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PODLIG LEDGEn COMPANY
CYRUS It. M. CUP.TIS, Pusidiht.
I 'Charles IT tudlnitlOTi.VicePrnildenti John d. Martin.
""'' nd Treasurer! rjilltp e. Collins, John B.
EDrroniAii BOAnDJ "
Circs It. K Curtis, Chairman.
P It. WtlAtEYv .nt..w. Executive Editor
JOHN P MARTIN General Bmlneaa Manager
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Ct Aidrett oil communication to Evening
Leaner, Independence Square, Philadelphia.
nrroso at Tni rniT.Apm.rntA rosTornai is sicomb-
CLASS UAIL UATTSS.
THE AVEP.AOD NEV PAID DAIL-T CinCULA-
TION OF" THE SVENIr3 LEDOEIl
FOU JANUARY WAS 89.314
PBILADELriHA, THURSDAY. FEDnUAIlY 10. lilt
Kings are Ilka stars they rise and act, they
The xcorship of the world, out no repose.
That earthquake shock at Panama was not
caused by a Gormnn bomb.
The) witness called yesterday In tho Bran
dels hearing seems literally to bo a Thorno In
Wo have heard of combing tho seaB, but
today comes tho news that tho Adriatic was
tho scene of flvo brushes.
This weather reminds us of Mark Twain's
comment on tho climate of Now England.
"It has none," he said; "all you get Is sam
ples." Many other sensible women will Indorse
Mrs. Edison's protest against tho Introduc
tion o gowns the skirts of which stop short
ft teen Inches from tho floor.
The speaker before tho country Ufa con
ference knew what he was talking about
when ho srtld that tho homes were depending
too much on tho schools to do their work.
The "American gentleman" this spring
.will -near a single-breasted, two-button sack
suit, with draper over the hips N'ews re
port. Perhaps ho will; but If drapery over tho
hips Is to be the badge of tho American
gentleman, wp know several men who will
refuse to qualify.
Justice Hughes Insists once more that he
is entirely out of politics and announces that
ho Is opposed to tho selection or Instruction
of delegates in his interest. No ono doubts
his sincerity And no one doubts, cither,
that thero arc soveral other Republicans
who aro anxious to have as many delegates
as possible instructed to voto for them at
Tho suggestion that a naval academy bo
established on tho Pacific coast was first
made by the Evening Lkboer. Thero should
be at least three great naval academies The
Fensacola, .Flo., navy yard offers a splendid
site for ono on tho Gulf coast. Public opin
ion Is fixed in favor of. an adequate navy.
An Increase in tho number of midshipmen
at Annapolis will easo tho situation; but it
will not solve tho problem of providing a
diffident number of ofllcers
This nation is not yet in tho humiliating
position where It is necessary for school
children to contributo their dimes to build
a battleship. There have been ensca where
women havo given their hair for tho national
defense, and hcrpismhas seldom been lack
ing in the press of a great necessity. But
this nation Is confronted with no crisis in
tho money supply, and tho dime-giving pro
gram probably has more of sentimcntalism
than of patriotism behind It
Trolley poles hro not beautiful and they
have been tolerated because they have been
supposed to bo necessary. Minneapolis, how
ever, discovered that if the trolley wires
were supported by span wires attached to
the buildings the poles could bo removed.
Downtown Minneapolis Is almost free from
disfiguration. The City Parks Association,
which 1b attempting to bring about a simi
lar Improvement here, has already secured
the,promlso of the co-operation of President
Mitten, of the Rapid Transit Company, and
Is asking that tho owners of buildings In
Chestnut and "Walnut streets consent to
the attachment of the stay wires to their
property. The advantages of an unencum
bered curb line are so evident that no argu
ment Is needed to convince the thoughtful.
French strategists are unwilling to be
lieve that a great offensive has been begun
by Germany. The tremendous effort of the
last few jdays at Vlmy is not precisely of
the same kind as the puah in the Artols
region made by the Allies last September,
because the chief point of attack is that hlll
crest which was partly won at that time.
German command is obviously trying to
regain a valuable post, and to reset its
lines in the favorable positions they held be
fore September. 80 far, it Is defensive. If
tfcc report that 60,000 men were lost be taken
With the usual discount, the price Is still
enormous, and the gain cannot equal the
advantage which the Anglo-French troops
stood to win if they had gone over the crest
anil dominated the Lens-Douai-Cajnbral
railroad Jlnes. On the other hand, (f this
bo actually a prelude to a large offensive,
the cost might Justify Itself.
