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" "m!fnif' 'wy'
PUTlLid LEDGER COMPANY
. crnus it. k. ctrnns. rtsre:T.
dro.'IV. bcti, Scrtryi John C. Martin. Trtttureri
Ctuwltt It. Lndfaiion, rhlllp B. Cellini, John fa. Wl
EDITOnlAti HOARD I
Ciats H. K. CciTis, Chlrmn.
tAMSTf . Eieeuli Editor
' . .
.'itXnTIN Otntftl Dulnt Mtnsgtr
Xt)Mtntal dally t rcBt.io t-irvira Dulldlnr,
lndeptniiinc BiUr, Philadelphia,
X.tmt CiKTBtt .Broad and Cheatnut 8lret
Anintor CitT rrrsa-titlon Building
It aw Task 170-A, Metropolitan Tower
Cmo09 81" item Iniuranea Dulldlnr
Lfl.NDOX 8 Waterloo Dace, rail Mali, 8. TV.
tfiiataacaa Bctlio . Th ralHal Bultdlnir
wiamtravroN ucaaan TBe roit uuildinn
wmdtr(iK,r.cno.. The rim.i iiuiMinn
fttU,Brritnv......... ..no rrlMrlchtrM
lANroN.Ilraaatr .....2 Pall mm mot. h w.
fauasctxao . . 32 nua Louti la Grand
Br. carrier, Dailt Oslt, al centa. By malt, ponlpald
tutalde of Philadelphia, except where foreign poetate
la i-ou'rsd, DiiLt Onlt, n month, twentynre cenlaj
DtttT Okli, one year, three dollar. All mall aub
Mtlptlona pajable In adrance.
KEYSTONE, MAIN 8000
l W J.Sint oil communication! to Evening
I Liair, JnitTtndenet S quart, rhltadttphla.
' ' ' ' . ... i
1 ammo At tn rniucii.rxu roirornci it arcoso-
cuii tuit, uiTTu,
fry"1 i ' .1
rillLADEU-HIA. TUESDAY, DECEMnElt 89, 1914.
"When vou see failure on the troad highway
itop long enough to take the reason
tohu out 0 Ms pocket. Then hurry
along to catch up iclth success.
" TIio Old War Horse" Docs Not Flinch
THE gentlemen -who nttonded the confer
ence In tho Mayor's ofTIco yesterday to
consider tho problem of unemployment were
not at all confused or mlBled by incidentals.
They know that 50,000 nops would not solvo
Hie unforlunato Bltuation, and they real
ized fully, too, that tho thins to bo sought
in a permanent and not a temporary remedy.
Tho conference represents tho first scien
tific attempt to aid tho unemployed. In con
trast to tho political blundering that lion
characterized other so-called efforts. Tho
Mayor's statement indicates that tho munic
ipality and other large employers of labor
Tvlll undortako to distribute employment
among tho greatest number posslblo during
the present crisis, to bring men and jobs to
pother, and later to lnltiato legislation de
vised to provide a clearing house for employ
ment. Some action also will probably bo
taken to compensato for seasonal employ
ment and endow positions with permanency.
Tho municipality's part In this program
wilt depend largely on tho attltudo of
Councils, which In turn is dominated by tho
Finance Committee, over which John P.
Connelly presides with dignity and author
ity. Mr. Connolly, wo surmise, will bo glad
to do something to help the unemployed If
ho Is shown how. He has been somewhat
stumped. It seems, by the Immensity of tho
problem and its possible effects politically.
Neither tho Finance Commltteo nor nny
member of it would willingly keep a man out
of a Job, it may safely bo sold, and If some
men hold two Jobs whllo others hold none,
It is plain that the committeemen are as
much grieved about it as anybody else. To
him who hath shall bo given If ho has tho
Tho peoplo of Philadelphia, disgusted with
Councils, havo looked to tho Mayor to over
come alt difficulties and do something. Tho
"Old War Horse" is not disappointing them.
