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EVENING LEDGER-PHILADELPHIA, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15, 19U.
WHY ENGLAND MAY
FEAR NEAR RAID OF
British General Shows That
Air Invasion of London is
possible Sees No Good
Means of Defense.
The jiorll of London from a possible
lombarrtmoMt by Koppellns Is ttio subject
0f Uir Irndlim urtlclo that appears In
the July Issue of The Vtoiirnul of tlio
Uoyat t'nltPit Service Institution of Gloat
Britain, the orRatilzntlon of the aftlcers
of the British army and navy, tn the
trlli'lo a general ofllccr points out the
dntigr" (hat may hover over London
In a tlinn of war, dangers that lie friinUly
ndinlts nic porluit In t'XU'tit and which
inlsl't dllllciilt to oppose In the event
of an airship Invasion of Knglnnd.
hi a wireless dispatch from Merlin It
Yas asecitid Hint Germany was consider
In InvailliiB KtiBland with a licet of now
Efnpelhis. Thus tlio article In The Jttirlin'
the ltuMit I'nlted Service Institution
l. of timely Interest. It begins with a
B r . . .1.. I.-....- Hint II.I..I.I l,
wrouKht on navy yards, arsenals, oil
...rir and wireless stutluns by pro-
i-ctp dropped from Zeppelins anil aero
rilanf", and then goes on to recite tlio
dangers of an air attack on the great
centres or population. On this latter point
hiost of tlio space Is devoted to London.
"Of these London Is for us." the British
ecncral states, "the prlmu objeet of eon
iteration. Destruction and panic In the
largest provincial towns could cause troii
tie but need not affect our national
oolicy. London in this respect stands
nlonc that Is, It Is not only the habitat
of a large fraction of our population,
but also tlio Beat of Government, the
centre of our financial and business sys
tems and the nerve centre of our military
and naval forces. A serious blow aimed
Bjralnst London would be more effective
Bgalnst the national llfo than In any other
capital in the world.
FACING A NEW ERA.
"We are now beyond doubt face to
loco with a new era in war. If you have
granted my assumption with regard to
the ran?e of action and offensive power
of nlicrnft of the immediate, future
those assumptions would hold good for
eno object as well as another. How is
London affected by (hem? General
Delacroix in an article hi the Daily Jlall
ef September 11, 1.113, wroto:
'Even ailiiilltlng mat a xoppcun
were to pas over tne ISngllsli country
ldo it Is not easy to hoc what result
would be effected, for oven in time of
trar It would not bo permissible to drop
explosives Into unfortillcu towns.
"I have no wIbIi to bo an alarmist or
Jo make one's llesh creep, but I am not
prepared to accept this dictum even
from so eminent an authority. Tho idoa
et not bombarding unfortified towns had
Us orlshi many jears ago In tho time
of perpetual war In Europe, and like
most of the rather ai uncial conventions
of that time rested on mutual conveni
ence. An unfortified town in those claya
ttas not of much Importance ono way
cr tho other. It was not expected to
offer resistance. If it wus spared bom
bardment tho enemy In return expected
to occupy It without any trouble and
tako full advantago of ltn conveniences
for billeting, supplies, etc.
"If a (SinevH convention were now
Blttlnsr, and tho point were to be raised
that a capital which Is easily accessible
to tho enemy may claim exemption from
attack on the ground that It Is unforti
fied, would not tho answer ho 'Yen, pro
vided that It Ih meoarcd to submit and
not offer armed leslstance to tho enemy's
armed forces'? And whether tho armed
forces take the form of troops ready to
advance or of the power to destroy re
sistance b attack from the air, tlio
principle is tho same.
"After all. wir is a game that Gov
ernments play to win, and wo could
hardly exptft the most chivalrous enemy
jo retrain rrom KtrlKing a blow at tho
heart of the country merely because wc
have chosen to luavo that heart unpio
tected. "'nn ji'iy student of international law
t'll us definitelv that such a thing us
an ner:..i utu-k op London Is outside
tn rules r war, ,i further that Micro
"'ls "i authority by which these
rules can i. enforced? How, if many
or the citizens are territorial!!, and some
or th.' buildings contain warlike stores?
