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O. B. OOODLANDKR,
(Icri field. Pa.
A T T O 11 N E 1' - A T - LAW.
1:13 I'lillfpoburff, Outre Co., Pa. y.-pd
JjKlLAND I). SWOOPE,
ATTORNEY AT LA s,',
t'uiwcasrilie, Clearfield euunly, Po.
ort. It, ll-tf.
ATTORNKV AT LAW,
re)1 Office in tbo Opera Iluue. octM, '78. if.
it W. I) A IfKETT,
TTnRNBys and Counselors at Law,
.Ijnii.ry 20, 1179.
J SI! A EL TEST,
A TTOKS BY AT LAW,
rr- Office one door cait of 8h.w Hooao,
T M . JI. McC'ULLOUlH,
ATTOIINKY AT LAW,
. CLEARFIKLD, PA.
i :r in Mii.finio butldinit, Feeond etreet, op-
i'p ttto Court llou.e.
AW ti COLLECTION' OFI'ICE,
i icerfield County, Penn'a.
ATTORNKV AT LAW,
in "jcr. llouir. ap li.TT-Iy
tMlTII V. WILSON,
il.KAItntl.ll. - - PKNN'A.
:?' (Mli,.. in In. M,iaunlo BullJinit, orer tbe
t.uot) .N.liooil Rank. uiarZ.-Pu.
II.I IAN A. WALI.Ara. HArin L. RRKaa.
H .HHV f. WALLA. B. JOHN W. WRIBLIT.
UrALLACK ii KREBS,
(Suueaaora to Wall.ee A Fielding,)
A T T O It N E Y S - A T - L A W ,
jil'77 L liar Held, Pa.
ATTORNKV AT LAW,
icr :.v,t the Ciunty National Rank.
Juno 2ft, '7Stf.
. B. ai'BRAT.
I'liKAY Si OORDOX,
a T TORSEYS AT LAW,
r-OXre la Pie'. Opera llouae, tecond floor.
TII.LIAM A. HAG KBTY,
.11 TOIL I 'K 1 '-. T- ',
tilelCH oter T. A. Pier It A Co.'. store.
.TVr-'Will ati.ad to .11 legal bu.looa. with
I i"Uij.loe. nnd fidelity. fob! 1,'BO.tf.
r.vt a. u k4i,lt.
HARIRI, w. R'ci-anT,
c EX A LLY
I.eul boaineaa attended to promptly wlthj
Iclitr. utbee od rjeoond atroet, aboye ibo Firat
V .conal Hank. Jan:l:7l
T F. McKENRICK,
AM lort hotinoa. entra.tod to hla core will r.
cciie prompt allenlion.
,f r-Offl '0 In tbo Court llou.e.
Ci. K tAMER,
""a T T O R X K Y - A T - L A W ,
Real Katato and Collootloa Agent.
U'ill promptly attend to all legal buatn.ae ea
i u.t.l to hi. e.ro.
.-9- Otlic. in Pio'a Opera Hoaw. Jaol'X.
OIIX L. CUTTLE.
ATTOUNEY AT LAW.
.i Heal I'.etalc ARrtit, t IcarHrld, Pa,
"Are oo Third troot, bet.Cherrj A Walnnt,
VRepeotrall7 offer, bit lerrleet in lelliBf
ad buying land i tn Clearfield and adjoining
i' j untie and wltb aa eiporienooot oter twenty
j .are ae a inrTOTor. flatten hlmeelf tbat be oaa
r nder eatleraotlon. rob. l&.A:tt,
E. M. SCHEURER,
Olnoe lo re.idmoo on Firat at.
A 1 . r i 51, 1171. Cleareeld, I'a.
y W. A. MEANS,
i' II YSICI AX & SD RO EON,
Dl'ROIli CITY, PA.
.M attend profeaalunal e.ll. promptly. .urIO'71
It. T. j. no ER,
i llYSICIAN ANII SUKHKON.
'fTi-e on M.rket Street, Cleariold, Pa.
: V"-. 'fHw h.'ora : I to 12 a. a., and 1 to I p. aa.
jyt. J. KAY WRIGLEY,
(i(0"O ..IjoialnK tbo realdeneo of Jam.
I rVoond St., Clearfieid, Pa.
(I C. JENKINS, M. P.,
''" VSI C I A X A X I) S II ii E O N,
CI RWENSVILLK, PA.,
1 "'"c at rridrnie, oorotrnf Sl.t. and Pia.
''' J.r. ih, IfKl tf.
)'! U. II. VAX YALZA1I,
( I I. (HFIKI.I), PKNK'A.
''' ! K IN HKSIIirtNi'R, CORNKR OF FIRST
AND PINK KIRKHM.
Af llfBro hourt-Froni II to I F. M.
M.J II, 1T.
J. P. IIURCHF1ELH,
'' S,,,o, of lb. Hd R.flBient. P.nniyWula
v.lineera, k.tln, i0,d fa tk. Army,
"" hla praf.aai.nal eerrleea lo theeltlaeaa
f Ola.rt.U eoaaly.
..'"feioaal .all. praaiptly .tUadod to.
(SI . ttiHl, foraiwliMopid lay
GEO. B. QOODLANDEE, Editor
VOL. 55-WIIOLE NO.
lOII PKINTINC; OF EVEKY DKSCMP
I tine. aftl.v eiepiije.. al thii r.fBea
TimTICr.H t OKfcTAIlI.I.M' ' EI"
We have printed a large number of tbo no
rKK HILL, ond wilt on the receipt of twenty
Or tmntt. mi a mT tn in addreN. ' myt$
WILLIAM M. IIENKY, Juhticb
or TO PiArn mn SrqiTemo, LI MBER
j CITY. (JulleoLioni mode ornl mtny promptly
I kid oor. A rtieloo uf Rreiuoiit sod detla ot
oooreronoo natlj eiMUtfd end worrooted cor
rect or no ober (ft. Hjy'73
JOHN D. THOMPSON,
J nit ire of tbo Tooee tod Bcrlrener,
&fe.Colle'tlmi oiodo and Bioer promptly
paid o?or. fet.22'7Hf
(tmiKnn r. o.)
JUSTICE OF THE PEACE
Sfjiiiire Timber k Timber I.ninln,
lell'JS CI.KARFIEI.D, PA.
Land Surveyor and Civil EDginee
PHII.IPSBI Un, PA.
j-e7Alt bu.tnri Mill ho n'ten.le to promptly.
Il.o I j, lS0 l.
Houss and Sign Painter and Paper
.Will oieeut jobe In bit line promptly nd
In a workmanlike manner. apr4,n7
WILLIAM 11. UK.iI.EK,
.t TTOH.Vt. YS-IT-i..1 W,
Nor. I7tb. 11t tf.
OUS A. S5TADLER,
! tf HAKKK, Mnrket Si., ClearflcM, Po.
Frenh Hred, Ruk, Rolli, Piei and Cuke
ia band or niade to urtler. A general aMortmeot
j of Cunfeetionftripi , Fruit and Not! In etock.
i loo t'rm and OKTem in orapim. Salooh oiarl
I ixialte tbe Poihiffire Price niodorat.
WEAVER & BETTS,
Dl' A LK RA IN
Ronl Estate, Square Timber, Saw Legs,
AND LI II II Kit OK ALL KINDS.,
prtyofllfle on Heoond afreet, in rear of .tore
room of Ueorgo Wearer Co. j.nt, '78 If.
J l STICK OF TUB I'KACK
' litcalur Touushlp,
.Oaoeola Mill. P. 0.
f II official bueinoee antraated to him will be
promptly attended in. mcb2V, '7d,
BAKRElt AND UAIRDRKKK.
fibop uo .Market St., opposite Court Houie.
A clean towel for nrtrj ourtoater.
Alto dealvr lo
llet III audi of Tubarro and CKara
ruHIMl4. pA. mae W. 'Ti.
JAMES H. TURNER,
JUSTICE OF TIIK PKACB,
p4t He haa prepared bimitlf with all tbe
neoenarjr blank f'rrini under the Peniii-n and
liuunty lawa, ai well blank Dee ill, tie. All
leital matter entrusted to bie oare will receive
pri.upt attention. Maj Tth, lS7-tf.
Market Htreet, Clearfield, Pa.,
II A Nl' FACTO B. R AND BRALRR IN
Jiarnes, Bridlet, Huldlei, Collars, and
Horse-l urniahing Goods.
atr-AII klnda of repairing promptly attended
to. .annera naraw.ro, nor., uruanea, lurry
Comba, Ao., .Iw.ya on band .nd for a. I at tbe
loweal eaab prleo. pi.rcb IV, IN7V.
G. H. HALL,
PRACTICAL TUMP MAKER,
NEAR CLEARFIKLD, PENN'A.
