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Volume XVI Ne. 149.
PUBLISHED ZTXRT XVEYIITO,
BY STEINMAN & HENSEL,
Intelligencer Building, Southwest Cerner of
The Daily Istellieekcer is furnished te
subscriber in the City of Lancaster and sur
rounding towns, accessible by ISailread and
Iially Stage Lines at Tex Cets 1'er Week,
payable te the Carriers, weekly. By Mail, $5 a
year in advance : otherwise, fi.
Kntered at the pest efliceat Lancaster, Ia., as
second class mail matter.
a-The STEAM JOB I'KINTIXG DEI'AKT
M EXT of this establishment possesses unsur
passed facilities for the execution of all kinds
of I'luin and Fancv l'rintinsr.
Wholesale and Ketail Dealer in all kinds of
LUMBER AXD COAL.
4SYunI : Xe. 420 Xerth Water and Prince
streets, above Lemen, Lancaster. nS-lyu
Ceal of the West Quality put up expressly
for family use, and at the low-
c-t market prices.
TRY A SAMPLE TON.
VST VAUI ISO SOUTH WATKK ST.
iicSMyd PHILIP SCIIUM.S.OX & CO.
JUST KKCKIVEI) A FINK LOT OF KALI'D
TIMOTHY HAY, at
M. F. STEIGERWALT & SON'S,
COAL. ! FLOUR ! I GRALN ! ! !
FAMILY COAL UXDER COVER.
Minnesota Patent Precess family and Baker's
Fleur. Baled Hay and Feed of all kinds.
Wai chouse anil Yard : 234 North Water St
"C0H0 & WILEY,"
:;.W SOUTH WATER ST., Ijancaater, l'a.,
Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
LUMBER AND COAL.
Alse, Contractors and Builders.
l.xtimati-s made ami contracts undertaken
en all kinds of buildings.
Branch Office : Ne. 3 XORTH DUKE ST.
COAL! - - -"coal n
GrORRECHT & CO.,
rer Geed anil Cheap Ceal. Yard HarrKburg
l'ike. Office 20J4 East Chestnut Street.
P. W. GORRECHT, Agt.
W. A. KELLER.
eriRE TO THE PUHL1C.
G. SENER & SONS.
Will continue te sell only
QEXVINE LYKEN8 VALLEY
and WILKESBARRE GOALS
which arc the best in the market, and sell as
LOW as the LOWEST, and net only GUAR
AXTEE FULLWEIGIIT, butallew te WEIGH
OX AXY scale in geed order.
Alse Rough and Dressed Lumber, Sash
Deers, Blinds, &c.,at Lewest Market Prices.
Office and yard northeast corner Prince and
Walnut streets, Lancaster, Pa. janl-tfd
HOOKS AXV STATIOXERY.
pAl'KTEIUE AND 1MUT1IUAY UAItDS.
IN GREAT VARIETY, AT THE
HOOK AM) STATIONERY STOKE
L. M. FLYNN'S,
Ne. 42 WEST KING STKEET.
A CHOICE STOCK OF
MARCUS WARD & GO'S
Valentines and Valentine
Unsurpassed in variety of design and bea uty
FOR SALE AT BOOK STORE OF
JOffl BAER'S SOIS,
15 and 17 NORTH QDEBN STREET,
ROOTS AXIi SHOES.
17 CAT" HOOTS. SHOES AND lasts
lll..J5 J- made en a new principle, insur
ing comfort for the feet,
-I"v'"PO Iist-s made te order.
leblt-tfd 133 East King street.
IKCUMSTANCES WILL NOT VKRMIT
TO AUVKlrriSE A
REDUCTION I PRICES,
hut we will de the next thing te it, viz :
We will call the attention of our friends and
customers te the fact that we have en hand a
very Large Stock of
BOOTS AND SHOES,
purchased heterc the late ADVANCE, which
we will sell at
Strictly Old Prices.
tj3Give us a call.
43 WEST KING STREET
mtiTixa inks, jtc.
SE THE BEST.
WRITING INKS, FLUIDS
Give them a trial. Ask yenr stationer for
them and take no ether. 43-SPECIAL KATES
ter inks in bulk for Schools and Colleges.
HARRISON XANVFACTURINO CO.,
512 Broadway, New Yerk.
Please mention this paper. fcbS-lmu&w
FALL & WINTER.