The conferonco yesterday was a guarantees
of that, and something tangible will be done
unless tho stubbornness of Councils passes
President Will Not Be Fooled
IT IS announced that tho President will
veto the Immigration bill If it comes to
him with the literacy test left in it. So ho
ought. The character of a man has never
yet been tested in a spelling book. It may
Jbp a crime to be Ignorant, provided an op
portunity not to be Ignorant has been
neglected, but, unfortunately, tho American
public school system Is not in vogue in all
parts of the world.
The unterrlfled Democrats of South Caro
lina, where Governor Blcaso Is about to re
tire Into obscurity, would be in a pretty flee
If reading and writing were required of
them. A good many thousand would have
to emigrate to Patagonia. Yet' they are of
, good American stock and are not lacking in
the attributes of patriotism. Some of the
Stt, great heroes of the world regarded scholar-
K.Jahtp as a sign of effeminacy. They could not
"wite. and they refused to be taught.
Undesirables are people lacking in moral
flbre. When an X or other kind of ray that
will lay bare the soul of a subject Is dis
covered; our immigration rules can be made
perfect. Until then, foreign police records
Jfffil be better guides to exclusion than gram-
mars or readers.
f":r Lawmaking in the Open
THE newly chosen Speaker of tho Assem
bly of New Jersey promises a much-needed
(reform In lawmaking. Simple In Itself, it bids
. fair to make those legislators who would con-
ceal their ulterior ends beneath a cloak of
Verbiage come forth and reveal themselves.
; t The promise is that when a legislator Intro
;du.ees an act he shall accompany it with a
explaining exactly its purpose and in-
ijiti Too often a "snake' has been hidden
2Iip.ln a wealth of words, virtually meaning
less; In themselves, yet later found by the
courts to be expressive of an entirely different
meaning from that which was Understood by
iii lawmakers and public at the time of Its
New Jersey already has an examiner, or
editor, of legislation, whose duty It is to see
that enactments are couched In clear Eng
lish; but even he has been unable to prevent
He Introduction of aats the true nature of
la obscure from the mere reading of
w if 9 wgwwi mat uui uwjr me wsraintr or
v sat oat. but Its title, should aentaln ttt nlth
Mf Its latent and meaning.
GQVSSNOR HARBISON ie confident t&t
titer U not likely to be an outbreak 9f
scteue proportions in the Piitlpflins. Why
bouid there be? However tyrannous ur
atfMMUctmiea mey be, U I saariy pviteK
tf iDMjtpariet with what went beffer. To tm
W&. th jMiPPle of the UulWd SUta? wight
& xit sgatast bearing y umgir the
. man 4 tounKu if tat far Unci my, nut
ffeti jtajawa to eewptaUi would be the
, ffrt r UHfrawiwe. 'way H&ye beMt
lOWMMajf rood m rMivar PtottMl
-i5 - ought to rmms w to it wtth tU fury
XUr trouoi t that uoma staculauive ana
vtrvi souU Ju ttuu. pjt of tkt worW
wOtn tw furwtwiy out pmtsi ytiuu-
tSHw-VWHBB (Ml VflSH BHlfiJ awl: UGtB.
- - - - , 4
regaled by some ef Its eloquent leaders. They
have been misinformed' and beguiled. Somo
of them, no doubt, have been examining their
bodies for tha bruises which thoy cannot And,
mid other marks of cruelty. Tho Filipinos
must not be governed against their will,
wherefore', say our logicians, let them bo
turned over to tho tender mercies bf bandits.
Olvo them freedom! Ihftt Is, let them Mexl
canlzo thotnsolves. Let Ihcm riot and murder
and ravage, If they want t, for It Is of such
things that democracies are made.
