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I lie Centre jjßp Democrat.
J. S. & J. J- BRISBIN,
Ejje ®cnirc gemocrat.
WIPUS.Lt.SHED EVERX THURSDAY. BY
J. S■ &J- J- BRISBIN.
OJflee in the Arcade Building, Second Floor.
TKBMS.— SI,SO if paid in advan.ee or within six
Months after subscribing,otherwise $2 will invari
ably be charged. No subscriptions received for
shorter period than six months and none dis
jantinued, unless at the option of the editor, until
all arrearages are paid.
AJI 3Qi.OKM £l £5 AX-LAW, bKLLBI'ONTK, VM.
OS oe on Allegheny Street. Feb. 10 59
I" 7 M. BLANCHARI^ttorney
-AT-LAYV, BICLI.BII.NTB, Fens A. Office
furinrly occupied by the Hon. James Burnsido.
Jan. 19, 'tO.-tf.
WW BROWN- ATTORNEY- AT
. LAW BBLLBKONTB, FEKNA.I\ ill attend to
ail legal business entrusted to him, with prompt
mess. May, 5 '?9.
T AS. H. RANKIN, ATTORNEY:Xt
t) LAW, liKLLtlo.NrK.jl'A. Will attend prompt
ly to ail legal business entrusted to him. Office
next door to too Post Office [Sipt. 20, '6o,tf
T? J . HOCK MA J*, SURVEYOR AND
-EJ, LONVLVAIMJER, BBLLKFONTK, PA., will
attend to and corrcet;y execute all businesi en
trusted te him. [June 14,-'6O, —tf.
(ifiU. h. POTTER. M. D.
OFFICE ou High street, (oldoffice.) Bellefonte
Pa. Will attend to professional calls as
heretofore, and respectfully offers his professional
services his friends and the public. 0ct.26'58
A A. FAIBLAVB, V. I). JAS. A. DOBBINS. H. D
DR. FAIKLAM'i has associated w ; th bim DR
J. H. DOBBlJ--.in the practice of medicine
A dice as heretofore on ishop street, opposite the
Temperance Hotel. March 19,57.
r XR.J AS. P. GREGG , respectfully offer
JLr his professional services to tho people o
Jlilesburg and vicinity. Residence, Diuiol R
Bureau's National Ilotol.
Refer to Dr. J. si. McCoy, Dr. (J. L. Potter, Dr.
J. B. Mitchell. [Nov. 3, 1860. —tf.
WM. REIBER, SCKUNON AND
Y PUYSJ.CIAR, having permanently located
• Ifers hiß Professional services to the citizens of
Tice Grove Mitts and vicinity, and respectfully
•tlioiu a liberal portion of the public patronage,
[Feb. 16, '6o. Iy.
J. J. LINGLE. Operative
JytggSfejgsL and Mechanical Dentist, will prac-
tice ail tho various branches of his
profession in the most approved manner. Office
and residence on Spring St-Bellcfoute Pa.
[Mar. ?. '6O. tf.
TAS. F. RIDDLE- ATTOKNEY-AT
yy LAW, iiKLLefuNT* PA. Will atttend to all
kusiuess entrusted to him with care and prompt
ness. Refer to Guv. Pollock, Milton Pa. and
Hon. A. G. Curtin, Bcllefonto Pa. Office with
John H. Stover" jan. 5, '6O.
J R. MUFFLY , AOBNT FOR TH
, M BUT BBIMX INSURAKCB COUPANT. fer
suns wishing to secure themselves from losses by
ire, will do Well to call upon b'K *t tbo store of J.
K. Jduidy A Co., N. E. corner of the Diamond,
three doors above Allegheny strte', Bellefonte,
ue eo„ Pa. Mar. 15. '6O. I'.
WW. WHITE, HENTIBT, has per
. manently located in Boalsburg, Centre
County Pa. Office on main st., next door to the
store of Jobation Jt IyelLr, where he purposes
practising his profession in the most icieutific
manner and at moderate charges. til ir.
IUA C. MITCUELL. Crars T. ALKXANOBR
ATTORNEYS- AT-LAW, BELLEFONTB PPSSA.
llsving associated themselves iu the practice
*l law, will aiten 1 promptly to all busiuect en-
Waned to their care
Office in the Arcade. [No-f 1 '6O-—ff.
