Clearfield Republican. (Clearfield, Pa.) 1851-1937, July 30, 1862, Image 1

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D.W.MOORE. liMitAr,
0. B. GOODLANDER, J i!(,lt0r8-
VOL. XXXIII. WHOM-. NO. 1 7 10
TERMS -$1 25 per Annum, if paid" innJvanco
IK Mill IT
t rati
OF TIIM SIT K l; I S T I . N I ) K X T t !' COM
Sclw"l Jlnii.sts, In the year for which
this l'finrt is iii!uli ' new hotr-os weie
built in Hoocuria, 1 in l'uggs, 1 in Coving
ton, 2 in I (-1 1 1 1 r , I in (maid, 1 in litis-:
Ion, 3 in Lawrence, mi l - in J'iko ; most
of tliorn in desirable loc'itions.
The Directors ot (urwentiville purchas
ed ii second-hand Methodist iiioetmg
Jioiiso, had it titled u, making two first
class school rooms, but failed properly to
Scat Until.
Win llier this was a judicious investment
of funds, inaMnucii us they owned ul tho
limea lirst class building lot. is Very ilouht
ful : milking u total ol 10 housed liuilt
within the yuar.
Those built in Covington, Decatur J I u - -ton,
urid one in Piki , are first class. Must
of the other new houses huilt thin year uro
at best but second class. J I'uu additional
5l) or 100 dollars had been expended on
pun: house, they would b(! lir.-t class for
our con."! ! 1 ""'I as other things, the
best nrtiole :., the1 end the cheapest, it
would h.v.-e b. etl i oo:umy to do so. U'e
have yet too nuuy enM, '.'tieonitortablo
liou-es, thou : some Hoard's of j 'jr-etuis,
i ... i.,.r...rtl'..iWiTl.
oesc i c u 1 1 ' i .u iit j1" ttf . , i v - -
they limn made.
The average length of
feet ; longest ;; f-.-t
Average, v. i'ith Li! .77 Ii
7 houses is. 25.0 1
hoi-test IS feet.
; widest (' (Vet ;
highest 1 I feet;
7'' houses ; eoal
narrowest I I h -I.
.Ueragc li -it'll 1 .! feel :
luwc i 7 feet.
1'" .-Wood is i. sod in
'.i,t Mo-l of the new houses have
lit arid cic-iral.le lurnituie. tlioiijrli
u nisi n:,.t, l:;eet(.rs have faded in
M-eit. Nearly all our old liou. es
; -.-il supi'liivl
..- nt ii I'-ii resj.erl is now beiti
. J i-tnets.
' iunisw bavo no ajipuralius
;ind. In l-'J the blaelc-boaids arc
of nn v
entn ,-ly
I'tin.'. si.-
loo smiiil to rn.-'.'-er a valuable
Th'j otiifji a have r.ulV.eiurd black
p, 'iaec to aiisn'cr ail iie.i:i:ie t. iri-oso--.
The tvv.j new !i-v.s,. in Inva'tur hnvo a
Uack fiirfatv vei t froi i a-.y thing ol
thu kind in tfic county : and fckotiU it not
i:acK.tu;d scale oil, u ill an -wer the uir
jioo i:iteudei' bei U r t.'ian any thitij! 1 have
seen. In if veral schools I found rnajis o!
the Culled States, and a lew o: -n U,
m two .i:l,oels a "lobe, each, a'l ot which,
with one exception, belonged to the teach
es. The fehools in ftoegs, Morris and
ir.iii.'ini mo iiippliod with Owens' school
.. , I ti-lvvh. c bavo no Fystom ol
t'railed -ehools (Xcept in I'leailhld and
' 'ui-w(isville, and in them it is not very
stri.t'.y adhered to. 'i a-oilicaticn i.:-trict-ly
ol ! V-U w hen a : u!liciei:cy of books in
(Hi hand.
Tutclt ft s' I'liifc-mi'in mi I . I' '. -The w ho!:
nu rubor of niilhiints for tlm t'.-.ichers' pro
le.ssion examined during tho your was
barely t-ulliuient including twetvo hold
ing county ( rtificates, and excluding six
to whom coun'y cei tilieates were denied
tosuiij 'y the schools cif tho county. No
leathers found (jualilied in uvery rep;'(.(u
tonntitlo them to full jirofessii.nal stand
ing. Tho average nge of Vl'i teachers orn
lloj ctl during tho year is '2i.K!S years ; the
youngest 17, tho tddest 07 of whom 54
"ere females, 71 males all, with six ex
coitions, were born in Pennsylvania, but
nut much above onchalf of thcin born in
our own county. Citizens of Clearfield
county, we ahould grow more teachers,
and depend less upon a foreign market
lor a supply. For advocating this meas
ure I have by pome been called selfioh.