It Is n pity that tho Filipinos should be tho
victims of wild theorizing here, but it has
long been a maxim that there Is nothing so
good ns dellveratico from ono's friends. Yes,
tho Jones bill Is probably tho causo of the
conspiracy, but through the proml03 of Its
friends and not the opposition of Its oppo
nents. Tho Incident doubtless will bo or con
siderable valuo In temporlng Governor Har
rison's attitude. In government trifling never
Tho Port is the State's
THE Stato of Now York built New Tork
city when It built tho Erlo Canal. Ono of
the most valuablo assets of Pennsylvania Is
tho port of Philadelphia. It Is nn asset which
the Stato cannot nfford to let deteriorate,
cither actually or comparatively.
Tho port Is a plcco of machinery which
must bo kept in perfect order at all times,
up-to-'tlio-mlntito In equipment, and Its fa
cilities offered at moderate cost to usors. That
tho Stato should put tho full weight of Its
credit and resources behind tho port Improve
ment movement Is too obvious for argument.
This Is tho program:
"We recommend tlmt he Slnte lmllil
iilinrveM nnd rnrelioiiei provided with
llie beat mrclinnlenl trnnaalilppInK equip
ment i tlint nlie nke ntepii for the com
pletion nml Improvement of tlir tirlt line
rnlltrnj nml Hn connection rWth vrlinrven,
YrnrelionaeK and rnilromlai tlint the mnln
tnln rrhnrvrn for (rnnalent or Independent
venarlnt tlint alie lmllil n ilrjilork to nc
rommoilnte ocenn ntramcrn of thp Inrfcrxt
trpri thnt nlie keep Hip dock flrcilRCil,
mid tlint nlic provide deeper chnnnela In
the Delnrvnrp nml .Scliuvlkllt IllverH. If
the? Initial Htep for elnhornte Improve
ments nre taken at till" time, I'hltndelplitn
vrlth Ita nnturnl ndvnntairra villi lie re
ntored io the position of commercial nil
premacr thnt lic once occupied.
The sooner It is translated Into fact tho
better It will bo for Philadelphia and Penn
sylvania. Brain Bacteria
PROF. LOUIS F. BISHOP'S theory thnt
hard, consecutive brain work Induces an
Insidious disease which shortens tho lives of
Intellectuals need not halt tho mental efforts
of the ordlnnry man. Tho majority of us aro
willing to tako such chances of longevity as
came to Llttre, Mommscn, Dolllngor, Emer
son, Gladstone, A. G. Wallace, Cardinal Now
mnn and others of similar mental calibre. In
fact. It would not require a very largo ceme
tery to accommodate tho men who have
thought themselves to death. But even wero
there such danger It would bo better to dlo
young and glvo tho world n few vital
thoughts than to llvo for a century and bo
nothing moro than an echo.
"Mc, Jim and Justice"
TOUCH the Organization on tho quick and
it hollers, as Director Porter has found
out. Let a prisoner inform certain Magis
trates that ho is under tho protection of this
or that politician and his innocence is estab
lished immediately; that Is, he docs not have
to establish It, but is automatically released.
"What is tho prisoner accused of?"
"Assault and battery, your Honor."
"Guilty or not guilty?"
"That Is Irrelevant," Interrupts Jim Mc
Shane, boss of the Steenth Ward. "The de
fendant's a friend of mine."
Simple isn't it? Yet multiply tho Incident
by a thousand, and tho voting strength of
Jim McShane Is easily explained. Tho fellow
who gets arrested now and then for misde
meanors always has the boss to say the word
that gets him off scotfrce. That Is what
Magistrates are for, which will bo of Interest
to people who have Imagined that these emi
nent gentlemen wore for ornament only.
