Clearfield Republican. (Clearfield, Pa.) 1851-1937, January 17, 1867, Image 1

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.IV fro Stt'rrf In Ihf titrlrt mf j
T,, fAr Si1v of the Pm'f. !
I have received nnd considered a
bill entitled "An ne t to regulate llic
clcolive franchise in tlio 1 if-trivt of
Columbia," p!cd by the Senate on '
tie 13th of December, and by the ,
Hon of I.opresenlativcs on the suc
ceeding day. It was presented for;
my approval on the 2itli ultimo mx.
dnvs after the adjournment of Con-.
,,ress and in now returned with mv
. l,iiiniii in ihe Senate, in which InmIv
vi j- -"- I .
it originated. ;
Measures baviug been introduced at I
the conimencemciit of the first session man, or granted to him on qualifiea
of the present Congress, for the ex- cations requiring intelligence or pro-
tension of the elective franchise to ;
pereous of color iu the District of Co-, iie District of Columbia to try an j licence. In a population in that State
iumhia. steps were- taken by the cor-1 experiment which their own constitu-j of 1.2:!l,0Tti, there were, by the census
porate authorities of Washington and : ent have thus far shown an unwilling-1 of lrtHO, only (,KI2 persons of eolor,
Georgetown to ascertain and make nes to tost lor themselves, Nor does and of tho initios over twenty years of
known tho opinion of the peoplo of it accord with our republican ideas! ago, there were 3S!l,(Jiu white, to
the two cities upon a subject feo im -j that the principles of celt government ! 2,01)2 colored. By tho tamo ollicial
mediately affecting their welfare, should lote its force w hen applied to j enumeration, there were in the Dis
The question was submitted to the , the residents of the District, merely j trict of Columbia 0,764 w hites to
people at spec ia) elections, held in the because their legislators are not, like I 14.816 persons of tho colored race,
month of leceruber. 1)0, w hen the those of the States, resivonsiblo, thro' Since then, however, the population
.lOiliSci voter of Washington and the ballot, to the jeople for whom I of the District hns largely increased,
Georgetown, with great unanimity of they are tho law-making Kwer. (and it is estimated that at the present
sentiment, expressed themselves op- 'Jj,e grni oLjtL of plauiug lh scat j tium there lire ikmwIv a hundred thon-
Iosed to the eontemplsted legislation. of government under tho exclusive ! sand w hites to thirty thousand no
n Washington, in a vote of O.o-'j , legislation ol Congress, was to secure ' groes. The cuuse of the augmented
the largest, with but two exceptions,
ever polled ia that city ouly thirty-, Government from undue State iuflu
livc ballot were cast for negro tuff-, cuce, and to enable it to discharge,
rage; while in Georgetown, in an 1 without danger of interruption or iu
iiggrognte of 13 votes a number , fringeiuent ot iis authority, the high
considerably in excess of the average functions lor w hit h it was created bv
vote at the lour preceding annual the people, for this mijiortant pur- erable proportion ol those who sought
elections but one was given in favor : pe it was ceded to the L nited Suites w ithin its limits a bheUcr from bond
of the propoed extension of the elect- j by Maryland and Virginia, and it cer-! uge. Until then held in slavery, mid
ive franchise. As ther elections M-cm ; tainiy necr could have been contem-' denied all opjiortunilies for mental
to have been conducted with entire i plated as no of the objects to be at-j culture, their first knowledgo of the
laimes-s, the result must be accepted taiued hy placing it under the exclusive . Government was acquired when, by
as a truthful eiprcs-sion tf the opinion jurisdiction of Congress, that it would ! conferring upon them freedom, it be
ol the people of the District uj-on the: ailjrd to projiag:iud:sts or political come tho benefactor of their race; the
question which evoked It. I ossetfing,
as an oraniied commuuitr, the same ;
popular right as the inhalitants of a : While, indeed, the reaideuts of the seat
fsjate or Territory, to mke known of government are not citizens of any
their will upon matters which affect : Mate, and are not therefore allowed a
their tocial and political condition, j voice ia the dec loral college, or rep
they could have selected no more ap-. re-entation iu the councils of the ua
propriste mo-ie of memorializing Con-; tioii. they are. nevertheless, American
grcs upon the subject of this biJ than , .citizens, entitled as such to every
through the suffrage of their OHulifie 1 guarantee of the Constitution, to every
Entirely disregarding the wishes of
thef-epieol tlie ol Columl.ia. .
