Clearfield Republican. (Clearfield, Pa.) 1851-1937, October 05, 1881, Image 1

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iur lai great ClreulBtloa or any Knaapei
In Nfirth Central Psunayivanla.
Termi of Subscription.
it i ,i I in advenoe, or srltaia I months....' (Ml
i, .,ei'l after X and befor. 0 mooths
II ; .i.l after tho olpiratioa of I taoatbs,,
3 OU
Rates ot Advertising,
I'r ttislcnt advertisements, por sqnaraof 10 linaaor
1 titnea or loia ... $1 60
) .,r .nrh subsequent insertion. 60
Uuinistrelors' and Kieoutora'aotleeo. I 60
la litnra' notice . 3 60
m. and Estraye,.
1 10
1 to
t 00
..nlution notices.
..fc.sional Carda, O llnaa or laaa,l jear. notices, per Una
...r.rr 8 00 I column-
tmsres.. 10 00 A ealuinn.
..60 00
70 00
:nitr 30 00 1 column- 110 00
pu'ltcrs' Card.
I I ;s f'lnartjeld, Pa.
A. T T O It N E Y - A T -LAW,
1:18 Phillpabnr, Ceutre Co., Pa. y:pd
Oiirwensville, Clearfield oounty. Pa.
oot- , "TS-lf.
'Old Westernl building," (up-atair).
now in
lot. 9,
Cleat-Meld, Pa.
5r Office odo door aat of Shaw House.
i'fii;c In Manonic building, Second street, op
hite the Court Houm. je2fl,'78 tf.
Clearfield Conntv, Penn'a. 76y
i'. in Opera House.
ap JV77-lyj
. A. Wai.i.acb
Oil Y. VV A LLAt'X,..
..Davio L. Kbbba,'
f A I, I, ACE k KREBS,
T T O R N E Y S - A T
i n 1 -1 ClearUeld, Pa.
L A W ,
. Jifoiwij -!-- ir,
I.K.UiHCLl), - - I'KNN'A.
f-iron'u't In the Matonla Building, over the
mty N..Uoi.l Batik,
rirfl over the County National Bank.
June J, T8tf.
Clbamfirld, Pkbr'a.
1 ir.t class Life and File Insurance Companies
rt tire sell toil.
.K-er-OBoe In he Opera IIouie.-
Mar. lo.MI-l
critul aoanoa.
''attorneys AT LAW,
flr-Office la Pie's Opera House, second flour.
.1 TTOIl.YK 1 T-i.I ir,
iil'HCi: over T. A. Plrrk Cu.'s More.
ZV-WIII ailed to all legal business witb
t.n.ini.tness and ndolily. fbl 1,'eO-tl".
r.Vtl t. H BNALLT DAltllL W. kt CL1DT.
Cleardrld, Pa.
if Lnm baiinsn stttmled to promptly wtthj
i'i Irlity. ii file on Heron d ttrMt, tboro Ut Fint
.NtionI Unk. Jd:1:7A
All lel bu.laeaa entrusted to bs ear will re.
-rire prompt attention.
.rr-Ofliae In tbe Court House.
A i T 6 R N E Y -A T -LAW,
Real EataU and Colloetloa Afeat,
Will promptly attend to all legal busiaess en
iru.rod to bis oare.
j:-0llVa la Pie's Opera Home. Janl'"0.
,i,.l Iteal Instate Affeiit, Clearfield, Pa.
uiSr. oa Tbird, bet.Cberry A Walnut.
.MB-Respectfully offera bis aerrioes in selling '
etd buying lauds la uleerBoiu and auolnlag
counties f and witb aa oiperiene.of ov.rlwenlT
y.are as a surveyor, flatters himself tb.t b. eaa
render sulsfaetloa. (Feb. IS:S:t:tf,
I'Upitlans' (Cnrds.
Offio. in residenee oa First it,
April M, 1S71. Clearfield, Pa
Dl'BoIrt CITY, PA.
" ill attend professional oells promptly. auglO'70
yyi. t.'j. nor nit,
"Bin. on Market Street, Clearfield, Pa.
M-09lre koursi to II a. m., and 1 to I p. m.
T4r-imi aljolnlnt tbe raaldaaea ef Jamee
v'iii;lrT, K.i., on tti-coad St., Weariield, Pa.
!':rr. st rr.idror., ecrotr of State and Pine
' ' '"(.. Jan. tib, msi ir.
J1r Ofljoe hour. Froi
i II to t P. M.
Kay II, I "74.
H irgsoa of Ike Hi Keglmeal, Peansyleania
v 'lanissre, baeiag retaraed froai lb. Army,
' his profsssieaal sertless la Ikatitlaeas
"I Clearfield eoaaty.
-V-rrofesalonalaallt promptly atteaded I.
on Second street, formerly oeeapled ay
''IVoods. apr4.'0tl
G00DLANDEB, Editor & Proprietor. t pr,NCIPLES, NOT MEN. ' TBMS-$2 per arrun in Advance.
! eBUSBBSBsssassssssssssssnuBBBwewsm sBSwmmssBSBSsBWaesBBBBBSSBBSBBBBSBBasnem
(ostbbp p. o.)
May 8, 1H78-Ij
DiALaa ta
Square Timber & Timber LbikIh,
V. I10YT,
Land Survevor and Civil Engineer,
4rAII bailneas will be atteadel to promptly.
Deo. 15, IHSO-ly.
House and Sign Painter and Paper
Clearfield, Penu'a.
fetuWill oxeeuU Jobs In bis line promptly and
In workmanlike maaaer. ap r4,87
Nor. 17lb, 1890 tf.
Real Estate, Square Timber, Saw Logs,
r-Offlc on Hosoond itrtit, in reivr of itort
tvm of (lorf Wvr A Co. Jftnl. '78-tf.
ittcatur Township,
OhmIi Willi P. O.
J.W uffr-li.) buiiincfi ntriDred to him will b
promptly kttandod to. mcb2lf, '7.
tjhf-j- on Mark at St opponlti Court lloniw.
A f)f)n towel for vrj cubtnmr.
Alo dsalcr Id
IUt lliuu!t of Tobafro aitd l ara.
t'lo,irM. mor 1. 'T
UalUreton. Pa.
X-irU bti prepared himiftlf with all the
neoeatiary biua furtne uudr the 1'eDiioa and
buuotjr liwi, aa well a bltok Deed, etc. All
argil matten etitrufted to bit care will roceiva
prumpl attention. May 7tb, l,vlf.
jMrPumpe alwayi on baud and made to order
at. ihort notice. Pipe boned on reasonable terma,
All work warranted to render latUfaotion, and
delivered Ifdeitred. niylJilypd
rpil H andernltrned bei leare to Inform thepnb
X He that be ie now fully prepare to accommo
date ail in the way of f urn lath, ojt Hw.iee, linKgiee,
Oaddlei and Ilarneai. on the ihorteit notice and
an reaionabla term p. Keiidenoeon Loeuit itroat,
between Third and Fourth.
Ilearfleld. Feb. 4, 1874.