Senator Hitchcock criticises the Clarke
Philippine independence bill because It does
not provide for the creation of any Independ
ent government In the islands to take the
plae$ of that which Is now acting under the
supervision of American officers. He has
prps8e4 to amend the bill by authorizing
ife legislature of the islands to draft a con
trfitutlon. When called upon to defend this
preguisltlpr; he ingeniously told his colleagues
t)mt he JW not i repose a separate constitu
tioaal convontifiu a his 'purpose was
sinutHy to econom ae tita and economize ma
terial tar the material for statesmanship in
tfc phHijppioe IfiUoAa le aWjnHy vry
iMpHttA" If it is iw limited ajr mm H4
MfM thMitry f nature) rftuffignjMUty san
EVENING LVEDGERPHTLADELPHIA THURSDAY, JPUV AntXOjlOl
Senator Hitchcock favor turning the govern
ment of the Islands over to a. people which
does not contain statesmen enough to draft
Iho laws and tlrnft a constitution without
Using tho same men for both tasks?
LITTLE; ENGLAND WINS OUT
There nre inn Knglnnit. The renl
I'mtlnnd In nchtlnn; In I'rnnrp nnd keep
Ins 11 li nt month. 'I lie other r.iittlnud la
hnvlnir hyMrrlr. 1 hr flRlitrrn nre ordi
nary KnRllnhmrn "ilnlnit their lilt." the
tnlkrra nre from I lip rnnka of the "beat
men," the tlilnkern nnd iirofrxatonnl pn
(rlota. rortiiiintely, the common people
nre anvlng Hnalnnd.
TP ONH wore to Judgo Ihiglaml by tho
JL speeches and writings of her notable men,
one could honestly say that iho panic which
began In August, 19H, has developed Into
downright hysterics. It Is easy to under
stand why tho panic came England was un
prepared for operations on l.ind. But after
England's Roldiers were tested In tho Itres
of tho furnace which (lamed nt Mons the
panlr died away. As more men went Into tho
field, as mora went Into tho training camps,
England settled down to a grim business.
Now, sinco that business hasn't been easy,
thero nro frosh symptoms of fever. The In
fected area Is an island. England herself is
Uvlng across tho channel. The renl England
Tho truth that comes out of the whole un
happy business is that tho "great minds" of
England havo failed, desperately, discourng
Ingly, entirely. The little minds, as they wcro
called, havo assumed now burdens without
complaint, tho cockney and tho loafer have
been wrenched from their old lives nnd
thrown Into a mad sea of unknown circum
stances. They have struck out bravclv,
while the minds upon whom England had de
pended havo given a tcrrlblo exhibition of
moral and mental disintegration Viscount
Bryco stands calm as a mountain top be
yond the storms Lloyd-George, known as
a marvel of energy before, has forced hint
self upon a reluctant England But the rest
tho Shaws, Wellscs, Conan Doyles, the North-
cltffes, tho editors of great organs of public
opinion, the leaders of labor and ot ct.pl'al
In what a piteous mess they have been'
Whllo tho flippant nrlstocracy and tho undo
pendablo commons havo fought and died, the
great England has forgotten nil her "ancient
wisdom nnd austere control"' Tommy At
kins, looking back at the England he has
loft behind, can say now. Ironically lcmcm
berlng that Rudyard Kipling flrst said tho
words for him:
If England was what Enpland seems
An not the England of our dreams,
But only putty, brnBS nnd paint,
'Ow quick we'd chuck 'cr. But Bhe ain't!
Mr. Kipling has been hit by tho war, di
rectly and dearly; but ho Is ono of millions
who do not say ns he hays, "at least three
nations desiro grcodlli that Hip Teuton be
killed in retail, since he cannot be killed in
wholesale" The German must be used up.
