Evening public ledger. (Philadelphia [Pa.]) 1914-1942, December 08, 1914, Night Extra, Page 8, Image 8

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6. Wt Otht, Secretary I JohnO. Martin, Treaenrerj
rartw II lAldlnston, rMHp S Collins, John B. WIl
ms. fflrettera.
RDITOntAi noAne J
Cmon It. K. Conii, Chairman.
It. WHALE Bxeeutlre Editor
llilll I I
C MA11T1K..
.doner! Business Manager
Iftibllihed dally at Peauo Lime tJulldlnr,
Independence Square, Philadelphia.
Ltwmn rifTtt,.. ....,... Droad anil Cheitnut Streets
Aila.stic Cur. ....... .... Fre f -Union Bulldlnr
tinyt Tonic 170-A, Metropolitan Tower
Cmclao. 81T Home Insurance Building
oxtx!. .....8 Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, S, W
UAtalaatma BoaMO The rotrfor Bulldlnr
WiamwoTott ItCBtAD ........ The Toet Bulldlnr
Nrw Tonic nemo i . ... ...The rimes Bulldlnr
Bcanx BCrj ..........00 Frtedrlchstraeaa
Lohdon I1cau........ a Pall Mall Eaet. s W.
tus Btaaiu .Hi Rue Louie le Grand
Br earrler. Daiit Out, six cent. Br mall, poitpald
cntetdo of ritlladelphla, except where foreign poetare
la required, Ditii Onlt, one mmth, twentr-flre cente)
BIIlt Oxxt, one rear, three dollara. All mall eub
nrlptlona payable In advance
Wax, flooo walnut
J, BV ddr alt eommimfcadtmj to Bvtnina
f terr, Zndeftndtne Havana, PMladtlphta.
m " ' ' '
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p okas ttatt, MAnn.
rgnjunorniA. Tuesday, oecemdeii a. 191.
Lot Councils Get Busy
JTUED abrupd Costello anti-transit plan Is" a
XdoxftUat. It was ridiculed and shot full
ci boles by practically every association of
fcasJness) men In the city. Their cumulative
protest was recorded In the columns of tho
StTEKma XjEdobr yesterday, and thoro Is no
an or rst of men In Fhlladelphla who would
Jexs disregard a publlo decision so over
whelmingly expressed.
But the paoplo must not bo turned from
til main consideration. Tho Union Traction
Company Is holding; back, although It Is re
quired under tho Taylor plans to do nothing
mere than furnish funds for tho normal ex
tension of sUrfaco linos. Tho presont transit
system enjoys a monopoly. It would be
required to extend tho surfaco lines, Taylor
plan or no Taylor plan. Tho Union Traction
Company, perhaps, is under no compulsion,
but tho fact stands out that either it or Its
lessor must perform tho Borvlco required of
It or forfeit substantial rights. The Union
Traction Company Is simply being offered
an opportunity to protect absolutely its
There are three things to bo done, and the
people should Insist that they be- attended to
without delay.
1. A special election should bo ordered by
Councils to enable the people to authorize a
loan for transit development.
2. Councils should definitely determlno
upon and fix the routes of the proposed .lines.
S. The plans for tho now rapid transit sys
tem should then bo submitted to the Public
Service Commission for its approval.
The last Is of tho least Immediate Im
portance. The thing now Is for Cquncils to
act, and tho people of every section should
at onco begin to bring their representatives
into line and instruct them, as to their
Relieve Distress on Our Own Doorstep
THE prevailing Impression socms to bo
that the Emergency Aid Commltteo Is an
organization confined to aiding the Belgians.
Not byjiny means: emergency relief is sim
ply tho general name for the body of men
and women who are facing the whole situa
tion of distress at home as well as abroad.
The committee Is subdivided, and one of Its
most Important parts Is tho home relief
division, with headquarters In the basement
of the Lincoln Building.
At present the home relief division has
not much money. If Councils finally passes
the recommendation of Its own Finance Com
mittee, $50,000 will bo available. Money Is
not to be given away, but employment will
be provided and wages paid for assembling
or malting the goods that are to be sent to
Europe. Thus our foreign and home philan
thropy will Interblend and help each other.