. brad
rtT-OBre In Or. ham Building, ilarbet street.
Clearfield Pena'a.
Juno IS, lSSI-tf
Also, eitensir. manufacturer and dealer la Rqaaro
limner ana nawea iumoeroi eu Binds.
jlSar-Ordere aollelted and al kills promptly
filled. JylO'7
Ann PBitca IB
Watches,' Clocks and Jewelry,
oVnAam's i?oie, MnrJul Slrtel,
All kinds of repairing In my lln. promptly at-
andad to. Jan. 1st, 19711.
gfc Clearfield Nursery.
TilK ander.l(ned, baring e.tabllibed a Nur-
sere oa the 'Pike, about ball way Ixtweea
alab all kind, of FRUIT TREES, (standard and
dwarf.) Krerffreens, fjhrublery, tlratie Vine.,
Unoseiterry, Lawtoa lilai'k berry, (Strawberry,
and haspberry Vines. Also, Siberian Crab Trees,
IJuince, and early scarlet Rhubarb, Ad. Orders
promptly attend.d to. Address,
J. U. n Hlii il i,
scpSO Ari.y ' Curwensville, Pi.
jamkb rb
Clparflold Insurance Agency.
at: it n niium:, jfn'ii
Represent tbe following and otbar first-elsss Co's
Companies. Assets
Llierpool London A Olobe-U. S. Rr..$,8
Lronming on mutual Aoaab plans...- n.Ono.Olill
Pbo-uli, of llariford. Conn J24.0H3
Insurants Co. of North America 0,4X8, 874
North Drill. h t Mercantile U.S. llr. i.lrl.HS
Noolli.b Commercial I'. B. Branch.... "IK, MS
Watertown 1 784.SI0
Travelers (Lifs A Accident) 4,609,464
Onicon Market HI., opp. Court House, Clear
Sold. Pa. June I, '70-lf.
Insurance Agency
I'allon lllotk, l uru-inmlllf, !?.
Conipaniei Roprosouted i
Commsrolal llnlon Ins. Co., A..ets .H.OSS.roJ 61
F.rrnen'a Fend Ins. Co.. Assets 1. 110. 017 00
1'nloa Insurance Co.. Asset 1070,0.17
Trailers' Aeoiiicnt Ins. C" . A.sels.. (.610,101 11
Northern Ins. Co. of New York As'le UlS.imo On
Insurance placed oa all kinds ef property at
etinitahle ratea
Ourwensrllle, P. , Feb. 10, lM lf.
Keo ark, H. J.
A, .Ian. I, lSI, a ascertained
by Esaninlng CcmiBi.sloasrs
of Massachusetts, Ohio and New
j,rKy J.7!S,al5 J
l.naii iTHS, as etatcd by the same. ll,tll,4:l
Si bfi.1 a by Mass'ehii's SlaaHard. a, ale, snl no
Si si xi s by New Y.rk Standard... 0,000,006 01
All policies non forfeitable after second
yean lowespeases!
elerrd and ..sry year sine orgao-
Isalion. ample .orplos ; sorrsnder Telues
most liberal losses promptly adjosted
and paidf-
llrpirBBB i
1.HWI8 CMIROVKR, Paiainaat.
JAMBS B. PEARSON, Vica-l'aasinBBT.
En. L Dobbibs. Sec y. Tao. M Ace sbtt, Trees.
POTTER A KEWIS, Mat. Agents, 611 Wal
aut street, Philadelphia, Pa.
H. M. M'ltHAI.I.V, Special AgenL 0le la
Moesop's balldlag, Mark.1 llreet, Clearfield, Pa.
Will Well ! thli oomfort now tbe air it mild
at May,
And yet 'tie March the twentieth, or lulfity
Brit, to-day t
And Reuben ploufbi the hill foroornj I tfaoufbt
It would be tounb
Dot bow 1 tee tbe furrowi turned, I gueu It'i
I'm lad I built th la Southern porch f my chair
. "tiMiir oitrej
i aaven i teen aa floe a Baring, then Are and
twenty year.
And bow the time jroei round eo qnlek ( a week
I would have iworn,
Hinee they ware huikin' ob the flat, and aow tbry
iMuugrj iur ours i
Aoroiethe lerel Urown'i aew plaoe bKiei to
make a how ;
I tbougbt he'd bare to wait for (reef, but bleu
oaf, uuw tiioj (row I
They eay it one two aoree filled witb ever
green and thinfta ;
But o much land ! It worrlei ma, fr not a oent
k oringi.
He ban the right, I don't deny, to please blmielf
ihat way,
But 'tit a bad example net, and load yonng folk
Book learning get! tbe upper hand, and work ll
flow and elack,
And they that oomo long alter uh, will find t binge
gone to wrack.
Well I luppoae I'm old, and jet it Li nut long
air i)
When Reuben spread the swath to dry, and Jena
Irarned to mow,
And William raked, and Iirael boed, and Joiepb
pdebo-d witb oi e ;
But urb a man a 1 wai tbn, my bojn will nev
er lie :
I don't miad Williaui'i bnnkerln' for leotura and
fir books,
He lever bail farmln' knack you'd fee It In
bis looks ;
But ban duo me Is that h an -1 noma docs, and he la
well-to-do j
'Twould ease my mind If I ojuIJ any the same
urJeno, too.
'Tif like my time le nearly out ; of that I'm not
airata j
I never cheated any man, and all my debts are
Tbey call It rest that we shall bare, but work
wouiu uo no Harm ,-
there oan t lie rivers there, and fitlJi, without
rotue nort o farm.
Bnynrd Taylor.
N. Y. Tiniea florr.anono.nnr.
Thero may bo ,ernonit now living
who havo m-un all tlio sights of thin
place, but 1 doubt it. Mr. Vandorbilt
haii not beun hero latoly, and thero are
few othexH who could alford it. There
ire a gnat many things hero worth
nuuiu, nut 11 ih ineonrcnient to carry
mote than one or two oatchelo full of
money when traveling. I he visitor
to tho Falls, as Iur as my knowledge
goes, usually drives to a hotel for no
man ban evor yet mastered tho myste
ries ot Niagara Falls streets cats a
meal or two, and drives out to see
whnthecan from a carriago window.
Alter paying tho carriage bill he gets
out of the town whilo he is still able
to move about and before he is utterly I havo succeeded, during
a brief stay, in lamilianung myself
witb tho topography of tbo surround
ing country, in seeing most of tho cu
riosities, and in escaping, to a groat
extent, the snares of tho harkmen.
Ho who can do this will find Niagara
Falls a placo ot beauty, full of won
dors, and well worth visiting. My
miraculous cscapo fiom tho hackmen
was due to some experience with them
on a former visit. I have been look
ing lor tho lust four days for the man
who has been writing newspapors par
agraphs saying that tho swindling at
Niagara is all dono away with and
that everything this year is marvel
ously chenp. Anybody who meets
this person will pleanostop on him ; he
is a humbug.