Tho police are handicapped when the
friendships of a prisoner are of more impor
tance than his guilt or Innocence, of course,
and Director Porter Is qulto right in saying
so, even If it brings down on htm the
excoriation of an eminent Judge. And the
"women of the street" seem to be particularly
fortunate in obtaining quick releases. Direc
tor Porter has the proof. Ho Is not "talk
ing through his hat." That, perhaps, ex
plains why the Organization is disgusted with
Bank on Men, Not Methods
THEIIE 13 nothing to criticise In the rec
ommendations of the Pennsylvania Econ
omy and Efficiency Commission. Undoubt
edly a number of the State departments can
be improved by the Introduction of up-to-date
business methods. Let us reform or
rearrange the auditing, systematize the pur
chasing and redefine the duties of the sev
eral officials, But even if we get the mech
anism of administration perfectly modern
and absolutely flawless It will be no guaran
tee of good government.
Nothing can ever be a substitute for brains
and conscience. We may have antediluvian
methods and medieval machinery and colo
nial buildings, but if we have big, broad,
enthusiastic, clean and patriotic men filling
publiq offices we shall have good govern
ment. The power of appointment possessed
by the Qovernor Is worth more than all of
his other powers combined. If he refuses
to make appointments simply as a reward
for past political services, or with a. view
to insuring a future party Victory, and makes
his choice purely upon the character and
(he ability of the candidates, he can be aure
of a notable and successful administration.
VI i ii. 141
The President came within two years of
being 60 years oW yesterday.
It.le all right for the Italians to
Albania, but there hag never been a
who eould stay there.
TMs Mexican business la pretty hard qn
epoyelopedht jwbHshers who are trying to
keep their volume up te the rslnut.
.There are alwaya plenty of tteqveqUoiu
meetisg la Philadelphia, and tfcw sa jqsre.
It t titt canvewteat place.
TUe trouble with tha Kiii1ii is that Jut
aMt the time Uwir asUnt teres man to
bve been whipped tha nwta amy a'rtva.
Th aeroplane 1 doing tkft WW the
ytjMHttne are waiting tor inraMpiug to turn
u. it u t mosquito tbt eout i& jnta
B - iS'fflB - si'iiADiaLiJaiA: fltraspAY.' djboembbb
POLAND'S UNDYING '
ii !! . i nn a--n as
Whnt the War Means to a Country Suf
fering, Like Belgium, tho Hardships
of a Conflict Which It Had No Part
Dy EDMUND FULLER
SHOULD this wnr end with tho autonomy,
If not the lndcpcndcnco of Poland, such a
reward for fidelity to Russia In her hour of
need would be no unduo compensation for
tho trials through which the unhappy land
Is now passing. Tho Poles, llko tho Belgians,
arc suffering from tho hardships of a contest
In which they originally had no Interest. The
determining battles between Itussla and Ger
many nro taking placo on Polish sollr'and,.
which over wins, desolation must bo for the
tlmo tho portion of tho people.
Tho woes of Poland nro ns familiar In ro
mance as In history. In that tearful novel
which a former generation rend with avidity,
"Thnddcus of Warsaw," thoy wero recited
with sentimental rnpturc: and tho Thoddetls
of our old friend, "Tho Bohemian Girl," could
always bring down tho liouso with his stir
ring referenco to tho tlmo when tho fair land
of Poland won plowed by the hoof of tho
Tho historian, less partial, has had to con
fess that, little as tho partitions of the coun
try wero justified In morals, the Inhabitants
themselves wrro not wholly blameless for the
fate that overtook them. Freedom may havo
shrieked when Koscluszko fell, but sho had
been previously wounded In tho house of her
frlonds. It would hardly be nn exaggeration
to say that tho Inability of tho Poles to gov
ern themselves made their country for years
tho plaguo spot of Kuropc. Almost from Its
first nppcarnnco In history, Poland was
cursed with a military nristocrncy quite as
nrrogant as that of Prussia In later days a
class out of sympathy with tho needs nnd de
sires of tho body of tho peoplo.
Tho country emerges from the darkness at
the end of tho 10th century with tho achieve
ments of Its first King, Bolcslhus, who, after
Incessant warfare, dominated tho wholo re
gion from tho Carpathians to tho Baltic and
tho Elbo to the Bug. When ho died tho
wholo structuro collapsed, and for nearly
three .centuries Poland, divided and sub
divided, was dovnslatcd by her neighbors.