4rPiiipf alwava on band and made to order
on abort notice. Pi pel bored on reasonable terma.
All work warranted to render l at ii taction, and
delirered if domed. m;3i:ijpd
SIlor.M AKINf;.-I borebr Inform my pa
tron, and mankind in general, tbat I have
rviBOvod toy ahoKraaking ahup to tbe rootn in
Urabarn'a row, over H. I. SnyiUr'l Jewelry it ore,
and that I em prepared to ao all km ill uf worl
is my line cheaper than any otbrr ahup in towa.
All w ira wnrrQtd aa food ai can ie Uutte any
where Paitively tbla la the chrHprnt aliop
10 Llcar.trl.l. Jil, 11. iJftr.KI.Mi
rIIIR anderiigned bega leaieto I mom thepab.
X Ho tbat he 11 now fully prr-pare to aooommo
dat all lo tbe way of furnishing 11 -., Boggiea,
Pad ai ana llarneea, on the aborteat nntloe anal
en reaaonable terma. Reaideoee on Loontt atrtct,
oiwern i oiro ana rourin,
tIKO. W. ilKARHART.
"lnrtUld ppb. 4, l74.
THOMAS H. FORCEE,
Alfg.cf temlre manufacturer and dealer In Ruaro
iimoorana cawed Lumber ot all Ktndf.
rOrdera soliolted and all billa promptly
I . SNYDER,
ARB BB11.BR IR
WU'hos, Clocks mid Jowolry,
r7raloa.'a Kut Mari SlrtH,
All kind, of repairing In my lln. promptly att
ended to. Jan. lei, IA7v,
iltarUdtl Innumnrt .tftnt.
JANRB RRRR. CARROLL t. RtPDI.I.
H Kit II K II lit IH. i:, .fi-rnf,
Repreeont tbo following an I other flrtt-elaa Co',
Companlea. . Aaaeta.
Llrerpool London 1 nlobe-t'. R. Br..'.il.
l.yenmlng a mota.l A e.ah plana. .... A.tVHi.ftoii
I'borniB, or Hartford, Conn I.S24.0SX
Inaar.ne Co. or North Ainorle. AI.S?!
Konh llrlll.b A Mereanillo IM. Dr.. I,l-I,ss
8rotil.h Commorel.l l. 8. Rraneb.... ATD.Idk
Trarrlera (Life A Aceldrnll t.iVj.tl.
Offlr. on Market et., o, p. Court llonao, (.le.r.
eld, P.. Jon. I. '7f tr
West End Drug Store,
IN GRAHAM'S ROW,
(Halfway blween Moaaep'aand Fleek'l
rpil R nndatalgavd h.a opened op . Drag flloee,
1 with a full r.pply of porloetly pur and
Ire.k Drare, Medicine., Cbemieela nnd Toilet
A tile lea ihee Drug, have bom .elected w.lb
gre.t r .nd ar. guaranteed I b porfertly
pure aad reliable. I will giv my paraonal allea
lioa la thu departaeet, ead will ahoovfally giv
ny ad.lco and lalormalloa la regard tome IteisM
fra.rfab.rg. . I.J.HVlll.
Waarlald, P. bos. 1, Usa-tt
ELECTION 0? rRESIDEM Al)
Hon. AVilliam A. Wallace,
SENATOR FROM FENN'A,
In The Senate of the United SUtoe,
February 111), 1881,
Mr President : On tho 28tb of Jan
unry lust I hail Ihtj honor to submit
for tlio considcralion nl tbo Smalts
joint rtsolulion No. 1-13, iiroposiiijr an
aniendinenl lo llio Lnnstiltition ol the
I'niUil Stall-", which is in tht'so words :
That berooller lb. Preaidenl end Vie. Preal
dent of the I nitt'd Sietel abn.ll l ehoaen be Ibe
people of the re.peetie St.tea ia lb manner f.i.
Karb State .hall he divided ly the Lenlal.ture
thereof lnlo dtrtricte, fqu.l In numher to the
whole number of henetora and Repreeent.tlvoi to
ohu-h u.-h State may beeatilled in tbe Congreie
nf the I'niiel St.toe, th. a.id dUtrioia lobe eoin
po.ed of eoniigtioua territory, and to ooni.ln, .a
nearly aa may be, .0 equal Duiub.r of peraoaa
em Hied to be represented under the Conatilution,
and to I., laid ell' lor th. Drat time immediately
alter lie ralllle.ttiio of this Amendment, .ud
.fleraaid .t ll.o araaion of the Legialaluro next
eoauing ttie aportionoienl of RepreaenUlivea by
tho C..ti;rea ol the Lolled SI. tea ; but ne niter.,
lion .-ter the Rial or alter earh decennial forma
tion of diatiicla ah. II tali, ctleot .t tbe aexten
auing elrolioo alter fuch .lter.ti.in ia made. Tbat
on the drat Tueeduy in the month of November in
ibo ).r IPbl .nd on lb. .nie dayi in every
! utth ye.r Iberi-Mller, the eiiiaen. of eaon Stale
who porea tbe qu.lltii-allona rriuieite for eleoiora
of ibe moat numeroua brunab ol the Stale Letia
'Uture ah. I) meet nt th. pl.oe. prjvi led by State
lw within their re.peetiv. diairieta and vote by
.eeret ballot lor a Pretident and Vice Pro.ident
of tbo lluit.d Staioa, ona ot whom at leat aball
not be an Inhabitant ol the aatne Slot, wilb the
i oter; end tbo perion receiving the greateat
number ol volea for Preaitleul .nd tbe one receiving-
tbo gre.teat number of votea for Vloe
I'reaidrnt in each diatriot aball each bo boldcn lo
hare received nr.. vote, which Lot aliall be im.
meiii.t.ly cerlifle.1 to tbo Bo.rd of C.nva.arra of
Ibo State, to each of the Seoatora in Uengre.a
Irom aneh Stale, and to lb Preaidenl of Ibe S.o
ale. Ihe vote, .ball he eanva.aed and tbe re.ult
in each dlmirt aacertaiaed from me return, hr
the Movrrtior, lb. Cbitf JuMlceof the hi.lie.t
Court ol low, end the S.eret.ry of Siai. of lh.
proper Si. to, who ahnll eon.titute tbe Roar.l of
S tat. I'a nva.acra.and they ah. li certify tho reault in
a.id Slate to tho Upeaker of Ihe llou.a of Repre-
rcoutives of Ibe foiled .Slate, within ailty dayi
ufler tbe .leclion, and Ibeir eeniticato .lull be
conclii.iv. protf of Mich reault The C.inxre-oj of
the Ti.ited el.tc. ab. II be in fe.alon on Ihe ascond
.Monday In Febru.iT, is tbo year 185.. nd on
th. aaiu. day in .very fourth yeer there.tter ;
.nd Ibe Speaker of the llou.e of Reprc.enta
livca, in the , re.eneeof Ibe S.n.te nnd 1I..0M or
Rrprctcnl.ti.ra, .ball open .11 the certiftctea,
and tho vote, .hell then he oonoted by the two
llouiee lo joint convention met. The petaon
b.vipg the greateat oumberof votea lor 1'reaiJeot
.liFilt Lo l'rc.ident, .nd tho pcr.on h iving the
gr.alr.t numh.r of votea f.r Vice I're.ilcnt .ball
be Vice Prt.ldrnt ot the I oited j.tea.
This amendment contemplatm a
chani) in thut provision of Iho Con
rHiliiuon ut tho Lulled Slatcit which
regulated tho election ol President and
Vice President by substitutiiiif for the
clectorul colleges a direct voto of tho
people for Ibe cnndidules themselves.
The elcclorul college bus failed to an
swer tlio purposes lor which those who
originated it intended it. It was
thought at tho lime of the formation
of the Constitution tbat tho substitu
tion of a body of intelligent nnd lead
ing citir.ens between tho pcoplo and
iho candidates would cnuble the coun
try, in the event nl' difficulty, to depend
upon their judgment, integrity, nnd
high position for tho solution of those
difficulties. Tbo icverso ol this has
proved to bo tbo fact in practice. Parly
discipline, parly caucus, and tho recog
nized will of party control, compel tho
electors to vote lor the candidates
named in their party caucus, ll is tlio
purpose of this resolution to suhsliliile
tho will of tho people directly expressed
for this system. 1 submit it now with
no hope ol its immedialo adoption, but
as a contribution to tho agitation from
which nlono a change can come.
Tho features ol the system are :
First. Tho disvision by tho l.cgiela
turo ot cucb Stale into districts, equal
in number to tlio whole number ot
Senators and Representatives lo which
such Sluto is emitted In Congress,
Delaware, for instance, would bo en
tilled lo 3 votes, and would be divided
by its own Legislature into thrco (lis
Second. Tlio people are to voto in
thoee districts, at an tinilorm timo,
directly for their candidate tor Presi
ilenl and Vico President, one of whom,
as at present, shall not bo a citizen of
tho State in w hii h the voter resides.