In driving np the Canadian sido of
tho river toward tho hotel I had se
lected, 1 noticed a sign on the edge of
tho cliff, "To tho ferry," with a wood
en hand pointing down tho hill, and
the beginning of a steep road. Awny
down below, looking like a bug swim
ming across a wash-tub, was a small
row boat crossing the river. It wont
up almost under the Falls whilo I
watched it. Later in the day, having
some businoss to attend to over in the
town, I determined to cross by this
liltlo ferry, and here begins the brief
description of a liltlo roccnt experience
with the Niagara Samaritans. It re
minds one of traveling in tho Bible
lands, where he can siiy, as ho rests
by the wayside, "I was a stranger,
and ye took mo in." I went down
tlin ailiinl aiaifl niitti rri nntr nrltirli na I
j , , , '. , .. ' h'
"YCr B edge. It was a Very
though it was down bill, and I cannot
too strongly warn any delicate person
from attempting it. The mad is so
steep it is harder work to bold yoftr
sell back than it would be to climb up.
Half way down tho hill thero was
standing an undeniable Methodist par
son from tho interior, whom I had
seen in the cars a day or two before,
making anxious inquiries about the
Falls. Ho stood upon a grassy knoll.
under A tree, with all his treasures
about him a delicate wife, two babies,
and a liltlo girl and was dragging
thorn about tho scorching town. He
was a fearful and wondorful example
of the men who goes off in the Ha minor
looking for pleusuro. At the loot ot
the hill thero woro thrro buildings all
mado of rough boards, lwo woro
liltlo dwelling houses a short distance
from tbo watur, and tho third was a
shed at the starting place of the tiny
ferry boats. This shod was filled with
bits of pottery, pieces of wood carving,
moccasins, bottles, pin cushions, canes,
whips, and all the truckory that goes
here under Ihegenoru! nameoi Indian
curiosities. Taking a pin cushion at
fl, and a ten cent cane at 75 cents,
the prices of tho things may be cosily
gauged. The goods wero guarded by
a sweet young creature in short skirts,
who was very well to llirt with until
a better looking-one put her bead and
shoulders out ot tho door ol one of the
neighboring houses and waved her
handkerchief at the passengers who
were waiting for tho boat. Fifteen ol
us were sent across at onco in the row
boat, but it was a good solid convey
ance, and could have easily carried 10
moro. The boatman look us up to
tho very edgo of tho mist at tbe foot
nf the fulls till we were almost drench
ed. Then tho current, the instant we
touched it, swept as flying down tho
river. It was like riding in a boiling
tea kcttlo with tho spray, tho turbu
lent water, and the scorching sun.
Tho minute wo landed (having paid
ovor 25 conu each, which was cheap
onougli), wa wore seined by a squad ol
terrible looking creatures clad in oil
cloth clothes, who wanted to lake us
under lht rails. 1 hoy wouiu not let
us eo. bnt lairlv dragged os into their
place, at Ihe font of the cliff. 1 do not
use this word dragged in a meupunr-
leal sense, Ono ot ibem acited me by
the arm and pulled me by main force
Into his den. When nicy necamo
satisfied that none of our boat load
wero to be bled thoy urged us to walk
to the end of their gallery and look at
the falls through thoir stained glass
windows. We did oo, and a boautiful
sight it was. Thero wore panes of
red glass, blue glass, green glass, and
yellow glass, and the effect through
each of them was charming. Thero
was a path leading upward among the
rocks, within 30 feet of the groat sheet
ol wator, and almost immediately in
front of the window. Looked at
through the groen glass, this was ono of
tho prettiest things 1 Had ever seon.
Tho price of our ferriage entitles us to
admission to tho "park" that bides the
American Fall from tho public, and
we rodo up in tbe elevator. This is
tho machine 1 mentioned in a former
lettor, and pronounced dangerous.
The tact tbnt it bus been runninir
since 1845 without an accident does
not alter my opinion of it. No place
is safe, in my humble opinion, where a
uuman lite depends onttrely upon the
strength of a single ropo. The dis
tance travclod by the elevator is 360
leetup an inclined piano.
''This is tho place to eo under the
fulls," said one of tho oilcloth mon at
the loot of tho cliff. "Over on tho
Canadian side they. charge you a dol
lar for putting on the suit that's what
thoy do." Ovor on tbo Canadian sido
thoy told us just the reverse of this
story. At the top of the inclined plane
we were in the "nark," which has been
owned by tho Prospoct Park Compa
ny since 1872. The natives know this
spot as "Ferry Grove" or "Point Viow,"
and one of thorn told me that thp Park
company nan not neon successful in
ineir negotiations to Duy tbo space
nronnn tno lato comet and fence it oil.
This is the only place on tho high land
irom wnicn a good view ot tho Amort
can Fall can ho had, and tbo admission
is 25 cents. I will not express any
opinion of this company ; it might be
Thoy do not charge anything lor
walking np tho street afior leaving the
i am. lucre are more "Indian enri
osity" stores in the principal streets of
mo village than thero are clothing
stores in Chatham street. Hohir.d the
conn tors in all theso stores, and sit
ting about tho doors, are scores and
hundreds of girls, making merry with
tho lew customers, ogling and smiling
at tbe passors by. Alter seoing eomo
ot tho Now York shop girls, I thought
there was not much moro to learn in
that direction, but it was a little start
ling, upon entering one of tbe stores,
to bo asked, by ono of thoso gorgeously
decorated misses, "My dear, what can
1 do lor you today?" It was about
the timo of arrival of a tiuin and
nearly tlmo for the omnibuses to be
going across tho rivor. Having fin
ished my business, 1 desirod to return
to the hotel on tho Canadian sido and
to go in tbo hotel's omnibus. Know
ing the street it must go through, 1
stood for somo tuno at a cornor wait
ing for it to pass. No omnibus camo,
and at length tasked a policeman who
was standing near by whether it was
not nearly time for it.
"Oh, no," tho policeman replied,
"there will be no omnibus along for
more than two hours now. The only
way to get over thero is to take a car
riage." To my everlasting shame, be
it recorded that I behoved bim. We
are used to tough policomen in New
York, but they are not liars. I found
a hackman on the next corner who
thought he, would not sacrifice bis
professional standing by taking mo
over to my hotel for f 2, 1 to pay tbe
tolls. Ho was not quite suro, he said,
whether the toll was fifty cents or a
dollar. 1 was sure enough. Wo had
nearly reached the bridge when tbo
omnibus of my hotel came along and
passed uo. I hailed it and lelt the car
riage, and it was worth tbe 50 cents I
paid the hackman to learn that the
Niagara Falls pohcemon are in league
with the other swindlers. Sul'ely back
on tbe Canadian sido (it is too bad to
havo to say so, but one is in less dan-
ger of being bitten by tho sharks on
tho Canadian side), the omnibus drove
past an old museum In a big rtone
building, with a fine garden by lis sido.