Jra fliKln or a. inplniies passed over the
Jl'y. each dnv.plng n dozen Incendiary
womb i different places, would not the
lSUlt I in mute tli.in tlm Hi- i,rim,.i,.
Mula .....e nlth? ....a
f'jr'I.D (Wt'SK HAVOC.
n'P'dui dropped a ton of nun
colion on ti, Admiralty ami tho War
OfnV, as hIic might do if not Interfered
With, unat uould be tho result In dls-
orsanUrtjIuii J1UI dlsemiriiirnmi,i' ivu,t
would lv ti.o efffct of cutting off tho
Water 'mh nf ti, w-.,. !.... .,.
... - ... ,,. 4.iiu, ur muu
d shins In tho Thames? Thesu
In.iedlble to us who hnvn
iwii .,. on thp fronter3i T ftln
K" the length of my own
n is conceded that
I '..,... .... - is K- '
hftedftgM - ; , '. . . m
HJtJli. W?rWi t (HI
m 'mmWSMWm mSi mKBSmBmkm Mil
DANZIG, THE CITY OF HOMES, THREATENED BY RUSSIANS
This city, one of the most beautiful in Germany, is now reported to be invested by a Russian army. The photo
graph shows one of the quiet streets, the Fradengasse, with the Maria Church in the background.
the defense of objectives or small area,
such as batteries and stores, against
aerial attack Is easy, though It will cost
some monny. Tho defense of those largo
areas, especially tho capital, cannot bo
relied on except by active offensive opera
tions. "As regards London, some will say that
such forms of attack as I have Indicated
would ho Ineffective in any case, and
they would point out the bombardment
of Paris in 1S70. I have always until re
cently taken that point of view. I have
always held that bombardment, however
severe, was no Justlllcatlon for 11 fortified
place, but the evolution of missiles of
war have gone a lon( way since 1S70, and
In tho case of London hostile action
against It would not have direct effect
on our operations of war.
"Another school will taku mo to task
for accepting such possibilities as use of
incendiary projectiles against an unforti
fied town. I may bo quite wrong. If I
wcro responsible for the safety uf this
town I would say that tho safeguard Is
one cannot too often repeat It offensive
"When we consider Mr; effnotlvo pow
ers of tho dirlglblo balloon together with
the difllculty of warding off Its attack,
we must allow that there have been few
more potent Instruments of destruction
known to history. On the other hand, of
all the weapons ever devised by man this
Is by far tho most fragile and most vul
nerable. I believe that, whatever tho fu
ture of the dlrflglble may be for all the
uses of poace. In a few years no
ono will think of employing it for war.
Hut for the moment it must be provided
IN SOUTH AMERICA
SOUGHT BY THE U.S.
Expert, Back From Tour,
Says Success of Germans
Is Due to Promotion of
Better Understanding With
J.onaon is wn
VII, ,,. !. ......
a liostl'., ? ,. ' "ko ui aeiion ot
'.".opiaties "'h act nn will u-. ...
hurflen i,,' ''Mthln3' WouW rulr
tail say? "Wilt ta sl,ch ac""? Who
Jiot'an.l T"'Pd ',rol9 that Mich a
M Si.f-"or "i"" UoV"rl'"'e"t to accept
i.Wb e "?'. ' U. porlmp,.
mm n. ,,, . . ' .'. "" I0SS object tho
"oiiui not bo Incurred.
f HjUfHH. Illll ,,,inutlr.n n
ATTACK GRADE CROSSINGS
Lower Delaware Citizens Begin Agi
tation Following Barnard Death.
DOVER, Del.. Sept. 15. Elimination
of grade crossings In towns In lower
Delaware Is being agitated today as the
result of tho accident In Wyoming lato
yesterday afternoon in which former
Stato Senator Tieinscn C. unwrarii, a
wealthy i-anner, was killed when an ox
pross truin crabbed into an automobile
ho was driving.
Kloven persons have been killed In flva
years at the crosnlng where Senator Bar
nard mot death.