Third. The person having tho high
est number of voles in euch district (a
plurality being sufficient) to bo entitled
lo ono voto out of tho wholo number
to which the Slato is entitled. Penn
sylvania, hnving 29 votes would have
probably cust 111 democratic and 19
republican votes at tho recent election.
Fourth. Tbo returns of these votes
to be made to tho governor, chief jus.
tico, and secretary of slato, who shall
canvass and return the samo. w hich
shall bo conclusive proof of how the
Fifth. Tho votes thus returned lo be
counted by the two Houses in joint
Sixth. Tho person having Iho high
eat number of votts from allot the
districts voting (a plurality being suf
ficicnt) to bo elected.
Seventh. Thoqualitictiliot.Bof voters,
the division ol the Stnto inlo districts,
and the canvass of individual votes to
bo under control of tho Stato and tbe
moilo of voting to bo tho secret ballot.
Tho districts aro to be formed alter
each census ot tho United States has
been tuken, and aro first to bo formed
immediately ul'ior tho adoption of the
amendment. Noclmiio in the districts
can tuko effect at tho first election
alter such cltungo.
Tho qualification of oleclors, as now
prescribed by tho Constitution ol Iho
United States for members of Congress,
are preserved, and tho universality nt
a secret ballot Is enforced. Tbe votes
cast in each district by tho electors,
when computed by tho election olllcors,
aro to bo returned to Ibo Suite can
vassing board, and whoever shall havo
teceived tho highest number of votes
in such disltict shall be hold to have
received ono voto. Tho wholo number
of votes cast for each candidate in all
tho districts in any Stato are to be
ascertained by a canvassing board,
composed of the governor, chief Justice,
and secretary of state, and they are
within sixty days after the election to
eertily tbe number of votes by districts
received by each candidate In each
State to the Speaker of the llouso ot
Iteprescntatives. J his icturn Is to be
the only and concluaivo proof of tho
result in that Stale. Tlio returns thus
mado lo tho Spcakerot tbe House are
to be laid beliiio the two Houses in
in joint convention met, at the usual
lime, nnd they aro authorized and em
powered thcro to count Iho voto and
determine tho result. Tho candidate
for President and Vico President, re
spectively, receiving tho highest num
ber of votes out of tho wholo number
ol districts voting, shall be declared
elected President and Vice President
of the United Stain", thussubstituting
the plurality voto both in tho districts
and of the districts lor the majority
rule of the Sialcs or of the electoral
colleges which is now In operation,
It will bo noted that thin Rynlein
i-iiiuit-n, iirni, win electoral cimt'jo 10
a direct vote by the pooplo in districts ;
second, tho plurality or majority in
each district contribute ono vote to tho
election of President and Vice I'rcsi.
dent directly ; third, tho State has en
tiro control of tbo elections and the
certificate thereof to Conres-; fourth,
tho two Houses, aclini; together, oro
Riven solo power to count tho votes ;
lillh, tho necessity for a majority of
tho electoral collcfo and lor action in
any event by the House of Itepreecnla
lives votinpbyStalcsisdispciiscd with,
and tlio plurality rule by districts
The district system is no now thought
in tho politicqol tula country. Itloundits
oriirin in the constitutional convention
nl 1787, on the motion of Judgo Wil
son, ot Pennsylvania, and it was ini
tialed In Congee m the very early
days of our biBtory. It has been elab
orated and enforced from timo to time
by leading Senators and members ol
tho House, an an abstract of our history,
which I yivo herewith, will prove :
tins is not a process of entire nnd
absolute consolidation by a direct vote
of tho whole people ot all tho Slates,
but it is a voto by tbo people, in the
iiisirn-ts mailo by the State, directly
for the candidates, w hich votes are to
bo returned to State authority and
conclusively certified thereby as the
result l Slato action. In this respect
it is as dillVircnt from an universal voto
throughout tbe wholo country ascor
taming results by its aggreguto as is
the present systum from a direct voto
hy the people.
Ono ot tho leading purposes to bo
attained by this amendment is repre
sentation of the minority in each State,
and as a consequence the destruction
and ubsoluto eradication ol sectionalism.
Under this system in the last election
Pennsylvania would havo probubly
chosen nineteen electors for (iat field
and ten for Hancock, while Virginia
wouiu uavo uiven ciL'ht lor ilancock
and three for (iatfu ld. It is simple
ana uirecl, cut it prolesscs lo contain
no new thought. It is the mero appli
cation ol what wo have come to recog
mr.e as the American system of elec
tions to tho practical working ol the
Federal Constitution in the election of
President and Vico President.
'In the elections ol our county and
Slulo officials as well as in tho election
ol members of Congress, tho person
having tho highest number ol voles,
whether he havo a majority or a mi
nority, is the chosen candidate, but at
present under ibe Federal system a
majority ol tho whole electoral vote,
or ot tlio Slates in tho Jlonso ol Rep
i resell latives, is required. I can see no
huflieient reason now lor this differ
enco, if tho just voice of each Stato
can bo preserved. Our experience
teaches us that there is no longer any
necessity for tho continuance, of the
rigid majority rule. Stato equality in
thu Senate and State independence in
its voto aro, by tho district system as
herein embodied, fully preserved.
I can eeo no practical reason for
compelling a majority of all tho States,
as such, to bo obtained cither by the
useless processes of tho electoral col
leges or, luiling that, ol tho voto by
ttie House ol Representatives hy States,
with all ils dangers of civil war, cor
ruption, and anarchy. Tho preserva
tion and recognition of tho equal and
independent voicoof each Stato and ol
tho minority as well as of tho majority
of its people is to my mind tho vital
thought, and although a plurality
elects, my judgment is that we will as
frequently elect a majority President
under the district system us under the
system now in operation.
Thore can bo no good reason, as 1
see it, why plurality ol tho Amorican
people should not control when they
have fair opportunities and free suf
frugo in the selection of their rulers ;
nor can I conceive any reason why it
is cssontial now to preserve the old
thought that a majority of tho States
should cast their clectorul votes for any
candidate beloro thcro is an election,
in face of the tuct thut bo is oltcn in a
minority of the wholo people. Under
Iho present system there aro many
instances in which while tbo candidato
elected has a mujorily of the clectorul
colleges ho has a minority of tho pco
plo. This was notiibly the enso in
1870, as it was in 18U0 and is in tho
recent election to a smaller extent. It
seems to mo bettor to err in Iho other
direction if we must orrat nil. For all
purposes needed to effect Federal re
sults, the thought that is embodied in
our every duy ptactico in electing
township, city, county, and Slato
ollleials and Congressmen can now well
and profitably be embodied in the Fed
Tbo lesson of Iho election iust com
pleled in tho count by tho llouso this
Week is full ol instruction. Thcro nro
JOS) electoral votes. Garfield received
214, Hancock, without Gooriia. 144.
Il Now Yurk had cast her 35 votes lor
Ilancock, the voto ol Georgia would
havo been required to decide tbo con
tusl, or tlio llouso would hnve been
compelled to elect, forwith Now York
voting for Hancock there would have
tieen u Ho al lil) voles, and a tio in tbo
llouso voting by States would proba
bly have resulted ; and thus the poaco
of iho country might have heen broken
by the tremendous convulsions conse
quent on such a condition of affairs.
Thu plurality rule would obviato nil
14 v this amendment tho Slates aro
not divided into districts upon tho ratio
on which their representation in the
lower llouso ot Congress would bo
fixed, but thcro is given to each Stale
as such,tn addition toils representation
in tho Lower Houso,horequal represen
tation in tlio Sunalo. So that wbilo New
York has thirty-throe members of the
lowor llouso, she has H5 vote for
President; and while Rhodelsland has
but two members of tlio lower House.
she lias 4 vote for President. Fy this
is preserved .Slulo Individuality and
Slate control, and to my mind sufficient
of tho Federal system, il wo stand by
the plain reading ol tho (. onstitution
in outer respects.
Tbe correction of the-Ticiotia system
nl niarkod ballot is provided tor also
hy proscribing a secret ballot, and al
though this enlcrs tbedomain of Stale
control, it wisdom ss well a it ne
cessity seem to me to bo apparent.
1 ho danger so apparent lo us all in
recent years of anarchy and confusion
from tho doubt as to the true method
ol conn i ing the voles tor President and
Vico President, and from dispute as
to who shall control and duclar them,
ia provided for by the return ol the
Mate being mado conclusive proof and
by Congress being made the controlling
power when in joint convention met
Those aro some of the thought to
which this amendment give force. 1
hall endeavor now to elaborate them
further and to meet snmo of tho ob
jectiiuis lo this system toward which 1
bavo nn doubt lbs minds of Senator
Tbe present system ol choosing eleo-
PRINCIPLES, NOT MEN.