Vixitntinni. With a tingle exception, I
visited one e every school that was in scsi
Hon in tho com, ty ; ".3 twice, and a few a
third tinio ; average duration of visits 21
hours. Delivered a sdiort address in 10 I
schools ; spent 2.T2day, and traveled '2''2
miles on olliciul business.
In many Districts ono or more teachers
dismissed heir schools, accompanied mo
to the next, taking in some instances a
potticn of their scholars with them. This
had a salutary e fleet on all parties. In
iiUtuerous instances one or uioro Directors
accompanied me at visitation. Thee vis
its bavo been made- a means to find out
teachers' (iialificitions to impart instruc
tion to others; examinations can do but
little nioro than, ascertain tlieir literary
aiuireiiients. Of the frequency of visits
by Directors, Citizens or Teachers to tho
schools, 1 can givo no reliable account,
though 1 have tiotes ol numerous visits by
theso personages.
Kcrctari, j I do not know what compen
sation Secretaries receive, either as recor
der of minutes, or District Superinten
dents; tho latter ollioe, u ith the duties
properly porloinicd, is of lusting benefit to
the schools.
Jn.uitutr Never more than one organi
ied Institute at a t i mo in tho same Dis
trict ; holds two meetings per month, cith i
or cent-iil or circular; in nlte.ided by all
tho teachers of the District ; by some from
ndjoinint! Districts when the distance is
lint too, and by County Superinten
ilont when convenient, Tho good olhicts
"Who Institute are felt by all ii attoud
mcp Unit care any thing about tlnJtn.
"( nKtrnctiii. Tho Scriptures arc
"ad ii :ly in all our schools except 2"' :
oilier devnlionnl p.vercise in .'!.'l ; moral
instruction by exatiijde in 5(i.
iirfn A-.?. Knglibh (irainmar and IntcU
' ' Arithmetic received mure attention
vo.n than ever before, though in
t .if schools they aro lamentably
" c i i; excu-c, deficiency of liooks.
'fuclievn should have tho element within
tluiuiH'lves and teach without books, in
stfddof forever complaining of a want of
I orio.'fi.o,. This very important branch
" citn.-a.K.n is tnuih ngcted ; though a
'w teitcheis deserve credit for reijuii.tig
' of ticir more advanced pupila twico
each week. Willi another few it is a meet
farco ; they require something to be writ
1 ten, but give no further attention to it.
'"V -.v.c. U ith I'J exceptions teachers
, liavo given better satisfaction than I tho t
they could do. Theie being so many bo
; ginncrs, ,1m not look for great things.
lino hid however I discovered, that a lew
now in their first term gave more-complete
I satisfaction than a like number with con
i -idol able experience. Tho latter clas will
not, I presume, feel theuielves much llat-
ti ied by this annoiinccmciit,
F.smiinati'i. My ii actice is to combine
the oral with the written, but ohiellv the
forim r. After the oral exercise in Kng
lisli (irainmar, I give a few correct and a
few inco'tecl .sentences to each teacher,
on a slip of paper, and reiuiio theiu to
toil n:u and tho audience, all they know
about them, or what they would iciiiic
of tlieir pupils in like eases.
mi ill written Arithmetic, 1 require a
solution on paper, have the teacher repro
duce the questions or problems to the au
dience, together with the .solutions and
the reasons therefor, I encjurage the
timid; commence with easy questions,
and generally havo about the same kind
for tho wholo class. True, i I a teach
er answer with great facility, i propound
something of greater ditlictilty. ifa tench-
I or iinsisers an cay question twin only the
s;,:ue re:iiiiiie.- uii anotner unsweis a
ni jro fii.'licult one, I do not give the for
ui.r as high :i ligure as the latter. My
teasons for adopting this course have been
derived from experience.