Friends of Senator Barnard thlB morn
ing, us Coroner Willis Impaneled a Jury
for tho inquest, declared they would
seek to have a bill Introduced into the
General Assembly next winter to com
pel the Delaware Ballroad to eliminate
Development of prmanent and exten
sive commercial lelatlons with tho South
American countries must have for Its
basis a closer mutual understanding of
intellectual and cultural conditions, ac
cording to II. Krwln Bard, tho dhector
of the Pnn-Arnerlcun Division of tho
American Association for International
Conciliation. Mr. Bard recently returned
on the Calamares fiom an extensive visit
to the educational centres of South
America, which was made under his
leadership by a repiescntatlvo body of
Tito l'an-Ainerican Division was cre
ated by tho American Association for In
ternational Conciliation last Jnnuary,"
said Mr. Bard, "and this trip Is the first
movo toward establishing closer rela
tions with our South American neigh
bors. We Americans aro prono to over
look the necessity of a mutual cultural
ana intellectual tiimerstuiidlug between
countries which wish to dovelop extensive
and pormanent commeiclal lelatlons.
"From before tho creation of this na
tion as an Independent political and com
mercial agent, wo have been in tho
closest touch with thi cultural and In
tellectual conditions of Europe. This ap
plies especially to our mother country
and to Germany, and It Is a significant
fact that our greatest trade relations are
with those two countries. Yot it never
occurs to us Mint this close intimacy is
TO COMPETE FOR ACADEMY
tlou ' il1'0"'1"1"! "nancliil rth.
Influence , 7 0"" rlcs' ,,1Jt 'f ht
W "t TlaPrliyun to Invent tho
PU "tallmi"; ,,ie,'M"! '" "rat
1-iMlon i, lh '".? ""-omit the size of
- '-itiiis innr -. i...i a t
Patrol ,i,ii . "" "'O'li 01 aenai
ilrlsib;,, I, , I"','Vs"t an attack by a
Om ro- " A 'WbeiuU. attempt
J"P3 be ur v S',V,.n ,,u"'"'b' -lght pe-
mn w i rf . .i j 4iiimii o
timi h" n.na 8" ten '" 1,a,"e-
...'. ' '" uiavjae.
He. but T, ,.LTH ' "ndoi, Is posst.
i,.. . . '"moum nor ru
I. ., : . U.P,"M ..epmlnir by day might
for TJJlrtV: br our ow pa"-"'8-
thitZn ..'.'h1 ' u,tat. I should think
"ould be ,. r. ovcr ndon In the dai U
tondinn, ","strau risk In present
fc' Patrol,, "ul ,l,lllk a"y systeiu
mi. ,JL VTlely l"'V,-nt aircraft
hn the t. ,i "' nml ,,1"8 '""ntagu
tuh aJ, ''"'r'll to muko It at least dlltl-
! m7h:""'"A'0.'-." enemy's aircraft
Mw;;b.,;r io to t.k. a
NEED AUMBU AKUOPLASBS.
' DO ni.axii.o., ... . . .
Itoter. v actual uorenee can
n?J? CaPlti" w,tI' wlntr from a
Examination Will Determine An
nnjiolis Appointments From N, J,
TItEN'TON, Sept. 15.-A competitive
examination for all youth of tho Stato
will ho held at tho Batton High School,
Elizabeth, next Saturday, beginning; at
9 o'clock In tho morning-
Tho test will ho for the purpose of
allowing United States Senator Martins
to nmkn two selections for principals
and alternates for Appointments to the
Annapolis Naval Academy from New
Jersey. Senator Martina made this an
OPPOSES FREIGHT TAX
I fojnrt "" l"en tho ivmcdy must
f? th iwrifSir A.r"11 """I"'"?'
'vnnx-A ti i..'f"r..FrovWeU lutneieit
r'nta. " ' ll"'" 'i'lan-y cut of
1 - Ht,-
iari iV. v k
Chamber of Commerce Committee
Muke3 Vigorous Protest,
A vigorous prottst OBalnst the Impo
sition of the 3 per cent, war tax on
freiuht bills now beliiK considered by
Congress, has been made by tho h"relglit
Committee of the Philadelphia. Chamber
of Commeice, of which Coleman Kellers,
Jr., is t-hulimuit. A telegram cudioilylnjf
tho committee's protest lias been sent
to President WUun.