PA., WEDNESDAY, MARCH 2, 1881.
I tors in based upon Iho constitutional
provision tlial "em u Mato shall ap
point, in such manner as t lie Leiisla
lure thereof may direct,"iis doctors for
President and Vico President. The
power of the Slato Legislature to ap
point doctors themselves, to aulhorizo
tho pcoplo to chooso tlicin by ballot
upon general ticket, and also to chooso
them in districts, is given by this pro
vision. In practice und as a result of
popular opinion, they1 are now chosen
oy tlio pcoplo Hi over- htatoupon ten
oral ticket ; but our histury has seen
all thrco of tbeso modes of choice in
operation at ono time. Instability and
oppuiuiiiiy tor cuicitno and mat.age
ment, therefore, exist, which, in so
gravo a matter, arc dangerous in tbo
uxircme, and an unilurm system of uni
versul application, an) under whatever
control, is mauilesily ln-lier under ex
isuug eoiuiiliuna thaifiUia complex ar
rangement. An uniform system is
betier than a triple system, as popular
win mucLier man ciiiiereicciorul or leg
islative wilt. Tho power of parly and
tho sectional lino havo tiadu the cleo-
toral system an utter failure, and our
people will not tolerato tbo choico of
their rulers by tbo Legislatures. We
are lilt, then, to but the tvo systems,
itio universal uirecl vole ot tho whole
people or a direct voto of .ho people
under Stale control by districts. The
first and greatest difficulty il the way
of an universal direct vole of .ho wholo
people of all tho Suites is tha: it is ut
ter destruction of tho federative sys
tem and produce practical consolida
tion. Uy it, Slate lines aro ob.iterated
and State independence, and equality
are lost sight of Under it a fsw pop
tilous Slutes voting for a candidate
popular there, would overw helm the
remainder, or by tho division o, their
peoplo a small Stnto giving a lurgo
majority for ono cundidalo w oulJ out
weigh tho voice ot many larger ones.
In tlio lute election tho majority iu
Texas for ono cundidalo was greater
than the aggregate mujoritien in New
York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio for the
Tho preservation of tho federative
system utterly forbids tlio universal
direct vote. It would not aid in lho iho system of election in district by
destruction of sectional feeling, but lho : the popular voto. This proposition lo
very reverse, tor tho tendency ol ma coived but tho votea of P,.nn.clrM.i.
jontiesis always lo grow, and when
bused upon passion or intcrest.scctional
majorities invariably increase. Such
n rule would perpetuate bitterness, for
tho result would demonstrate that
there was a nearly equal division of
lho people of ono section and a decided
preponderance of those of tho other
which would overcome the former. An
universal direct voto can never bo had,
except under a new compact in which
the smaller Slates will agreo to sur
render their cquulity and independence,
and this is neither desired nor desir
Under the system of a direct voto bv
districts, each Stato has precisely the
samo relative weight as now. Penn
sylvania would cast twenty-nine votes;
she has now twonty nino elector and
twenty. mno member of Congress.
Rhode Island would cast lour votes :
she bus now four electors and lour
members, of Congress. It is truo that
in tlio election by tho people in dis
tricts a part ot the districts would vole
lor ono person and a part for another.
so that tho result would be to sumo ex
lent national mnro than Stale ; but
this is the enso with members of tho
House of Representatives now, and lho
small States have duo and full weight
and power in the lact that tho largo
States nro nearly alt closely divided in
politics, and the votes of tho districts
will follow in nearly lho samo propor
tion. A gerrymander is lho only ar
gument against tliis.but even lho worst
of gerrymanders is preferable to tho
dangorsand ovilsol the present system.
It has been well said that
I'n.ler tha present system, tb. Bt.la voting
olidlr, there la gre.t temptation to fraud. Where
too oun.u'ioo oi p. rues la nearly n.laneed lo .
t-tate, a aucceaaful ftaud mav determine be vote
of Ihe wnnlo Htat. This pats th. whole votes of
m.ira in me nanus ot lb. I.rge ellioa. Th ran.
teri.l oilh which lo perpetuate frauds predomi
nates especi.llv in l.rre cities, sucb aa New York.
Philadelphia Uoalon, Uallimoro, Cincinnati, eL
Louis and New Orlcan,. I nder th. diitrint aye.
tern Ihe fraud, in Ihe laree eitiea would onlv of.
frot Iho vole In tbe district in which thoy oecur
rud, and eeuld not, in their eon..iucnces, .ttand
to tb. vol. of the wbole Htale. Hut under the
pre.ent eielcm Iba aucce.sful city fraud may da
tannine the vote of the whole Stale.
Wbora the fraud will onlv .fleet th. vote ot .
aingl. dtatrict, tbo Icinptfttiona to aoBtinit It ftr.
grr.uy uiminiaueii. Alcn will not take tb. rlakl
and incur th. expense ol committing a great
fr.ud tu e.rry lh. vote of a .ingle district, which
they would do 11 th. hank of th. fr.od was to
aelerwln. inn vol. of tbo wh l. rjt.Lo, .nd per
h.ps secur ibe election of Presi lent.
Tho clectorul system is an election
by Sialcs and not by tho people, und
in euecv prevents lho voter from ex
pressing his choice for President unless
he follows party caucus or convention,
and even then ho cannot voto directly
lor tho man of hi choice. Tin rule
works results which aro more aristo
cratic than rcpublicun. Sectional lines
will bo broken up by lho disltict sys
tem, and "a promiscuous division of
sentiment extending over tho wholo
nation and not capable nt boinz deline
ated by Stuto lines or tho course uf
rivers" will take tho pluco of a solid
Jvorlh anil a solid South. Uecgraphi
cal locality will not si completely
identify lho political character ot tlio
voter as now, lor each candidato will
find votes in every section.
Mr. Pickens suid in tho llouso in
Ry nny tn .de of giving .a enfiVe efc to each
Stale th. will of Ihe majority of the pe .plo of tha
I oion ia not certain to prevail. A Si.te however
doid.d will giva Iba same united vola with a
Htale however unanimou..
A rraaon againet any mode of giving Ihe Rndl
videdvotaol Ibo Slates, of all others ihe ni. I
important, aud most affrotiDg the vll.l fnt.re'1.
of tb. lintoo, is its tendency toward o grnarapki
eol eercroeee coorlics. Rv thepriaclpla of self
defense all tne ntaiea must alopt auch anode,
uoleia a uniform plea la a.tahlithed Indeed,
they have nearly all ao acted at tha lata alectloo
a lo giv. unanimou, volea i and hy tbie mean, a
who! eoctloa of th Union, with a small axeep
tioa, voted or ono individual while iho opposite
fcchon supported hi. opponent, and th.ee i..-tion
.re divided b, regular .Vetl. tiers. Now, does .
Cbiel Meglalr.te eo eleeied appear to repeee.nl
the nbole I'uioa ; aod will Rot a small number ot re
petitions ol auon eventa naturally draw the oppo
site parlies in lo.ikln toward ibeir nppm enta to
look dirretly aeroa. Ihia divisional lino '
A direct voto of tho pooplo lor tlio
candidato of their choico is their right,
and tlio doctoral system was a device
ot llioso who did not trust tho people,
to deprive thorn of this right. The
electoral plan wits regarded with sus
picion and avorsion by tho adherents
of JetTerson. Alexander Hamilton.lho
father of the Federal parly, who do
sired tho establishment of a strong
national government, and who favored
a lito tenure for lho President, subject
only to Impeachment, was tbe author
of tho electoral system. Tho histori
cal fact I that tho electoral college is
simply rolic of the aristocratic theory
of government insistrd upon by the
old lime Federalist. It was accepted
hy tho oatlicr Democrat because they
were obliged to tako the Constitution
as a whole and could not accept or re
ject it in part.
Air. Hamilton writing in tho I eiKr
cralisl (paper No. CS) refer to the
manner of choosing the President pro
vided for lo the Constitution in tbe lol
Ion Ing language :
It waa deeir.Ue that th aenae of tbe people
enouiu operai. in in. onoic. ol me person to wbom
10 imporlaat a tru.t waa to be ooooded. Tbla and
Rill bo aorwered hy oommltting ibe right of niak
Ing It' not to any pr-oalahliihed body, but
t men eboaen by tbe people for the epeoiel
purpoae .nd .t lb. p.rtieul.r oonjunotur. It
w.a equally desirable th.l tb. immedi.l. election
abould be mod. by weo atoif capable of analytimo
lAe ONnJir.re aHnptid totki cr.Kioe, and aoling un
der eireumatance. f.vor.bl. to deliberation and to
a Judloioua combination of all tbe reaeooa and in
ducement, that were proper to gorern lAei'r cAoi'ce
A imutt NNMhee or orrsoaaacleclcd hv their 'allow.
cltiaena from tbe geueral meee will ba mott likely
iv puearre mo miormalloo ana dlaoornment re
quiaite to ao ooiaplieated ao liive.lig.tion.