Tho Tartar invasion In tho mlddlo of tho 13th
contury left her well-nigh prostrate. Tim
Lithuanians nnd tho Teutonic Knights be
tween them might have completed tho work
had It not happened that tho force of clrcum-l
stances drew Poland and Lithuania together
under ono King.
In 1B0B Slglsmund tho Great came to tho
throne, nnd under him nnd his son the king
dom far exceeded Its old power under Bolcs
laus. Its western boundary was 90 miles
from Berlin, Its eastern 150 miles from Mos
cow. Its population doubled, Its Industries
developed and settled government blessed Its
Inhabitants. But with tho death of tho sec
ond Slglsmund it paused under tho sway of
elected kings, its Diet became nn oligarchy,
nnd Its aristocratic military casta obtained
full domination. Nor was tho rule of this
caste oven efficient. Tho llberum veto, or tho
right which nny member had of objecting to
and thus blocking legislation, mado It possi
ble for an Individual or a faction to force tho
Diet to a policy of Inaction, no matter what
the peril of such a policy might bo. This
brought tho nation to anarchy on more than
In fact, tho history of Poland from this
tlmo down to tho third partition In 1795 Is n
rather dreary chronicle of disorder nnd dis
aster which the heroic deeds of men like
SobleskI and Koscluszko cannot altogether
redeem. SobleskI defeated the TurkB and
saved Vienna, but ho accomplished nothing
in the way of tho Internal reforms which tho
country needed so much. It may be doubted
If any ono could havo done this. Tho turbu
lent nobles had the real power, and they used
It solely for their own benefit. Tho miseries
of the peasant claBs could hardly have been
greater under a foreign tyranny.
The Land of Kosciuszko
Soblcskl's successor was Augustus of Sax
ony. Ho Involved tho country In war with
Sweden, nnd Charles XII tried to forco
Stanislaus Lcczynskl on tho Poles as their
King. He did not accomplished his object;
but tho elective nature of the monnrchy en
abled Russia later to get the place for Au.
gustus HI, and on his doatlt for Ponlatowskl.
These wero tho events which led to a league
among the more enlightened Poles to reform
the Government and to preserve the national
independence, now obviously threatened. The
movement failed, and the various partitions
of Poland among Russia, Prussia and Aus
tria followed. It was against the second par
tition. In 1793, that Kosciuszko and his as
That episode Is In some respects the mpst
splendid in all Polish history. Kosciuszko,
as Mme. Sembrlch has reminded us, had
fought In the American Revolution, where he
greatly distinguished himself under Gates
and Washington, and was chief engineer In
constructing the fortifications at West Point.
After tho war he received the thanks of Con
gress, and was made brevet brigadier gen
eral. These military experiences were of
value to him In his attempt to free Poland,
Although finally defeated, he kept tho field
for six months against a greatly superior
force. Thereafter Poland ceased to exist, To
Austria, Russia and Prussia went the spoils
and the honors of war.
Austrian Poland has been fairly contented,
Russian Poland, after the failure of the lib
eral constitution granted by Alexander I,
has been a hotbed of smoldering hatred
against the barbarous methods of its masters.