A wldo tunge uf subjects was dUcussed
by the commltlee at Its llret metittnv
since the summer recess. Opposition to
liovi-imueut ownership of vtssela was
made, while the proposed assistance to
any stt.unslup line to ply between the
I iMtol Statts and South America wns
TI'Q vommitt'e has demanded a per
j-o ti l-enriiur J"fure Cotu?v-s ti v'Q
the basis for our commerce
SHOULD STUDT CUABACTERISTICS.
"Hence, In our attempts to dovelop our
trado with South America wo have been
indifferent to the need of learning the
characteristics peculiar to South Ameri
can llfo apd culture. Although the coun
tries there have long been on Intimate
lelatlons with Europe, thore has bee
but small importunity for cioss-currcnts
to be established between them and us.
This is because tho interests of South
Auieiica in Europe have uatuially cen
tred In the southern, or Latin, countries,
whllo wo have developed more Intimate
connections with tho English and Teu
"Tho commercial successes of Germany
Jn South America hnvo been duo to the
Xact that their merchants have recosnlzeil
this prlnciplo of esublUhliiK cultural re
lations at the same time that they aro
developing tho commercial sld-. The Ger
mans who rune settled douii in South
America as representatives of firms in
their fatherland, or who have thenuelves
established businesses there, are all well
educated and cultured men. They havu
taken the trouble to learn the languaga
of tho country and to understand m
social and cultural standards. Otherwise
they have not been successful and havo
been forced out. One of Hie main leasons
why the Germans havo been quicker than
we to apprtciute tlio value of knowing
the country Is that tho educational sys
tem hi Germany lays so much more em
phasis on Instruction in tlio modern
foielgn languages as part of the neces
sary training for a business man.
WANTS STUDENTS TO COME IlEHE.
"Hut wo cannot expect that the Intro
duction of courses In Spanish and Portu
guese into our commercial schools will be
a. panacea, we nea tni continual inter
change of ideas between the biggest men
In our country and those In the nations
south of us. In the piut. the generul
trend has been for students to go from
tne uig universities or Argentina, Chili,
tied ra forth, to rails, Madrid and Ber-
! l(n.r postgraduate work. Tet thi aro
auTaPprclabM puruber who find their
we would only go half-way. At the
saino tlino, I wish to emphasize the bene
fltn which many of our students could get
from a year or two of study in South
"It Is more than a question ot tho In
terchange of students, however. What
we also need is an Interchange of the
leading men. Tho mero fact that a man
llko Colonel Boosevoli wished to visit
these countries of South America was a
big step in the making of better relations.
Aa far as I could learn, ho also mado an
excellent impression. It Is tho same way
with the visits which Robert Bacon and
Secretary Boot have paid to South
America In tho past few years. I heard
references to theso trips constantly.
Between the present war and the at
tractions of tho San Francisco Exposi
tion, there will undoubtedly be a great
number of South Americans who will
visit this country In the next ycur. Ar
gentina Is spending a si eat deal of
money and care on her representation at
San Francisco. She Is also contemplating
the creation of several national com
missions, which will come to tho United
States to study various fields of activity.
a .uiiuMic ivrcrmoer i.iiiu will send a
commission to study our trudo schools,
and rnncredo Pinochet Le-Brun, director
of Uio National Trade School of Santiago
and one of the biggest educators in Chill,
.mi." nt tno llPUl' of lho commission.
The South Amerle.inM oho Hi,,c ,.n,i..
o their share In tho establishment of
moro Intimate leintlons with us Tt Is
our duty, as well as to our Interests, to
respond. If only tho firms which already
have trade connections In South America
and those who aro about to establish
"-I" "iiiu moose ns tlirlr represent
atives inen of experience and culture who
Know the language of the countries and
understand their customs, not only win
tlio trade of these particular firms be
Kie.itly benefited, but a long step for
ward will bo mado in the realization of
tho position which tho I'nlted Stutes
should naturally hold In the eteem as
,Vitn8,i markets of South Am-rica.
ni7. V i """" ""e s'ps snouid be
. V ,, """'m a Dciter knowledge to
our children of their neighbors on the
south. I wish all could see tho State
School of Modern T.nnm,n,.. i.. t.. "".