Distrust of tho popular will cannot
bo more cloarly expressed than in tho
language just quoted. Tho advocates
of a strong government had no failb in
tho ability of the people to govern
themselves. Their cinslunt aim was
lo concontralo tho powers of govern
ment in tho hands ot a select few.
Amongotbcr instrumentalities cmnlov-
td hy them to carry out their purposes
was too cioctorul concuc. ibev de
sired that tho power to select tho Pros.
iiient mould be vested in "a small
number ol citizens." Thev believed
thu popular mass incapable of making
intelligent choice, and tboreloro
they devised a plan by which, to quote
the languaire of Hamilton, tbo imme
diate, election would ho "mado by men
...LI.. ..." ,
iauuiuiii analyzing inequalities ao.ip
ted to tbe station. " lint the dcsiizn of'
tho Federalists was frustrated by the
1- . . 1 L . I '
democratic influences, which havo
finally made tho electors mere agents
for tlio registry of lho popular will.
Instead of exercising their own choice.
as they aro empowered to do by tho
Constitution, they simply cast their
votes as they aro directed by that por
tion of lho pooplo who chooso them at
tho ballot box. Nevertheless tlio elec
toral machinery itself is tho same old
aristocratic contrivance which now
by common consent has heeomo tiso
less for nny purposo suve to thwurt the
pcoplo in expressing Ibeir choice, and.
as wo all know, is dangerous in its ex
In tbe convention ol 1787 Pennsyl
vania was tlio only Stuto voting lor
Iho election ol President by popular
voto, and her sons, Wilson and Morris.
odvocnlod with power and eloquence
1 and Maryland, llcr sons believe now
as Franklin, Morris, Wilson. Jackson.
and Kenton taught, "tho Stnto is tho
people," and tho expression of their
voico by their direct voto under lho
Federative and not tho national sys
tem is, 1 believe, their wish now. In
the debute in the Virginia convention
on tho adoption of tho Constitution,
James Monroo, afterward President ol
tho United States, suid, referring to lho
mode of electing the President contain
ed in tbo Constitution :
The President might be elected by the people,
dependent upon them and responsible for mal
adininistr.tio.. As this hi aot tho oaso I most
dis.pprov. of this el.use in its present form.
In President Jackson's first annual
mossago hocarnestly pressed upon Con
gress the importance of so amending
the Constitution as to dispense with all
intermediate agencies in the olection of
President and Vico President. Said he:
To tbe people belongs tbe right ot electing their
Chier M.Ki.tr.te i It w.s never designed that
their eboiee should In eny case be defeated, eitbrr
hy the Intervention oi the oleclornl eollrgea, or
hy tbe agency eonfld'd, in cttain eoolingenoiea,
to Ibe House ol Ropreaenlativea.
I would therefor raeommeBd each an amend
mom of Ibo Conatilution a. may remove .11 Inter
m.diata agoney la tk. .lection of President
.ad Vie President. Tbe mode may b. ao regn
l.ted a. to prai.rv. lo o.ch Si.t. its preaent ra.
latir weight in tbe election : and a failure in the
aval attempt may b provided for by eonfining
tbe reeond to a ehotee betweea th two highest
lie recommonded also it limitation
of tho Presidential service to a single
term of four or six years.
(ieneral Jackson ronowed tho above
recommendation in each of his seven
annual messages fo'lowing ; find bo was
especially earnest in his desire to pro
vent nny election for President ever
being determined by tlio House of Rep
resentatives. Tho arguments in behalf of lho pop.
ulur voto by districts which bavo been
mado hy stutcsmen of the past are so
full and convincing that it is only
necessary to read them lo he convinced
Jackson, Van llurcn, Benton, Calhoun, j
iit Korson u ,Ms jersey, McDullie,
Pickens, Johnson, Mortoii, and scores
ol other aro on record in its advocacy,
and tny argumont is complete when I
bring lo the notice ot the Senate- and
Iho country their reasons for ibeir bo
lief through an abstract of tho history
of their measures lor ils accomplish
ment. ELECTION OF PRESIIIENT AND VICE PKK.S.
1PENT PLANS PROPOSED IN THE
1. Ily Edmund Randolph of Virginia:
Thai R national executle. h. Inatiluled, ta he
cboecR by the N.liuo.l Legislature, A Elli, t'a
Adopted eight States uguinsl two.
Adopted unanimously, (,(, 324 )
2. Hy James Wilson, of Pennsyl
inaiine riielo be divided Into etiilrirle.
no mat toe pereona qualinail tw vo:e In each dis
trict for m.mbere or the first branch of the nation-
Rl legislate! re elect memhera for their reepeet-
tve oistrio'.s to be elector, nf Ihe executive meg
islraoy thai th. a.id .lectors of Ibe executive
magistracy meet at and Ihey, ae any of
luem, so met, snail prooeea toeleot liy ballot, but
noi out of their own body, person In whom
the executive authority of the natunal got ern
ment shall be vested. ei-f., 14.1.
Negatived 2 to S. (Ibid., 111.)
3. lly F.lbrulgo (jerry, of Massa
That the national executive should be elected
by lAe exeeel.eee of ike tlatei. S Klliot's Do
Rejected nayes !, Delaware divid
ed. (Ibid., 174)
4. Tho original draught of ortielo 2,
section 1 of lho Constitution, ns finally
adopted, provided that In caso there
was no choico by tho electors "the ,SVi
life shall chooso by ballot tho Presi
dent" from Ibo five highest on the list.
Reported hy rommilteo of eleven.
(Ibid., 507 1
5. John liutlctlgo, of South Carolina,
pro losed olection of President by joint
ballot of lho two Hou.o of Congress.
(Ibid., 472 )
6. (iovvorncur Morris, of PennsyP
vania, moved to slriko out "national
legislature" from Randolph's proposi
tion and insert "citizens of the United
States " Lost yea (PennsvlvsniaJ 1,
nay!. (Ibid , 322-324.)
7 Hy Alexander Hamilton : "Tho
supremo executive authority of the
United States to be Vested in a fiov
ernor, lo bo elected to serve during
good behavior, the election to bo made
by electors, chosen by electors, chosen
by the poople in the election district
aforesaid," (i. e. by district into which
ho proposed the Stale ahould be di
vided for lliO election of Senators.) (5
Klliot's Debate, 205 )
8. Hy Oliver F.llsworlh, of Connecti
To Ii ehosea by electors, appointed hy tbeleg
lel.taro. or lh fitBtee In the following rallo, lo
wit t oao tor o.ch Sl.t. aot ..(seeding loo, lit. in
habitants two ror each above that aamber aad
aot exeoodlngg'to.fltiU) aad Ihra for each State.
..owed ing Iv.,!1.
The question being divided on the
first part, "shall the President he cho-
by electors V" Cariied yeas fj,
nays 3. On second part, ' shall elec
tors bo chosen by tlio Slato legisla
ture?" Carried yeas 8, nays 2. (ibid,
!). Hy Mr. Wilson, of Pennsylvania,
fas a compromise :)
Tb.t tb. execulh. be eboaen by eleetor. to he
taken by lot from the o.llona! kgisl.lurr. i Kill
ot'a ISeh.t.a, 3ti,
10. Tho plan finally adopted (section
1, article 2, of the Constitution) agreed
to by a voto of 10 lo 1 on Sherman's
mol'on to stnko out "Senate shall im
mediately close" and insert "the llouso
of lieprosontutives shall immcdiittely
chooso by ballot ono of them for Presi
dent, tho members from each Stale
having ono vote. (Ibid., 5111 5'JO.)
Note. It was tbo almost unani
mous opinion ol members of tho Fed
eral Convention, that il tho executive
should bo chosen by the national legis
lature he should be ineligible a second
lime. 1 1 bid.. 337.)
As a compromise and to guurd
against evils incident to election by
Congress, (iovvcrnciis Morris moved
that choico ho madi "by electors cho
sen by tho people of the several Slutes."
2. ARIIL'MENTS IN Till Ftllblt A I. CON
VENTION. Govverticur Morris, ol Pennsylvania,
, opposed a choico by Congress ; was
in favor ol cloction "by lho peoplo at
largo, oy mo Ireeholders ot tho coun
try," on the ground ihut there can be
no "combination of populous Stale ;"
that lho peoplo at large will always bo
well informed as to "tho great und
illustrious characters who merit their
esteem and confidence," and that "if
chosen by tho national legislature ho
will not be independont of it ;" and
if not independent, "usurpation and
tyranny will bo lho conseqnence."