DEEDS BONDS, MORTGAGES, AND AR
TICLES OF AGREEMENT neatly and cor
rectly executed. Also, attention will be given to
the adjustment of Book Accounts, and accounts
f Admiiislratior £ and Executors propared for filing,
effice next door to the Post Office.
ot., 19th, '4s, WM. J. KEALSn.
yOHN H. STOVER
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW •
BELLEFONTE, PA., will practice his pro
fession in the several courts of Centre county.—
All business entrusted to him wili be carefully at
tended to. Collections made and all monies
promptly remitted. Office, on High st. formerly
epcuped by Judge Bumside, and D. C. Boal, Esq.
nherche can be consulted both in the English and
inthe gci van language. M.iy 6,'58 —22 ly.
FAS. IIACHAKUS. W. P. JJACJIANC
J: & Witt. P. IttACIttANUS.
ATTOKNEY'S-AT-LAW, BKLLRFONTB, PA.,
Office in the rooms formerly occupied by
Liun A Wilson, Allegheny street. Jas. Maeman
us has associated with W. P. Macmanus, Esq., in
the practice of law. Professional business intrua
tedt o their care will receive prompt attention.
They will attebd the several Courts in tho Coun
ties of Centre, Clinton and Clearfield.
June 21, '6O, tf.
TJALE & HOY. ATTORNEYS-AT
will attend pro nptly to all business
entru stedto thoir care. Office in the building
formerly occupied by Hon, Jas. T. Ilale.
Messrs. Hale A Hoy will attend to my business
during my absence in Congress, and will be as
sisted by me in the trial of all causes entrustedto
t hem. J. T. HALE. jan 5*1860
CURTIN & BLANCHARD.
The undersigned having associated them
selves in the practise of Law, will faithfully at
tend to all professional business entrusted to them
in Centre, Clii lion and Clearfield counties. All
collections placed in their hrnds, will receive
their promt attention. Office in Blanchard's uetv
building on Allegheny street.
Nov. 30 'SB CURTIN A BLANC HARD.
RXYffLTft HOUSE OF
WM. F.. REYNOLDS d- CO.
BELLEFONTE, CENTRE CO., PENN'A.
Bills of Exchange and Notes discounted ; Collec
tions made and Funds promptly remitted. Inter-,
est paid on Speeial Deposits, Exchange on the
Hasten cities constantly on hand aud for sale.
Deposits reeeived. April 7 'SB
WM. HARDING, FASHIONABLE BARB&R AND
HAIR DRESSER, BELLP.POSTE. PA , Has !
opened a Barber Shop one door above tho fc'rank
n> House, where he can be found at all times.—
Good Razors, keen and sharp, kept constantly on ,
hand. Hair Dressing, .S'hampooning, Ac., &ttn- '
ded to in the most workman-like manner. He
kopes by strict attention to business to receive a
liberal share of public patronage.
llefonte.June 28, 1860-—tf.
Ayer's Cherry Pectoral.
% jFimils ftefospitptr la politics, Ctmptrsntt, fKtanttott, Science, B%t srt, gletjranics, Jgricttltan, ®jte Ularktts, (flmeatioit, Jrousemmt, ®mral Jntllipce, St.,
WM. B. CAMPBELL, Proprietor
Apr 5 th'6o—tf.
J. THORP FLAHERTY,
o. 837 CHESTNUT STREET,
(Adjoining liirard House,)
And Opposite CONTINENTAL HOTEL,
CO RNEIt OF SIXTH AND R. R, STREETS
L, V, AND PENNA. R. R. DEPOTS,
J.W. STONE. PROPRIETOR
Mar. 15th, 1860, Iv.
HAS JUST lIECEI VED
A LARGE AND SPLENDID STOCK OF
GROCERIES, HARDWARE, GUEENSWARE.
ALL of which he is selling at very reduced
Goods given in Exchange for 'Country Produce.
Tbe public are invited tu cali and examine his
stock before purchasing elsewhere.
Uellefunte, Uov. 3, '59. tf.
UNITED STATES HOTEL,
T., W. TEMEYOK
Ori'OSITF PENNSYLVANIA R. R. DEPOT
B. HARTSHORN Superintendent.
O pains have been spare! to make the abvoe
A v the first bote! in Harrisbnrg. The table i
always spread with the best the market affords
and the accommodations aro suprior to any found
elsewhere in the city. March let 1860.s
HUGH B, BRISBEN,
EXTRA LIQUOR COLORING,
A 7 . JK. Cor. Third & Poplar •trcett,
T'rm* Ca*h ] Philadelphia.
Oct. 3, IS6o,—ly.
E. C. HiaF.B, J AS. T. HALE
K. N. M'AL LISTER, A. <S. CURTIS
Interest paid on Special Peposit.