Aires. There they teach history In Eng
lish, ailtlimotic in French, and so on.
Whero technical lerniu
taught In a fore an laiiniiace. ,.
V .--U-. ... , .Q-
s It, tho pupils are Sood linguists with
out having devoted addltloiml time to
o?fls!fa;!i;h.an" U"s is -rti-'ir,0?.
BLUNDERS MADE HERE.
"Of course, tlite is all going to take
time, for our Ignorance and mlslnforma
tlon of South America are almost Incon
celvnble. Take, for Instance, the matter
of languages. Few Americans know that
outside of Brassll. whero the official an.
guage H Portuguese, the official language
of all the South American countries Is
Spanish. Tho Spanish Is am ,. .- ....-
Ill.. - . .. .7 ."". 'u mo
TO FRENCH AIRSHIPS
Zeppelins Not Armed for
Fear of Gas Explosions
and at Mercy of High
The story of tho ramming of a Ger
man Zeppelin airship by tho famous
Fiench aviator, Roland Onrroe, probably
oros from tho Idea that it Zeppelin can
not be attacked III any other way, owing
to its being defended rrom assault from
above, by a rapld-flrlng gun mounted on
the gas bap.
In order to make sure of his aim, n
bomb thrower In an aeroplane would havo
to approach within 100 fret above tho
Zeppelin, where he would be within easy
range of the gun supposed to be moiinlfd
on the balloon.
As a matter of faet, however, only
Ihree or four of the very Intert ZcplHIns
equipped Willi tlies" sun platforms
and, furthermore, It Is learned on good
authority that none of them Is mounted
with gune, for It Is now known that If
thero were a leak in any of the chambers
of tho gas bag near tho middle portion
of tho dirigible, the escaping hydrogen
would find IUj way out near lho gun
platform and would bo most certain to
explode when the gun was discharged.
It Is now believed that the explosion
several months ago or the new Zeppelin
at Johannlsthul, near Berlin, when the
entire crew was killed, was caused by
the gun on top firing blank cartridges
as an experiment.
It Is, therefore, comparatively a simple
matter, In tho absence of a gun, for an
aviator to approach quite close to a Zep
pelin from above, for tho crew In tho
cars below the gas bag, cannot hit tho
aeroplane so long ns the pilot keeps tho
envelope between himself and the cara
of the Zeppelin. The knowledge of this
fact probably accounts for the absence
of reports of German airships flying over
France, while the German balloons have
been seen much over Belgium. Franco
has a huge corps of expert avlatoie and
aeroplanes of the highest efficiency,
whllo the Belgian aviation corps is so
small that It hardly counts.
While Germany has been the especial
sponsor of the dirigible for military pur
poses, that country ha-n not overlooked
the aeroplane. While France has popu
hilly beep supposed tn U:ti In war aero
planes, Urrinntiy has a. many sis 1300
of these machines, and perhaps Ihe lure.
! the world,
These 1"30 maelilnes are all romparit
' tively new and with all the latest Im
provenvnts. With one motor firm puttln
nut MO oeto engines a month for the n
six months, one may safely put tho ontli
German output at 830 a month. With an
aeroplane for each of these snnlnes, Ger
man military aviation activity breaks all
The number of pilots to fly these ma
chines ls greater than the aviation corps
of any other nation because of Qermany'a
policy of encouraging1 civilian fiylnic
schools. Under this system each aero
plano firm of any Importance had a cer
tain number of soldiers, mostly officer,
but some privates and non-commissioned
olilccrs allotted to Its school to bo trained
by the Ann's own pllote.
The training of these military flyers was
paid at a. rate that enabled the com
panies to use the best machines and pay
high wages to their pilots. The firms
could nfford to provide comfortable quar
ters for their pupils anil In other ways
to do things on a scale which docs not
5lst in any other country.