We are new prepared te show the public one
of the largest stecKS of
ever exhibited in the city et Lancaster. Geed
Working Suits for men $0.00. Geed Styles
Cassimere Suits for men $7.50. Our All Weel
Men's Suits that we arc selling ler $9.00 are as
geed as you can buy elsewhere for $12.00. Our
stock of Overcoats are immense. All grades
and every variety of styles and colors, for
men, boys and youths, all our own manufac
ture. Full line of Men's, Youths' ami Beys
Suits. Full line of Men's, Youths' and Bey.-,
CUSTOM DEPARTMENT !
We are prepared te show one et the best
stocks of Piece Goods te select from and have
made te order ever shown in the city, lliey
are all arranged en tables litted up expressly
se that every piece can be examined before
making a selection. All our goods have been
purchased before the rise in woolens. Me are
pienared te make up in geed style and at short
notice and at bottom prices. We make te or
der an All Weel Suit for $12.00. By buying
your goods at
you save one profit, as we manufacture all our
own Clothing and give employment te about
one hundred hands. Call and examine our
stock and beconvincediistethe truth et which
MYERS & RATHFON,
Centre Hall, Ne. 12 East King Street.
OVERCOATS AND HEAVY SUITINGS.
tobuvei-sef Clethinir in order te make loom
for a large SPRIXG STOCK new being maim
... . . . . iT ......... i.. .tit...
iacmivti. anil we are iiucuiug iuuui,
well-made and styli-.li
Clothing for Men and Beys
than ever heard of before, although Geed-, are
going up every day. We will -ell, ter we must
Tiave the loom.
Loek at Our
Astonishingly Lew Trice
OVERCOATS! OVERCOATS: OVERCOATS!
for$2.!K), ter $3.83, for $r.3.", for $0.75.
OVERCOATS ! OVERCOATS ! OVERCOATS
ler $7.75. ler $9.75, for $10.75.
OVERCOATS ! OVERCOATS ! OVERCOATS !
for $12, $14, $10and$20.
These are heavy-lined Overcoat-, carefully
made and splendidly trimmed.
OVERCOATS! OVERCOATS! OVERCOATS
ter $7.50, for $s.50, for $9.50, for $12.
OVERCOATS ! OVERCOATS ! OVERCOATS !
for $15, for $18, for $20.
The-e are Plaid-Rack Overcoats, equal te
HEAVY, M EX'S SUITS !
ler $3.50, $4.00, $5.00, $7.00, $9.00, $10.00.
MEX'S SUITS FOR FIXE DRESS !
for $12.00, $14.00, $15.00, $1G.OO, $18.00 and $20,00.
BOYS' SUITS AXD OVERCOATS !
BOYS' SUITS lrem $2.25 te $10.00.
BOYS' OVERCOATS VERY LOW.
We sell only our own make anil guarantee
Meney returned en all goetls net leund as
SPlcasc call, whethcryen wish te purcliase
Is stocked with the latest styles, which
make te measure at the lowest cash prices ;
guarantee a perfect fit.
SUITS TO OKDEIl from $12 upwards.
PAXTS TO OKDEK from $3.50 upwards.
D. GANSMAN & BRO.,
MERCHANT TAILORS AXD CLOTHIERS,
6G & 68 NORTH QUEEN ST.,
S. W. Cerner et Orange, Lancaster, Pa.
eeuxvers axi machinists.
SHOP ON PLUM STREET,
OrresiTEtHK Locomotive Works.
The subscriber centinuw te manufacture
BOILERS AND STEAM ENGINES,
Fer Tanning and ether purposes ;
Shcet-inm Werk, and
$fST Jobbing promptly attended te.
CALL ON SHKUTZEK, HUMPUUEVILLE
& KIEFFElt, manutactuiers of
TIN' AXI) SIIEET-IUOX WOUK,
and dealers In GAS FIXTURES AXD HOUSE
FURNISHING GOODS. Special attention given
te PLUMBING, GAS and STEAM FITTING
Ne. 40 East King Street, Lancaster, Pa.
WE P. FRAILEY'S
MONUMENT AIi MARBLE WORKS
758 Nerm yueen Street, Lancaster, Pa.
MONUMENTS, HEAD AND FOOT STONES,
CEMETERY LOTS ENCLOSED, &c.
All work guaranteed and satisfaction gi en
in every particular.
N. II. Remember, works at the extreme end
of North (Juccn street. mSOl
Grand Opening et
Londen and Parisian Novelties,
THE LARGEST ASSORTMENT,
CORRECT AXD LEADING STYLES.
