than the old.
FARMERS would, in the long run,
be the gainers if they would each
year gather with the grain cradle and
thrash by hand with flail on a clean
barn floor, sufficient wheat for seed,
selecting the best growth in their
fields, and letting it stand until per
fectly ripe, taking that which seems
to be earliest in ripening.— Breeder#'
To do this much toward securing
better seed is better than to do noth
ing. But will it not be better yet to
take a little more pains and trouble,
and secure far better results ? Let
us suggest a plan which, though
somewhat more troublesome than the
above, is not beyond the reach of any
active, wide-awake farmer in the
country—and will he certain, in the
long run, to repay many times its
j cost: During the cutting of the
wheat, or the hauling in, or both, se
lect a number of the finest and ripest
heads, sufficient to make a bushel or
more of cleaned grain. The job is not
nearly so formidable as it looks on
paper, and can be easily accomplish
ed. Selected in this waj-, it will be
of the very best of your crop, and
free of all foul seeds—absolutely
clean. A little extra pains in thresh- !
ing and cleaning it will keep it so.
Now select an acre of the best wheat
land on your farm, give it a fair coat
of stable manure, and after thorough
preparation of it by early plowing, |
and repeated harrowings and rolling, i
make it still better by the broadcast,
application of 250 pounds each of
bone dust and some one of the best
superphosphates. Harrow it well,
and on this drill the wheat early
enough to secure a good stand before
winter. This will furnish you next
year's seed, and from it should be
selected the finest and best for a seed
patch for that year, and so on. All
this involves some extra work and
care, we know, but not a great deal,
and is amply repaid. You must have
your seed fiorn some source, and the
acre thus carefully treated will, in
all probability, furnish more grain
for this purpose than any one acre of
your regular crop, which can be
saved for market. The little addi
tional pains-taking will result in a
very great improvement in the qual
ity of your seed, to be transmitted,
in turn, to the entire crop of the fol
lowing year. This is not mere theory,
nor is it written by a "fancy farmer,"
nor a "city editor," for the purpose
of filling up his paper. It is advice
given to busy and practical farmers
by one of the busiest and most prae- j
tical among them, and does not go
one whit beyond what he practices
himself. In fact, it is simply a rela
tion of our own methods, and is
written immediately after thorough
ly going over our own seed patch of
three and a half acres, and pulling
out the bunches of rye which by
some mischance put in their unwel
come appearance. The wheat sown
was supposed to be perfectly clean,
and the appearance of the rye is no
evidence against this, as the seed,
may have been in the ground. Pos
sibly an occasional bunch of cackle
may show itself in th 6 same way.
When it is in bloom, and easily seen,
we shall again go over the piece, very
carefully pulling any that may be
found, and thus expect to have seed
for next fall's sowing, which shall
be fully matured, full of vigor and
vitality, absolutely free from all foul
ness. There is nothing in nil this
which may not be easily put in prac
tice by every thorough-going farmer
in the land, and we are quite safe in
saying that if the prnctice were uni
versally adopted, millions of dollars,
in the aggregate, would be annually
added to the profits of the wheat
crop of the country. Begin now, by
making the selection of some of the
best heads in your crop for sowing
How Can the Cost of Roduction Be
Hum* anil Farui.
Study your own fields, select your
seed, save your manure, buy tbe best
tools and stock you can aiford, feed
your stock well, shelter it and care
for it in every way. There are an
hundred leaks you must Btop,
A GREAT deal of butter is spoiled
by overworking that would otherwise
be of the finest quality.
> Green Manuring.
( W. 11. Whiter In Country Geutlfiuaii.
i In attempting the improvement of
, our land by green manuring, we need
t,o know at what stage of growth the
plants should be plowed down, for
there is a stage of growth when they
hold the greatest quantity of organic
matter beneficial to future vegetation,
and also how deep it is to be buried
in the soil, with other attendant
queries. The question also some
times arises how plowing down only
that which is grown on the soil en
riches it. We increase the capacity
of a soil for production, frequently,
by merely changing the combination,
or locality in the ground, of essential
elements. The plant obtains some
of its constituent elements from the
air as well as from the soil; a por
tion also is drawn from the subsoil.
These elements form compounds,
some of which are found in the sap,
while others are found in the leaves
and other parts. Some of these com
pounds are known to contain nitro
gen, which is a promoting agent of
decay. The decomposition of one
constituent induces other elements to
leave their places and form new com
binations. Thus matter goes through
the process we term decay, which, in
reality, is only change. This decay,
or change, takes place much more
rapidly with green vegetation than
with that which has ripened. If
green vegetation is allowed to fall
and decay in the open air, very much
of it is lost to the soil in which it
grew, having passed off in the air;
but if the green vegetable matter be
covered in the soil, then the absorp
tive capacity of the soil is such that
it holds these elements, changing it
to that extent. The deeper vegeta
ble manure is buried, the slower the
process of decay. We thus save to
our soil a portion of organic plant
food by plowing under green vegeta
ble matter at the right stage of
In experience, and a course of
many years' observation, I have found
that green manuring plants should
be plowed under previous to coming
into blossom, in order to obtain the
largest benefit to the soil. I have
noticed that some farmers in order to
obtain a large quantity to turn down,
will wait till a later stage. May not
much of the difference of opinion of
the value of green manuring arise
from this cause ? On valuable land,
near ready markets, the loss of a
season, or even a single crop, would
often pay for manure and hauling it
from market; still in such cases
there is much green vegetable matter,
refuse, which might, instead of going
to the compost heap, or be left, as is
too often the ease, to waste away in
the air, be lightly coveredjin the soil,
doing much good. Even a small
growth of some kind of grain, if
sown very thick, would be a great
benefit; not so much, perhaps, in the
amount of fertilizing matter it would
add to the soil, as in the change. I
know that hereabouts we cannot grow
fair potatoes on soil which has been
planted to hoed crops a few j-ears,
but if we seed it to clover, or grass
for a single year, good fair potatoes
are produced in quantities. I sup
pose that land gets "sick" of the
plow and hoc, the same as one does
of the sameness of breakfast, dinner
and supper; at all events, I have
known land well manured (as the
times go) fall off in yield, while if
some different plant be grown one
season, or a few weeks' growth of
some grain be turned under, a sur
prising change is produced. Differ
ent soils, in different localities, vary
in the time when failure or sickness
How I Took the First Premium ou
Cor. of Agriculturnl Kpitouiist.
The land was well broken and
sowed down to oats early in the
spring. Toward the latter part of
May the oats were turned under.
About June 20 the potatoes were
planted in drills about feet.
Previous to planting a subsoil coulter
was run several times in the drill,
which prepared a loose bed for the
potatoes. The manuring consisted
of guano, applied when the oats were
sowed, and when the potatoes were
planted stable manure and ashes were
used in the drills. When the pota
toes began to come up the ground
was well mulched with a coaling of
leaves from the woods. After the
potatoes had come up well they were
thinned out to one stalk, tJii* was thr
main came of eticcese. One stalk will
yield more potatoes than three or
four springing from the same potato.
Improved Sheep Shears.
We quote from the Scientific. Amer
ican the following description of an
improvement in sheep shears recently
patented by a Nebraska man. It has
a seasonable interest: The improve
ment consists of flexible padded cas
ings, connected by a strap, and capa
ble of being bent over the shanks of
the shears. The strap is made ad
justable so as to adapt it to hands of
different siscs. This strap prevents
the hand from slipping forward while
crowding the shears into wool. It
also prevents the shears from being
kicked from the hand of the shearer.
The soft pad covering the handles
prevents the hand from becoming
blistered, and tiring of the hand