German Poland has resisted to the uttermost
the.polloy of peopling it with German Immi
grants. Yet In this time of trial the sym
pathies of the Poles seem to be mainly Rue-,
slan, largely because of the promises which
the Russian Government has made. Whether
these promises are, kept or not, whether
Poland la reunited under the Russian or the
German flag, the undying spirit of nationality
has been greatly revived by the very dis
tresses from which the people suffer. Not the
least Important change In the map of Burqpe
Is likely to be obssrved here when the war
Jo.hrt Muir and Emeraon
Frero tha Na Tarit Sua,
To John Mukr there was no pvu, nothing
IsMtar, rude or UBoeexwiUt In the American
wiU4fM. "One should go m the woods for
safety t said. CivHtxd town he reuded
as tW dAWrw awd hotJi, A wui' could
ts.k ear f Wwwlf la the vytWarai aad
natsite was hoMitasi. He ofsottowi vt be
pfeafbad. With a bundle of bread ad '$
U be wt Into the Storraa akws at all time
of she y 8awe might drift aad frwetaf
beat, but John Muir was safe anjt lasey; in
the tmmamiouB moods of nature he feu elattou
TM lar km a coav&d Muir never carried
ftiunasr-the rUWuki harttM U not iwo-
V vofcad, od the water , betsod sftey
vr khuikuc rapnaa, mmmm nm mvmtm mmoay
i th rl4i Om at Mi rUt dfeatveiat-
hb nm0MmmmiimmmtM maainin.
...... o, CD") liiiliilni
ments of Mtilr's life wns Emerson's shrinking
from a night In the sequoias under tho stars.
The Concord philosopher came to see the big
trees, Muir was his guide and a sunset glow
transfigured tho west. What an opportunity for
the author of tho "Song of Nature"! In vain his
admirer pladed with him. It wns getting late.
tho dews wero falling, there wns a chill In the
hlr, tho camp bed wns rough, strango nolnes
wero abroad, and Emerson left Muir to his
OLD-TIME HOLIDAY "ADDRESSES"
Night Watchmen of Philadelphia Used to Pre
sent New Year Verses to the Householders.
THBRB Is a species of native poetry that
has completely passed into eclipse, and
though to a largo extent it was rather crudo
In stylo and not very lofty In Its homely
sentiments, It seems a pity that It Is no
more. For many years the native muse used
to find expression In tho "addresses" which
wore distributed by tho newspaper carriers
and by tho city's night watchmen, before tho
days of tho Police.
Tho annual addresses which tho watch
men used to present to householders in ex
pectation of a gratuity at Christmas went,
of course. Into oblivion when tho city was
consolidated and tho watchmen gave place
to a moro or less regular police. But tho
newspaper carriers continued tho custom un
til about tho end of the Civil Wnr. That
was a period of reconstruction In this city,
as well as In tho South. Tho old times and
old customs were beginning to glvo way to
newer ideas and practices.
There was something delightful about tho
unabashed way In which tho watchmen and
tho newspaper carriers offered In verso their
claims to bo remembered at tho festive sea
son of Christmas and New Year's. In tho
eighteenth century, when tho carriers, then
usually boys, began to present tho sheet
containing a poetical description of world
enveloping events of tho year coming to a
close, tho verses were of a higher type than
In the last century, when In all of tho watch
men's addresses a decidedly mercenary noto
wns struck. In the carriers' addresses, al
most until tho custom died, tha verses wore
moro of au offering than a dcllberato de
mand for a gift.
A few of these ancient addresses still re
main In the collections of antiquaries, and
they give a fnlrly lively Impression of Just
what the custom was. The newsboys of tho
eighteenth century, as did their successors,
the carriers of the nineteenth, usually se
lected some writer with a poetical gift who
would agree to write the verses for a small
sum, or, perhaps, would do It as a con
tribution to the cause.
In the collected works of the young Penn
sylvania poet, Nathaniel Evans, who died In
1767, In his 25th yor, there will bo found a
copy of tho address ho wrote for the news
boys to give to their customers at New
Year's, 1762. Evans was a young minister
who had decided poetical gifts, and no one
who reads his "Verses for tho New Year,
1762," will doubt that probably not one of
his young newsboys had-any very clear idea
of what he was driving at. The verses ara
filled with poetical Blmlles, which must havo
entirely passed over the heads of those
whom they were Intended to profit. It was,
In short, a rather high flight.
The addresses of the old-tlme watohmen
went right to tho point, and even debated
it with the prospective giver. The address
of the Philadelphia watchmen for the year
1818 is an excellent example of the style,
both of the verses and of the rather humor
ous audacity of the petition,
In the course, of a dialogue between a
watchman and a, oltlzen this occurs:
You've no title of me to expect a reward.