Having enlarged room, extended facilities
and increased light ler displaying the Hand
somest Stock of
ever offered ie the public,
forming a G rami
Talent and Skill.
The latest Novelties of the Season.
All are cordially invited te examine our
stock. Prices en plain cards as low as consist
ent with lirst-class Werk and Trimmings.
J. K. SMALING,
121 North Queen Street.
24 CENTRE SQUARE.
Closing out our
In order te make room ler the
Large Spring Stock,
"Which we are new manufacturing.
Suits and Suitings,
Te he sold at the Lewest Prices.
1 B. Wetter t Sen,
24 CENTRE SQUARE-
A RARE CKAICE !
The Greatest Reduction of all in
All Heavy Weight Woolens made te order
(for cash only) at
I have also just received a Large Assortment
et the Latest Novelties in
Of Medium Weight, for the
EARLY SPRING TRADE.
These goods were all ordered before the rise
in Woolens, and will be made te order at re
markably low prices. Alse, aFinc Line et
H. GKEBH ART'S,
Ne. 51 North Queen Street.
ciiixa AJfit ezAssn'Aiti:.
Te Save Moving
China, Glass and Queensware
Will be sold at
HIGH & MABTIN,
Ne. 8 East Kins Street.
Safest, Easiest and Best,
FOB SALE BY
ANDREW G. FRET'S
City Pharmacy, Southeast Cor. North Queen
Orange SU., Lancaster. apl'J-lyd
LANCASTER, PA., TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 24, 1880.
TUESDAY EVENING, FEB. 24, 1880.
Light and Eclipses.
Faper Read Before the Star Club, February
SOth, by Miss Mary Martin.
After having had presented te us the
subjects of our Earth, its Moen and fellow
planets, their centre the Sun, a possible
theory of their evolution, together with
the majestic circle, the zodiac, we come te
that medium by which these visible, "most
ancient heavens," in their glory and beauty
are known te us. Liirhr, from some source
or ether, is se common a thing in our ex
perience that we forget the magnitude
of its work until we attempt te marshal
its forces. Without it life would become
extinct and animation cease. Without it
all nature is nothing ; the heavens fade ;
the earth dies. Without it we are sur
rounded, if we can for a short time exist,
with black darkness the darkness that
may be felt and, if we are te take their
plagues literally, I cannot conceive hew the
Egyptians could have waited for a worse
plague te fall upon them than " the horror
of great darkness."
But, instead of considering the state of
a universe without this most inspiring ele
ment, let us regard it, net in the order of
its creation, nor as a necessarily evolved
force, but in the view of some of its less
hidden mysteries. And first let us in
quire, Hew Dees the Sunlight Get te Us ?
The motion of light is explained by the
wave-theory. It is assumed that all space
between us and the sun and stars is filled
with a subtle, delicate ether, and that
through it the great heart of our system,
by its pulsations, sends out light and life
te us in unceasing waves. Se we must
dismiss the poetical idea of " swift-winged
arrows of light. " and imagine a series of
undulations, moving with a speed which
no mind can comprehend, straight away
from their source, through utter darkness,
through cold, black space, never stepping,
never resting, till they strike upon the
earth and warm it, or upon the eye and
produce vision. And in the same way we
have the light of stars, though the waves,
traveling the enormous distances between
them and us, have become old aud feeble
by the time wc receive them. Indeed, se
great is their distance that when we leek
at a star we de net see the star of te-day,
but that of years age.
The velocity of these waves is about 18o, 18e,
000. miles per second, and the time of their
traversing the distance from the Sun
92,000,000 miles is 8J minutes. Imagi
native comparisons have been made be
tween this degree of swiftness and that of
several things with which we are somewhat
acquainted. We are told that it would
take a cannon ball about thirteen years te
traverse the same distance, and the sound
of its explosion somewhat longer ; that it
would take an express train about 200
years ; that it would take sensation about
132 years te travel from a finger-tip se far
removed from a brain. Sound and .sensa
tion are fast travelers, measured by ordi
nary standards, but when wc conceive of
light as mevifig a million times faster than
sound, and ten million times faster than
sensation, we can scarcely believe that the
mind t " swifter than the darting ray."