l''w''e--f'ieM. The average estimate of
teachers' qualifications this year is not
quite so good ns last year, though some uro
decidedly letter. My reason is so many
new and inexperienced candidates in the
he proportion ol Umiales em-
p.oyeit, are! the result ot teaching, as com
pared with last year, remain about th"
simo; though 1" have greater scholar-hip
and teach with gtvaio" succc-is than hist
iSiiinti'-r ,S:h"j'x. Several flislriets had
lO'.tntiier 'ehools, either by subscription or
othe.wise. It is expedient and is desii.o
).!e th it suuimer schools, in Districts
where tin y have thein, should commence
a'trr harvest and bo continued through
the st i ii t or under chArge of the same teach'
er. I'he Irequent changing ot teachers is
a great hindrance to the progress of our
si hools. A medium teacher is better than
frequent changes,
Jhtir-li'p Around. The plan of "board
ing around" h is a bad ell'eet upon teach
ers and scholars. It is expected that
teachers will converse in every family, and
if they do to any gieit extent, their stu
dies must bo neglected ; and if their stu.
dies tiro neglected tho schools must stiller.
I'.esidcs it is next to impossible in this
county for lemalcs to board round, consn
quoiitly their services niiit be dispensed
with in winter. Five dollars per nunlh
among farmers is nbout a f;.ir pi ice for
Tr., 7V.-.?.--Tho troubles of the
times have not eileeted injuriously public
sentiment in respect to the importance of
education, though the pa-'t year some
thought wo could not possibly raise funds
suflicient to pay teachers, and were willing
to dipeiise w ith schools for the present.
Directors however per-cvered and opened
them in every District in the county with
t vo exceptions ; the people acquiesced and
all now appear to be .satisfied.
1'ru.yhcli- Lumber having bro't a good
price, the growii g crops give evidence of
an abundant harvest, and this gigantic,
wicked and causeless rebellion having
probably readied its culmination, pros
pects have brightened and schools will bo
open pel as heretofore throughout the county-
Our JIW, Wo want more good teach
ers, a gicatcr length of school tettn, more
regular attendance of pupils, and a better
co-opeiation of parents with teachers to
secure and maintain good govci nment,
lh hiullmj llstrirts. Ferguson mid Law
rence had no schools within tho year; and
Woodward only ono out of three in that
District ; they of course forfeit their share
of State munilieeiico
.S'.wr,s(ii,),. 1 believe great good would
result if teachers were lequircd to make
monthly reports of the condition of their
schools to tho County Superintendent, as
that iillieer is now required to do to tho
central ofliee.
I believe it would bo a good plan in this
county, where good teachers arc not plen
tiful, to have the same teacher Uko charge
of two schools on alternate days, in all h -calilies
whern schools are not too remote
from each other. About oncthird of our
teaching foreo could be dispensed with
tho best being retained Tho term being
extended over a period of eight months
ieachets could afford to take a little lo-s
wages than where tho term is only four
months. Thero need ha no exetiso for
absence; children lwiving hjijf their time
to labor and do whit was nec-dlul to k
done at homo.
future J'oi'in. Teachers having failed to
respond to my invitation for normal ins
s'ruciion, my plan now i- to unite two or
three sonliguous Districts, when practical
bio, and give instruction in some branches
at the close of examinations ; and to en
courago and insist upon teachets reading
and studying more educational works
they being now quite abundant.
Cminhj S)criiitrmlcnt.
Curw ensville, Gth tno., lKG'J.
I rwA.-'iosi men worn lor tho pres
ent, a few for tlio future. Too wiwo
work fur both, for tho future in the
1 present, nnd for the present in the
1 tarMnkc choice of your wife by the
cars, not by 1 he eyes.
UofMiiko no enemies : he in insigni
lkautindocdjthat can do thctno harm.
ii. i i .. . .
Presidents Appeal to the Bonier States,
from v-ongTcsbiueu -".'c-
.. ',, . , , , , ('
Iho IJepresentat ivi s and Senators ot ;
the Holder Slaveholdini; States having, by
special invitation of tho President, been
convened at the Kxecutive Mansion on
Saturday morning last, Mr. Lincoln aib
dressed Ihem as follows from a written pa
per held in his hands :
" !, ithiifn : After the adjournment of
Congiuss, now near, I shall liavo no op
portunity ol seeing you for several months.
I'.elieving that you of tho I'.ordor States
hold more power lor good than any other
. . i
equal number ol members, 1 leel ii a uuty
which 1 cannot iustilicatlv waive to make
this appeal to you.