Congress has deemed it right and ex ,
jsi,ent to psj the measure nov sulv- i
laitteJ for my signature. It, there-
fore, becomes the duty of the Exeeu- j
live, standing between the legislation I they taught to leel that, although not
of the one and the will of the o:her, ; ermitted practically to participate in
fairiy expree j, to determine whether national concerns, they aro ncverthe
Le fchouid approve the bill, and thus less under a paternal Government,
aid in placing upon the statute-books J regardful of their rights, mindful of
of the nation a law against which the j their wants, and eolieilous lor their
people to whom it ia to apply have prosperity. It was evidently contem
fcolemii v and with such unanimity i plated that all local questions would
protested. or w hether he should return be lell t-i their decision, at least to an demand lor labor, would be soon in
il with his objections, in the hop j extent that would not be incompatible creased by an influx from the udjoiu
thal, upon reconsideration. Congress, j with the objects fr which Congress i ing States. Drawn from fields where
acting as the representatives of the j was granted exclusive legialatiou over I employment is abundant, they would
ibhabitanUof the seat of government, i the seat c! government. I in vain seek it here and 60 add to the
iriil permit them to regulate a purely) When the Constitution was yet un- j embarrassments already experienced
local question, as to Lheiu may scc:u : der consideration, it was assumed by from tho largo class ol idlo K-rsons
best sailed to their interests and col.'
The District of Columbia was ceded;
to the United States by Maryland and j own suffrages." When, for the first
Virginia, in order that it might be-j time. Congress, in the year Im.mJ, as
tonie the permanent M-at of govern- eembled at Washington, President
inent of the United States. Accepted ; Adams, in his sjeech at its opening,
l-y Congress, it at once became sub-1 reminded tho two houses that it was
jeYt to the exclusive legislation" for for them to consider whether the local
which rrovision is made in the Fed- lowers over the District of Columbia,
end Constitution. It shoal J be lrne 1
in miDd, however, that in exercising ; Congress of the United States, should immediately exercised, and ho
of the District of Columbiathe au- asked them to "consider it as the
thority of the National Legislature is j capital of a great nation, advancing! ready to chango their residence at a
not without limit, but that Congress i with unexampled rapidity in arts, in I moment's notice, and w ith nil the fa
is: bound to observe the letter and wealth, and in population, and pos- j cility of a nomadic people, in order to
spirit of the Constitution as well in j sessing within iueil" those resources i enjoy here, after a short resilience, a
tie enactment of local laws for the I which, it not thrown away or lament- privilege they find nowhero elso. It
eat of government, as in legislation abN misdirected, would secure to it a is within their power, in ono year, to
common to the entire Union. Were j loug courso of prosperity and self-1 como into tho District in such nuin
it to be admitted that the right "to , government.'' Thrco years had not hers as to have the supreme control of
exercise exclusive legislation in all j elapsed when Congress was called tho white race, and to govern them
ces whatsoever," conferred upon j unn to determine the propriety of j by their own ofKccrs, and by the cxer
CvDgrcsa tLl'.niiled towcr within the ; retrace ding to Maryland and Virginia ! eiso of all tho municipal authority
District of Columbia, titles c: nobility
might be granted within its boun la- they had respectively relinquished to
rie; laws might be made respecting t the Government of tho Uuited States,
an rs-ublishmeot of religion, or pre- It was urged, on the one hand, that
Libit :rg the free exereie thereof; or i exclusive jurisdiction was not ncecs
abri !ging the freedom of sjeetu or of : sary or useful to tho Government;
the pre- ; or the right of the jnop! J j that it deprived tho inhabitants of the
peaceably to a?"mbie and to petition j District of their political rights; that
the Government for a redress of priev-1 much of the time of Congress was con
anees." Dcspf t:m wonlj thus re:gn .sunied iu legislation pertaining to it ;
at the seat of government of a free; that its government was expensive;
llepul lie, and, as a place of permanent ! lha' Congress was not competent to
residence, it would be avoided I v all !
who nref.-r tht lles.iiv" of liberty to
the rjtre tT.ohscn'j cf cdcial posi- j concerns ; and that it was an example nized as useful and responsible mem
tion. j of a government without represenla-1 bers of tho community. Imposed np-
It sbocld also be remembered that i tion un experiment dangerous to the on an unwilling people, placed, by tho
in lerislatinir lor the District of Co- liberties of the States. Un the other ' constitution, under tho exelusivo leg-
lumt. a. under the Federal Contitu
Con, the relat'on of Congress to its
inhabitants is af.alag"us to that of a
Ix-jislature to the peep!? of a State,
nnOer their own local Constitution.