It Is a war of extermination for his species.
there must be no German problem after the
war, because there must be no Germans left
to present a problem. Tho Germans are rats
In a ditch. Shoot them and take pleasure
in each individual you kill If you cannot
shoot, starve, drown, stab and rejoice! That
Is the tenor of Mr Kipling's message, and It
has tho sinister undertone of bloodlust In
The cockney speakB for himself nowndays
in his "a"im, cheerful way, but Mr. Kipling
has spoken long enough for England for his
words to hao significance. Unhappily, thero
nro others James Bryce stood almost nlone
among public men against reprisals A few
days ago a ship captain was actually do-
fended In tho press of a great nation for
refusing to rescue1 drowning German avia
tors. Worst of all has been the clamor of
England's lofty minds for intervention by
neutrals. Mr. Wells takes it on himself to
assure us that we will tako a back seat on
Judgment Day, and the press of England Is
unclean with Its slanders about America. If
this country Is to go Into tho war It must
go of Its own accord, becauso our moral
destiny forces us, not becauso England de
mands And the loss of temper, tho puling
plaints against tho whole world, tho refusal
to admit that any single German may havo
human eyes nnd cars, not devil's hoofs, aro
signs that might point to n moral break
down In England They point, happily for
England, only to tho failure of her leading
men, to the weakness of her pacifists, to tho
pitiable. Inadequacy of her apologists.
To tho man who lies In a nolsomo trench
day after racking day, who creeps to outpost
duty under tho quiet stars, the Germans aro
not rats In a ditch. Ho Is a common man
without tho advantages of a great mind, nnd
he perversely thinks that tho Germans are
poor blighters who must not get Into rnnge.
Ho has more than suspicion that thero will
be a great deal of suffering If, through some
unhappy but necessary accident, Fritz or
Otto does not return home. He may not
know that a great deal of liberty Is being
upheld, hut ho is upholding tho brotherhood
of men while ho helps to destroy tho brother
hood of nations.
It Is vastly important that tho "tramp
ling, drilling foolery In the heart ot Europe"
bo destroyed forever. It Is necessory that tho
arrogance and power of Germany's Inhuman
officialdom bo crushed out, and that Ger
many humiliate herself before the sacred
pillar of human privileges. But that humilia
tion cannot be wrought by a nation which
grows hectic with hate, which Is unstrung
and unhealthy and unwise. The mind of the
English race Is all that. But the soul of
England Is more pure today than it was in
the soft peace of a year and a halt ago.
GIVE US THIS AVIATION SCHOOL
A MODERN army Is about as helpless with
out airships as without rifles. The airship
is Its eyes, and ears. It has made surprises
Impossible on the battlefields of Europe. If
the American army Is to be put In condition
to hold Its own in any possible conflict, It
must be equipped, not only with airships,
but with men who know how to operate
The Finance Committee of Councils, there
fore, which has Just made a favorable re
port upon the proposition to lease the olty
lands at Esslngton to an aviation school,
proved that it believed in preparedness and
was willing to act upon Its belief. The men
interested in the school are planning to
spend $25,000 in equipping the place with
hangars, a landing stage and a pier in order
that young men willing to qualify for service
in an aviation corps may recoivo their
training in advance of a call to arms.
The Government must do more than it has
done in the way of encouraging aviation,
but while it is getting ready and even after
it has done what it can. there will be a, de
mand for sueh instruction as privately man
aged schools can give Beside, we may dis
cover mat the airship has its uea in peace
as well as la war. Then there will b de
mand far as many aviator a all the schools
fut. tura out
Tom Daly's Column
It's rather late for vAshcs now.
Though once I'd plenty:
It scant that I've forgotten how
I utshed at tuentv
Mi) hope were rather lofty then,
A'o doubt, and sporty;
Hut many thing tone down in men
Who've rounded forty.
1 recollect I hoped for fame;
To cut some capers.
My fond hope now's to Keep my name
Out of the papers.
Few are my ithhci now. I Keep
liul Ij or seven;
The dearcit deal with Food and Bleep;
The iLlldcit, Heaven
Geo! He Knew Thos. E. Hill
DEAH T. D (no lent dear because the Initials
nro those nlBo of mv Bueetost and bent-bo-loed
pipe), I have waited patiently or wna
It procrnBtlmtely7 to have the last word nbout
Thomas 12 Hill nnd his "Manual of Social and
Business forms "
Toward the end of the third quarter of tho
nineteenth century Mr Hill came to my nnthe
town, out West, nnd opened a school of penman
slilli His specialty was flee hand nourishing;
nntl he could limn you n Moating swan or a lljlng
bird of bo Krneeful lines ns to make nature's
ornithic contributions prem amateurish
Hut flourish ns he might, Ids school did not; so,
after a brief ndventurn In lmnl Journntlsin, he
became a messenger, or purchaslnc ngent, goInK
to ChlenBO each wccKdnj morning on the 0 2B
accommodation nnd rcturnliur In the evening on
the fl.lS, cnrrjlng a hugo Fatihol containing sueh
small articles ns merrlinutii nnd other people of
our town had commissioned him to buy for them
In the blR city.