Pnder tlds system no charge can be made
that Philadelphia Is neglecting her own.
"With Winter upon us suffering Is bound to
Increase. Those who wish to relieve distress
In the surest and least harmful way should
tret Into Immediate touch with the home
relief division of the Emergency Aid Com
mittee. If It Had Been Snow
FOUTY-EiaHl! hours of rain and wind
may set the proper key for a Philadel
phia winter, anil after the record-breaking
drought of fall it Is not unpleasant to smell
wetearth and brick. But, whether the rainy
pelPcoraes In for appreciation or abuse, one
regret Is very obvious: If there had been a
little bit more than a nightcap of Bnow the
problem of the unemployed would be con
siderably eased by this morning.
Penn's Inglorious Washday
THE dirty linen of Penn's football team Is
napping eloquently in the breeze. Speak
Jeg as the authorities on failure that they
undoubtedly are, the players of this year
record-smashing team have decided that
George Brooke is no ooach. Anxious to add
to the spectacles that have been on View in
tho neighborhood- of 3d and Spruce every
Saturday afternoon until a few weeks ago,
the University dally newspaper backs up the
team and advertises tho official washday.
Undergraduate' control of athletics Is the
jight Idea; nobody denlen It. But they should
be expert undergraduates, not young arentle
jSWi wltlt 41-0 reoords. This trick of trying
to oaver up personal failure by Warning lion
the) ecach Is a grammar school trick and bad
m at inat. javeryopay nw Mf
riawd at Bwarthmore. And some
i haven't aulte forgotten the weekly e-
LUena at Franklin Field this fall.
:tr Unpreparednesa ;for Fqralgn Trade
0 splendid opportunity In wid trade
f tod ua in a state of woeful unprpttrea-
)M- We have Men so busy developing our
ajjatsfttic reaourvM that tv have not liA
hH4 to tl turn wha we wouW b -
Mil if" by ,1Mr aeoMsKy ta get Ut of our
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lhg and credit facilities It Involves the
question of commercial treaties, It Involves
Uio navigation laws.
It Is utterly ridiculous" to expect great and
perm'ancnt results without tackling tho prob
lem as a whole. The entire subject should bo
systematically and thoroughly studied, Just
nil the broad subject of banking and finance
was Investigated by tho National Currency
Commission of a few years ago. The report
of that commission stands today as tho most
remarkable, authoritative and valuable con
tribution mado in America to financial
knowledge. It has already soryed, hnd will
servo In tho future, an an exceedingly useful
guidebook for legislation. Soma equally com
prehensive survey of our foreign trade prob
lem would make possible a unified, rational
program of legislation. Guesswork apd pud
dcrlng will not win us a sptondld future In
tho world's commerce.
The President's Message
fTlHE President's messago Is typically WI-
sonesquo In diction and In thought. Few
Presidents havo so strained their vocabula
ries for simplicity of utterance, and few, it
Is clear, havo been mora happy In tho coltmgo
of tolling phrases.
Tho President's Indorsement of his own
conservation and .water power bills nas an
ticipated. Ho reiterates his belief that a
larger measure of Bolf-government nhotilil bo
given tho Flllplnoos, basing his argument on
tho ground that so to do will bo to vindicate
our own unselfishness rather than on any
material gain to bo achieved by the Flllplnoos
themselves, It seems to havo escaped tho
President's mind that tho easy thing to do
Is to abandon tho Philippines', and tho dlfll
cult thing to do Is to contlnuo our guardian
ship of them To many, It would bo a su
premo evldenco of selfishness to do ultimately
tho one thing which tho President believes
Is necessary to assert our unselfishness.
Ho passes ovor tho question of rural credits
as too dime tilt to, bo dealt with at this time.
Ho urges, as Is proper, that tho proposed
convention for safety at sea, already ratified
by Germany and Great Britain, bo confirmed
before the last day of the month, as is
required by the conventldn Itself. Tho last
of his constructive proposals concerns ndo
quato provision for survey and charting of
our coasts. That tho perils of tho Alaska
coast lino are still unmarked for mariners Is
a reproach to tho Union.