With all the appearance and pride of a lord:
For-watghlng Philadelphia, there's taxes ap
Yet you roust come round at the close of
And put you In mind of the taxes you pay.
I never refuse to be Hbral and kind
When an good reason, at all ! asejgRed.
I'm confident the you'U be USfil to me.
The Wat&roans hard lot It Is fFeijently
In a Ue&teroiw sight, when he has to go
Is a hard OB, indeed for tbrotwh bait, fefn
Aftd tfee sJsW e'er jo dark be Mtut mr.
The tour te cry awl tfe Won to soUu,
WMet the alumbertiw cttlson rente at ids
Ever on the alert to you froui barm.
Should fire break out b give th hXtpm.
And thu pruperty rocuo fwwe, vxoutBCfl
And v tmtf tho towa J Uut ann
JUSTICEWILL NOW BE DISPENSED
Cost to "Workers and Society at Large of Present Inefficient Means of
Bringing the Jobless Man and the Manless Job Together.
By JOHN B. ANDREWS
SmeUrj Arorricin AiloclaUon for Labor Lfglililioa.
Br iptclal orranltmeat ilh Tho Now Republic
IT IS uppurcut to any ono who knows any
thing about tho Biibject that our labor
market i3 unorganized and that thcro Is a
tremendous wasto of tlmo and energy In
tho Irregular and haphazard employment of
workers. It Is this very groat social wasto
which wo aro Just beginning to appreciate,
but every method for overcoming it so far
tried in America has been painfully Inade
quate. Tho first and simplest method of bring
ing workmen and work together Is by un
systematic Individual search. A man not
recommended for a position by a relatlvo
or frlond often follows tho easiest course,
that which Involves tho least Immediate ex
penditure of money and thought. Ho starts
from homo and drops In at every sign of
"Help Wanted," scrawled on a piece of
cardboard, is tho symbol of Inefficiency In
tho organization of tho labor market. The
haphazard practlco of tramping tho streets
In search of It Is no method at all. It as
sures success neither to the Idle worker In
his search for work, nor to the employer
In his search for labor. On the contrary,
by Its very lack of system It needlessly
swells tho tide of unemployment, and
through tho footweary, discouraging tramp
ing which It necessitates often leads to vag
rancy nnd to crime.
It Is Impossible to reckon tho cost to the
community of this methodlcss mothod. Be
yond tho tremendous waste of time, there
Is tho waste Incurred by putting men Into
tho wrong Jobs. Tho law of chance decrees
that, under such lack of care, misfits must
be the rule; and society now permits tho
dally process of attempting to fit a round
peg Into a square hole,
A second common method of connecting
employer and employe is through the me
dium of advertising. About 2000 newspapers
published in New York State carry every
year somo 800,000 columns of '"Help Wanted"
and "Situation Wanted" advertising, at a
cost to employers and employes estimated
at $20,000,000 an expenditure of about 5
for every worker in the State. If the money
spent brought commensurate results, there
would bo less ground for complaint. But at
present an employer advertises for help In
several papers, because all the workers do
not read the same paper. The employe lists
the positions advertised, and then starts on
the day's tramp. At ono gate 60 or 100 men
may be waiting for a single Job, while In
other places a hundred employers may be
waiting, each for a single employe. Unnec
essary duplication of work and expense by
both parties la apparent.