I HUMES, WAL LISTER HALE A CO.,
DEPOSITS received, Bills of exchange end
Motes Discounted, Collections made and
| proceeds remitted promptly. Interest paid on
! special deposits f< r Ninety days, and under six
months at the rate of fou: per cent, per annum.
For six months and upwards, at the r. tc c" five
percent, per annum. Exchange on the Fast con
stantly on han.i. January, ard. 1861.
Persons in want of PAINTS, OILS, VAR
NISHES, or anything of the kind, will do
well to purchase them at the Drug Store of J. A J.
Harris, BruckerhuiFs Row, Bellefonre. Also,
I'utss, M kmcihks,
Pocket Kxivbs, Fanct Articles,
pGRVt it atJT", TuBACCO,
and all the Patent Medicines made.
£8 1- Surgeon's and Physician's Instrument
onnsta-tly on ha id. Gail and ee them, nea >y
opposil 5 the Conrad House.
January, 3rd 1861.
A. Uuckeuheln.er. S. tA'trthefiner. K Wartbeima
A. G. & BRO'S ,
IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IS
Foreign .and Domestic Liquors,
MOXONGAHELA RYE WHISKEY,
Aljjc., Rectifiors ef the
IROX CITY WHISKEY,
And Manufacturers of the Celebrated
G Ell if A X STOMA CM BITTERS
No. 25 .Market Street,
Nor 15.-60.—1 ] PITTSBURGH, PA.
LOUIS GER.BE R,
IMPOPTEH AND HAMUKACTUKKRUF*
For Ladies', Gentleman's and Children's Wear,
NO. 234 ARCH ST., PHIL'A,
All kinds of Furs Dressed, Cleaned and Repaired.
Furs made to order at the shortest notice.
Full value paid for Shipping Furs.
Furs taken care of during
Oct. 4, '6o.—lv.
W. A. ARNOLD. JOHN TV. WILSON
ARNOLD & WILSON
WARMING & VENTILATING WAREHOUSE,
No. 1010 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia
CMILSON's Patoa Cone and Ventilating
FURNACES, Cooking Ranges,
ENAMEL® STATE MANTELS
Common aud Low Down Parlor Grates,
Warm Air Registers and Ventilating, Ac. Ac.
Particular attention given to warming and Ven
tilating Buildings of every discription.
11 EN J. 11. FELT WELL, Sup't.
Apr. 26, —1860. ly.
HAINES & DOCK.
No. 35 North Water Street,
GROCERIES, GROCERIES, GROCERIES,
GROCERIES, GROCERIES, GROCERIES,
Merchants of Central Pennsylvania
LOOK TDYOUa INTERESTS :! !
u you wish to buy cheap go to llaines A Dock-
They keep on hand the best articles to bead
in the City, in their line of business.
Call and examine their goods.
Remember their Firm is at
No. 33 North Water Street,
Apr. 26, '6o. —ly.
A LOT of Ladies Weol en Hoods just reeetre
D. LBYDBN A 00,
tfejlofoato, Dee. 26, '6O,
[•WE STAND UPON THE IMMUTABLE - POWER SHALL DRIVE US FROM QJJFT POSITION
BELLEFONTE, PA., THURSDAY MORNING, FEB., 14 1861
Centre County Teacher's Institute.
Recording Secretaries— F. YV. Hees and R,
Corresponding Secretary —E. P, Fores
lreasurer —YV. Galbraith.
Librarian— J. 11. Stover.
Grammar was then taken up and two clas
ses formed, first a primary class, conducted
by D. 11. Young, and then an adyanced class
by Prof. J. E. Tbomas. The drills were
conducted in an able and interestiag man
An Essay by M. R. Bock, was then read,
subject, Superstition. Recess of tweDty min
utes, Mr. E. C. McClintock then gave an
illustration of bis method of teaching, objeet,
lessons, which gave very general satitLac
tion. The subject of School Government was
then opened by Mrs- R. L. Ilicklan. who
•poke decidedly in favor of moral suasion ;
she was followed by Messrs, J. W. Boal, J.
S. Musser, Andrew Musser, YV. R. Dale, Dr.
Hunter, L. Neff, D. 11, Chesebro and others.
On motion, the question was postponed ; on
motion, the time for final adjournment was
fixed on Friday after the evening session.