Ii relation to economy In government, tho
President Is sure that only a relatively small
sum could bo saved by greater efficiency, but
ho nevertheless favors saving even that sum.
Ho is confident that "tho people of tho
United States do not wish to curtail the
activities of this Government; they wish
rather to enlarge them." This Is a rebound
from Jeffersonlanlsm that would havo de
lighted the far-vlsloned Hamilton.
In tho matter of national defense, tho
President voices a very general opinion that
wo can rely on a moderate army, supported
by a well-trained mllltla, provided wo. havo
an adequate nnvy. It Is our natural defense.
But, by a strango process of reasoning, he
concludes that the experts do not know what
sort of ships wo should build, thus following
out the Domocrntlc Idea, which favors an
adequate navy, but docs nothing on the as
sumption that nobody knows what an ade
quate navy Is.
By far the most Important part of tho
message Is that referring to the merchant
marine The President admits that we havo
stunted, almost deliberately, our ocean ship
ping by Intolerably stupid legislation. He
does not, as a result, urge the repeal of
absurd laws or the reconstruction of our ma
rlno code along feasible .and modern lines.
Instead, ho passes that over as involving too
much difficulty, and suggests as a solution
Government-ownership of carriers, to be
operated at a loss. He concludes, most
optimistically, that "when the carriage has
become sufficiently profitable to attract and
engage private capital, and engage It In
abundance, the Government ought to with
draw." The Government, once In such busi
ness, would, never withdraw. A richer car
riage than any other can possibly become,
that between Europe and America, vast
though Its bulk, has been lost to tho United
States under crude and oppressive laws, so
how possibly, with the same laws still In
effect, can the maimed Industry be revived?
The message has little new in It and little
of permanent constructive value. It breathes
the President's passionate Idealism and his,
steadfast confidence In his policies, Tet
measured by the crisis In which the world
writhes 15 falls to Interpret or voice the
mighty purposes which, for the first time In
our history, are stirring the nation from
centre to circumference
The Cdstella plan Is not a program; It's a
"France has learned, In the darkneja,' to
call upon God." Nations are nptery differ
ent from Individuals.
It seems that an Institution for the cure
and sustenance of old and Innrm baseball
Plays, ha.bu stabllshed.
uiin i 1 1. I .hi
Tpffe jQrgafljaatlen may always be depended
on o IWjtW poor at election time. After
election, ifapisthM- matter entirely.
Nobody eaH iWPUgn the bravery of Britain
how that sjfea has ordered three and a half
mlllloa dolUW "wh of Georgia mutes.
It la not snrsHtiwr tfe many Ooagra
tum should bf SB44d to preparedness, for
Ulre redness nac beea their, own chief
A good many FhJIaddJehians are worrying
tMBseivM over the problem of writing "sim
ple dedicMUwry bieeripiiMM" in Cbrietmas
books which faaU not fractam it ptt
maeier'e rule afftbuej their kefec "of a per
sonal nature.'"
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Our Democratic Ideal to Be Realized
Only Through n Socialized Patriot
ism Aggregate Efficiency the Result
of Gregarious Idealism.
THIS wonderful Kultur of whlch wo havo
heard so much, can there bo nothing like
It In Amerlca7 Kultur wo cannot have, for
that Is a Gorman product and possession;
but Is n modified counterpart Impossible In
this country some Informing purpose and
guiding principle that shall direct nnd
actualize tho Idealism of our peoplo as a
Tho aim of Kultur is efficiency, not of
Individuals but of the nation, and more than
that Kultur Itself may be defined as organ
ized efficiency. It Isboth a process and a
condition, Sparta had o"klnd of Kultur, very
different from Athenian culture. Likewise,
the Kultur of tho Germanic nation 1b not
the Dlldung of accomplished Germans. One
produces nnd Is what wo havo como to
designate ns "German efficiency," the results
of which aro seen In civil nnd military
administration, industry, commerco nnd
finance nnd In tho achievements of scholarly
Investigation nnd research; tho other gives
us tho philosophy of Kant and Hegel and
the pure literature of Schlllor and Goethe.