Philanthropic employment bureaus fall
mainly because of the taint of charity which
Justly or unjustly clings to them, and have
become for the most part merelybureaus
for placing tho handicapped. Self-reliant
workmen are Inclined to shun such agencies,
and employers do not generally apply there
for efficient labor. Charging small fees or
none at all. these offices nro unable to com
pete with the moro active private agencies
which spend large Bums of money develop
Ing clienteles among employers and em
ployes. Trade union "day rooms" and of
fices maintained by employers' associations
have to contend with mutual distrust, while
their bsneflts are at best limited to one
trade or Industry,
Private employment agents, doing fcusl
ntsa for profit, have sprung up In nil large
centres, no, fewer than 800 of them beJng
lleensed in New York city atone. While
wajiy of these operate with a reasonable
degree of effleleney, thejr general character
Is ploturesauely If not elegantly indicated
by their eoubrlquet, "employment shark."
In the year ending May 1. wis, tha Com,
milar Ucensoa of the city of Now
Yortc reported tna Investigation of 1838 com
plants against registered ei4omot
agMtft, resulting in nine wavkloaI tho
Winn; o swo uus 'tftw to victteiti2
apUcat3 and the revocation f is MCII
Among tho wore evil law Rt the door of
tho prtvite s4HUcJ are charw7 esttw
Usw fee, mtim fee- wt,ta wnployer
yrtw. after , tw d, tUttM --ftmiji
to mm wbt isur fitUt wttk
THE LABOR MAEKET
new fee, collusion with immoral resorts.'
sending applicants to places where there Is '
no work, and general misrepresentation of:
Only recently the writer heard from a
Northern Now England labor otriclal a har
rowing story of tho lumber camps, where
workers had been sent from prlvato agencies
In New York and were fined and Imposed
upon to an extraordinary degree. Eight
men, including a printer, a painter and a
clerk, wero sent by another New York pri
vate employment ngont to what was de
scribed In their contracts n3 "construction
work, machinist and contract work." Tho
men found themselves In a Pittsburgh steel
mill, before tho furnaces. Physically unablo
to do the work required of them, they had
to apply to tho office of associated charities
for asslstanco in finding work at their trades.
Although nn Investigation wns made, New .
York Stato was unable to tako any action,
as nono of the complainants was within its
jurisdiction. Such examples could be multi
plied almost Indefinitely.
Need of National Exchange System
Public employment bureaus, designed
partly as an offset to tho abuses of the
prlvato agencies, date In America from 1890,
when Ohio authorized the first State sys
tem. Today there are between 70 and 80
such bureaus, maintained by 10 States and
by a dozen or more municipalities.
Notwithstanding tho work of a few, theso
public bureaus are still far from furnishing
an adequate medium for the exchange of
Information on' opportunities for employ
ment. Every ono who has studied tho problem
realizes that method and Bystcm in putting
men and opportunities for work in touch with
f ach other will not of themselves prevent
oversupply of labor or of Jobs. They will do
so no more than the Cotton Exchange guards
against nn over or an under supply of cot
ton. They will serve merely as lovelers in
tho scales of labor supply and labor demand.
Besides the unemployment which Is due to
the failure of men and jobs to And each
other, thcro Is much due to other causes
which even the best system of employment
exchanges would not directly eliminate.
But every one realizes that these other
causes of unemployment cannot be success,
fully attacked without a basis In compre
hensive, conscientiously collected Informa
tion such as cannot be furnished by our
present machinery for dealing with the prob, '
lem. Under present methods there exists no
automatic, cumulative means for collecting
the facts. That results, of course, in exag
gerated statements In both directions. Our
paucity of information on this complex and
vital question, has continued, even though
labor problems in one form or another have
taken the lead as subjects for legislation.
Any scientific lawmaking on tho programs
of social Insurance especially unemploy
ment Insurance and of vocational guidance
must be grounded on facts of relative em
ployment and unemployment of the workers
tabulated by trades, by sexes and bv aces.
Without a nation-wide system of labor ex-
cnanges, np basis can exist for anticipating
In an accurate manner the ebbs and flows
of the demand for labor. Without concen
tration of the Information now collected and
now held separately in thousanda of sep
arate organisations throughout tho land, the
poselblllty of looking into the future, or of
profiting by the past. Is out of tho question.
ROSTAND AT WTEIMS
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