Hanging on the I rout wall ol this mu
seum was a wooden sign that imme
diately attracted my attention. It
read thus, in big letters:
It glees me much pleasure to say that this :
j Museum, whish adds to tbs attractions of;
1 Ihis beautiful plaoe, is arranged with aclanoe, J
i taste and skill. B. hll.LIMAN, j
t Professor, Yale College. j
: Sept. I7.1138. j
i :
Resides this sign was a mammoth
painting ol two bultulocs, a group ol
Indians, and some animals, i bis was
also arranged "with suienco, lasto and
skill," but without tho slightest touch
of nature.. The straits these museums
are driven to this season for customers
is illustrated by the devices of the
runners, who bother every passer-by
with such invitutions as, "Won't you
step in, sir, and take a look at tho
scenory from the towor? There is no
charge." Tboro aro two of those big
museums on the Canadian side, and
alter being in their i mined into vicinity
lor sovcrul days, I havo not seen a
siniflo p.,rson go into either of Ihum
This is only a satnplo trip. 1 havo
bad twenty such experiences in tho
last few days. Jlut a limit in tho mat
ter of spat e prevents mo from detailing
them. Ol tbe remainder of tho places
worth visiting, 1 can givo only a briol
description. There is a paragraph,
however, I found in A Niagara guide
book, that I want particularly to quoto,
for it tells the exact truth : "Com
plaints aro frequently made by stran
gers," il says, "of boing outrageously
gulled by hackmen and guides. Tbo
usual price for carnages is (2 an hour.
The compensation fur the service ol
guides is less detinitoly fixed. Other
complaints of a less specific character
are also often mado, such as ' quarter
is tlemnndcd at evory corner,' ia Tho
greater part ol tho world aro so much
accustomed to consider a langiblo ma
terial return as the only form of tbo
ijiibI yro quo that they are not satis
lied." This is tho truth exactly. Peo
ple aro so accustomed to having some
return for their money that when thoy
come hero and do not get it they aro
In visiting some of the places of in
tcrest, and in passing by others, I
have kept a record of the charges,
which, as far as I have learned, are as
To float Island I 00
Care 0( Ihe winds - 1
Prospect Perk
Inclined Rallwey 16
Shadow ot Ihe Rock - 1 00
New Suepeasioa Bridge, foot passenger... 16
Kerry 16
Behind lb. Falls. 1
Baraing Spring ........ 60
Hallway Bridge, botb ways 60
Whirlpool Rapids... 60
Whirlpool , 00
These prices do not, In any case, in-
cludo tho expenso of reaching ibe places,
but are merely the rates of toll or ad
mission fees. I have met with a new
race ol people In the last lew days
the people who have charge of the
islands, ol the parks, of the inclined
railways, tho guides, ami the various
attendants. Thoy come mystonously
out ot unexpected places, like gnomes ;
iney ate all rough in mannor,nd gon
orally outlandish in oostumo.
The Niagara river, from Buffalo to
the Fulls, is a beautiful shoot ol water.
1 traveled ilscntire length in a carriage
onco when tho railroad was disabled,
and early in the morning before tbe
sun grew warm. It was as delightful
a ride as can be found anywhere. Its
average fall beloro il reaches the rapids
is a loot to tbe railo. (rrand Island, 12
miles long, and from 3 tofl miles wide,
divides the river exactly in the middle
In tbo lust tbroe miles before it reaches
the cataract it falls 53 feet. Tboaver-
age full is lt4 feet, and tbo river lull
tin teot moro between he loot of the
tails and Lcwlstown.aotun miles below.
Thus it fulls nearly 350 fuel in loss than
30 miles. Goat Inland, on the brink
nf the precipice,, divides the American
from the Canadian fall. Somebody
built a wooden bridge to tbo Island
early in the century, and an iron one
took its place about 35 years ago.
Goat Island is cool and shady. It is
surrounded by several smaller islands,
none of which have any groat intorost.
Wbon they were repairing tho old
bridge, about ID years ago, a workman
named Cbapin fell overboard and
lodged on ono of tho little islands, and
it has over sinco been called Chapin'a
Island. Goat Island is owned by tbe
Porter family, and 1 supposo they are
responsible for the 50 cents toll. Tbo
island contain" over GO acres. At one
sido of Goat Island is a slippery but
solid wooden stairway, fastened to the
rock with heavy iron bolls, loading far
down into the abyss. This is known
ns Riddle's stairway, and was built by
Nicholas Riddlo, President of the
United States bank, in 1829. Tboro
are about one hundred st.'pa, leading
hall-way down tho cliff. At tho lower
end aro two paths one leading to the
Canadian full, the other to the Ameri
can. The Canadian path is blocked
up, but tho American is still used and
leads to tho Cavo ot the Winds. Prioo,
fl. Tho llorseshoo Full, as seen Irom
the inland, has nothing of the shapo of
a horses toot, but is an acuto atiglo.
This full looks its best from Goat
Island, and only hero can an idea of
the imtnenso body of wo,ter constantly
going over bo obtuincd. The depth of
tho water, at the instant of going over
is estimated at 20 foot. A ship called
Ihe Detroit, drawing 18 feet, once
went over without touching. It was
Grand Island, a few miles lurthor up
tho river, that tho lato Major Noah.ot
New York, selected as the gathering
place for the scattered tribe of Israel.
Mora than half a century ago ho thero
laid tho oornor Btnno of the "City of
Ararat" and built a monument, which
is still standing.
"How deep is tho 'river below tho
falls?" is a nevor failing question, and
one not easy for tho obliging boatman
to answer, liut tbe Lrovcriimont set
tled the quostion last year, when an
official survey was made. In tho mid
dle of ihe river, in the track crossed by
tho frail terry-boats, the wutor is l'J2
feet deep. It is clear and cool, and
quito fit for drinking. To dig out the
vast trench II is said tbo water baa
boon falling for 1 forget how many
years with a weight ol ol z.iioii.udu
tons a minute. The man who weighed
tt la dead. Talilo Jiuck, on the t ana-
diansido, isathing of tbe past. Guides
still pretend to lake you under it, and
charges $1 for tho kindness ; but Table
liock fell some twonty yours ago, only
a few minutes after a number of per
sons bad lelt it. II was on 1 utile
liock, so the guides say, thai Mrs.
Slgournoy wrotu her "Apostrophe to
Niagara." If sho could see il now she
would bo more likely to writo a semi
colon to tho toll-gates and an exclama
tion point to the hack-drivers. About a
mile above wboto Tublo Rock used to
stand is tho Burning Springs. Tbe
spring is at the bead of the rapids, and
tho water is charged with gas, which
burns when lighted. bencver. the
pcoplo in charge of tho spring soo a
visitor coming thoy light the gas.
Anybody who lias 50 cents worth of
curiosity can sco tho gas burn in a
dark room. Tho new suspension bridge,
about a quarter of a mile below the
falls, Is 1,'liH) foot long, and tho pativos
aro fond of calling il tho longest sus
pension bndgo in the world. It bas
slender towers one hundred feet high
to which, of course, an admission feo
is charged. It is wide onougli lor only
ono carriago at a time, and for this
reason it soinotitnes takes nearly an
hour to get across it. It Is very high
ono hundred and ninoly feet abovo the
water. .Natives buy commutation
tickets over this bridgo at tbo rate ot
eight ccnU each. Sliangcrs pay fifty
cents. The old suspension bridgo, two
miles farlhcrdnwu tho river, was built
by ,1. A. Rocbling. In crossing eithor
ol theso bridges, a custom house officer
comes out and examines your baggage.