EVENING SESSION. Pres. Hollahan in tbo
chair ; prayer by Rev. Mr. Grow ; roll call
ed ; members responding by sentiments and
witticisms ; minutes read aod approved;
music by the Band. Prof. Thomas then de
livered an able aud interesting address, sub
ject, "The Relation of the Teacher to the
young and to Society." An excellent Essay
was then read by Miss Tate ; subjeot, "Gov
ernment and order in School." On motion
of Frank YV. Hess, amended by Prof. Thom
as, the order of exercises, as reported by the
bu-ioess committee, was suspended for the
present and the nsms of Col. J. S. Brisbio
inserted in place of Mr. Cooper's Col. Bris
bia then addressed the audience ia a very
able and spirited manner on tbe subject of
"General Education." On motion, a vote of
.banks was offered to Col. Brisbin for bis ex
cellent address. Oa motion, a vote of tbanae
was theD tendered to Prof. Thomas for his
address. On motion, a vote of thanks wss
tendered to Mies Tate for her Essay. Mis*
Kate Reese then road a very able and chaste
Essay on the subject of "Intellectual At
tainme its," which was listened to with
On motion, the report of the committee en
resolutions was called tor. Tbe reaplutioo
were read, and then, on mothn, passed a
On motion, the President appointed the
following persons to prepare tbe minutes for
publication : Mies Jennie F, Moßride, Prof.
J. E. Thomas and Mr< J. T. Read.
The exercises were enlivened throughout,
with excellent music from the Band.
FRIDAY MORNING SESSION,
Pres. Hollahan in the chair; prayer by
D\ Ilnnter ; roll calied ; minutes read and
approved. On motion of F. YV. Iless, the
following resolution waF rend and adopted.
Resolved, That ths thanks of tbe Institute
be tendeted to the Trustees of the Methodist
Episcopal Church of Boalsburg, for their
kindness in giving us the use of their church
during the eeseion of this Institute.
School Government was again taken up ;
Mr. YV. Dale made some remarks, insisting
that the character of a school, and the con
trol that the teacher baa over it, depends up
on his conduct during t l e first two or three
weeks of the school. He was followed by
Messrs. Muffly, Hess, Campbell, Mrs. R. L.
Hicklan, and others, all insisting that firm
ness ef character, combined with love and
kindness to tbe pupils, is absolutely neces
sary in the government of a school room.—
YV. YVeavor thought that the teacher should
never punish a pupil while excited, but
should, by reasoning with him, convince him
that the punishment was the necessary con
sequence of his disobedience or fault ; Mr,
Read was in favor of "Republican" govern
ment in a school room ; Mr. McClintock was
not in favor cf too much order in school;
Rev. Mr. Grow coincide! with those wbo ad
vocated the government of love and kindness;
Dr. Hunter advocated the hearty co-opera
tion of parents, without which, the teacher
cannot maintain good order. He thought
that on no occasion, whatever, should tbe pa
rents speak disrespectfully of the teacher in
the presence of their children, but ehould
teach thorn, by precept and example,- to do
Tke following sentence was written on the
blaek board by tbe President, and analysed
by the members of the Institute. "To die
for one's country is glorious." Considerable
d scussion ensued, which brought out the
different views if tbe teachers. • *
AFTERNOON SESJION.—Prest. Hollahan in
tbe ohair ; prayer by Dr. Hunter ; roll call
ed ; minutes read and approved. The reso
lutions being next in order they were taken
up seperately amended and adopted.
Recces, 15 minutes,
Mr. J. W. Mufflj then illustrated his meth
od of teaching reading bj conduetinga class.
Letters of apology were then read from A.
G. Curtio, Governor elect, and J. H. Berry,
Sup't. of Clinton county, explaining the cause
of their absence. Letters were also received
fiom A. K.Browne, Eq.,of Look Haven,
and P. Heekssdorn, County Sup't. of Union
county, regretting that circurastaneea, be
yond their control, prevented their atten
dance at the Institute.
The subjest, " The best method ol teach
ing children to was then opened by
D. S. Reber, who is in favor of allowing
children to commence writing on elates, then
cn paper, and using small band generally.
Oa motion the subject was postponed.
EVENING SESSION.— Prest. IleEahan in the
ehair ; p r ayer by Rev. Mr. Grow ; roll call
ed ; the members responding by sentiments
and witticisms; minutes read and approved.
The disoussion on "penmanship" was re
sumed by F. \Y. Iless, wbo was in favor of
having a uniform system of penmanship
throughout the county. Mr. J. Ifollahan
thought such a proposition impracticable,but
tf at there should at least be a uniform sys*
tern in each township. Mr. Sbaw would
first teach children to draw lines, angles,
simple objeots, and printed letters, and after
ward to write. Dr. Hunter was not in favor
of baying children write too young. Sever
al teachers then made romaiks coinciding
with what bad been s il.