(ii Elliot's- Debates, 822, 323, 3:il.)
Mr. Wilson, Pennsylvania, favored
tho district system, and opposed elec
tion by national legislature, on tho
ground that "lho executive- in that
caso would bo too dependent to stand
tho mediator between tho intrigues
and sinistor views of tbo representa
tives and tlio general liberties anil in
terests of tho people." (Ibid., 323.)
Mr. Madison, in favoring a choico by
electors, suid :
If it to a fundamental principle of free overn
ment that the leglllalire, eaecutive, and judicia
ry poncra ahould be trjuiral.'y exercised, it ia
equally eo tbat tbey be inlritittltniy exercised.
Ir.er Is th asm, and perbeps greater, re, .on
why tbe executive sbontd b independent of ihe
legislature man wby tb Judiclaty Ihoeld. A
imm.di.lely and eerl.inly dangerous lo public
liberty. ' Ut waa di.po.ed, for these
reasons, to refer lb. appointment to samo ulhvr
aonrce. 7Ac oeooe ol urge was, in bis opinion
the uitcst In it.elf. Tbe people generally could
only know .nd vote for letu. cilisen wtio.e tner
itB had rendered htm .n objsot of general .Itt-o-lion
.nil e.lceiu. There w.s one dlflicuity, bow
ever, of a eerioul nature .Mending n immedi.l.
choice by tho people. Tbe right of euflrage waa
much mor. dillusive in tbe Northern than the
Southern HI. tee, .od the latter could have nv in
fluence in the election, on th score of negroes.
The suhililntloa of elector, obviated thii diffi
culty, and Beenied, on the whole, tn be llabl to
feweet ohJectloBa. Kllist'a llebat.a, ait.
ARTICLB II, BRCriOR 1, IXAt'.B 1 ASH 3 OF CoS.n
TIOR Ol-B FRR.RST KLReroRAL RmTEH.
The executive power ih.ll be veated Ifl R PreB
ident or tbe tailed ritates oi America. He ahull
bold bis utile, during tb. term of four years, and
together with the Vice President, ebosen tor the
same term, b elected ae follows!
Each H at shall appoint, i'a secA asanMee n. Its
Legiilattr tktrta may direct, R number of elea
tors, equal to Ibe whole number of Senators .nd
Representntirea to which Ihe Stat may be enti
tled in tb. Congreeaj but ao Sen.lor or Repr.
senlstiv. or person holding .a offic ot trust or
profit under tb. Toil.d St. tea, ab.ll b .ppoint
ed Rn elotor.
(Seo twelfth amendment, which su
persedes and annuls clause 3 of jrliclc
2, section 1.)
ARTICLE 11, SECTION 1 TIIK TWELFTH
1. Y'tf old sistem. Tho difficulties
attending the election of JetTerson and
Hurr were anticipated as early as 1707.
The modo of election provided in sec.
Hon 1 of article 2 wa regarded us fa
tally defeclivo. Tho election of a
Chief Magistrate bad provoked more
discussion in the Fodcral Convention
than any olher feat nro of tho Consti
tution, and tho ill-digested compiomiso
finally cIToctod wa the least satisfac
tory to the mem bora ot that body. A
the electortl system was regarded in
Congress with less fuvor than any other
part of tho Constitution its reform was
tbo subject ot lho first important
amendment proposed, lho statesmen
of that period foresaw the dangers that
would result from uncertainty in lho
mode of electing a Chief Magistrate,
and accordingly William Smith, of
South Carolina, in tho llouso, . I miliary
C, 1707, proposed an amendment to tbo
effect that "lho electors ol President
nnd Vico President be directed to ties
ignato whom they voto tor aa Presi
dent, and for whom as Vico President."
(Annuls, Fourth Congress, pago 1821.)
The samo proposition was ronowed
in tho House by Mr. Foster, of New
Hampshire, February 10, 170II. (An
nals, Filth Congress, pago 2!1D.)
And in tho Senate, by Humphrey
Mitrshull, of Kentucky, January 24,
1YH8, in Fifth Congress, requiring elec
tors to writo on their bullots tho names
of persons voted for as President and
Vico President. (Ibid., pugo 403 )
January 21, 1800, a committee of
five was appointed by tho Sonalo to
consider "what provision ought to bo
mode by law for deciding disputed elec
tions of President and Vice President,
and for determining the legality or i I Ir.
galily of the voles given lor thoso offi
cer In tho different Stites." (Ibid,
Sixth Congress, pago 29.)
February 4, 18110, an amendment
was proposed in tbo llouso requiring
electors to designnto person voted lor
as President and Vice President. (Ibid.,
The district system. In tho House,
March 4, 1800, jnhn Nicholas, of Vir
ginia, submitted tho following amend
Th.l, .Iter th. Ihltd d.y of Match, ISflt. the
choice of elretora of Prreliient .nd Vice President
shall be made hy dividing eah State Into num
ber of dlatrictB, equal lo Ihe anmlver of elrctors to
b eboaen in such Steles, and by tbe persons in
each nf thoso di.tricia, who ahall have tbe quail
Aeellon. requisite lor eleotoro of the oioBt niitarr
oub branch of Ibe Legisleture nfsuch Slete.choos.
Ing ono eleelor In Ibe m.nner which Ihe Legisle
ture tberoot ab.ll prescribe.
Then follows a clause directing the
choico ot Representatives in the samo
manner, ( Amials,Sixth Congress. pago
Referred toconiniittccof five. (Ibid ,
January 22, 1801, tlio committeo 0f ;
, , . . .
flvo submitted an elaborate report to
lho House, describing tbo variety of
modes practiced in dillerenl Slates un
der articlo 2, section 1, declaring that
"a modo of electing the President and
Vice President which might at once
combine tho expression of the public
sentiments of lho peoplo of tho respec
tive Slates, wilh a perfect assurance of
the duo appointment of the elector for
that important purpose, i a discovery
greatly to be desired," but that it wa
inexpedient tochango the Conatilution
in tho mannor proprsaed by Mr. Nich
olas. (Ibid., H 1 1-0 10 )
January 30, 1801, Jamc A. llayard,
of Delaware, submitted a joint resolu
tion to the House providing that when
two person hare an equal number ol
TEEMS-$2 por annum in Advance.
SERIES - VOL. 22, NO.
electoral votes tho ,. shall immo- ti( 8 'U.gi,,lu,Vcs mily ,,priTo
lately chooso ono ol the,,, lor Pres,. 0 , f of
dent (,., pago 9S7-) r,fi.ltJ , lho pVi.amont of electors
ra, rv tilir0';';' ''nu,?''b' : ''J' Legislature or New Jersey "at
ret ry 2,1801 (lb,d., page Mil ) m,m,lt wllcll tll0 po,.l were
hri i.1- r, T , Ti -T.'i0'-1 a" :l'Oiit to exercise tho right of voting
bracing rules on whu-h the Jet ei-son-1 for , ., Tbu ,H,nl(, mmrrJi
llurrcontcst was deeded. , lb.,,., lOtl.V in
, .. ti i . i , Continuing, M r. Pickens suid ;
l-SoTK Thuelectlon being Ihtuvin , , ,, ' ,., , .
,i n II . . l.ii i i i It. eaih di.lrrl Ihe r.i,.l I lain will lekai.na
into lho House, balloting began I- eh- .,.,, .,, ,. ,,.
j rtiary 11. 1S(I, und continued Until the!
ll III, wlien Jellelson received tho voles
Of tun Slate, .ml fliii-i- I,k ,,f IV.tir
(., 1022 to 1028.) See also Na-
tional Intelligencer February 13, Hi,
and 18, 1801.
Mr. JetTerson, in a letter lo James
Jlonioo dated rebmury 15, 1801, said :
Four dava of balloting bavo produced not a
single change of a vole. Vet it is oonOdently bo
lieve by nioat that lo morrow there Is to be a co
alitioD 1 know of bo foundation for ihia belief.
If they could h.v. been permitted lo
pass a law or oalll.y Ik, v.tn.,.i ,'ao (Ac
Aaais nj AM fjhtfr, Ihcy would certainly bare
prevented an election. Rut wa thought it heel to
declare openly .nd firmly, one and all. that tbe
day sucb an not peered rAe JY.duVc Utaiti leood
arm, .nil tbat no mcb urutpntion, even for . ein
gle day, thnuld be submitted to. This flrt shook
tbem, and Ihey wer completely alarmed al the
resource for which w declared, to wit. a rosrra-
ftoo to reorganise the Uoveroment and to amend
it. The tery Word eo.ernii'oa gives them the hor
rore, as In the present deinocraticAl apirit of
America tucy liar tucy annum lose aome or the
favorite morsels of th Constitution. Alanr at
tempts bare hern made lo olt.ln terms nd
promises from me. I war declared to them
unequivocally that I would not receive the Uov.
eminent on capitulation : that I would not go
Inlo il with my handa lied Jcflrr.oo'l Works,
volume 4, pege Sol.