As they leave you nothing on the
American sido, and thero is nothing to
buy on tbo Canadian side, this is an
unnecessary precaution, 'llio whirl
pool rapids, and tho whirlpool itself,
woro both built for tho benefit nf
hackmen. They are some distance
away and thero is no cnmforlablo way
to reach them but with a carriage.
The wator in tho rapids Is suit) to bo
250 Icet deep.
It was in an unintentional visit to
the whirlpool and greater things be
yond that I gained tho exporiouco of
Niagara bai kmen that bus since served
mo well. Starting out a twonty-five
cent trip from tho Spencer Hous'o,
under contract to be taken to tho lulls
and back for "a quarter," I was gradu
ally inveigled into driving down to
the old suspension bridgo, up the
Canadian side, and ovor two or three
toll bridges, till thohackmun's bill was
a liltlo ovor 110, to say nothingofthe
fivo or six loll gates on the Canadian
side, between tho bridge and the fulls.
Fulls strcot is tho principal street in
this town ol 3,000 inhabitants. 1 1 has
all sorts nf stores and several large
hotels, and a great many trcos. It is
a broad stroet, dusty, and not parlicu
larly attractive. Down at tho Ameri end ol the old suspension bridge
is a town with the ambitious name of
NiagataCiiy. His composed princi-
rally of restaurants and ale. bouses.
I' thero is a house in the town where
oyster stows are not to be had It Is
devoted to tho manufacture ol lemon
ade. Rclweon tho two towns is the
Oak wood Cemetery. At the Canadian
ond of the old bridgo is Clifton, and
this settlement extends all the way
up to the Falls. Chiton, aa nearly as
I can loarn, consists ot a uustora
ilouso, seven toll gates and a btoel.
Tho country lor several miles around
t is laid out in streets, but they are ot
Utile use, for there are no bouses on
them and nobody to walk in them.
Even Christians have their fast
days. Aio IV Commtraal AJw-
In tho light cast upon it by tho post
mortem examination, it is possible to
aescnuo tno injury to I'rosidont liar
fluid, to follow and explain the vary
ing symptoms, and to determine not
only tbe immediate causo of death
but tho ultimato causes that lead to
Uhat ovent. In attempting this, how
ever, it must Do said that the Intorma
tion thus fur supplied la still very
scanty, ana mat any conclusion reach
ed now may be cntiroly overturned by
a moro complete description of tho
psmoiogy ana the history ot the case.
Mr. Garfield was shot on tho morning
oi July zi. mo ball entered tbe back
about four inches to tlio right of the
spine, and botween tho tenth and
eleventh ribs, fracturing tho latter,
lis direction was from the right side
toward tbe left, bnt slightly forward
and downward, and passing on its way
it crushed through the body of the
first lumbar vertebra, and finally lodged
in the deep muscles of the beck or
loins about two inches and a half to
the left of tho spine, bolow tbe pan
creas. This organ, it may be explained,
is an oblong gland, very similar in
structure to the salivary glands, which
lies across tho back part of the abdo
men behind tho stomach, its largor
ond being somewhat to tho right of
tho contre of the body and its smaller
end extending to the spleen, upon tho
letl side, abovo the lett kidney. The
puncreas was not aflected by the
wound, but the reader should under
stand its position, as well as that ot the
vertebra above mentioned. It will be
remembered that the spinal column,
or "backbono, is mado up of a series
of bones or vertebra', piled one upon
the other. The upper vertobrto, called
cervical, form the neck ; to tho twelve
dorsal vortebrie the twelve ribs are at
tached, and below thoso oome tho lum
bar vertebra, tho largest of them all.
r.ach vortobrn' consists cf a body, a
circular mass ol bone, with fiat sur
faces abovo and below, which rest
upon those adjoining, ond of acurionsly
formed ring of bone behind this, with
a projection or spinous procoss at the
back. Tho series of rings, interlocking
togothor, forms the flexible canal that
contains the spinal cord, Irom which
nerves pass out to supply tbo different
parts ol tbo body. Il wus tho injury
of ono of thoso norves, either by ihe
ball or by splinters ot bono, that caus
ed the pain in the legs of which the
President complained in tho early
stapes of tho case, and il is possible
that tbo spinal cord itself bad sustained
some harm from the fracture.
When tho patient was taken to the
Whilo House ho wus in a slate ot col
lapse from tho schock of the injury,
and lliroughoutlhedny it was believed
that bo must die. In the course ol
Ihe night, however, he rallied a little,
ihe panic subsided and tho case was
given in cbnrgo of a selected group of
surgeons, ibe latter knew Irom ex
perience that the less a penetrating
wound of tbe abdomon was moddled
with the better, and they determined
upon a strictly conservative and ex
pectant course of treatment, which
consisted simply in carelul dressing
of the wound and attention to tbe
pationt's genoral condition. On July
4th, Dr. Agnew and Dr. Hamilton
were summoned in consultation. Ihoy
saw the patient, who had quite recov
ered Irom tho shock and had no dis
quieting symptoms ; they learned what
treatment bad been adopted, and wore
convinced Ibat tho surgeons in charge
were doing what was right and wero
compolont to tho care of tho case. It
does notappcar lhateitbor Dr. Agnew
or Dr. Hamilton mado a personal ex
amination ot the wound at this time,
and altor signing a bulletin or two
they went homo and did not soo the
patient again until tho 23d. Up to
this time everything bad apparently
been going well. Tb j tissues bad closed
in around the ball, which gradually
beta mo encysted, or enclosed in hard
ened tissue, and henceforth ceased to
be an element in tho caso. Between
Ibe spine and tho outer wound also tbe
process of repair had gono on, so that
the truck of the ball was no longer
open. Rut around the Iractured rib
active inflammation had Bet up and an
abscess funned, tho presenco ol which
was indicated by a cbill and a sudden
rise in tomperuturo and pulso at noon
of the duy named. Tbe consulting
surgeons were summoned in husto and
on Sunday, July 24lh, Dr. Agnew
mado an incision into this pus cavity.
Thero was an abundant discharge
and subsequently a number of
splinters of bone were removed. Mean
while, however, the imprisoned puB
bad ulroady begun to burrow along
tho vortical muscles of the loin, so that
the operating surgeons found a deep
channel reaching downwards on the
right side, in a different direction from
tho track of the ball, which by this
lime wus neurly closed. The treat merit
uppliedlo what was thus erroneously
supposed to bo tbo wound would have
been tho same in any caso. It was
simply to keep it clean and facilitate
the discharges. Nevertheless it did
not diminish, and to promote tho latter
object a second incision was made, two
weeks later, below tho last rib and the
original orifice was allowed to heal.