The discovery of the rate of nropaga nrepaga nropaga
tien of light-waves is due te a Danish astro
nomer, ltcemer, and it was made while
he was engaged in observing eclipses of the
moons of Jupiter. The inner one of the
four satellites revolves around its primary
in 42 hours, and is eclipsed in every
revolution. Rajmer noticed that each
successive return into the shadow
of the planet was after a perceptibly longer
interval, and that, alter a nunareu returns,
the moon was fifteen minutes behind what
apparently should have been the proper
instant for its eclipse. Upen reflection
the astronomer concluded that this differ
ence was caused by the fact that the Earth
and Jnpiter had moved farther away from
each ether, and that if light, the agent
communicating the eclipse, required
time for its passage through space,
it obviously would need mere when
the planets were larther away
from, than when they were nearer
te, each ether. Subsequent calculations
established the fact that when the Earth
is in that point of its orbit most remote
from Jupiter the eclipse of the satellite oc
curs 10 minutes later than when at its
nearest. And since it then is 185,000,000
miles farther from Jupiter, the calculation
is easily made te gain the velocity of light.
The same result is obtained independ
ently of the moons of Jupiter by means of
the aberration of the light of certain stars,
by which is meant the displacement of
these stars owing te the progressive move
ment of litrht. together with that of the
motion of the Earth in its orbit. It is
found by this .means that light travels
10,089 times as fast as the Earth. Besides,
several delicate and accurate methods for
measuring the velocity of artificial light
have been devised, which confirm the re
sults obtained from these observations,
and se we may conclude that the speed
which has been already named is very
We will assume that wc arc acquainted
with certain laws of physics, viz. : that a
ray of light moves in straight lines se long
as the medium it traverses is of uniform
density ; that, striking upon some surface,
it is caused te rebound or is absorbed ; and
that entering a rarer or a denser medium
it is broken or refracted ; and will then
The Composition of Light.
In its nerfect state liirht is white, but
the white ray is a compound of a series of
ether ravs. se mixed as te neutralize each
ether. If the unbroken ray is passed
through a prism, the solar spectrum, an
oblong image of these dispersed rays, five
times as long as wide, is produced, show
ing the waves spread out ; the slower ones
with longer undulations having fallen be
hind at the lower end of the line, and the
mere rapid ones having run up te the
farther end. In this passage through
the prism the light is refracted, and each
of its component partss the red, orange,
yellow, green, blue, indigo, or violet ray,
running into each ether through an infinite
series of gradation is made refractory in
its own degree, the red being least turned
out of the straight course, and the violet
New, light comes in undulations te the
eye as sound te the ears ; a certain number
of vibrations et a musical cnera produces
one sound, and as these vibrations are
increased or diminished this one is varied ;
se with light. If its vibrations fall upon
eye at the rate of 396 te 470 millions of
millions per second red light will be the
one seen, and if from 716 te 705 millions of
millions, violet will be the result. The
remaining prismatic colors depend upon the
intermediate numbers. These vibrations
are as marvelous in respect te their size as
te their speed ; se very small are they that
mere than 50,000 are contained in a single
inch. And if this is true hew many must
there be in the vast space between us and
the sun, and hew many must pass any one
point in a single second or strike upon the
eve in that short period !
The color el an object uepenas men upon
the size of waves which come back te the
eye, aud we see things differently accord
ing te their power of absorbing or extin
guishing certain of the rays which fall
upon them. When the light which enters
an object is wholly absorbed we call it
black ; if en the contrary all kinds of light
are reflected from it we call it white, and
between these two extremes lie the sub
stances which absorb the rays unequally.
When the sunlight strikes a green leaf it
has the power of absorbing and makinguse
of all the rays except the green, and se
they may come te the eye. Every pansy
with the tips of its petals sending te us
deep violet waves, then shading with an
exquisite gradation te yellow, and back
again until towards the heart of the flower
almost every ray is absorbed, leads us te
wonder net only at the delicacy of coloring,
but at the differences of construction in se
very small a space, which will here threw
off the violet, and again from some change
in structure which no human eye can de
tect, absorb these and threw off some
ether. We have the plant-stem reflecting
one kind of waves, the leaves another, the
nearer envelopes of the flower another,
and each petal, or sometimes minute parts
of a petal, still another.
" Who can paint
Like Light "i Can imagination beast
Amid life uay creation huc-i like these.
Ami can he mix them with that matchless
Anil lay them en se delicately tine.
Anil lese them in each ether, as appears
In every bull that blows?"