Tho necessity of a change alter the
events of 1801 was apparent. The
Legislature of New York proposed an
amendment, which was submitted to
Iho House bv Mr. Walker, iiroviilinrr
lor a epccilic designation of 1!?;
voted lor US 1 resident and ICO Presi- j cni.l Mogi.lr.le so elected appear to represent
dent. (Annuls, Seventh Congress, pugo I ih whole t'nion 1 And will not . small number
3(i) I of repetition! of sucb events natnrallv draw th
j, , , ,, ., , ' oppokile parlies, in looking toward their oppo-
l ebriiury 20, 1802, Mr. Sluiilev. of . n.i. lD1k ,ii...i I. u,i. .ii.i.i..i ii...
i North Carolina, submitted resolutions'
by tho Legislature ol that Stato to tbo . ,l(.ro wou j b0 proniisouon8 division
samo purport. (Ibid., pago fi2!t.) 1 0f sentiment extending itself over tbe
In the House, February HI, 1802, n-holo nation , and not capablo of being
the following amendment waa pro. ddincated by I Stato linos or tho course
l,ol,vu: ol rivers." (Annuls, Thirteenth Con-
That Ihe fil.l. Legislatures sh.ll.fiom time to! Kriw irt session, lioges 82S to H3.Y)
time, dieiie ear. .Vl.ile into dlttrirti i,,ti. to the ! i , . , . v Vl r. I-
whole number of Scn.lor. end ltrprei.nt.tlvc. Jlr- 'sl0U, ol North Carolina. Slip
from inch 8t.t. in the Congress of the I nlted ported the resolution ill a lengthy
States, .nd .lull direci ihe mode of choosing en
eleelor of President .nd Vie. Preaidenl In earh
nf raid districts, aho shall he chosen hr eiliaens
having the qualification! requisite fur electors of
th. most nuuirrnul branch of tbe Stat. Legiala
ture: and l hat the di. trie-IB ao lo bo oooMiucted
shall oi Lsist. as nearly ax may he. rf centigitoui
teirilory, ami of equal proportion of population,
except aline Ihcic mnv h. .ny dctechtd nortiou
I Iriet. which then shall be annexed to some other
j portion nearest tnereto ; whicb d utrlcls, wh-.n so
dividrd, shall remain unaltrr.t-.le until, new een-
ruB os too I nueu Matee snail be t.ken.
See. 11. Tbat. in all future elcclions of Presi
dent and Vice I'reiident, Ibe .erooe voted for
shall he parllcul.tly dci.ign.ted by drclating
which is voted for .s President and which ns
Vice President. Annela, Seventh Congress, pege
Fehruaiy 1, 1802, resolutions of tho
Legislature of Vermont, recommend
ing this umendmcrit, were submitted
by Mr. Morris of tbot Stato to Ihe
House, llbid., pago 472
Tho amendment proposed February
19, 1SII2, tho district system, wus
taken up in tho House Muy 2, and
passed yeas 47, nays 14. Ibid., pago
Non-concurred in by Senate yeas
13, nays 8; two thirds not voting in
the affirmative. Ibid., pago 304
Renewed at second session, in the
House, hy Mr. linger, of Now York,
and relerrcd to tho Committee of the
Wholo. Mm., second session, Seventh
Congress, pago 4 19
Postponed. Ibid., iiai;o 4921
October 17, 1803. John Dawson, of
Virginia, in the House, proposed an
amendment requiring designation oi
persons voted lor ns President nnd
Vico President. Referred. Annals,
first sessiin, Eighth Congress, pago
2. THE TWELFTH AMENDMENT.
Iu the Senate, Do Witt Clinton, of
New York, on lho 21st day ot Octo
ber, 1803, proposed thu Twelllh
Amendment. Annals, F.ighth Con
gress, first session, pago 10
October 22, Mr. Duller, ol Soulh
Carolina, moved an amendment thut
ii.iniLiii um i
il eight j cars,
Minn hi nerve
at the next election no ii
be clegiblew bo hail served
and Ihcrenlter no person should servo
as President more than lour years in
eight. Cari ied yeas lli, nay 15.
The proposed amendment wa then
referred to a committee of five. Ibid.,
Alter a long and acrimonious discus
sion, extending through lho month of
Novcmticr.thcumcndment was adopted
by tho Senate yeas 22, nays 10, on
tho -till ol December, 1803. (Ibid.,
l.eportcd lo Iho llouso December (iccomlcr 17 Mr. Pickens, in Com
5. (Ibid., page 1112.) Imilteo of tho Whole, mado another
I assed lho House Decembers yeas ar(,,lmt,t i support of lho resolution.
S.I, nays 42. (Ibid., pago 775.) I 0 insisted that it proposed to in-
Latilictttion proclaimed by lho Secro-1 grart n0 m principle into tho Con-
. 1 . - ' ' v'l"istiiution
uicKey s uonsiiiulion, pugu 38 )
3. TIIK DISTRICT SYSTEM.
In the Senate January 20, 1813, Mr.
Turner, in pursuance of instructions
Irom the l.cgisluluro ol NoitliCarolina,
proposed aii amendment providing
that Slutes should be divided into dis
Iricts equal to tbo wholo number ol
Senators and Representatives; each dis j
trict lo appoint ono elector by popular
vote ; electors to uavo power to nil va , j
cancics : that districts for choosing Rep- j,;' j!oo, ' ," juw York repeated tho
resentulivc and elector shall not be ar,,umCnts of tho opposition, which
changed until new census and new ap- jn brjl;. ,;' lu ,,rop0MlH,
portioiiinent (Annals, Iwclltb Con Bmctl(Innt destroyed the federative
gress second session, page 5,1 .,ricile. ami inv'aded the rights i f
Relerrcd lo select ( oinmit lee of seven. 10 sjtntce)
((W ., pago 8.) Mr. Hammond, of New York, follow-
rcbrunry 18 1M.I, reported withcJ , ,.lHn r n,c resolution, llo
nniendmentandpased--yeas22,raysii,iBt(,d lhnt it "would lncrene tho
i,wiiiioiii discussion, w nn., page !U ) ,
i uo amenii incut as ll passed the Orn
ate is in lho following words :
Th.l the elector! of Pre. I lent .nd Vie Pre.l
den! of the I ntted Stnto. sh.li b. cb men hy ).
tried t end for that purpoae each Htat (hall, ty
ita Leglela'ure, bp dmJe-l Inio a onnber uf dti
tt it'll rqual to Ihe number of rlfftrra tn which tbe
Stale miy be eniilird. Karh dial riot aball ma
lein, aurly aa nny be, ro,ual aumbere. which
ahall I determined by ad.ilng to tbe wbole nnta
brr of free perauoa, including tfaoao bwnnd to
ferrl for a trrm of yrurr, aJ oio'ndmg Intll
ana aot taiH, tbree-flfibi of ell other pereona.
In raeh diili-iiM the prrei-na iuahHed to rule fr
ftepretrniitiire in tie t'ongreae of the foiled
8.at aball ch'o one eiffctor. Tbe Legialatnre
uf each Htufe hnill h.- power to regulate the
in no nf h'll'llng eloeliona and making ret urn a
nf the lectori eboaen by tha people.
ia eae an me tJeMre itiould not meet at the
tl, ",i pioo ppintd i.,f gig ih.ir rote.
a majority of th. eleelore nrl shall hove power
nn lortnwiib aball procco. lo supply the vacancy.
'the district, for choosing eleelore of President
and Vice President of tbe I nited tat.e shall not
b. altered 1b any Slate onlll aa ennmeralloa .nd
an apportionment of Representative, sbsll h.
m.tfe aub.e'ioaat to a division of Ihe stales ia'o
dislrlele. 1 h. division of th. Sut. lata district!
shall take place as soon as eonv.nl.ntly en.y be
.llr tbie .ta.adtnoB! Bball become a part r tbe
Constitution of Iho Lolled Slalee, and success
ively alteiward,wbenever a new annulare! ion and
apportioomaat of Repretenletlvea shall be made.
Aanale, Twelllh Congresa, seaoud session, page
Reported to lho House February 19,,
I't ll...,.nJ .... f,.n.:.. i ii'i...i.
1813. Relerrcd toCominitlecol Wholo.
AO action. Ibid., psge 1082.)
An amendment almost idmtieal in
Innaiiiije wasaubmitted by Mr. Pickens,
of North Carolina, in lho House, Janu
ary 18, 1813. (Ibid., pago 818.)