Mr. G. YV. Cooper made an excellent
By special request of some who had been
absent the early part of tb,e evening before,
and b&d not beard Miss Tate's esiay—she
The Chairman of the Financial Committee
then made a final report.
On motion, the balance in the treasury,
together with a collection that was taken
from the audience, was hatred to the band
as a token of respect.
On motion of Mr. Gilliland it was
Resolved, That the Superintendent of Cen
tre county bring before the next State con
vention of County Superintendents, the pro
priety of adopting a uniform system of pen
manship tlnougiiout tbe State.
On motion, the Institute will be held at
Centre Hall, provided a suitable building can
be had to hold ths session in, but if Dot it
will be held at Milesburg.
On motion, the President appointed the
following persons a Committee to wait upon
the Trustee* cf the church at Centre Hall,
to seo if the bmlJiag could be prooured ;
Messrs. F. W, Iless, Geo. IToffer and H. G.
Stitzor. The Comm ttee to report to ths
Commiitee'e were then appointed to eon
duct the retiring officers from and the officers
elect to their seats.
President Brugger on takiDg his seat made
a few very appropriate remarks.
Ex-Prest. Hollahan then made an address
to the teachers whieh was very attentively
listened to. He thanked the teachers present
for their promptness in responding to his
call, and spoke of tbe necessity of further
improvement—said he should expect an in
provement of at least 30 percent.
On motion, a vote af thanks was tendered
to the retiring officers.
The band was in attendance and enliven
ed the proceedings by excellent music.
The Committee on resolutions presented
the followir g report whieh was read and
In view of the conflicting elements which
constitute the public opinion of th* people
of Pennsylvania in regard to the best mothod
cf the liteiary attainments af the educator*
of their children, and of ptoßayting the effi
ciency of their common school* ; also in con
sequence of the different and conflicting
methods which have been by the
controllers of common Bchoole and Educa
tional Journals, and in Tiew of great impor
tance of action in conducting so
vast and momentous a scheme for the eleva
tion of the intellects of the present and fu
ture generations. Wa the common school
educators of Centre county in convention as
sembled do adopt the following resolutions :
Resolved, That the elevation of the literary
attainments of teachers can be secured only
by making their profession permanent.
Resolved, That we respectfully suggest to
clergymen the propriety of consulting the
members of their respective charges concer
ning the nocessite of devoting more pf their
energies to the intellectual impTovement of
their children, and the importance of exam
ining whether they are not negligent in this
department of their duty, and that they
ehould bring all their influence to aid in ac
complishing a work so eminently worthy tbe
attention of all wise, an] good men.
Resolved That teaehe s associations consti
tute a source ef practical improvement, and
that we will, by assembling together semi
monthly during the winter in our respective
townships, and annually in a county associ*
ation encourage their perpetuity
Resolved, That one suggest to pirectors of
Common Schools, the propriety of not inser
ting any restrictions in their articles of
agreement with teachers, except those requi
red by the " Common School paw of Penn
Resolved, That we congratulalate the oiti
zens of Centre Co., on the selection of our
worthy friend, and fellow laborer Mr. Thom
as Hollahan, to superintend the interest of
their Common Schools.
Resolved, That the thanks ofthe Institute
are dna to the Boalsbnrg Saxe Horn Band
led by Dr. Fisher, and tbe Binging class un
der the direction of Mr. Meyer for the very
charming music with which thev entertained
us, while in eession, ✓
Resolved. Thet ws tender our thanks to
citizens of Boa'eburg end vicinity for the
courtesy and hospitality with which they
have received us, and for the the pleasure
we have enjoyed during our eojourn amodhg
tham. May the Lord reward them.
Resolved, That we appreciate the merits
of Che Rev. Mr Grow, and that we respect
fully tender our heartfelt thanks to him for
his services during the Institute.
Reso J ved, That our thanks b tendered, to
the trustees, and principal ef ths Boalsburg
Academy, for their kindness in permitting
us te occupy their hall during tbe session, of
Resolved, That the thanks of tbe Institute
be tendered to Miss Ada Keller and tier class
ef singers for tbe exsilent songs they favored
us with during the session.
Resolved, That we recomeod the patronage
of the Pennsylvania School jouraey to the
teachers of Centre Co.. as being a fa'thful
exponent of the principles of Common School
Resolved, That the proceedings of this In
stitu e be published in each of the County
papers, aod in the School Journal.