Ileforo I forsot It let me say that Mr Hill
wnw one of the few Thomases In town whom we
did not call Tom. since, to ntqulro nn nlibrelnted
nnme In thnso pnrts at that time, a man must
have hair on Ids chest nnd ho not too formal
Mr. Hill wa a dainty llttlo Just-so person with
necr an exntle speck on his close-buttoned frock,
his clenmltiB hlch hat or his smooth kid cloes
To call him Tom would be like ofToilnB Felicia
Hcmnns a chaw of plug tob icco The most d.ir
Iiib of us tailed him Thomas 12
Coins and coming as purclinslnB agent, lie
spent almost thieo hou s each day on tho trains.
Others might Rlo thlH time to whist, to news
papers, to Bosslp, hut Thomas 12 "at by himself
and dclcil Into some oluine of hnpplly forBotten
lore, (IIbbIub up arid noting down those facts
and flBUrcs which we 3 to bo Incorporated !ti tho
Great Compendium ho had in mind
(TO HE CONCLUDED)
O! Very Similar
The difference twlxt humor In books
And that which we hear after meals;
The former's as old na It looks.
The latter ns ounB ns it feels.
How Far Soulh Do Liars nourish, Jutld?
Old Judd Lewis, of tlio Houston Tost, has
been poctlcslly welcomliiB spilng nnd Bill
Itcennn, of Cincinnati, writes from Dallas:
"Came down this wn to escape the winter,
but It c-ime with me Still I suppose one
couldn't oblige these ltnspltnble Toxans who ad
vertise 'spend-our-wInter-ln-sunny Texas' II
ono il'dn't hac one's winter with ono to spend,
Doctor Hamilton in Philadelphia
Frldau, June 8, 17tJ
The Quakers nre the richest nnd the people
of prentest Interest In this Government, of
them their House of Assembly is chiefly com
posed They hao the character of an obstinate
Btlff-iicckcd generation, nnd a perpetual plague
to their Govoinoius The piesent Govornour,
Mr Thomas, his fnllen upon a way to manaBO
them better than an of Ills predecessors, did,
nnd nt tho same time keep pretty much In their
Bood craces, and share some of their favours.
However, tho standing or falling of the Quakers
In the House of Assembl depends upon their
making sure tho interest of tho Palatines In
this Province, who of Into havo turned so nu
merous that the can sway the votes which way
There Is no publlck magazine of arms, nor any
method of defense elthor for city or Province
in case of the Invasion of nn cnem , this Is
owing to the obstln.ic) of the Qunkeia in mnln
tnlnlng their principle of non-resistance It were
pit, but, well, If they wcro put to a sharp
trial to sco whether they would net as they
Hint In Ye Itnaster nnd
lie's wiser than many
Who, meeting Sco Touf
His piirwo In his shoe first
Will hide and pretend
Ho has not a penny
To Blve or to lend.
l'or him trouble's brewing
Who brngs of his ticker
Or Wealth when In liquor,
Yours creed, so they tellf
Is "Whoso's worth doing
is worth doing well"
WERE you ever afraid of your matutinal
bawth catching fire, my dear? I havo
been all my life,
A single great, grievous, flery thought,
while you're In it and thero you areor,
rather, aro not. But It's all right now, I taw
the sign today. When you have one of these
Incendiary thoughts, Just run doA-n here to
"SMITH'S KIKE PROOF ItVTIIr)'
Atlantic City. John Luther Long.
Can't Say! We're Neulral
Don't you think the National stomach Is
the one that can cat Red herring, White
onions nno Blue points without seeing things
other than flags waving? F. p, pjtzer.
,NI A CHEEK KOU THE U. H.l
Sinn on 7th above Chestnut.
DELAM'AKE 18TH I.N THE
U. S, I.AIJ.NIIUY IIUhlNKSS
Headline Wilmington, Evenlnr Journal.