This would prohuhly have accomplish,
ed its purpose had not other causes
brought about such a condition of the
patient's system as to stop altogether
the procoss of repair. Tho discovery
mado later ol tho unexpected depth of
tins suppurating channel was not as
important as it appearod, becauso it
was by this time evident that tho pa
tient was sull'oiing from some ollior
troublo than was caused by any then
visible or within reach.
This trouble camo from the Iractured
vertebra'. Thero is no complication
so dangerous in a wound os a broken
or diseased bone. The growth and
nutrition of a bono aro slow, and in
flammation and degeneration and the
death ol tho bone tissuo are corres
pondingly evil in thoir effects. Tho
body ol tho first lumbar vertcbrii' is a
mass of light, spongy bono, especially
iiaiuu lu uusLi ucilTU lllliaillHittllilll. ll
had been shattered by the ball and its
fragments scattered and driven into
tho solt tissues. Tho decay of tho
bone gradually ensued, and, while tbo
ball was sulely out of the way and the
external wound was becoming less im
portant, there had been developing,
out ol sight and out ot roach, a condi-1
tion of disease that could not but con
taminate the whole system. Com
monly in such a caso tho only thing
to bo dono is to cut down and remove
the bone or its diseased portion, but
surgery has not yet devised a means
of removing ono of a man s vertebra',
and it is not clear bow any human
skill could have been nf service in this
case, oven had the actual condition of
the parts been known. Any operation
must have boen truly "herolo" in char
acter. Indeed, it would have required
a snmowhat heroic operation, and one
which there appears to hare boen no
indications to justify, even to have as
certained theexistenco of this fracture
on tbo front ot the opine, closo to the
great vessels and surrounded by sensi
tive abdominal organs. Knowing that
this complication existed, we may won
der that it was not suspected ; but the
lact that half a-doxen surgeons ot large
knowledgo and experience, to say
nothing of their outsido critics, did not
suspect it is sufllcient evidence that its
prosenco was not indicated,
liut the presence of somo such
trouble was indicated most distinctly.
1 he high lover and the irritable sloni
ache pointed to some intornal cause
and the depraved condition of the blood
was presently made further evident by
the appearance ol an abscess ot the
parotid gland.
Itwason August 18thatthiscompli-
calion was announced, and for a long
lime alter It was the prominent fea
ture of the case, although every ooe
recognized that it wus not tho cause
but tbe result of tho general prostra
tion. The surgeons seem to have
struggled to muintuin a hope ot recov
ery bocause they could see nothing
that positively forliado such hope ; but
me decaying tissuo of tho Iractured
bone was still doing its mischovious
work, and it must havo been only tbe
extreme caro with which each passing
symptom was watched and met that
prolonged life so long and so many
times snatched hirn from the very iaws
of death. After the romoval to Lonz
iirancb, which was eminently wise,
however fruitless, there was evidenco
of the formation of another abscess,
but tbe surgoons could not tell where
it was. Thore was a scvoro bronchitis,
or inflamation of tho lining membranes
of the air passages, partly from an ex
tension ot toe intlamation Irom tho
parotid gland, but due also to the gen
eral tendency to unhealthy action, and
some inflammation of tbe lung tissue
itself; but no cavity could bo detected.
It is now known that the abscess was
in tho abdomen, between tbe liver and
tho portion of tho larger intestines
that Ho beneath It. Jhero had been
also a diffused inflammation of tho peri
toneul covering of those organs, so that
they had become adherent. How long
lite might bnve boen prolonged under
theso conditions can only bo conjec
tured. The centres ol diseased action
wero beyond the Burgeons' reucb, nor
could any skill havo averted the acci
dent that brought tbe patient's sutler
ings so abruptly to an end, when hem
orrhage suddenly occurred from some
of tho brunches of t he abdominal blood
vessels at the scat ot injury, and a gush
of blood, rupturing the peritoneum
fulling into the cavity ot the abdomen,
brought about tho final collupso and
almost immediate deutb, thus sud
denly terminating a case that other
wise, must soon have ended in com
plete exhaustion.
Looking back over this whole rec
ord wo aro led to these conclusions.
The surgoons in attendance were at
fuult in their diagnosis of tbe wound
at the beginning, when alono any true
diagnosis could havo been made, but
ils most Borious tealure could hardly
have been recognized even then with
out a meddlesomeness that probably
would have proved fatal in itself. Even
had it been accurately known, it is not
probablo, it is scarcely possible, that
any hopelul intorforenco could have
been attempted, and it is clear that
tbe common idea tbat a ball should
have boen out out was entirely erone
ous. The only practical difference
would have been that tbey might then
havo decided frankly that tho Presi
dent could not recover and that their
efforts could only be directed to the
prolongation of his life. For this tboy
have labored tnilhfully, assiduously,
skillfully, and all the suocess that was
within their reach tbey attained. In
all tho ordinary features of tho case
that could be recognized by physical
signs, their opinions have been justi
fied by tho facts, but it is plain that
there aro some things slill beyond the
roach even oi scientific surgery. Phil
adelphia Timet.
The Feet. No part of tho human
body is so much neglected as the feel.
Possibly not ovor ten in each hundred,
of even the educated classos, properly
cleanse the feet and nails. Rathe tho
feet evory night and morning with a
little borax in the water. Ammonia
and iiay rum, though cleansing, have
a tendency to dry the skin and close
tho poros. Frequent change of hosiery
is even moro necessary than changing
any other part of tho clothing. After
physical exorcise ronovato tho stock
ings, batho the feet and annoint them,
the ankles and the calves of the legs,
with healing oil or salvo. Exchango
tho socks worn through the day for
clean ones at early evening, and tho
brain will quic kly respond to the re
storing influence. It would be much
better to neglect to wash the face an
entire month than to neglect to bat lie
the feet a single day. Pure tho nails
once a week, and, only alter snltoning
by bathing, remove the quick, which
gathers under tho nail, overy third
day before it putrifies. Never use
cheap or highly-perfumed soap, as it
has a tendency to dry and patch tho
skin, and so close the pores as to prove
very injurious to health. Cuslilo, olivo
oil and other vegetable oil soaps are
tno best lor the uvsb.
Young man, lo huppy hoot, boiler.
skip, gambol and soap your fingers at
tho niithtmaro ol a new ovorcoat tor
next Winter. Last Fall a Canadian
gonius shivered awhile then reflected
awhile,andtho result was the purchase
of a box ol mustard plasters. These wero
distributed around on bis lrame wbero
they would do tho most good, and
whilo men in beaver ovorcoats shivered
with cold he was warm and happy in
his shiit sloevci. One dollar takes you
through a hard Wintor, and you como
out in tho Spring lut. 'Vc Vrm.
'So 3,ou'ro off on your vacation, aro
you V said a townsman to Shulllo tho
other morning. "Take your family
along ?" "No, I'm going fur ploasnre,
that s all," and the remark would've
been funny if Mi's. s. bodn t overheard
it. That broko Shuttles pleasure all
There is this difference between hap
piness and wisdom: Ho who thinks
himself the happiest man really is so;
but he who thinks himself the wisest
is generally just the reverse.