Jt tbcs not, tht retcre, seem to lc ask
ing too much that, in matters jiertain
irif to the District, Conrre should
have a l.ic iysihx-1 lor the w,II and
interests f its inhabitants as i enter- j
tained It a State legislature f-r thf federation; that the peoplo themselves,
wishe a'nd prosperity of those for w ho, it was said, had been deprived
xhc.m thev legt-late." The spirit of of their political riirhts, had not coin
fur Coi,-su ution and the genius of our ! plained, and did not desire a retroces
C.overrmtat reqnire that, in regard "n ; that the evil might he remedied
to aiy law whi h is to affect an 1 have by giving them a representation in
a permanent btarin upon- a people Congress when the District should
thv.r wi.I should exert at least a !"-:
frii.abi influence upon those who are
hviing in the capautv of their leg:-
Uiori. W oild, lor iu"trce, the Do-
g".awr ot the tatc Ot cw lork.or
of IV-nr sylvan: a, or of Indiana, or of
any State in the Union, in opposition
to the exprvsed will of a large raa
j rity i t the jvple whmn t(uy are
i-hos,-n t- rvprv-sont. arbitrarily torve
in them, as voters', all person ol
t.Se Afri'an or rriro race, and make
tVin e!ig ( !e f r effice. ithont any
i'ti trqia.-'vation than a certain term
of rvs-.dem within the State? In 1
l.t-'tt trot the Mate named would the
c-. ! red j- putati n, when acting to-1 nt "Might, by a local legislature, that , all laws and proceedings for tho spcu
retber, I al ie to pria' any great I whii h has generally been willingly j rity of person and property as is cn
s iul or p.!ii!..ul resy't. Yet. in New conceded by I he Coiigressof the nation. ! joyed by white citizens, and aro made.
York, b, tore be can vote, the man of As a eeneral rule, policy reqnircs j "subject tJ like punishment, pains and
f!or nin-t fult.Il condilbms that are that the Legislature should yield to : penalties, and to nono other, any law,
not rcquirv-i ol the white titiien ; in the wishes of a yeople, when not in- statute, ordinance, regulation or cus
IVonytvan:a the elective franchise is consistent with tho Constitution and torn to the contrary notwithstanding."
rx-strivted to white fremen : while in ' the laws. The measures suited to one , Nor, as has been assumed, are their
Jni-aoa r-egrue and mulatto? are '
ixprviy .lndil mm the right Ot
si:!.'t It hsHlv ie -tii consistent
GEO. B. GOODLMBEB, Proprietor. PRINCIPLKS-NOT MEN. TERMS-$2 per annum, in Advance.
I,.- ,.r :..i. ...i
-iniuiv j-iiin.jrinwutjj.ummj,,,
lhnt representatives of States, where
sutl'rut;e is either denied tho colored
pert v. should compel tho neonlo of
the entire independence of tho General
parties a puce lor. an experimental
test ol their principles and theories.
u-netit of the laws, and t every right i
which pertains to citieus of our com-!
mn country. In all matters, then.
abetting their domestic affairs, the
spirit of oar democratic form of gov-
trumcnt demands that tin ir wishes !
should be consulted and resvcted, and
Mr. Madison that its inhabitants would
be allowed a municipal legislature,
lor local purposes, derived from their
vested by the Constitution in the
the junsUiction ol the territory which
legislate lor the District, because the
niemln-rs were straiiirors to its local ,
hand, it was held, among othor rea- islation ol ( digress, it would boviow
sons. anil successfully, that the Con-' ed ns an arbitrary exercise of power,
stitution.theactsof cession of Virginia ! and as an indication by tho country
and Mary land, and the net of Congress of the purposo of Congress to compel
accepting the grant, all contemplated j the acceptance of negro sufTrngo by
the exercise of exclusive legislation bv the States. It would engender a feel-
Congress, and that its usefulness, if:
not its necessity, was inferred from
the inconvenience which was felt lor
want of it by the Congress of the Con
become sufficiently populous, and in
the meantime a local legislature; that:
if the inhabitants had not political i
rights, they had great political, influ- j
ence ; iiiai me iruurue anu expense oi
legislating tor the l'isinel would not
be creat, but would diminish, and
miht, in a great measure, be avoided .
bv a local legislature ; and that Con
gress could not retroeede the inhahit-
aniswiiiioiuincireoneni. lonunuing
'to live, substantially, under the laws
that existed at the time of the cession,
and sii' h changes only having been
ni.ebi as were suggested by them-'
selves, me people oi me insirn i nave .
community might not bo adapted to ;
condition of another; and thojtimcnt here; for local governments
n best qualified to (h.termino
,.i. ,..,. i:.... .1 1 .. I
nuvu IJ'IVMIUUN UIV 111611 IIIKW lllier-
! csts are directly affected bv anv nro-
posed law. In Massachusetts, fur in
stance, male persons are allowed to
vote without regard to color, provided
thev possess a certain denreo ofintol-
, uuiubera ol tho latter class needs no
explanation. Contiguous to Jlarj--landand
irginia, the District, during
tho war, became a placo of relugo for
those who escaped from servitude, and
it is vet the abiding place of a consid
' test ol their capability lor nnprovo-
ment began, w hen, for the first time,
tho career of free industry and the
avenues of intelligence were opened
to them.