If tho two aro not quite soparable, neither
Is thore any necessity or any possibility of
drawing a. dividing lino between tho Ameri
can Kultur of efficiency and tho culture of
"sweotness and lfght," which shall be to all
our peoplo when our true national efficiency
has been further advanced.
America Is blessed with Idealism In
abundant measure. It Is a salient quality
which Impresses overy visiting analyst from
Europo and rcccUes both comment and ex
pression In tho books In which our own
writers seek to Interpret tho national life.
Ullss Perry is certain that tho most char
acteristic attitude of tho American mind Is
Idealism. Individualism, radicalism nnd pub
lic spirit aro other qualities, ho says, but
tho dominating- one. Including "tho Ideal pas
sions of patriotism, of liberty, of loynlty to
homo and section, of luimanltarlsm and mis
sionary effort," is Itleallsm.
Now If Idealism were only sufficient to
tako care of our great and splendid future,
wo might bo perfectly content; but we are
apt to think that this glorious future Is sim
ply going to hnppon. Young men and women
nro warned by good advisers that their
dreams will not como true unless they are
true to their dreams. OUr nation, which Is
still so young that we constantly refer to
"our experiment In democracy," has Implicit
confidence In Its destiny. Indeed, as II. G.
Wolls has remarked: "When one talks to an
American of his national purpose, ho seems
a llttlo at a loss," but "If ono speaks of his
natlonnl destiny ho responds with alacrity."
Anothor observer, Professor Mucnsterborg,
says: "Neither raco nor tradition, nor tho
actual past, binds tho American to his coun
trymen, but rather tho future wfuch together
they nro building." Wo are a forward-looking
people. What Is It thnt wo see ahead?
How clear Is that destination to "which wo
aro moving, that structure which together
we aro building? What, definitely, is It that
we are striving for? Wo call It tho realiza
tion of tho democratic Ideal, "The only
fruitful promise," to quoto Herbert Croly,
"of Which tho life of any Individual or any
nation can bo possessed Is a promise deter
mined by an Ideal?'
Constructive Idealism
Constructive Idealism, tending toward a
threefold unity of efficiency, patriotism and
democracy, 1b being manifested today In our
national Idealism. The quality of Imagina
tion Is becoming more and more effective,
helping us to glvo concrete expression to
our social spirit by Illuminating our social
aim. An American Kultur Is In the making.
At the recent meeting of qur own Academy
of Arts and Letters, Professor Herrlck, in
discussing "Tho Quality of Imagination In
American Life," eulogized the new town of
Gary and tho spirit of San Francisco after
tho earthquake. These aro oxamples of tho
creative power df Imagination and sugges
tions of what it will accomplish for our
national Ideal. They must be included also
among the Illustrations of the social spirit
which Increasingly dominates our ambitions.
The new Boolal legislation is an effort to
make a happlor and more efficient America.
We nro working forward to the day tho
day when poverty and misery and industrial
strife shall have ended, and not only theso
things, but whatever wastes the energies
of our aggregation of Individuals and inter
feres with a truly good living for all.' Wo
are learning that thus we aro achieving
national efficiency and In tho national Ideal;
In a word, democracy.
Eliminating Controversy
Old antagonisms are disappearing. In tho
annual report of the United States Commls-'
slon on Industrial Relations there Is fresh
evldenco that capital and labor are approach
ing, surely though slowly, a common point
of view. Several hundred witnesses, repre
senting bpth employers and employes, have
appeared before the commission and dis
cussed the causes of Industrial unrest, The
number and nature of tho points of entire
agreement are significant. Much of the
trouole, al( ot tlie witnesses alleged, is due
to misunderstanding, This is not a new
explanation, by any means, but It shows a
desire on both sides that, for mutual Interest
and welfare, misunderstanding and prejudice
should ba removed.