The nearest approach to perpetual
motion of anything that has ever been
invented ia rent. Day and night it
goes on all the same and nevor slops.
An Irish editor says: Our wrffnen
aro accused of being fond of whistling.
Well, so be it. What ll more lovely
than tulips well blown 1
Tho true way for a woman to drivo
a nail is to aim the blow square at her
thumb. Then she II avoid hitting her
thumb, anyway.
Who be our friends w. little know
One we dearly lose may be a bitter foe,
And feigning friend.blp, to beguile;
Ouess w. uet, deceit's behind Ihat artful smil.
To fill wltk sad remorse the mind
Of another, som. do seem, to pleasure find ;
While then with looks of bsughiy scorn.
They will piss them by aad leave them there to
Rcnorse! eh whet a world of gloom,
World of sorrow, tbat oo. little word giro, room:
Rsmorle Is psio of eonoience ; pain
From a aenss of guilt ; 'tis sorrow grief aad abaue.
And ok what bitter tear, of regret
We may sbed, wbso wa will over our slas rodeo! j
Oh may our great and blessed Friend
From aboro, to shield as, T.r eondesceod.
Good teachers are scarce.
Over one hundred teachers in the
county are subscribers to educational
Will A. Mover, of Perry oounty, is
teaching Harmony school, in liurnside
Tbo teachers ot Indiana county are
holding their County Institute this
week ai Indiana.
The new school building at Uoutz
dale has been condemned, and will
have to be built over.
Ksqnire Lehman, of Iloutidale. has
thocontrsct lor building the new school
nous in Decatur township.
Wade and Allison Hugorty, of Bee-
caria township, started lor Laf'uyotte
iOiiege, at J-.aston, last week.
One hundred and eighteen provi
sional certificates wero issued at tbe
lato examinations, and twenty appli
canls rejected.
Dr. George P. Hays, formerly ol
Washington and Jefferson College, is
now pastor ol tho leading rrosbyienan
churcn in Denver city, Colorado.
A No. 1 man is wanted to teach the
Lumber City High school. Salary, (50
por month. A good female teacher is
also wanted fur tho Primary school.
Salary, ?30 per month.
In the education of tho young, two
distinct objects need to be kept in
view. One is tho discipline of all the
individual powers, physical, mental
and spiritual. Another is providing
the future man or woman, ol whom
the child is but the prophecy, with
available rosourses against the coming
day ot need.
Do teachers know that it is vory
dishonest to agree to touch a school
and articlo for the same, and afterward
decline for some more profitable posi
tion, and thus cause a failure by dis
appointing School Hoards. The teach
ers who practice this are doing but
little to build up the profession, and
aro certainly injurying themselves
groatly by so doing. A teacher'a word
and name to an article ought to be
worth something. Wo shall speak of
this again.
"We insist," says the editor of the
national Journal of Education, "tbat
tbe people receive a groat deal more
for their money than tbey have reason
to expect, from the small Bum tbey
aro willing to pay the average teacher.
We recently viBitod a portion of New
England, celebrated aa tbe birthplace
of half-a doxcn of the great American
characters of the past half century,
and 'noblo women not a few.' Yet
these towns aro actually paying to day,
smaller wages lor the teachers ot their
district schools than are demanded
by ordinary servant girls and young
womon who cut and mako dresses in
tbo suburban towns of Boston. We
are glad to know that faithful servants
and women, who live by the labor of
thoir hands, aro well paid. Rut as
long as superior young women in New
England are expected to teach school
on starvation wages, tbe pcoplo havo
no rouson to oxpect that a broad gauge
educational train can be run on tbo
narrow gaugo truck laid by their own
indiffureuce and potty economy."
Tbe following are the appointments
made by tho School Boards, designated
and officially reported during the past
week, as required Dy law :
BRsnr Towseair.
Lulbersburg High school
Lutb.rsburg Primary school.,
New ttelam school H
Troutvllle anhool
E O. Ileys.
1 . I M e 8enoo.
W. 0. Penis.
J. I. Broekbank.
Sadie J . Morgaa.
T. W. Ilrockhaok.
Lillio M. Lutker.
Susls Klshell,
Joeepk Kirk.
(leorge M. Henry.
II. H. Davis.
, Lila Rearos.
Coal Hill school
Aurand school
East Brsnob school
Scbindle school
Cross Rcada school ..,
II artsfslt school H,
Fine Hwetup school
Lines school
Wiogert school
Jennie M, Read.
Salaries, 03J, S:ii and 1.16 per month.
eatiBwoon TowN.sir.
Bower achoot Frank Curry.
Johnson school. H John Young
Pioe Orove school M..0. Bell.
Halsrlr., HH, 0.10 end Mi.
rsiofl vowaasir.
Home Camp school K. C. Wldemlrs.
Hubert school Alice I. IIS.
Spruoo fliil school Msry Heekendora.
Msple Corner school Lissie Hoyt.
rJelarloe, 020, 120, :l and .tl per month.
rsRooaoB Towvsnir.
Wilsoa school Lissie Sum mora
Marfoa eehool Kilta Logaa.
Ilroadway eehool Emma Keens.
Filend.hip school.. Berths llile.
New school H Erie Ouppy.
8lony Point school H Murray Fsrgusoa.
Salaries, llfc and $10 per month.
Banner Ridus school Molli. 7.immarm.B
Ciipples eehool Bell Wcisel.
Rocsy Springs school Amelia lluflm.o.
Summit .rhool u MLaell. oeoderlia.
Knnny Side school Rosa Lee.
Miller school.. Ida Banderlia.
Susquehanna echnoL Mary Ualiagher.
Trout Dale school Jenoie Read.
Bethlehem and Frankiia to be euppiiej.
Salaries, I2j and 12 per menlh.
rasa rowssatr,
P.nnvllle school - A. A. DeLarme.
Poier school Wills Barber.
Spencer Hill school... Sophia Mc)4orera.
Bell Hon .rhool m Martha Sharp.
Mletlee, 1 11, 01 aad 040.
obahib rev, ..sir.
Johnson school... H Tillie Mobs
Krans school Hadls Iteam.
ttrahsmton school Uotlie Oroheta.
Pairri.w and Palistine schools to be supplied,
Belarles, f 36 per meath.
arsssina rowssair.
Cn.h school... .................Msry Darr.
Elk Lick school S, E. Rlach
Croes Roods school.. Ida A. NrrT.
Patobiavilte school M Sadie tlallegkei.
Shepherd ackool Anna HonRey.
Easl Kldge school.. .... Mary Curry.
Pine Orove school I. K. Jimesoa.
Harmony school to be supplied.
Valerias, MS aad Je per month.
bbcatitb rowvaaip.
Che.ter.ill. sclooL... f W. A. Shults.
peeoiur school Kmma Mullea.
Weel New Castl. eckool Lldte Metier..
Oo.l Ra. school Llssis tlrsbem.
lieaverto. school m Clara E. Ilsmer.
Moshannoa school K. A. Campbell.