The mind is unable te grasp any idea of
the millions of millions just referred te,
and especially when they succeed each
ether in a brief second, but in point of
fact when sunlight flashes upon the eye,
shocks as frequant as these enumerated
strike upon its nerve structure. And net
only does light de work directly for the
day-spring from en high with this velocity,
but in like manner it darts from every re
flecting surface with an infinitude of rays
from each one, and tells with unerring
truth the story of mountain, river and
plain, and of minute and delicate objects as
Besides the visible image shown in pass
ing a ray of light through a prism there
are alseinvisible heat and chemical spec
trums, the former being at the red end of
the line and the latter at the violet, and
these diil'er from light only as red and
violet differ from each ether. Te prove
that heat vibrations may be turned into
light, if a platinum wire is warmed by the
electric current it will at first emit waves
of heat but no light. Strengthening the
cut rent the wire will presently glow with
a sober red light, and if the temperature
of the platinum is sufficiently increased,
shorter and shorter waves are produced
until we have the successive introduction
of all the colors of the spectrum. After
having seen this experiment wc may con
clude that color is all in the eye.
Upen the chemical or actinic rays de
pends the art of photography which has
proved of very great importance in regis
tering these astronomical phenomena
which, from their short duration and con
stant shifting, baffle all ordinary descrip
tion. Though many telescopic observa
tions had been made upon the sun-spots,
and careful drawings of them given, it
was net till the sun took his own picture
that a satisfactory result was obtained.
When the difficulty of gaining an instant
with suitable atmospheric and solar con
ditions was surmounted, the result was a
picture which surprised the most careful
observers. The views of "rice-grains and
willow leaves " are a delight te the un
scientific, as well as a revelation te the as
tronomer. The appearance of the corona at
the time of a total eclipse, which from
the effect of its very grandeur upon the
minds of the observers prevented any just
description, has in the same way been
caught at various moments and examined.
The views of the moon, tee, have revealed
her teDOL'ranhv te the student of astron
emy with as much clearness as could the
best telescopes. Photography, which
means "light drawing," is, however, a
misnomer for the art, as a picture is net
made by the luminous rays, but by dark
ones, which produce chemical changes in
Strictly speaking, light is the agent
which, acting upon the eye, produces vis
ion, anu new that wc nave uiese mice w-ways-asseciated
radiant forces luminous
rays, which produce vision ; heat rays,
which affect all kinds of matter ; and
chemical rays, which decompose and com
bine elements wc may reflect net only en
its visible effects, flooding earth, air and
heavens with the brightness, comfort and
beauty which constantly appeal te the
senses, but might also fellow it into the
earth, where it has stored up flame aud
heat and power for ages te come, and
where it new stirs into life every tiny seed,
But that is net our purpose, and wc will
return te the luminous prismatic ray.
It was Sir Isaac Newton who first de
composed lijjht by passing the beam from
a hole through a prism. But this spectrum
was net pure, because the prism gave a
series of overlapping images of the aper
ture. Mere than a hundred years after, the
spectrum obtained by passing light through
a narrow opening or slit was examined,
and it was found crossed in various places
by fine dark iincs. These lines, known as
" Fraunhofer's lines," because he made
them the subject of investigation and ex
periment, have been the means of many
important discoveries, especially in solar
and stellar nhvsics. Fraunhefcr found
that they did net vary at any season nor
atViny time of day ; that the 590 he at first
counted were always present,in their exact
positions,and that the light from the Moen
and from Jupiter contained the same sys
tem of lines as the direct sunlight, and he
concluded that the cause for them existed
in the Sun.
By means of the spectroscepo metals in
a state of luminous vapor may be ex
amined, aud from many cases it has been
generalized that each line in the spectrum
has its definite place, which is the result
of the laws of structure in the substance
which gives the spectrum. By making
numerous comparisons between the spectra
of known elements, as hydrogen, copper,
iron, lead, &c, and these of the sun and
stars, the coincidences disclosed fully prove
that many of these exist in the heavenly
bodies, although there are also many lines
net known te pertain te terrestrial oeines.
These points will be further developed
when the class has its premised paper en
optical instruments, but we may conclude
from what has been said that light reveals
te us the elements of the stars and hew
they differ from each ether.
Absorption of Light by the Atmosphere.
Let us new observe some of the practi
cal everyday effects of our principles of
absorption and reflection of light. Te get
te the Earth light roust pass through the
air, and, as we might certainly expect from
every combination of Nature's making,
the union of the two is the source of many
delights te the creature that uses his senses.
The atmosphere is one of the most trans
narent of bodies, and it consequently has
the power of transmitting a great deal of
light te the earth ; but besides, it absorbs
some rays and reflects ethers mere espec
ially the blue. Se by this particular re
flection, instead of our looking out into a
black sky, as would be the case if there
were no atmosphere, these rays are brought
te the eye which are most pleasing.