Instances showing the decline ot contro
versy and the growth of the get-together
spirit might be multiplied. The following
declaration by the chairman of the' Ignited
States Steel Corporation sounds almost like
a commonplace. "Th elimination o waste
fi?l stjlfe in Industry and commerce Is funda
mental to efficiency. The real problem of
employer and eniploye is, to find the one
course ot rlley and action that saoflflftM
neither fee i'- othr, but that hoW mutual
advantage f here la always goe Mitk wurfe,
a4 our aim should be to nnd Iti Mr. Clary
gap oa; "Ultimately, elticUnyhg baud oa
a philosophy of life which centners flrst the
claims. rm&P ad riU ' tbejjther- fcltew,"
If industrial Bifjte U the. foe of efltlny, so
is poverty the foe of elUciefiey. lHdl)duaI,
economic ft$$ social. The eterminjiteott is
growing stronger that the per ' Btust ot
have always wth us We are recognising the
relation between individual eJficieaey and
the efficiency of the aggregate. We are
iweiaUslntT the eJ&oiency idea The attitude
toward poverty and InduatrlaU strife la merely
an iliuetratkm If, to just ai ignlnt.ant and
laVaujol ttuat C&W Weil cvmury are getting
IjMW toejlo m ibm we oauJW if nteei
fgy the market jMase, MtettnMofUflHag aaat
etQyrmthM are weeta aJMe.
yttrium ui&ii efilvianftr.
tire Wf of AtineeMwtgt.
tlonal ideal to fulfillment. In America
patriotism and democracy are very nearly
synonymous. James Bussell Lowell, In ono
of his lectures, referred to thnt "enthusiasm
of loyalty for tho flag and for what tho Hag
symbolized" which kindled the nation's soul
In 1861, but ho pleaded for a "sodater kind of
patriotism," "quito ns admirably serviceable
In tho prosy days of peace " Truo patrlotUm
must fulfill the essential condition "of?lvlng
men nn Ideal outside thcmpclves, which will
awnkon In them capacities for devotion and
herohm that aro deaf even to tho penetrating
cry of self." Democracy doos not mean "I'm
as good' as you are," but "You'ro ns good as
I am." Patriotism Is ethical, democratic,
concerned with human welfare.
Social Culture
"If the tlmo ever comes when poverty Is
comparatively negligible," writes Mr. Croly
In his latest book, "Progressive Democracy,"
"tho rulo of lle-ond-holp-llve will assume a
better meaning than it has at present and
will challenge tho development of a better
quality of human 'nature.". Llfo can bo mado
"very Interesting nnd remunerative for one
another." Tho "culture" which governs this
anticipation ''Implies an indomitable social
izing will."
America Is acquiring this kind of culture,
which Is entering into our national Idealism
and becoming the motlvo power In our na
tional life. "Tho highest efficiency," says
Dr. Charles W. Ellqt, In tho Independent,
"must always be tho result of- gregarious
Idealism and humane passions."
This social culture, thU American Kultur,
which Is finally to produce a splendid na
tional etllclency, Is mado up of Idealism, imj
agination and patriotism, and its goal Is
democracy. Democracy, in tho fine concep
tion of Pasteur, enables overy rrian to put
forth his utmost effort.
When tho modern man finds a job before him'
and two or three men ready to help him, he
does not shuck off his coat and take tho Job
by the throat. Ho sends for a pad of paper, a
pencil, a cost sheet and 82 different kinds of
blanks. Then he says: "GO to. Let us or
ganize." '
And they spend the day In planning out the
work with a blue pencil and when night ar
rives they haven't touched the Job. though an
old-fashioned crew would have had it half fin
ished But the next morning, behold, they are
organized and they take that Job by the neck
and give it one swift shake and lql It Is
Organization has made the modern world
great. It is the Science of lubricating work.
A million men without a leader could not have
dug the Panama Canal at nil. But 75,000 men
finished It In eight years after Colonel doe
thals organized them.
Organization, has enabled Americans to sell
automobiles for half the European price, though
the workmen get twice the European wage.
Organization kept the German Empire as busy
during 10 years of peace as moat nations are
during war. Hut when war came the German
Emperor pushed a button and 6,000,000 men
started for France on the trot. '
Organization also enables a few- men with
overhanging foreheads and small, brow-beaten
consciences to buy a few small factories, capi
talize them for 116,000,000 and sell tho stock
to the unsuspecting public. Organization In
this case is more of a nuisance than smallpox.