NO DEMORALIZING .COMPROMISE.
Speech of Mr. Si'timons cf Rhode Island.
YYhen Mr. C'ark's amendment to Mr. Crit
tenden's resolutions was called up iu the
United States Senate on the 16th, Mr. Sim
mons of Rhode Islaud requested his colleague
to read alond the debate on the adoption of
the Federal Constitution, to show that tbe
intentions of tbe framers of that instrument
was to make a Federal Government, and not
a confederation of States. When i(fr. An
thony had concluded, !tlr. Sjinrnms thui ad
dressed tbe Senate:
Mr. President, that explains what the fra
mers of this Government intended it should
be ; and yet men will refer to that yery
question there decided— seven against it, and
tnree for it —and say that that deeision was
in tavor o( making a confederation, instead
of a national Government; and that every
argument that has been mads on the oppo
site side of the chamber lists treated tbi? Con
stitution as in the nature of a league or trea
ty. A compact broken in one part is broken
in all parts, said Mr. Webster. I agree with
that; but did he ever say this Constitution
was a compact? Never; never. Quotations
aro made from eminent men, who make
speeches either to get votes, or to get nomi
nations, end they are adduced here as cousti
tuional authority. I read this very debate
and auutber here fourteen years ago, in the
presence of the Senator from Virginia (Mr.
Mason). I read what that gentleman's dis
tinguished ancestor said on this constitution
al question. I read it too, upon another
portion of this subject that I shall call his at
tention to ; and I think I shall mention what
reply he made about that time , but I am
now upon this Constitution and upon the fact
that every Senator wha'aas made an argu
ment upon this question in favor of the right
of a State to secede, lias based it upon the
argument, and solely upon the argument,
that the Constitution is a treaty, apd not a
Constitution. I agree that a treaty which is
broken in ODe part is brokeD in all, ftn d free*
everybody. That was Mr. Madison's doc
trine ; but he said that a cons itutiou formed
by the people is not a compact, but a pact
that excludes such an interpretation. Yet,
everybody on the other side says it is a com
pact ; and the distinguished Senator from
Texas says that ths o'd men w'oo niada this
Coustitutioo, of all things in the world, knew
nothing about it ; that they were very good
men for generals, and such like, but they
knew nothing about the Constitution. Well,
Sir they are good enough authority for me.
I woull rater read thsir authority than any
otber I c.iuld get. I make no argument upon
it. I call tb# attention of the Senator from
Virginia to what he said this moruiug about
referriag these resolutions to the people. He
said he was against letting the people vote
on these resolutions. His distinguished an
cestor said he held i* of the first importance,
that this Government should rest on tbe OD
the will of the people ; but it has got to be
unfashionable now ; the people ars not to be
trusted in this age. I have as abiding faitb
in tbvm now as the fathers had when they
made this Constitution; and how did they
come out? Look at your seventy years' ex
perience under this Constitution, Did they
trust the people in vaia ? 1 hope not ; I
knew thev did not. It was the faith of ths
fathers. Let us live by it, and stand by it.
I dnow that I shall be tedious ii I go go into
that debate ; and therefore I dismiss it,
Mr. MASON—WiII tbe Sentor allow me
to interpose a word ?
Mr. MASON—What I said implied* no
distrust of the people whatever. What I
said referred entirely to the theory of this
Government. This Government, as I under
stand, is a confederation of States ; and when
the people are spoken of io the Constitution,
it soeaDS the people of each State separatim
as a separate, independent, political commu
nity, each State being sovereign. Now, I
understand the scope of this resolution is to
refer a question of constitutional amendment,
not to the States or tq the people of the
States as aeperate, independent political com
munities, but to refer it to the people of all
the States as a general mass. I say that the
Constitution never contemplated that the
people of the United States, as a mass, a ho
mogeneous mass, should be the parties to the
Federal Government; and, therefore, with
out any distrust of the people in their sepa
rate States, I never can agree to convert the
form of government we now have, from a
confederation ef Republics into a consolida
ted Government. And, interrupting the Sen-
ator for a moment longer,. I would tefer to
tbe faot, that when the Cnntitution contem
plates amendments to be made to it, they are
amendments tc ha made to it by the States,
as States, either by their Legislatures or by
Conventions, as miy be arranged ; but in
each insfvneg. t,h?
be carried by a popular vote, but each State
wDuld give one single to-e and one only,
upon the amendments. The State whiqh the
honorable Seuator represents, with its popu
lation, would give a vote equal to the B:ate
represented by the Senator from New York—
a single vote. There was no idea of refer
ring it broadcast to the people, as a consoli
dated mass. That is all I wisb to say.