Llkelydue to the public washing of a cer
tain prorplnent family's linen, do ou think?
What's Your Favorite Simile?
She had a mouth that even a sheriff couldn't
shut up, v. p, pjtzer.
THE friends of the late Eugene Geary, the
genial, big-hearted fellow who passed
away last year, are to bring out a volume
ot his verse shortly. Here's a sonnet of his;
THH TRUE PHILOSOPHER.
Along the railroad calmly doth he stray
Dlrtct descendant of the line of Pan;
The tootlmtome bill-board and tomato-can
His vermiform appendix keep o. k.
What schuol he epttnia from mortal cannot say
The utagyrite or Phuo'g? 'Tla his wan
InrHfltirvnc to thlngg observed of man
Make Uf to him a rose-omtiroJdered way
What' Ie-uUa to him or he to Hee
UbaT He wags his beard ami does not dwell
Oa batilea, spoils, intrigues apd things reoiotc.
He climbs great heights and tievvr riaks bis. neck.
And U. as tatakwy more advanced know well.
Our only true phltoespaer the goat
PRIDE OF THE
No Need to Worry About How
Things Are Going in Country.
Back-homers Are Taking
Care of Themselves
Of the first experiences of tho rural
igrant, nftcr he has established him
self In tho big city, is resentment. This
may or may not become chronic, depending
largely on his sense of humor which, Indeed,
Is little moro than an appreciation of hu
When he goes back home to attend tho fu
neral of his father a representative of tho In
telligence and culture of the Hub of the Uni
verse bids him good-by with cheerful com
miserations ovor the necessity of returning
to "that God-forsaken country." Which is
horribly bad manners, of course, but the
rural emigrnnt has to got used to it.
Tho flrst of the Three Loyalties is tho Loy
alty of Homo and Native Place. Tho rural
emigrant becomes a hyphenato nnd apolo
Rural and urban are two different civiliza
tions, each with Its folkways and mores.
Everybody ought to read about folkways
and mores In tho books of Professor Sumner
and Professor Keller. It might do some
good, and then again It mightn't.
Tit for Tat and Then Some
Tho Brahmin despises tho civilization of
the West. That is becauso ho is not of tho
West. Tho Occidental looks down on tho
civilization of tho Orlont. That Is becauso
ho Is not of tho East. Each believes his own
Is best, and you can't drive tho opinion out
of hi in.
Tho Englishman and the German each
knows tho other In part and prophesies In
part Tho Practical Man Is contemptuous of
tho Man of Letters, and tho Man of Letters
Is even worried nbout tho Practical Man.
City and country are coming to understand
each other better.
Tho trouble with country lifo is tho lack
of adequate organization. The need Is for
tho rovltallzatlon of rural Institutions, for
the adaptation of old Institutions to new
conditions, for the development of institu
tions to meet the oxlgcncles of a changing
ordor. It Is exactly the same problem which
tho city has faced and which It has not
solved as yet.
Tako tho matter of churches. Experts
havo been crying thnt the country church Is
on Its last legs. They point to hundreds of
abandoned churches. Thoy pessimistically de
clare that religion and morality are dying
out Tho fact Is that tho Attest of tho coun
try churches aro surviving and growing into
new strength and vigor. Economic prosper
ity In any region means prosperous churches
in that region. A central location and an
nctlvo church mean the death of passlvo
churches bcattered about at this crossroads
and that and tho other. The mortality is
great, but there aro more live and thriving
churches in the country than ever before,
and the total membership of country
churches is on the increase.
Tho country has heard the call of effi
ciency. It Is building a new Boclal and eco
nomic organization out of its own resources,
by Its own efforts, on its own Initiative. This
week's conference of rural lifers In Philadel
phia Is full of signs of the times.
The "rural exodus" has ceased Something
Ilka an equilibrium between emigration and
immigration is near at hand. But boys will
Btill leave the farm. If sonB of lawyers, by
the way, all became lawyers it would be
pretty hard on tho legal profession.
The country boys have gone out from the
country. The most "truly rural" State of
the Union contributes more native sons to
"Who's Who," the dictionary of American
notables, than any other State in proportion
to population. It has been doing that for
quite a while. And along with these "Who's
Who-ors" good riddance of had farmers
have gone the incapables, tho fellows who
have foiled. City Jobs for them. And back
there In the "truly rural" country, what?