Tossessing thoso advantages but a
limited timu tho greater number per
haps having- entered tho District of
Columbia during tho later years of
tho war or since its termination we
may well pauso to inquire whether,
alter so brief a probation, they aro ns
a (lass caiiable of an intelligent exer
cise of the right of suffrage, and qual
ified to discharge tho duties of ollicial
position. The people who aro daily
witnesses of their niodo of living, and
who become familiar w ith their habits
of thought, have expressed the convic
tion that they are not yet competent
to serve as electors, and thus become
eligible for ollicc in the local govern
ments under which they livo. Clothed
with the elective franchise their num
bers, already largely in excess of tho
congregatea in tno District, iiaruiy
yet capable of forming correct judg
ments upon the important questions
that often make the issue of a political
contest, they could readily bo made
subservient to the purposes of design
ing persons. While in Massachusetts,
under the census of 100, the propor
tion of white to colored males over
twenty 3'enrs of ago was one hundred
and thirty to ono, here tho black race
constitutes nearly one-third of tho en
tire population, whilst tho same class
surrounds tho District on all sides,
among tho rest, of tho power ol taxa
lion over property in which they havo
no interest. In Massachusetts, where
they havo enjoyed the benefits ol a
thorough educational system, a quali
fication of intelligence is required,
while here sufl'iiigo is extended to all,
without discrimination, as well to the
most incapable, who can prove a resi
dence in tho District of one year, as to
thoso persons of color who, compara
tively few in number, aro permanent
inhabit ants, and having given evidence
of merit and oualillcation. are
re cog'
ing of opposition and hatred between
tho two races, which, becoming deep
rooted and ineradicable, would prevent
them from living together in a stato of
mutual friendliness. Carefully avoid
ing every measure thnt might tend to
produce such a result, and following
the clear and well ascertained popular
w ill, we should assiduously endeavor
to promote kindly relations between
them, und thus, w hen that popular
w ill leads tho way, preparo lor the
gradual ond harmonious introduction
of this new element into the political
power of tho country.
j i cannot no urgeu mai mo pnqmseu
extension oi sum-age in mo instrict oi
Columbia is neccssury to cnuhlo per-
sons of color to protect either their in-
lerests or their rights. They stand
hero precisely as they s'and in Penn
sylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. Here,
as elsewhere, in all that pertains to
civil rights, them is nothing to dis-1
tinguish (his class of persons from !
citizens of tho United States ; for they
possess tne "lull ami equal ocnciu oi .
suffrages necessary to aid a loyal son
already oxist of undoubted fealty lu
, -A-
the government, and are sustained by
communities w hich wero among tho
first to testily their devotion to tho
Union, and whh Ii during the struggle
furnished their" full quotas of men to
the military scrYieo of tho country.
The exevritic'ot tho elective Iran
chiso is highest uttributo of an
American citizen, and when guided
by virtue, intelligence, patriotism and
a propor appreciation of our institu
tions, constituted tho true basis of a
democratic fori of government, in
which tho sovereign power is lodged
in the body of t'e people. Its nillu
ence for good nessnrily depends up
on tho elevated character and patriot
ism of the elect for il exercised by
person ir tv ho Mo lfi5it JuJtTy" cfl imate its
valuo und who nro inditVerent us to
its results, it will only ecrvo as a
means of placing power in the bunds
of the unprincipled und ambitious, and
must eventuate in the complete do-
st ruction ol that liberty ol which it usurpations. "In a rcpsesuntativo
should be the most powerful conser- republic, where the excculivo magis
vutor. Great danger is therefore to tracy is carefully limited, both in the
be apprehended from an untimely ex- extent and the duration of its power,
tension of tho elective franchise to any ; and where the legislative power is ex-
new class in our country, especially
when tho lurge majority of that class,
in wielding tho power thus placed in
their hands, cannot be expected cor
rectly to comprehend tho duties and
responsibilities which net tain to suf
frage. Yesterday, as it wero, four
millions of persons were held in a eon.
dition of slavery that bad existed for
i generations ; to day they are freemen,
und nro assumed by law to be citizens.