A million voters may shriek In wrath and
demand revenge when they discover that the
city officials have been stealing the steam
radiators out of the City Halt. Out when It
comes to the election a few quiet, business
like men with a good organization, which In
cludes plenty of election judges, can usually
show a majority, thua enabling them to remain
In powJWlid buy more radiators to steal This
country will not advance toward perfection at
a dizzy rate until politics are thoroughly dis
organized. Qeorge Fitch.
Old Guardsmen as Warnings.
From the New York World.
The remnants ot the Old guard of stahdpatlsm
who have been elected to the Ofth Congress. Are
full of boasts and menaces, but they never
were morr deluded in their Uvea,
Limine Is reassured, but not because a few
Irreclaimable old reaqtlonarles have come to
lite. The urvivor, of Hannalsnr who are to
appear in the new Ceqgrees will not be terrors.
They will not be leaders. They will bo warn
All through the. eeuMry, is the autumn -titlntaa,
A web if gray mm f Sii.rAM - jjpi
And you may hear the s9ul of SPttlng needUj
It)gsant, 8entU, (Jlffi.
A sluy eUek f lu" Wfi4e needles,
IMttn amid the Biasthoed of war.
Whispers of woraeq, tlretece and patient.
Who weave the web afar. (
WhjAoerc of women, tiretoee ww satlent
"FooiWh. toadeejuate!" we hear ye say.
"dray woJ wi i4e of hU U out of fblon."
And yeiwe weave the ftb frea day to day.
SupMM MM Midler dying, gayly dying,
Dsdee mt kle, in his last hour
heibl MMi, lu death's presk-Wtuui ee vittd,
Adr a tfclry mhm4 bUMim like a fewer
t H ta think that e-Wieni. cayly dvt-s;
For the white Chrtet -- sWfaa with MM
a&erai &es1
Itey httr th iry &- t smen'i aetft-e
Sero WsSH NJ1(.
Peculiarities Revealed in the Mcssacc Delivered
to Congress Today.
THU President's Kngllsh has been com
mended as a model for less distinguished
citizens to follow. Ho Is noted for his flow
ing diction. Ills simplicity and his npt usa
of words, a largo number of them of Anglo
Saxon descent. This simplicity, perhaps, is
gained by tho employment of an unusually
largo numbor of monosyllables.
In the first paragraph of the message de
livered today thoro nro 100 words, of which
but 2i contain moro than ono syllable and,
but soven contnln mora than two syllables,
and ono of them. Is a compound word. An
Illustration of this maximum use of mono
syllables Is found, In tho last part of tho Inst
sentence of the paragraph: "Hut no doubt
wo stand too near tho work that has been
done and aro ourselves too much part of It
to play the part of historians towurd It."
There are 16 monosyllables, a two-syllnblo
word, 10 monosyllables, two longer worda
nnd, finally, a monosyllable again. Of tho
29 words, all but three aro of ono syllable.
It will bo noted, too, that tho President
never renders his thought lntricato by en
deavoring to avoid repetition. Referring
again to tho first paragraph in tho massage,
wo And "too much part of It to play the
part," and again, in the second paragraph,
"wo faco new tasks, havo been facing them
for six months, must face them in the
months to come faco them without partisan
feeling." Mr. Wilson does not apply an
olght-hour law to. words; ho makes them
work, and they must do their work over
and over again if necessary.
Tho President, it will bo noticed, says, "To
speak plainly, we have grossly erred," not
"To plainly speak, we 'have orred grossly,"
which, while Just as neatly balanced, would
nevertheless contain a split Infinitive. The
porfect tense admits of greater freedom In
the use of tho adverb. Yet Mr. Wilson Is
not opposed to waste In words when nec
essary to mellow tho euphony. "Wo havo
year after year debated" again the modi
fier between the auxiliary and the verb In
Its perfect form "without end or conclu
sion." "Without ertd" would bo sufficient,
of course, to round out the Idea, and, so far
as sense goes, "or conclusion" 1b unnec
essary, Tho President's use of "not only" Is" very
pocullar, as In the sentence, "War has Inter
rupted the means of trade not only, but also
tho processes of production." This bring
ing of "not only" and "but also" Into the
closest possible proximity Ts unusual, al
though not without precedent. And such
play op the order of words Is perfectly ex
cusablo in oratory.