New, if air turns aside this one ray in
the passage of light through it, it fellows
that the mere air the light encounters, the
greater will be the less of that ray. This
proves te be the case, for at the time the
beams of the rising or setting sun reach us
athwart the wide stretch of atmosphere
towards the horizon, the blue rays have
disappeared, and there are left the red,
yellow or purple, te make the gorgeous
coloring which we have in the morning or
evening, varied according te atmospheric
The gleams that
" illume the pates
Of the lest sun. Theybrinjr
Ne increase like the piine of sun and showers;
Only a moment's brightness te the earth.
Only a moment's gleam In common life
Yet who would change them for the wealth of
If we remember that wc see through
less atmosphere when looking directly
overhead than when looking towards the
horizon, aud that the mere air the light
passes through, the mere blue rays ate
pushed aside, wc can easily see why we
can leek at the sun in the morning or
evening, while at noonday we would be
blinded ; why the blue of the sky is deeper
overhead than towards the horizon, and
why it glows mere intense at greater ele
vations. If there should be an immediate tran
sitien from the brightness of full sunlight
te the blackness of midnight, -we would '
lese a most delightful part of the day I
twilight as well as be put te considerable
inconvenience in adjusting our eyes and ,
employments te the sudden change. Full
daylight, however, gradually fades away
into darkness, and the nitrht gradually ,
makes way for the mernir
irmn" asattl. Alter
the Sun sinks below the horizon it still
shines upon the particles of air above, and
these reflect the light te the earth that is,
its strong and littlc-iefrangible red rays,
because of the great amount of intervening
atmosphere. In passing, it may be noted
that, astronomically speaking, twilight
lasts in the evening until the Sun has sunk (
eighteen degrees below the horizon, or
until stars of the sixth magnitude arc visi j
hie, and begins m the morning when he is
again within a like number of degrees.
There are also certain
Phenomena Due te Refraction
te which we will yet give a moment. Prob
ably very few people, however dull or ig
neranr, have net at some time been thrilled
with the beauty of that arch spanning the
heavens "the" bow set in the clouds."
The solar ravs are decomposed by the
rain-drops and then reflected
te the eve, the observer bcin
tween the rainbow and the sun. llien
the twinkling of the stars! These would
net seem se friendly te us if they were
shining as cold, fixed points, but owing
te the various layers of air being of differ
ent densities their rays are broken and the
twinkling light is the result. There are
also the hales around the moon, and less
frequently around the sun, caused by the
refraction and decomposition of light-rajs,
by particles of moisture or crystals of ice,
in the higher regions of the atmosphere,
which may be named as distinct, beauties.
Net only docs light awaken us te the
magnificence of the heavens and the
brightness of the earth, but the glorious
hale of the Moen, the resplendent corona
of the Sun, "the foam of the sea-shore, the
plumage of birds, the various films that
float upon the surface of waters, the deli
cate tints of flowers and rich hues of fruits,
all combine te remind us that every ray of
light comes like an :.ngclic artist sent
from heaven, bearing upon his palette
the most celestial tints with which te
beautify the earth and show the illimitable
glory of Ged."
All the planets, primaries and seconda secenda
ries, have their halves in alternate illumina
tion and shade, and since the Sun, their
centre of light, is much larger than any of
them, they cast conical shadows in the di
rection opposite te him. These shadows
depend in size upon the diameter of the
planets and their distances from the Sun.
That part of the shadow in which, in case
of a solar eclipse, the spectator can sec no
portion of the Sun's disc, is called the
umbra ; aud the space of partial illumina
tion between the umbra and full light is
called the penumbra.
If the Sun were merely a point of light
the shadows cast would be all umbra, but
beinj' se large there is also a partial
large mere is suse a j.ai ii.u
shadow. This may be made clear by tak- -
nig uvu cunuiea iu icpic..., n.u wi'i'""
edges of the Sun, placing them rather near
together, ami oescivmg me wiauew uiey
CttMi Oil LilU W.lll lltjlll tiltj i"Jvu , iiv v..
cither side of the dark shadow thrown by
both candles will be a lighter one thrown
only by one.
The shadow cast by any of the primary
planets converges te a point before it
reaches its next outer neighbor, but it may
fall upon and eclipse its own satellite, and
the shadow of the latter may fall upon
and eclipse its primary.