It cannot be presumed, from their pre
vious condition of servitude, thut, asa
class, they are as well informed as (o
tlieiintiire of our government us tho
intelligent foreigner wh makes our
laud the homo of his choice. In the
case ol the latter, neither a residence
ol five years, and the knowledge of
oar institutions which it gives, nor
attachment to tho principles of the
constitution, are the only conditions
upon which he can be udmitted to cit
izenship, lie must prove, in addition,
a good moral churaeter, and thus give
reasonable ground for tho belief that
he will bo liiilhful to tho obligations
which ho assumes us a citizen of the
republic. Where a people the source
ol ull political power speak, by their
suffrages, through tho instrumentality
of the ballot-box, it must bo carefully
guarded against tho control of thoso
who aro corrupt in principle and ene
mies of frco institutions:, for it can
only becomo toour political and social
system a snfo conductor of health -
lioiiulur uuiimuut whw krnt irov
from demoralizing influences. Con-1 givesgreater lacility to encroachments
trolled through fraud and usurpation, ! of the former." "Wo have seen thut
by tho designing, anarchy and despot-1 tho tendency of republican govcrn
ism must inevitably follow. In tho I ments is to mi aggrandizement of the
hands of tho patriotic and worthy, I legislative, at the expense of tho other
our government ill be preserved up-j departments."
on the principles of tho constitution) Mr. Jell'erson, in referring to tho
inherited twin our fathers. It follows, curly constitution of Virginia, object
therefnrc, that in admitting to the ; ed that by its provisions all the pow-ballot-box
a new class of voters not ers of government legislative, exec
qualitied for the exercise of tho elect-j ulfvo and judicial resulted to the
ivc franchise, wo weaken our system j legislative body, holding that "tho
oi government, Instead ol adding to
its strength und durability
In returning lliis bill to the Senate,
I deeply regret Unit there should be
any conflict of opinion between the
legislative and executive departments
of tho government in regard to meas
ures that vitally uflect tno prosperity
and peace of tho country. Sincerely
desiring to reconcile tho States with
ono another, and tho whole, peoplo to
tho government of tho United States,
it has been my earnest wish to co
operate with Congress in all measures
having for their object a proper and
complete adjustment of tho questions
resulting from our late civil war. Har
mony between the co-ordinate branch
es of the government, always necessa
ry for tho publiu welliiro, was never
moro demanded than at tho present
time, and it will therefore bo my con
stant aim to promote, as far ns possi
ble, concert of action between them.
Tho differences of opinion that have
already occurred havo rendered mo
only tho moro cautious, lest tho Exec
utive should encroach upon any of the
prerogatives of Congress, or, by ex
ceeding, in any mniiner, the Constitu
tional limit of his duties, destroy the
equilibrium which should exist be
tween the several co-ordinate, depart
ments, and which is so essential to the
harmonious working of tho govern
ment. I know it has boon urged that
tho Excculivo Department is more
likely to cnlargo the sphere of its nc
tion than cither of tho other two
branches of the government, and es
pecially in tho exerciso of tho veto
power conferred upon it by tho Con
stitution. It should be remembered,
however, that tins power is wholly
negative and conservative in its char
acter, nnd was intended to operate us
a check upon unconstitutional, hasty,
and improvident legislation, und as a
means of protection against invasions i
of tho just powers of tho Executive ! of a sufllciont number of members, or
and Judicial Departments. It is ro-j by tho exclusion from representation
marked by Chancellor Kent that "toi ol a requisite number of States, reduce
enact laws is a transcendent power ; tho minority to less than one-third,
and, if tho body that possesses it be a j Congress, by thoso means, might be
full and oqiuil representation of (he enabled lo pass a law, tho objections
people, there is danger of ita pressing of tho President to tho contrary, not
with destructive weight upon all the withstanding, which would render im
other parts of tho machinery of gov- potent, the other two departments of
eminent. It has, therefore, been tho government, and make inopera
I Ik. light necessary, by tho most skil
fill and most experienced nrtists in tho
scienco of civil polity, that strong
barriers should be eroded for the pro-
lecuon nnu security oi mo oiner no
cessnry powers ol
tho government, i
-Nothing has been deemed more lit and
expedient for the purpose than tho
provision thut tho head of the Execu
tive Department should bo so consti
tuted as to secure a requisite share of
independence, and that he should have
a negative upon tho passing of laws;
and that tho judiciary power, resting
on a still moro permanent basis, should
buvo tho right of determining upon
tho validity of laws by the standard of
the Constitution. '
Tho necessity of sonio Biich check
in tho hands of tho Executive is shown
hy reference to tho most eminent wri
ters upon our system of government,
who seem to concur in tho opinion
thut encroachments arc most to bo ap
prehended from tho department in
which all legislative powers ore vest
ed liy the constitution, Mr. Madison,
in referring to tho Uitliculty ot provi
ding some practical sseurity for each
against tho invasion of tho others,
remarks thut "tho legislutivo depart