In order to stimulate progress In avia
tion, military aviators were encouraged
to enter the big flying competitions, and
various Government departments gav
handsome prize.?. For this reason thero
were .10 starters In tho Prince Henry com
petition tide year, while the big London-to-Manehester
air race in llngland about
the lame time brought out only six
It Is now practically eertatn that the
German and Austrian air si-outs together
outnumber nil the French, Russian, Brit
ish, Hclglan, Servian and Dutch aviators,
.-d that In the aerial end of the war Ger
inuny l.i far ahead of her enemies.
of Kn2.r OuVcI.nc'opu'o,', VVo
American geoswphy ., equally at fault
L''e. BPP" ?"'? of. ""era fro,,, our
mi vu iiipms in Argentina
shown nc n ,i .
iliuI ... ,i, ,i ."."'" uiaianees
,. " '" "i me cities, I think
It n vvnmu, i.n, . a ' mum
""" ,,ui int onus can
! ii une noivn more.
naturally, what arouses
t-at eg'tcst the t'layt"n Ltnrorv'.itlve to i wa , to c-ir cd'-sei, and I feel sure that
v- W iweuci' oatracU. 'Uus uuinbr eta b greutly increased If
tfc - .
ment of the South Americans m ,?,.'
anything else is tho cheerful way In which
wo lump the cltUens of the various coin
tries under the term South Americans
and dlsmlse them as being all the ame
In real ty. each country ! trying to , 1.1
velop Its own national char"ter?stlM
more and more, without, of course
WrkWI!E? U,e'r ln,e"al relations ''
lor this reason I think that the work
in, .ie ra-Amorican Division in leadi
U,l !!? S'a;,l"W8,rt better understand
ing of South America camiot be oer
estlmatej. This trip fitmi which I hava
just returned luis been most encouracinK
It was organited to repreaent the Atuer
ican universities, and there were such
men aa Tiof. Leon C. Marshal T-u.
cago: Prof. Chester Lloyd Jonea. of wis
cpi.sln. and Prof. F. B. Luqulans. of Yale.
Y e left here on May 80. and visited all
the big educational institutions of Bru'.ll
Pruguay, Argentina Chili and Peru
jimwucrs we were lei-elred most cor
dially and were shown a keen apprecia.
. - ot ur effort to bring the countries
pr Houth Amerlea to more Int'mate re
lators with ovs () c-?u?tr:r, l-'e'! tu
al'v. i"UUcalli- and eo'"nierc!aUr," "
Amuniiuiinices for Tmirrw
The first great Aiolmniiiini sale of hosiery and yoderwear-
many thousand pair of hos. and pieces of underwear
io both Fall and medium weights at prices
averagiog one-third less than usual.
(East Aisle and Subway Floor)
A special collection of young women's Autumn suits and
new afternoon dresses to sell at $13.7.5 each.
(Second Floor, Ckestmtt)
A showing of new imported broadcloths to be used for
coat suits. These are in 125 different shades; a
collection not likely to he duplicated or equaled,
(First Floor, Chestnut)
First shomns $ mraeira's mew tweed h&is aod caps from Lincoln
(Main Floor, Market)
Last showissg Pf the CaSJot gown copies in the Little Qssiy Salons
et II and 2.30
(First Floor, Central)
First sticsvaiiir of tho new Perisienne corsets fr Fa82. T&ese
eouforiTi to tlhe new fesifoloj; lajieg.
(Third Floor, Chestnut)
cfiing "P of the new marffibaq and ostrich fcoss. Tnege pretty
tilings include many charming novelties tjjt
every woman will want to see.
(Main Floor, Central)
3.7 and $9.
of a hundred new bed cjujits $$
New ManScets in the same plage,
(Fifth Floor, Market)
S!i9Wing Of complete assortment of finest new Englisli suitings
s far gentlemen's wear, in the London Tailoring Sftom " " '
(Subway Gallery, Chestnut) " "
pealug5 up the new Autumn silks in the Lower prJge iore.
A !&rg and varied assortment, including many " "
silks arranged m dress lengths "
at Sow prices.
(Subway Floor, Chestnut)
, JOHM WANAMAKgR
I Store Opens 8.30 A. M. WANAMAKER'S Store Closes 5.30 P. M. MJ
I Grand Organ Recitals 9, 11 and 5.15 $110
" 1 -limJfm
' ' lH
. i.t ia
j. ,, ,ja