Mr SIMMONS—I did unlerstand the
Senator to make objection. If read those
resolutions aright, these amendments are to
be adopted if they are approved of by tbe
people of three-fourths of the States, each
State having but one vote. That is the way
I read the resolutions. One of them, lam
pretly aure, says so. I read it yesterday.
I agree that the Senator is right in saying
that the amendments are to be referred to
the people of the States, anc( that the origi
nal proposition was made to the people of the
States ; and why was it; It was bocause
this Constitution took from the State author
ities many of the powers that the people had
giyen to State Legislatures ; and they
were sat going to have a mass meeting, and
let the people of Virginia take away the
rights that had been given by the people of
South Carolina to their State Legislature
They roust be the same constituent body that
granted these rights to their State Qovern
mer t, that should take them back again and
grant them to Ibis Government. That is the
distinction. Nobody else was competent to
take away the rights of the people of llhode
Island but tbe people of Rhode Island them
selves ; and so with all the rest of the States.
That is the ieason, and the cn'y reason, that
this Constitution was sent to tbe States ; not
because it waß a confederation, as the Sena
tor reiterates again to-day, but because pav
ers were given in the Constitution to the na
tional Government, that could not be taken
from the States by anybody but those who
gave those powers to tbsm ; aDd they look
those powers from the States in ratifying this
Constitution, and gave them to the national
Government. I have no dount the Senator
from Kentucky, in hie resolutions, has pro
vided tbe same mode that is pointed out in
lb6 Cunstitwtijn, to let tbe people vote in
each State for or against these amendments.
Am I mistiken in that?
Mr. CHITTENDEN—The resolutions
which I offered provided no means of that
sort; but the Senator from Pennsylvania,
( Mr. Bigler,) has been so good as to intro
duce a bill here, prescribing the mode in
which the vote shail be taken, as it was ta
ken at tbe Presidential election, and by tbe
Mr. SIKXONS I Lava seen it SOMEWHERE in
the printed procedings. That would certain
ly be the way. Th< nis no other way to do
it under the Constitution. Every sugges
tion, every argument mado use of by every
man who spoke ie this debate in the Con*
vention as to whether the Constitution should
be ratified by the Legislatures or by the peo
ple, no matter whether they were in favor i.f
Confederation or in favor of a National Gov
ernment, furnishes a complete answer to all
the arguments that have been brought up
here of the right of a State to secede. Mr.
Ellsworth, as much of a Federalist as be was
denied that right under the confederation;
and every national van from that time down
has always denied it. Now, Mr President
having disposed of that question, si far as I
choose to speak on it in this connection, 1
como to tie provisions for its amendment;
and I have to say to my worthy and distin
guished from Kentucky that I consider his
plan grossly violative to the Constitution
itself. He knows that I speak of it kindly ;
but I cannot in my conscience believe other
wise than I have stated. I know these
troubles. I feel as much regret as J know
he feels at such unwarrantable troubles
brought upon us from so triflirg causes, as I
concieve ; but 1 cannot vote for these reso
lutions, because I think they violate
the very spirit of the instrument under
which we sit here. Here is a proposition to
add five new sections to the Constitution,
and to make them and two classes of the
present Constitution irrepealable and una
mendable. I should like to ask the Sena
tor if he has thought quite well enough, and
is quite certain enough, that these proposi
tions are sound, to make them, like tho laws
of the Modes and Persians, unalterable, in a
Free Government ? I have read them over
but twice. 1 know they are wholly imprac
ticable iD Rhode Island. We have no such
thing in Rhode Island as a country organi
zation that you can sue to recover the value
of a slave. You must have somebody to sue.
You must have an organization. I have not
read them with a view to criticise them. I
am speaking of tbera generally. Here is an
isstruuient founded by our fathers. It baa
been iu opperatioc three quarters of a centu
ry, and the conntry has flourished under it
as DO other oountry has ever before done un
der heaven. There is in that instrument but
one single clause irrepealable, and that is the
clause which gives the State of Rhode Island
es many Senators as the State Kentucky.—
That you eannot repeal without unanimous
EDITORS & PROPRIETORS.
and that is the only one that now,
remains. There was another ebout slaves,
but the time has gone by, and laws have
becn 4 passed, nn the subject. Now, I put thl
comparison to the Senator from Kentucky:
Suppose that he and myself and elevou oth
ers had concluded to form a business part
nership under articles of agreement, and we
had agreed to pey in 5-1,000 eaoh, for the
purposo of trying to raise water-rotted hemp
in Kentucky ; we inserted in our alleles of
agreement that anybody who would put in
Si.ooo. could some in upon the footing of the
original partners, and that the business sbo'd
not be altered without a vote of three fourths
of the partners. That would be fair. Well,
wo thirteen went on and took in partners and
raised hemp, and divided twelve per cent.