ment is evcrywhoro extending the
sphoro of its nativity, and drawing all
power into its impetuous vortux
"Tho "founders 'or our republic
seem never to havo recollected the
danger from legislative usurpations,
which, hy usscniljling nil power in tho
same hands, must lead to tho same
tyranny as is threatened hy Executive
ercised by iin ussembly which is in
spired by a supposed influence over
tlio peojile, vitU an intcrpid confi
dence iu its ow n strength, which is
sufllciently numerous to feel all the
passions which actuate a muttiliido,
yet not so numerous us to be incapa
ble of pursuing of its passions by
means which reason prescribes, it is
against tho ciiturprising ambition of
this (Icpartmei t that tlio peoplcoiight
to indulge all their jealousy and ex
haust nil their precautious." "Tho
legislative department derives a supe
riority in our governments from other
circumstances. Its constitutional
powers being at once moro extensive1
and less Ktisccptiblo of precise limits,
it can. with the greatest facility, mask,
under complicated and indirect meas
ures, tho encroachments, which it
makes on tho coordinate depart
ments." "On tho other side, the ex
ecutive power being retained within a
narrower compass, and being moro
simple in its nature, and the judiciary
being described, by landmarks still
less uncertain, projects of usurpation
by either of these departments would
immediately betray and defeat them
selves. Nor is this nil. As tho legis
lative dcpnrtm mt alono has access to
tlio pockets of tho people, and has in
some constitutions lull discretion, and
in all a prevailing Inllueiico over the
I pecuniary rewards of thoso who fill
' tho other departments, a dependence
1 is thus created in tho latter which
concentrating these in tho sumo hands
is precisely the definition of despotic
government. It will bono alleviation
that these powers will be exorcised by
a plurality of hands, and not by a sin
glo one. Ono hundred and seventy
three despots would surely bo as ag
gressive ns one." "As little will it
avail us that they aro chosen by our
selves. An clcctivo despotism whs
not tho government wo fought for,
but one which should not only be
founded on freo principles, but in
which tho powers of government
should bo so divided and balanced
among several bodies of magistracy as
that no one could transcend their le
gal limits without being effectually
checked and restrained by the others.
For this reason that convention which
passed the ordinance of government,
laid its foundation on the basis that
tho legislative, executive and judicia
ry departments should he separate and
distinct, so that no person should ex
erciso tho powers of moro than one of
them at the same time, lint no bar
rier was provided between thoso sev
eral powers. Tlio judiciary and exec
utive members wero left dependent
on tho legislative for their subsistence
in it. If, therefore, tho legislature
assumes executive ai d judiciary pow
er, no opposition is likely to bo made;
nor if made, can be clleelual, because
in this case, they may put their pro
ceedings into tho form of an act ot as
sembly, which will render them obli
gutory on the other branches. They"
bare, accordingly, in ninny instances,
decided rights which should have been
left to judiciary controversy, nnd the
direction of the Executive, during the
wholo timo of their session, is becom
ing habitual and famillinr."
In addition to what has boon said
bv theso distinguished writers., it may
also be urged that tho dominant parly
in each house may, hy tho expulsion
tive tho wholesomo and restraining
power, which il was intended by tho
fra mors of tho constitution should be
exerted by them. This would bo a
prat licul concentration of nil power
in the Congress of the United States
this, in tlio language, of tho nnthor
ol tho Declaration o( Independence,
would bo "precisely the definition of
despotic government."
1 havo preferred to reproduce thoso statesmen nnd
constitutional lawyers of tho curly
and later days of tho republic, rather
than to rely "simply upon nn express
ion of my own opinions. Wc cannot
to often recur to them, especially at a
conjuncture like tho present. Their
application to our actual condition is
so apparent that they now como to us
as a living voice, to bo listened to with
more attention thnn at any previous
period ol our history. We have been
und aro yot in tho midst of popular
commotion, i no passions aroused by
a grout civil war uro still dominant.
It is not a timo favorable to that calm
and deliberate judgement which is tho
only sufo guide wdiou radical changes
in our institutions are to bo ruude
Tho measure now before mo is one of
thoso changes. It initiates an untried
experiment for a people who have said,
with ooe voice, that it ia not tor their
good. This ulone. should make us
pause; but it is not ull. The experi
ment nas not noon tried, or so much
as demanded by the people of tho tev
eral States for themselves. In but
few of tho States hns such an innova
tion been allowed as giving the bullot
to tho colored population without any
other qualification than a residence of
one 3'ear, and in most of them tho de
nial of tho bullot to this raco is abso
lute, and by fundamental law pluood
beyond the domain of ordinary legis
lation. In most of theso States the
evil of such su lira go would bo partial ;
but, hihuH as it would is guarded
by constitutional barriers, lfeie the
innovation assumes fortnidablo propor
tions, which may easily grow to such
an extent as to muko tho white popu
lation a subordinate clement in the
body politic.