School attendance higher than anywhere
else. Schools better,-, according to tho Sage
Foundation, than those of three-fourths of
the American States, Enterprise rampant.
Economic and social organization going for
ward, as the phrase is, by leaps and bounds.
Farming methods never so scientific and effi
cient. Farm values Increasing 15 to 25 per
cent, In the last live years. The most truly
rual State Is all the time going uphill, The
evil of the "rural exodus" Is a myth.
A Part for the Whole
There are ao many common fallacies In
discussion of "the country life problem"
that merely to Hat them would occupy col
umns of pe. The evils complained of are
usually more apparent thai) real, others
uthr Umpurar than permanent. Aban
doned farina are an incident of a necessary
readjjatmint Tb.s Department ot Agricul
ture ef Massachusetts usad to issue, an an
nual catalogue of afeaWcHieA urms, bu sow
POSSIBLE r J I
. lwJiSiiM , ,.,ciM & i
.' , UilBHnHIV W'xl
"U, w!?i V 7w ...... (j
It can't find enough abandoned farms to make
tho catalogue worth anybody's while.
Ono common fallacy Is taking n part for
a whole. For example, regarding tho statis
tics of Illiteracy nmong mountain whites as
representative of general rural conditions.
Still another Is the acceptance of "The Old
Homestead" and tho pictures of A. B. Frost
as truo reflections of country life. Tho his
torian who puts together a few Incidents
and scenes and labels them "history" Is not
nn historian. This, too, Is mistaking details
for tho real thing.
So, finally, tho rural emigrant gives up to
his sense of humor, Hko tho man who kicked
about tho Frost pictures as follows: "Your
boost of Frost Is well received, for his pic
tures are a frost, Indeed. It Is not necessary
to criticise that they bo viewed through
farmers' eyes. Ills farmer, any one can sec,
Is a grouch and mean as ho can be. Besides,
he sows with his loft hand grain for a mot
ley chicken band, and lets hl3 wlfo lift,
standing still, 10 gallons or moro of milk nnd
swill for the razorbacks which rise to greet
tho housewifo In her slippered feet noisy
hogs and noisome moro 10 steps away from
tho kitchen door Upon tho ground he feeds
his cow hay that's carried from the mow.
Two ponies, lastly, crowd tho scene instead
of horses, big and clean, to pull and haul
and plow tho furrow. It's a wonder Frost
didn't draw a burro. Farming thus all would
be lost, though plcturesquo It seems to
Tho man who understands the nation
knows what is going on in tho country as
well as In tho town. Ho boasts of tho tower
ing temples of trade, but ho does not forget
tho automobiles that carry tho fnimers to
Ho knows tho size of tho annual wheat
And brags about tho corn boys of Ohio,
who add $20,000,000 a year to the wealth of
tho Buckeye State;
And remember that nobody really under
stands any civilization unless he has been
a part of It. Rural civilization has its trials
and Its triumphs. Its hardships and rewards
It has its own folkways and mores. Christ
was a small-town man, whose way of speak
ing was a folkway. R. II.
BRIEF HISTORY OF HATS
Have you a hat?
Hats were first manufactured In EiiBland
about 1510. In the reign of Queen Hllznbcth
they superseded caps and other soft headscai
According to tradition, a knowledge of felted
hats and caps was Introduced Into Western
Europe by the CrusadcrST'
For several centuries In Great Britain the
higher classes were distinguished by their
black beaver hats. Not that that was their
only distinction, but it was one. The common
peoplo wore caps and bonnets,
Beaver fur grew scarce, nnd In the early part
of tho 19th century wool and beaver felt hats
camo in. Tho silk hat was an Innovation of
Political nnd religious differences have been
marked by the form of hats. A steeple hat,
high and narrow, with n broad brim and devoid
of ornament, was worn by the Puritan of the
reign of Charles I At the snmo period the
Cavalier woro a hat with a lower and broader
crown with a feather stuck on ono side Tho
Quaker hat, low in tho crown, plain and hav
Ing a broad brim, dates from the middle of tho
17th century, when the sect originated. Gen
tlemen of the 18th century wore the cocked hat.