That would be a fair business, not as proe
perous as this country has been, but it wo'ld
be a remunerative business. Suppose we
took in new partners until we gotjn thirty
niue besides ourselves. Then there are thir
ty-nine new ones, who can make a oonstitu
tioal majority over the old thirteen. They
conclude among themselves, in a meeting in
Wall street (for if it paid 12 per cen< it
would be from there the new partnyya would
come, aDd not (ron\ farmers, as we ere), and
determine, by their vote of 59 againt the old
13, to drop hemp-raising and go into elave
trading. Wo should remonetate. We
say: " That is an illegal business; it ta
profitable, to be sure, but it ia illegal, and
you have no right to change this concern in
to an illegal one." They would say: "It
was legal when you made this bargain ; you
old fogies have changed since, but we bad
nothing to do with obanging this law ; it wag
lawful traffic originally, when tka contract
was drawn ; and they persist in it. We look
over the contract, and although it is very
different from our understanding of what we
have agreed to do, yet he and I would be
obliged to submit. Wo are law-abiding men;
we believe in spppoesi, efter
gettiDg us into-the slave-trade, tbay should
make another provision, that tbisMast specu
lation never should be altered without the
unanimous consent of the whole partnership ;
that we should continue the slave-trade r
ioDg as there was a thief or a liar in the oon
cern. What would he think of that? We
would not agree to it, I know. He would
say, " This is carrying the business too far."
That is just the proposition now hero. We
want to alter the Constitution from what the
fathers made it. Wa want to alter the mode
of its amendment, and put in seven new
clauses that can never be repealed, no mat
ter what public sentiment may be, without a
unaDimoue vote; so that one single State, if
wo have forty, can prevent the repeal of any
one of them. I know, when I address roy
seif, as I do, to the honorable Senator from
Kentucky, ',hat be weuld not vote for thai
proposition himself, under any circumstan**.
ces. He would contrive some other method
to heal these troubles ; and I would go with
biai with ell my heart; but do not let ns
tear up this old instrument under wbieh wtf
have prospered, which be glories in as much
as I do. I do not want to mnke a speeoh
about it; but I know when I loye my coun
try and its Constitution. Ns man can make
me believe that I do not veuerate that in
strument ; that I do not venerate the Union
that it formed, I am under no apprehen
sion whatever that there is a mau who hears
rac that doubts my regard for every one of
these Sia.es in the Union, and their institu*
I love Kentucky. I love South Carolina.
I lived amoDg them roofe than fifty years
ago. I have partaken of their hospitalities.
I have walked to the same ohurchcs with
: them, and knelt at the same altar; and a
more hospitable people never lived. But as
much as I lor? them, I say their present con®
duct is utterly unworthy of them ; and tbf
Senator from Kentucky must know that as
well as I do. Because they want t# cut up
capers, are we going to tear up that instru
ment to appease them I Not so. Let them
have a little bit of a frolic, if they want to.
Ido not want to whip them. That is not my
notion. Ida not want to hurt tbem. I lova
Georgia. I lived with tbem fifty years ago.
I have been out there on patrol in the Dight
to watoh. They were frightened about in'
surrection. There is always danger, they
think. I never was afraid there in my life.
The only plaoe where I ever saw any of this
negro equality, as it is oalled, was in Geor.
gia. A man kept a hotel in what was for
merly the seat of Government. It was a tav
ern, a very large one, kept by a Frenchman,
of the name of Posenor. He invited me one
day to go up and see bis wife. I was a boy
at the time. I went up, and found she wea
a great, burly Degress. [Lvughter.] I had
nothing to say about her. That was the on
ly time I ever saw that, and I was disgusted
with it. I never saw it in New-England in
my life, much as the talk is about negro
equality there. These Georgia peopls an
stand their own troubles very well; but
when their are any troubles down in Massa
chusetts, they get in a violent passion. Thsy
will have amalgamation and negro equality
all around tbem there at the capital of the
Government; but Ido not want to say any
thing about it. I dislike it, to be sure ; but
it is not beet to make a noise about it. The
Republican party cannot insert a portion of
the Declaration of Independenca into ita
Platform, but it is said fhst we m'eu tbeso^