The cause of our own solar or lunar
eclipses may be clearly understood by ref
erence te any figure representing the rela
tive positions of the Sun, Earth and Moen.
The only point net there made manifest is
why an eclipse of the Sun does net occur
at every new-moon, or an eclipse of the
Moen every time she has moved te the
ether side of the Earth, or is full. But
thjs is made clear when wc knew that the
plane of the Moen's orbit is inclined te
that of the Earth about five degrees, se
tlmt the full Moen is sometimes above or
below the shadow of the Earth, and the
latter above or below the shadow of the
When the Moen is at or near one of her
nodes that is near either point where the
orbit of the Moen penetrates the ecliptic
twice in every revolution there will be an
eclipse of tlie Sun or of the Moen, as the
case may be. Accurately, if the Moen is
within seventeen degrees of her node,
when in conjunction, she will eclipse the
Sun ; andif within twelve degrccef her node
when in opposition she will be eclipsed
mere or less. There arc then about JJ:J
degrees twice 10J in which eclipses of
the Sun may occur; and 21 degrees in
which eclipses of the Moen may occur,
about each node. This gives 66 degrees
of the 360 for eclipses of the Sun, and 42
for these of the Moen ; and the propor
tion of solar te lunar eclipses is as 66 te 42
or as 11 te 7.
Selar eclipses are of three kinds, which
vary with the apparent magnitudes and
positions of the Sun and Moen. First : If
their centres arc en a straight line with the
Earth's and if the apparent diameter of
the Moen exceed that of the Sun, there is a
total eclipse. Since the Moen is much
smaller than the Sun, it must be borne in
mind that it is her comparative nearness te
us which causes her ever te appear equal
te or greater than the Sun ; and this point
may be made clear te the least imaginative
by holding a penny immediately before his
eye while looking at any object however
large. Secend: If the centres et these
three bodies are in the same relative posi
tion, but the Moen beinc se far removed
from the earth that its apparent diameter
is lessened, or. explained in ether wercis,
if its shadow comes te a point before it
reaches the earth, there will be an annu
lar eclipse se called from the ring of light
visible around the edge of the Sun.
Third : If the Moen does net pass central
ly ever the Sun, but covers only a part of
it, large or small, there is a partial eclipse.
In anv of these cases the observer must
station himself within the region of the
umbra for a perfect view of the eclipse, or
of the penumbra for any view at all the
eclipse net being visible te outsiders. The
Price Twe Cents.
breadth of the Moen's umbra at the dis
tance of the Earth, does net exceed 160
miles. Referring te Baer's almanac you
will find that the eclipse of Jan. 11, this
year which was total for California, was
partial for western Missouri, and farther
cast was net seen at all.
Total eclipses are of rare occurrence, se
that descriptions of thorn are of interest te
these who have net had the geed fortune
te sec one. Mr. Leckycr, in his Astron
omy, says that a total eclipse of the sun is
at once one of the grandest and most awe
inspiring sights it is possible for man te
witness. As the eclipse advances, but be
fore the disk is wholly ebscxircd, the sky
grows of a dusky lurid, or purple, or yel
lowish crimson color, which gradually gets
darker and darker, and the color appears
te run ever large portions of the sky irre
spective of the clouds. The sea turns
lurid red. This singular coloring and
darkening of the landscape is quite unlike
the approach of night and gives rise te a
feeling of sadness. The Moen's shadow
sweeps across the surface of the e.uth and
is even seen in the air ; the rapidity of its
motion and its intensencss produce a fcel
injr that something material is rushing
ever the fcartn, ami at a speeti periccuy
frightful. All sense of distance is lest ;
the faces of men assume a livid hue,
newcra close, fowls hasten te roost, cocks
crew, birds flutter te the ground in fright
dogs whine, sheep collect -tegctiier as it
apprehending danger, horses and oxen he
uuwn, uusuiuiicijr luainiie iiiu nui mm
cead : in a word, the whole animal world
seems frightened out of its usual propri
ety. Premising that Bailey's beads (se named
from the observerwhe first discovered them)
are dots of light en the edge of the moon,
and arc caused by the sun shining through
the depressions between the lunar moun
tains ; and that the odd protuberances re
ferred te have been found by the spectro
scope te be masses of hydrogen gas se het
as te shine by its own light, I will read
part of the report of the cclipoef 18C9, as
seen by Gen. Mayer of the U. S. signal ser
vice, from White Tep mountain, near Ab Ab
ingten, Virginia :
The telescopic appearance of the corona
or aureela during the totality, exhibited a
clear yellowish bright light, closely sur sur
renndinsr the lunar disk and fading grad-
ua"y wtn perhaps some tinge of pinkish
green, into me uuu ei wie ii.irK.eueu .