After a full deliberation upon this
measure, I cannot bring myself to ap
prove it, even upon local considera
tions, nor yet as tho beginning of an
experiment on a larger scale. I yield
to no one in attachment to that rule
of general suH'rugo which distinguish
es our policy as a nation. But there
is a limit, wisely obsertcd hitherto,
which makes the ballot a privilege
and a trust, and which requires of
some classes a timo suitable for pro
bation and preparation. To give il in
discriminately to a new class, wholly
unprepared, by previous habits and
opportunities, to perform tho trust
which il demands, is to degrade it,
and finally to destroy iu power; for
it mny bo safely assumed that no pol
itical truth is better established than
that such indiscriminate and nil em
bracing extension of popular suffrage
must cud at lust in iu destruction.
A-M)RKv Johnson.
Washington, January 5, 1807.'
A Uemahkaih.e Ooci'MtENcr An
individual living at Joetatesvillo, on
the Broad Top Imilroad, this county,
went out hunting a week or two ago,
and while perambulating tho mount
ains, fell and fractured his log. The
weather wus severe, and the prospect
of freezing presented itself most viv
idly. 1 ho unfortunate nlar was alone,
far from home, with no sympathizing
creature to nssist or even to commis-
sorate with him in his sad condition.
Seized by n fit ct desperation, and
finding his pockets well supplied with
small nails, ho determined upon the
horriblo expedient of nailing his foot
to his boot and his boot to his leg ; to
resolve was to execute, and in this
condition ho crippled to his homo. We
received theso bicts Irom Mr. lrim
bath, a neighbor of tho unfortunate
man, for wiioso credibility wo will
vouch. At tho latest accounts the in
dividual was doing very well. IkJ-
ford Inquirer.
Tho Supreme Court, as at prcsonl
constituted, consists of the following
named jurists, with tho date of their
isii;i,s. 1'. t'hnse, Ohio.CliiefJustiee.
ls:i.r James M. Wnjne, Georgia.
1X45 Samuel Nelson, New York.
IMG lloliert C. Gricr, Pennsylvania.
1S.1S Nathan Clifford, Maine.
ist',2 Noah M. Swuyne, Ohio.
IHII2 Dnvid Davis, Illinois.
1 8(52 Samuel E. Miller, Iowa.
1S03 Stephen J. Field, California.
"Will you run n way with mo to
morrow night , Kate, dear ?" said Philip
to his charming country hollo, who
had just arrived at the years of dis
cretion. "Oh, no, dear Phil., replied the
young lady, with groat senso of pru
dence, "I won't do any such action;
but I'll (ell you. what will do: I'll run
away without you, nnd then you can
run ufler mo, and wo will meet at my
Hunt's the same evening."
M'hilea physician was working over
a young lady who had suddenly faint
ed in tlio streets of Zanesvillo, it was
found necessary to remove eleven
pairs of stocking legs and ono pair of
lioso before bo could restore circula
tion through hor pedal extremities.
Tho post ofllce at Waynesboro, Ta.,
was last week victimized to the tune
of 81 by burglars. No duo to tho
thieves havo so tiir been obtained. Tho
oflieo nt llavrc-do Grnco was also
robbed of a largo nmount of letters
and money, uhoul tho same timo.
A doctor who had been trying to
establish a practice in Wisconsin, says
that the Vitiligo issoextreinoly healthy
that a man was murdered there re
cently for tho purpose ot starting a
graveyard. I
A man met a big Indian on the plains j
a few weeks ago. Tlio gcntlo savage I
had a large bundle of st ains, and tlio J
white man made bold to ask him whnt !
ho had been doing. "Hough!" said!
tho noble red man, "mo been skirmish- j
ing for waterfalls 1"
"I don't beliovo it's any use, this
vaccination," said a Yankee. "1 had
a child vaccinated, nnd ho fell out of
the window a week niter nnd got
Tht MVfoir Soliloquy.
Hero I ftin, with llvo children in
support . their father killed in t he nriny.
llave Id wash all da' nnd sew hull
the n'ght to get a i'-eiiiily living O!
how my lingers m ho und my cye
pain me! Congress establishes bu
reaus for tho support of frccdincn and
those who killed my husband, but no
bureau is talked of for my poo:- fath
erless children.
My husband was a white man, and
they tell mo his place at the election
will bo filled by ono who was in Cana
da when my husband was killed. 1
wish! had a vote. I would cunt it
for tho Government my liu-hnnd died
to maintain. They set tho negroes
freo, and now they tax w bile peoplu
to support thorn. I'm glad they uro
freo, hut they should work. I can't
understand why I am compelled to
work for a living, and negroes aro
kept at public expense.
ilow my eyes do hurt.