Haneo.k school W. A. Wilson.
J.ffsrsoa eehool Ikoasee llopkios.
Obi. ackool J. L. McLerrea.
Parsoa.llio school Webster Uugbes.
balariee, teO per month.
Coatribaiioas ta this departmeat skoald be ad-
dressed te
J. Blaib Hbao, Clearfield, Pa.
Wkea llgklolog strikes a stalwart Ipsa,
And every fibre sorely strains,
Tbe that feasted riotously
I'pon tke sen witkia its v.ibs
Their oatare's law at oaoa .bey,
And fall away.
Tbe politician, meaaer yet,
Thrivee oa his leader's fall or hurl
Befor. the storm his liaes aro aet,
And he prepares for eating dirt.
He seeks to make deesrtioa pay,
Aad falls away.
None are too low, and Bona loo high,
To sub and leare tkslr falling triads,
Their boasted troth ie made a lie t
Their pllent honor gladly bends
Tbey hasten to Improve tbe day,
And fall away.
As Botblug to the sordid soal
Are weary years of arduous toll ,
Ills petty gains his acts control i
llisesger nostrils scent tbo spoil ,
la suashia. k. must make kis hay t
He (alls away.
An observation extending over a
poriod of thirteen yours, in this Callo
way oounty, Mo., teaches me, or ralber
confirms tho teachings ot my boyhood
tbat clover is one of the most valuable,
if not the most valuable, forage plants
tbat we have for this climate. But
tor clovor, this yoar, our hay crop
would have been almost a total failure;
as it is we have clover meadows that
will make two tons of hay to the acre
of good toed. In thoso meadows that
are a mixture ot clovor with tbe grasses
proper the only crass tbat stood the
drought, and mado anything like a
crop, was red top and orchard grass.
Theso grasses hold a long time, and
this your gave the second growth oi
clovor timo to mature sufficiently to
make good bay. 1 bow it in the woods,
on old pasturos, in the meadows ; in
fact, everywhere I find a bare plaoe or
a spot wbero the grass ia thin. My
futbor has been raising the mammoth
for thirteen years, prefers it to the
small or common. My practice, has
been to mix. Tbe mammoth nearly
all dies when the seed is permitted to
mature on strong land. It (the mam
moth) ia equal to a crop of buckwheat
for cleaning up the land, and hotter
fur rotting the stumps out of new
ground. 1 have Been raised in this
county botween tour and five bushels
of seed of this variety per aore on very
thin and wornout land. J. L. B., in
Prairie Farmer.
1 hnve olten been struck in reading
Peter Henderson's articles, with the
importance, in his estimation, ol a large
working capital, if a man would expect
success in the business of market gar
dening. He statos in his book, "Gar
dening lor Profit," that it is not safe for
a gardener to begin the business in the
vicinity of New York, with leas than
S300, cash capital, por acre. Now
while not near so much capital is need
ed to manage an ordinary farm as a
market garden, there is just as much
advantago in having' a cash capital on
tho farm as in the gurdon, and much
of tbo failure to realize a lair profit
comes from the fact that tbe farmer's
means are all invested in land, and
none left to improve it.
"But," says some reader, "what's the
use of aggravating us by such state
ment; we have not tuts surplus of
funds, and bow are we to get it ?"
Well, there are possibly some readers
of The Farmer who are "land poor,"
and who might sell off enough land to
furnish the needed capital, or there
may be olbera who are templed to boy
more land, which will not only absorb
what capital they now have, but run
Ibem in debt besides, and such may
possibly bo benefited by having their
attonlion callod to this matter.
The larmcr who has a thousand dol
lars capital to use in his business can
always pay cash down lor all supplies,
implements, etc., etc, that he needs,
and bo will ordinarily save double what
tho money would bring if put at inter
est. Again, he can often buy food,
when it ia low and islikoly to rise, and
effect quite a saving. It ia often the
case that a saving oi 50 per cent, can
be made by a timely purchase.
The farmer with no cantLHt ia alwava
crippled in bis farm management. Ilia
purchases must be made ou oredit, and
when a crop is Bold tbe money goes to
pay off old debts, and leaves bim to
fight through another yoar on the same
lino. If, as is somelimoa the case, his
corn crop ia short, he can go out and
lay in a supply of feed in anticipation
of a riso, but must either sell bis stock
at a sacrifice, or take the risk of buying
feed at high prices in the Spring. He
wants to improve his stock, and baa a
chance to got some first-class animals,
bnt ho bas no money to pay tor Ibem.
There are bargains nfiered olten in bia
neighborhood by men who are selling
out, or who for some reason must part
with their property, but be baa not the
funds and can not get the benefit of
lie socuros a crop, and although be
has every reason to bolicvo it will soon
advance in price ho can not bold it tor
he ia out of money. He perhaps soes
tbat bone meal doubles the crop of
wheat on his neighbor's farm and be
would like to try a ton of it, but be
can not spare the cash. A few acres
of bis best land fails to produce any
thing but weeds and wild grasses be
cause ot tbe wot, and be would be glad
to drain it, but draining coots money
and he bas none to spare.
A few years ot farming undor such
circumstancesdiscou rages bim, be IcuO
ambition, grows careless, and old age
finds bim keeping up the same hope
loss warfare with poverty. Now I am
not arguing especially against large
farms, tor the man who bus tbe capital
and business capacity to manage a
largo farm can mako more money In
proportion than the one with a smell
farm, for bis business will justify the
purchase of all modern implements
that save lime and labor. What I do
say is that a man who has only money
enough to buy and stock a fifty-acre
farm is not wise, ordinarily, if he buys
one hundred acroa ; and then there are
thousands of men now approaching
middle life who have battled witb debt
and the legion of troublos which ac
company it in trying to hold on to
moro land than they bave capital to
manage, who would be wise to either
sell a part of tbe land, or if It can not
be divided, sell out and boy a smaller
or cheaper farm. Thero is probably
00 ono thing that baa done so much to
retard progress among farmers as this,
and perhaps no one evil bo universal.
1 feel safe In asserting that more than
half the (armors of my acquaintance are
crippled for want of capital.
I have had a long experience in this
mnttor and lliereloro writo feelingly
about it, and as I look back over tho
experience of the last twonty years I
bave no donbt that I should bave en
joyed more ol life and bave been worth
as much to day if I had boen satisfied
on my little farm of forty acros, on
which I began life, and kopt a cash
capital on hand that would bave ena
bled me to make every incb oi it pro
ductive, instead of putting every dol
lar 1 could make into land and always
feeling cramped for working capital. I
bave a large sympathy for young men
who start on the lario as I did, with
out a dollar, and who bave no expec
tation of any outside help, and 1 wish
to say to such that I bave lived long
enough to prove the truth of the adage
tbat a "little farm well tilled" tbe
owner of which is out of debt and boo
a lillio something laid by for a rainy
duy is one of the greatest blessings
man can have, and will bring bim far
more comfort than to be the owner of
broad acres if be 1 abort of working
capital. ll'iiWo, in Ohio Farmer.'