Upen this corona, cxtcndiug beyond its
brightest portion, the well-defined rosc resc rosc
celorcd preminences were projected at va
rious points of the ciicumfeicncc. c
Te the unaided eye the eclipse
presented during the total obscuration,
a vision magnificent beyond descrip
tion. As a centre steed the full
and intensely black disc of the
Moen, surrounded by the aureela
of a soft, bright light, through which shot
out, as if from the circumference of the
Moen, straight, massive silvery rays seem
ing distinct and separate from each ether,
the whole spectacle showing upon a
background of diffused rose-celoied light.
" The approach of the Moen's shadow
did net appear te he marked by any de
fined line, or the movement of any dark
column of shade through the air. The
darkness fell gradually, shrouding the dim
earth below in most impressive gloom.
At the same time, and in vivid
contrast, the clouds above the horizon
were illuminated with a soft radiance ;
these towards the East with the lights of
a coming dawn, orange and rose prevail
ing : these northward and westward with
rainbow bands of varied hues.
"A very cursory examination only could
be given the stars and planets visible dur
ing the totality, as in a clear twilight at
evening, Venus and Mercury, near the ap
parent place of the Sun. exhibited an un
expected brilliancy, and a member of the
observing corps was impressed with the
number of stars visible, net confined te
these of the first magnitude only.
The fall of the temperature was marked
as the obscuration approached and reached
totality, their horses continued te feed
quietly during the increasing darkness as
at an approaching sunset.
" At the moment of emersion the first
ravs of the sun showed thcms Ives at sev-
, ,i.tnnliwl nuints en its western limb.
fePlllins again the Bailey's Beads which
unitcd in a delicate crescent.
It W;K a strikiu,r circumstance connected
it, th j , phenomena that se many of
its details could be observed with the un
aided eye. In this manner our guides
saw very readily Baily's Bead-;, exclaim
ing that the sun was breaking te pieces,
and could distinguish without difficulty
some of the protuberances."
Eclipses of the Moen.
Lunar eclipses are of two kinds, which
arc, first, total, if the moon is entirely im
mersed in the earth's shadow ; and second,
partial. There can be no annular eclipses
of the moon because in any case when she
has her centre en the same line as the
earth, the shadow of the latter will be
greater than the moon's disc. Since
eclipses of the moon are caused by a real
cutting off of her light, it fellows that they
may be seen en any part of the earth te
which she is visible, and while atetal eclipse
of the sun cannot last mere than five or six
minutes, and sometimes only a few seconds
one of the moon may last nearly two hours,
and the gradual coming en and going off of
the shadow may increase the entire time
of the eclipses te three or four hours.
This difference will be made clear when
we recall th.it the apparent diameter of the
Moen exceeds that-of the Sun by a very
small amount, while the cone of the
Earth's shadow even when it reaches the
Moen is really greater than the diameter of
In a lunar eclipse the moon is gradually
darkened as she enters the earth's penum
bra and then again she is gradually im
mersed into the real shadow. Even when
she is totally eclipsed she does net become
entirely invisible, but still shines with a
dull red light, which is refracted into the
shadow by the Earth's atmosphere through
which the sunlight must pass in order te
reach the Moen.
As she travels from West te East we first
see her eastern side slightly dim, and this
is the first contact with the penumbra of
almanacs. And as she emerges from the
umbra we have the last contact with the
dark shadow, and. finally, last contact
with the penumbra, and the eclipse is ever.
Eclipses can be calculated with a geed
degree of ceitainty by any one, net only
for years te come, but for ages which are
past, owing te their known periodic recur
rence, found after many observations.
They are calculated by astronomers te thu
second, by mere complex methods, for an
explanation of which persons interested
are referred te Ncwcemb, or any ether au
thority upon this interesting subject.
A. J. STKINMAN,
Intelligencer .Building, Southwest Cerner Cen
tre Square, Lancaster, Fa
Intelligencer Building, Southwest Cerner Cen
tre Square. Lancaster, l'a.
Attorney anil Counseller-at-Law
21 l'ark Kew, New Yerk.
Collections made in all parts or the United
Slates, and a general legal business transacted,
llefers by peniiissien te Steinman X Hensel.
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