It was Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, who
introduced Into tho United States the wearing
of the soft felt hat which has since become a
favorite In the South and West. The flrst straw
hats were of the palm leaf variety. They were
flrst manufactured about 100 years ago.
Philadelphia's hat manufactures are famous
the world over.
SOUTH AMERICA AND CHURCHES
To the Editor of Evening Ledger:
Sir As you. have spread the views of Mr.
Yerkes before the public will you allow a short
comment on the subject? Mr. Yerkes would
probably wish that his views should be consid
ered broad rather than high or low. What is
sought by the Panama Conference is to endow
Latin-America with the purely Yankee notion of
Christianity, which means In every village of
1000 Inhabitants two, three, four or more costly
buildings to house congregations that can hardly
support them, hence a resort to all sorts ot en
tertainments to poach on each other's pockets.
Thoughtful men are seeking some way to over
come this overrlchness of divinity, and at present
the efforts have led only to the Idea ot union.
Whenever the Idea of unity has come to be tho
general thought the evil will mend Itself, Now
any effort to extend this very real evil to Latin
America Is deprecated on many grounds by not
only High Churchmen, but by all except a small
group within the church who unfortunately are
Just now having their day of publicity, Whether
Mr Yerkes belqngs to this group or has any
hpecial grudge against Latin-America need not
be considered. The question of endowing South
America wth groups of church buildings, parish
houses, entertainments or gymnasiums sup
ported by North American money is not likely
to materialize very greatly as soon as the sub
ject has been threshed out in public. P. E.
Philadelphia, February 8.
AGRICULTURE AND PEACE
To the Editor of Evening Ledger:
Sir Agriculture as a basis for world peace Is
but an optimistic Imaginary vision. With dif
ferent languages, customs and sectarianism It
would be Impossible in this age The eouitv
of international law will compel peace Nations
continue to add power to the balance fcldo of
Justice Nations will no more heed rejueta
than neighbors In a township In the Ur.iud
Statea when the rich desire to buy estate a,ul
live on them with tenantry iho tumiem, tra.de
and professlo.ru! wiU benent Agriculture ts
mostly controlled now by financial Institutions
OEORUa CASH EL.
PkiUiUlU. February i,
What Do You Know?
Queries of general interest will le amwereifi
In this column. Ten questions, the aiwiecria
to which every well-informed person thotlii
know, arc asked dally.
1, There Is a grrnt deal of tnlk nliout bnlldlnj 0
trade with fctoulli Amerirn. About what I
the population of South America?
2. lint .Tuntlce of the .Supreme Court nti tntl
Herrelury of Htntc' si
3. 11 hat 1 mennf by n "Iluy Uerllin"?
4. 11 lint has been the thief crltlclum dlrtcWi
nKiiiiiKt ine .uiumiimi court hlnce II tu:
B. 11 hn fa rlialrmnn nf tho Nnys and Mrnj Ctn-
imncc hi 111c jiuuno or itrprtsfiuQllvtlT
(I. v lio innde the first Amcrlcnn (las?
7. A murrled mnii has nn Income of $3600. lib
wife has an Independent liuome of $1009.'
UIIHl I1C pa Illl IIIL'UIUO 111.' vB
o. ti iiihi iff ine inrirer, jAniiKas uur, .mo.. Qr
Kniisns Cltj. Knn.?
0. It hat Is the mnvlmum part of life Income tint IS
a ipnii Minimi pu for reniT
10. Is (lie muRiietlc North Pole a Died point?
Jlliaui:in lu ivsa'tuaia wuia j(T
A Mnirf' i M Ar'rtriJ Awfn i.f Mlltt.
1. About 60. ConsplruouN military tiplolti la 3 J
rKjin iiihi Ewuiu .iirii-M. uumniniMier-UHr
riuer 01 inuin.
2. Mnety miles.
3. Klla ringg louiiB.
I. Theodore Koonevelt,
5. Secretary of State under McKlnley and ItooM-'l
veil, .minor nnu siuiesman.
0. r. T, Harnum. j
7. 4 II. C.
8. Key Wct.1 Is a little farther south than llrowoi-l
0. Itn)mond Polneare.
in in mm otn mi Tnn.nu. in in..... n..UJ vH
.v. ... .v.u, .,.,.... . .,.. tunc ... .V-Jl. VHWM tj
1017c Estimated nt J 10,000 In 1013, '.1l
A Good Suggestion
Editor of "What Do You Knoio"l thlnkut
quiz corner an excellent thing to read. It li la ',
Itself a sort ot-"up-to-date education" and In- i
tcrcstlng. I hope you will continue it ahvari.