Submitted again al next lossion hy
Mr. Pickons, Doceinbor 20, 131.1. Ho
forred lo Committor 'ol the Whole
(Ibid., Thirteenth Congress, first scs
lion, pugo 707.)
ARdlllKNTS IN SI'PPORT OF Till RESO
LUT10.N. lly Mr. Pickens, In the House, Jan
uary 3, 1S1I:
Th. oejeot la to oa'.bllih a unlfbrRa nod. uf
obooalng elector! of President nnd Vie Prildnl:
nd Ihnt nod to bo by too fro, fair, ond diroot
Toto of tbo pen.l. to tbo diitrieli, qualtlyiog ibo
right of suffr.g. by tbo no. ruloo which tbo
St.leeh.v. prescribed for tbo cneloa of Repro
senl.tlv... o Thi, will wear Joit
equality Id tberel.llv. tceiaklaf Slum.
II by tbl. ruU .ny st.t willgela or loto In rota
tion lo Iti .n.rDI comp.r.tlr. woiRht. It will
low only (lot li ju.tlc. It nuglit. It Illy com.
lo,.. who too oignlly or rool Intoro.ti or
' llo t.ten lioia.U-v. mil how, tinder
I hii tn,.. niii-iii .t ll,., a...,..,.,.
tin .111 know Die Inllreata of the people wboae
opinion, may propose to represent, anl ine per.
1 '" ''. ' reeponaih e for .mi-
fully performing their trust. If difler.
ent sentiments or Interest, exist In any b'tate,
those, sentiments or interests should in Ibeir prup
er prnporiion be pat into tho national soale, aud
the fair roaulla of tbe whole will point out th
truo aatloual repreaentatlon. Political parliee
will be le.s itctii.HnI than on .ny other pl.n. Where
eech single district gives a distinct vot, the o.
litle.l character of tbe voter will not be so idcoli
fled by geogrspbical sectloae, but more inter,
sperstd over all leoliona of the country.
It la a rule of policy which applies to all pub
lic mceenree. and aanre especi.ily to theeoneerna
ol a ualion, that next to ibo ot.Jn. of ae.log
rightly ia that of rendetlng ornenit enri.ucli'oN,
Klcctioae will I best secured egainal intrigu
and eorruptlon a hero this power ts exerri'od by
tkt aratterni rumen al fooe.
The proponed luetbt.d will .rrivi the nearest at
.lair rqUAltty helween tbe reletlve weight of tha
Ily any mode of giving an retire role to each
Slate Ihe will of the majority of the people of the
L'nion Is not certain to prevail. A State however
divided will giv. tho ..m Rnit.d vole with a
btate however unanimous.
A rtas'-a against any mode of giving the und!
vlded voice ol the htates, of all others the moid
important nnd most .fleeting the vilnl interests
of lh l'nion, Is Its tendency ton trd a geographl.
cat aever.bce of partica. lly the principle ol aelf.
defense all the Statce muat adopt such a mode,
unless a uniform plea is established ; Indeed,
theyhsve nearly .11 eo acted at thelste election aa to
give unanimous voles, and by thiemcansa whol.
section of tbo I'aion, with a small exception,
voted for one individual, wbil the opposite Be
i ndci- tho rfisrnW i,i,i. ho arerucd.
. speech. After describing the union of
I , j f,.,lfr,,i;..,, ,! rM,.ul. nrincitilna In
i ""-'"'y'!""' '. V0)""0' Pnn( 'I1'1' m,
lho existing mode of choosing ti Chief
Magistrate, ho suid :
The amendment now before us Is perfectly lu
ch.rerler with tbe symmetry oi this plao. It
over, trpa none of its outlines: il altera not Iho
ratio of electors, their duration, their mode of
tolln' "'" ""I"'1' f
hich they are com
pared. It direct! only a uniform mode of ap-
pointing thcin. which prsetioally eorreapouda
with Hie view of tbe Federal convention.
" It a ill narrow tbe range of fection and
dituini.h ihe scop of Intrigue. Tbe political
coin hat. o!s will cum. Inlo tho Held l.irly.
It is hy this method tb.t tbe volea of the pro.
pie may he f.lrly expressed. There may be dillrr
enco between tbe relativ. atrength of uiinorltlea
in eny two dlslricta, but when .11 the distrieta ar.
tatea into tbe eomputatioo auch difference mut
b. equallied. He who obtains tba suffrage uf
more than half of tba district, must, In .11 human
probability, have a majority nt the luflragcs id
the people. Rut how ts It wbca each State ia
made to throw all ita votes Into ono scale, how
ever much the citisena ot tbat Stat, m.y b. di
vided ? A majority of Ihe voice thus obtained is
no evidence of th. rsoctlon ot a aa.jorily or the
When Ihe electors of President .re chosen by
Sletee, tbe aii'aorify In each Slate ia utterly with,
out weight. . Lt th. voice ot every
pert of ibe netlon he fae.rd in the .ppointmeot of
tho Chief M.gi.tr.le, and tha minority in tacb
State ecqoircB en Import.ne., which insure, to
tbem reapect .nd poliiic.l freedom.
Ho argued further that this plan
will not deprive the Slate governments
"of a single privilege which is neces
sary to their support, or lo tbo full rx
crciso of their peculiar powers, and
: continuing, said :
a mode of voting w:
A mode of voting which throws Ihe entire vol.-o
of each St.U) Into th. ac.le ot Its r.vorite eandi
d.te, though it m.y bring about . oo-oper.tio. or
Stat, with bt.t., in fact disunites tbe people and
breBkB tb.ta Into distinct m.rsea. Such a oo.
operation of Slate with State, far from being pro
ductive of benefit to the nation, la ac.reely less
to be dreaded than tbe array of ,-lale against
State, The opposition of individuals is harmless,
nd their union most salutary. Annals, Thir
teenth Congress, first session, pages a".i.oiS.
Tho vote, Jnnuary 4, 1811, in Com
mittee of the Wbole House on adopting
the resolution was yens .ri7, nay 7o.
1 ; ; i 111
P . p : Vi'i.... i. , ian
concurrinR with Committee ol ihe
, wlj(lo jn (h(,lr ujMKrcomoniyens 82,
(,j , two-thirds not voting
. J ...... n
therelor. (ibid., pago Hl'O.)
The same proposition again intro
duced by Mr. Pickens at next session
March 6, 1810. (Annals, Fourteenth
Congress, first session, pago 1150 )
Legislatures of Virginia and North
Carolina rocommond passao of snmo.
( Ibid,, pages 110-41.)
Samo amendment submitted again
by Mr. Pickons at next session De
cember 1 1, 181(1. (Ibid., socond session,
Th. objection, lheref ,re, which Is urged by
acme, Ih.t Ihe freliiree of oor Oovernmest shoold
not be .ltere.1 will not epply ta Ihe proposed
amendment, Inesinucb as ti embraces bo bat
leature, .nd fixes upon a uniform rnle, eondeiiag
it unalterable by tbe varying views of the SI. tee
nd th. clisng.s ol factlona and timaB. Annals,
Foutteemh Congreie, eeeond session, pege .ut.
He nrgued further that lho federative
... i, i . u.,,,,1,1 ..,.i i. ,i..r..u.,i I,.-
. : , . : ,.i.era.joll j
tho distribution or number ot electors.
Vllia0 0f lho electoral franchise." llo
was willing that
The tnfiutne of tbe greet Statea R their cor
porate cepacily In Ihe election of a President
ahould be diminished, a 0 a If th people
are not their own worst enemlea let your elector!
In created Immediately by and come dlteclly from
the people. When your do thai, and not uanl
then, you will ba cettam that your President hold,
bis ufflc by tbo ennaoot and at the requeet ol a
mejortty ol lh. peopl. over whom be preoidee.
Anu.li, Fourteeutb Congre.s, e.c30d ees'ion,
pagea SOS -1 le.
John C. Calhoun, then a moniber of
tho House, in tho courao nf hi argu
ment, declared that
The proposed amendment. If adopted, would
remove .vili which elperiene has shown to
exist, and which In future lime, If uoerrerd,
may menace th. axtetoBee of lh lirpubll.,
kid., page II I.
Discussion was renewed in the
llouso December 18.
John Randolph, of Virginia, opposed
the resolution on Hie ground that, in
his judgment, "it contemplated an
abridgment of the power of the
States;" declaring at the same time
thut the existing mode "wo a mockery
shadow of a shade." (Ibid., page
Ititlicil. Wrii'lit if Mnrtlonil .nn.
ported tho resolution. Ho argued that
... ... .n .
"tne adoption oi tun amendment will
prnduco uniformity in the modo and
stability in ils duration." (Annals,
Fourteenth Congress, second session,
Concluded an fourth pnoe