At one place In his address the President
says, '"To have begun such measures and
not completed them would Indeed mar the
record of this great Congress very seriously."
It may be doubted In this case If tha se
quence of tenses Is correct. "To havo begun
such measures and not to complete them
would Indeed mar" would be far better, for
tho text shows that the measures have been
begun, while tho completion of them, viewed
as a future, hef, will mar or not mar to
record, ap the case may bo. In any event, a
nlco distinction In tha use of tenses was
missed. i
But (or students who revel in history and
the use. of words', tha most significant pas
sage In the message Is "a coast line greater
than that of the United States ernielve"
Controversy more than halt a oefitury ptjo.
rogej ovetf no lees a question than "this
United Stales" 'or "these United" States."
Secessionists were fond pf quoting the plural
forpi as used by the elder statesmen and
fpqnd In the early doeuments of the nation,
the Id-s. nelng that it proved a plurality of
sovereigns, eaeh of which retained the sov
ereign right of repudiating its allegiance, to a
loose Union. Appemattdx, it lias generally
been slftftMdered. deelded In favor of "thv
and certainly for the last 60 years It bos eefi
customary to use the United fttatea as singu
lar. Terefur. the referenda by the presi
dent to tho United State "Uienwelv"
Mtsu (a b? an unaebronliiHi, aUh.W n
peeftfer; rmstanee, u eanno; he diuej
that the. of the plural ta defeflstpti '&
groiftiiB Bo jHU.
There ai few m who wiita tw hwK
punr tha tU ?tj4itt Tet Sr
feet '& f' the tagwas:e ta unknown. Net;
auqf? o CatBaWs hrefr at 8-g-Uah
ha en at our fm tjiTatt wrote
Ska'VrtioJe far maeaaf t b ?hich he pointed
out wiio WMMPOB n-4f 7M afeftyM he
anotfwC to the ricl Hs h fvttty
-- eue J-ha , wfelefe he was m
ttthaiMafcHr u.-8in etfeer w w Wte4y
Amphitheatres oi the Ancient "World
tarccr Than Our Modem Structures,
The Stadium an Institution in thl A
West No City Modoru Without Onef
rTADIUM" Is a, word coined In the olaf
O life of Greece, in the days when Athens
blossomed with boauty and Apollo was tho
Idol of tho strong. It duggeatfl the fleet
footed runner and the vast amphitheatre lr?
which tho races took place. Since then the,
word and Its athletic atmosphere have
crossed mountains and seas to Europo and.
tho United Btates. Tho baseball park of tha
big cities' gives some hint ot that outdoor
life on a largo scale which is remembefed
by tho broken walls of ancient playgrounds.'
called the Circus, theatre, coliseum or sta
dium. Tho return to tho outdoor gymnasium o
tho ancients marks a distinct epoch In the
history of modern athletics. Tho Indoor
gymnasium has Its place, but the rootles
stadium promises to rcprodueo In the near
futuro some of the spectacular foattircs whch
marked tho physical performances of Home
and Athens. Tho hlppodromo of our large
cities' is an approach to tho fashionable
loungo nnd rendezvous of gallantry which
distinguished the people's playground of old.
The American circus housed In a plain canvas;
tent Is a practical reproduction of the Roman
circus, whllo a contest In baseball or college
football suggests the moro serious, It less
bloody, combats within tho walls of the.
Coliseum. Ben Hur and hla horses are com
ing to their own. Tho runner revels In the
sweet air of the open world. Tho Spanish
toreador wants room. The man at the bat
likes to knock the ball over tho fehco.
Space Is Involved In our very democracy.