Do you not think It nn advlsablo nlan also to
publish eaoh day answers to tbJe preTlom
(lav's questions? I hasten to assure you I 110
not too lazyto look them up. Neither are th
questions too dlfllcult but If you don't kno2
somo of them that ends lt 'S
Even If one had the time, he could hot flu! 3
certain row of the answers by merely con
sulting school books, dictionaries, library
books, "wise guvs," or reading the newspaper
Also may we, tho readers, submit to )0U nowtj
and then questions for our approval! ion
might run "shy," you know
Would Hko to know particularly If the flrat
plan meets with your approval And don't till
readers think it a good suggestion?
J E T..JII.
As a number of correspondents have mad
the request, answers to questions will t
printed regularly. Questions' from readers will
Hiuoiy db consiaereu.
Greatest Pennsylvania Altitude
J7Hlor of "U'iat Do You Know" What is th
M,-huf nltttiiria It. TV.nn.vlmtiljl. nnd If thtr0
n.r Cn.n ...t.nn , U n InnJ ......11 ..., vl.. KAA fftflt
, WIIJ OLUID tVIICIC mo IU1IU UUCB ituv w -" - ,s
uoovo trio sea level : w iuuui ..- s
TUlitt Ifnnli T1ftnr,t Hnlintv. -which riSCfl tO aB:
elevation of 3136 feet, is the highest point in tbUl
rsinie. 'ine niBiiest point in rionoa i "-i
Pleasant. Gadsden County, which is only JUI
feet above the sea.
PJtUfnt. nt vKttt nn Vnti Tehran" I heard
rv.nn m.nlA CX,n.t.nDnna n..nlnc nHIUff 111 fUStl'.!
Ing the other night. I cannot remember it UJ
nnd I do not know the man who usea
enough to feel like asking him for It. Can jros
hfitn mA tn flnri iff
WATLAND JEJIOBIAIi '-f
Perhaps some reader can supply It.
Editor of "What Do You Know" I made Uf
assertion toaay mat mere aro 01 k "".',''
i.ji t- -..uii.j i- nv.iin.l.l.u hut wan Ql
puted by a man who said that there wajnotai.
more than 100, Which Is rlgnw i-u'"
Neither. There are 275.
KM!,,.- ll,, rn V-mi Vnin" What ! H
largest cathedral In the world? I avilj!3
torn mat ine L.ainearai ot ot. juim " r' ,,m
now bu)ldlng In New York, will be th;61""
when It It completed. CHURCHMAH m
The Cathedral of St. John the Divine Bl
one-half of the floor space Inclosed within BVi
Peter's, in Rome. It la also exceeded W "
by the Cathedrals In Seville ana juiuuu
Pnv nf an Ai-mv DAlf-pr
iui, j ..Tin.-, n- ir.. irnin"IIOW &Wl
the pay of an officer In the American rw
An American major general receives pOOO
year, and an English officer of the " JJSi
gets 16326. All American colonel receive g
and an Enellsh colonel has a salary r.$
There are similar differences in the oi"J
.Editor of "What Da You Know" "fl
nuns. ,... n.L.lo. (".. In, . a'l In COnSUU .
tionary for the meaning of a palindromle ?Wn
Why did you not advise R- T Chew . 'gSBl'
u. a. map? - - .
Tf T)aq. ...III InnU at h ftdvtcS ftfa". l-l
I oj .t--, ' i.i." i. I, J nnt 100k tJ
ey, the answer is tn the advice quite pi"".
Editor of "What Do You Know" Are tM j
mans citizens and do tney voter .nrjgLK1
In 1915 there were 2 134 InJi&P w"Jd"
74 OS J Indian Utlzeoa .An Indian ' ""f,7,)t
tiona uud baa aesuowd the uu-t"J.rh. V
imiuwii ituuitt aaa otmtQjvw ",wsp
oi iiuuacut waa na v arjaeuonsu, w,. -- ia
tuma and ajuutuad civMLjed doUun incrw
frea U.W0 lo 1$S0 to 1 1.0 sr