The tariff bill will make mo pay fif
ty cents moro for a puir of shoes for
Thomas, a dollar more lor a dress for
Jane, ten cents a pound more for cof
fee, and muko all tho goods 1 have to
buv much higher.
) havo hard times ahead.
The tariff won't increaso tho price
of flour, pork, potatoes, and such arti
cles as the farmers raise, which ia hub
consolation to me. If there wasn't
so many officers, and they didn't get
such high salaries, theso high tan lis
would not, bo needed. I must wash
to-morrow for the income tax assessor.
It will bo a hard day's work. Ho will
pay me fifty cents for it. ilo geufour
dollars a day for tax-assessing.
I work harder than he does.
What will 1 do with tho fifty cenU?
Susan noods a dress, but I can't buy
it. Wo havo no butler. No coffee.
No meat. Door Willis is sick. I must
spend the hull-dollar for medicine for
him; but drugs are taxed so high, it
will buy but little.
1 don't know what to do.
Winter is coaiing,and we Lave noth
ing to prepare for it. Tho postmas
ter 6ays wo can go to the poor house.
A poor-house for tho wives and fami
lies of soldiers. Things aro not fixed
We have a white population, and a
Congress thut gives each member
JiiOUtj a year, and mo H per month.
General Grant gets tl't),0iJO per year.
But my caudlo has burnt out, and I
mustrctiro to my hard bed for a little
rest. May God protect us, since we
aro forsaken by those who took away
my husband and tho lather of my
helpless children. Forsaken by thoso
w ho induced him to volunteer. For
saken by those who promised to care
for us in bis absence.
"Sally Mandersafo !" said Mrs. Par
tington, as her eyes fell on nn adver
tisement. "Do tell me, Isaac, who
this Sally M under is, and what sho's
been doing, that they've got her safe."
"I don't know what sho's been
doing," said Ike, "but I gues3 sho's a
sister to Jerry."
"Jorry who, Isaac?"
"Why, Jcny Mnnder," said Ike, as
he resumed his work by tho window,
catching flies. .
Foi'pixo. Mr. Popp, of Poppvillo,
fancying himself to bo very populur
with his lady-love, popped the ques
tion to her under tho poplar tree, on
Poplar street, w hen she referred him
to poppy, who, when asked for his
consent, labored under (ho influonce
of ginger gop, popped liiin out of tho
door to the tuno of "Pop goes tho
A young and pretty lady, riding in
the cars, was observed to have a piece
of "court plaster" on her lip. When
tho car had emerged lrom a covered
bridge into the light, it was discovered
to havo disappeared, but was detected
clinging to tlio lip of young man
who sat on tlio sent with her. J hey
both looked ns innocent ns if they
"hadn't been doing nothing."
A yourg man out West was en
trusted with tho money to bring his
father home a good family sewing
machine. Ho carried off a neighbor's
daughter to Chicago, married her and
brought her home, declaring sho was
tho best family sowing machino ho
could procure. .
"What are you setting that child
on that quarto dictionary for ?" said
.Mrs. Ji., ns tlio pater arranged his
little boy at the breakfast table.
"I am, replied he, "hxing the basis
of a sound English cduoatiou."
"les, said she, "but you aro bo-
ginning at tho wrong end."
A burglar w as frightened out of
his scheme of robbery hy tho sweet
simplicity of a solitary spinster, who,
putting her n ght-capped head out ot
tho window, cvoltiitncd, "Go away,
ain't j-on ashamed l"
A lady recently advertised for cm
iloyment as follows : "A young widow
lady wishes to superintend a widow
er's household, and would not object
to the supervision of a child."
A writer, dwelling upon tho impor
tance of small tilings, says, "that ho
always takes notico eveu of a straw,
especially if there happens to bo a
sherry cobbler at the end of il."
Wendell Phillips says that ho is
"wedded to principle."" He must bo
much such u husband as lirigham
Young, who it is said, doesn't seo some
of his wives onco a year.
A Boston clergyman is preaching
against tilting hoops, nnd says ho can
not stmt his eyes to tho abomination
any longer.
Tlio lb'V. dimming Moore, recently
consecrated ns a bishop of I ho Ameri
can Episcopal church in China, is a
native of Bichmond, and a graduate of
William and Mary College
Her ltoyal Highness tlio Princess of
Wales is "expected to ndd anolber
member to tho Hoyul family early iu
tho ensuing year.
Tlio postofllco estimates for (he
vear eliding Juno 30, lbS, amount to
General Hensingeii is in tlio distill
ery business in I'iehmond.