Ideas aro big and brOad and ample. Preah
nir is a part ot our culture Inbreathed by
tho lungs of modornlsm. Thp roof over our
heads Is a boundary line which Insults tho
sonso of freedom. Tho modern man looks
townrd tho stars. Out of this sonse of tho
large nnd unlimited as woll as from tho ex
amples of our fathers wo havo begun to build
huge playgrounds for tho millions and
entered upon what may be called the era of
tho stadium. v
The Circus Maximus
Tho Circus Maximus had a seating capacity ,
of 350,000, the Dowl In New Haven will scat
70,000. We are still behind tho ancUnts at
tho box ofllce. Tho beautiful Greek Theatre
In Berkeley, Cal., has a seating capacity of
10,000, and an ordinary conversational tono
mny be distinctly heard anywboro In that
perfect structure. It Is nn exact reproduc
tion of tho Greek, Theatre In Athons, Bpl
dauros, and Is used for oratory, music and
drama. Tho Bohemian Club, of San Fran
cisco, famous for Its "JInkB" and co!cbrated
tho world over for Its literary nnd musical'
gifts, meets annually In a grove of redwoods
which form omatural amphitheatre, affording
peculiar facilities for dramatic and musical
expression. In this temple they meet and In.
a mystical, Druldic fashion ninko their offer-.,
lngs of fellowship In an atmosphere of sylvan
splendor. These "Jinks' would loso something
of their freedom and spontaneous good-will
If held within four walls.
The stadium Indicates a return to nature,
where "Twelfth Night" may be ns much at
home as a horse race.
Stadiums in Europe
Berlin has built a stadium where the Olym
pic games of 1016 may or may not be held
Berlln's Interest In another and greater com
test may make the Olympic meet Impossible.
It has 16,232 seats and 2208 boxes; whllo not
architecturally Impressive, It IS entirely ade
quate for the uso Intended. It took six"
years to build this playground and a quarter1
million mnrks to pay for It.
Mention might be mado of other European
playgrounds, notably that of Stockholm, but
the high school at Tacoma, Waah., deserves
special mention, slnco It Is the only high,
school in thoVworld that has a real stadium
of Its own. It will seat 35,000 and Is a work
of art. Not only Is It a social and physical
asset of the Tacoma school, but It contributes
to the higher life of the State of Washington"
and the Northwest. In fact, tho city that
has ,no stadium in these days may be set
down as Just a little behind the times. Tho
ruins of Pompeii and Rome and other cities
Which look across the years through the
broken glasses of tho Past rebuke such cities
for neglecting an opportunity to give tlie
masses a place to play,
Pageants at Expositions a
The expositions, for the most Dart, havo,
gj-ven on impetus to tho stadium, as for ex
ample, St. LouIb and San Francisco. San
Francisco has sunk an enormous bowl In le
Golden Gate Park, It Is oval in shapo, slopes
back like tho lips of a great deep dish, una
la capable of accommodating thousands. Hera
will bo held many of the athletic contests
during the exhibition. The athletes of the
world will meet In San Francisco during tlje
exposition and tho program of big events
issued by the department ot athletics promise
contests of world-wide Interest.
Colonel C-oethals gives permission for the)
men who helped build the canal to have
a part in the great event that Is to c!?l.
brate the canal's 'completion. The list ot &
events ranges from basketball champlopshj.p2
to International polo contests. Hero wm
bo held some of the more spectacular evenw
of the exposition, such as pageants, reviews
and paraded. ,
This, then, is the purpose ot the stadium
to Idolize tho spestapular Interests of the.
otty-arid afford a place for the people to see
thing, from a olrous to a military rvlw.
Its yaltie to any city need not be argued.
Philadelphia has unusual demands for j
stadjurn. it is a olty of pageant and
parade and reviews and outdoor amuse
ments. It should have a, publlo playground
in the Park, where the people could gather
in oemfort and enjoy the spectacular (side)
of life. Buoh a stadium Is a social demand
in every great city In tjba world. It la. de
mailed in the interest of morality, healthy
happiness hnd progress,
The amphitheatre on a large scale AM ,
dignity nd baanty to the rhltatur.e qj
tiw Kty, and, If properly naaaagad. grow V
be ha geney of pbytiea.1 and mesial avft
U you look over the ottie of the asunW!
with apodal attention to the West it WW
he seen that tha stadium to la oae fero oej
another already m uh at Oft 4risv U
attrition ac It wji Mt yts a4 snow MJ
ia the fcittas T tha Meutrjea.
asw evtyry flettfc will v te "Cvwl?
act ever Uty win h'. c us etadMttu.