4-1 Int. .ml ii, i rpnrnui'li Of cmmilai n L
when 1 assure you that, in my opinion, if , representatives oi u.o ooruer siavejio.a
you nil hud voted for tho resolution in tho ! ,n 'stl,les should publicly announce the
gradual emancipation message of last ! motives under which they wero called to
March the war would now bo substantial- i lict ttI"1 llie considerations ol public jioh
Iv ondorf. And tho plan thcroin pmpo '-J' urtfod upon them and their culistitui
e'd is yet ono of the most potent and iwift 1 ns by tho Prosidont.
means of ending it. Let the States which j "ithavioiv to such a slatement of
are i:i rebellion sec defir.ilelv and cen tholr position, the members thus address
tainlv that in no event will the States you , et,1 ln council to deliberate on the re
represciit ever join their proposed Con. ! l''.v my should make to the President,
federaoy, and tliey cannot much longer ' "lul. as result of a comparison of opin-
maintain tho contest. Jim you cunnct ;
divest them of their hnpo to ultiiinttelv
havo you with them so long as you show
ucicrtjiuiiiiiuii i'j u:i pri unir ine nisiiiu
tion within your own States. Lieut them
at elections, as you have overwhelmingly
done, and, nothing daunted, they still
claim vou as their own. You and 1 know
what the lever of tlieir power is. lireuk
that lever before their faces, and they tin ,
shake you no more forever.
''Most of ou have treated hie with
kindness and consideration, and I trust
you will not now think I improperly
touch what, is exclusively your own, w hen, ,
for tho sake of the whole country, I ask, .
"can you, for your States, ilo better than
to take the course that I urge?" Discard
ing jmnrtiin ami maxims adapted to more
nienageable times, and looking only to tho
unproced 'ntedly stern facts o! our ease, i
canyon do better in any possible event ?
Vou prefer that the con.titutional rela
tion of the Stales to tho nation shall bo
practically restored without disturbance
of tho institution : and, if this were done, '
my whole duty, in this respect, under the
constitution and my oath of ollice, would
l. . .- i l... ;i : i .t I
uu oei lurn en. iuil ii. is nut uonu, unu
' .
we are trying to accomplish it by war.-
The incidents of the wnr'cannot bo avoid-
e'l. JI ulU H.ll uilHlllin-s ion;, as n luusb
if the object bo not sooner attained, the
,. . ... , .,1
institution in vour Slates will bo extin
nuishedbv tnero friction and abrasion
by the mere incidents ofihewar. It will
be gone, and you w ill havo nothing valua
ble in lieu ol it. Much ol its value is goi.e
! already. How much better for you and
j for your people to take the slep which at
oiu.o shortens the war, and secures sub
statuiul compensation for that which is
( sure to be wholly lost in any other event !
Jlow much better to thus save the money
which else wo sink forever in tho war!
How much better to do it while wo can,
' lest the war ere long render us pecuniari
ly unable to do it! How much better for
! you as seller, and the nation as buyer, to
sell out ami buy out that without which
the war could never havo been, than to
'. .
sink both tho thing to be sold
ami the
price ot it in cutting
throats !
0,0 '
"I do not speak of emancipation at ono;
but of a ih ri.slnn atoncn to emancipate yru'
uui!'. lioom in South America lor colon
ization can bo obtained cheaply, and in
abundance, and when numbers shall bo
largo enough to bo company and encour
agement for one another, the freed people
w ill not be so reluctant to go.
"1 am pressed with a difiieulty not yet
mentioned ono which threatens division
among those who, united, are none too
strong. An instatico of it is known to you.
Gen Hunter is an honest man. Ho was,
and I hope still is. my frie nd. I valued
him norm tho loss for his agreeing with
me in the general wish that ull men ev-
erywherc could bo freed. .Ho proclaimed
a'l men free within certain States, and I
repudiato 1 tho proclamation. lie expo
ted more good and less harm from the
measuio than J could believe would fol
low. Yet, in repudiating it, 1 gave dis
satisfaction, if not offense, to tinny whoso
'uitui 1 l" s o'iioi iiiiuin iu iosu. , ilnt0i without reasonable time lor c.on-
And this is not the end of it. Tho pres-1 eiei ation and debate, and with no time
suro m this direction is still upon me and ftt (ln for consultation with our constitu
is increasing, liy conceding what I now ent8, whose interests it deeply involved,
ask, you can reliovo mo, and, much more, it seemed liko an interference bv this
win relievo tho country in this important j jiovernment with a question which "poou-P01lj-
lliarly and exclusively belongod to our
"Lpon these considerations I have rpedive Slates, on which they had not
again Legged your attention to tho mes, , soujt advice or solicited aid. Many of
sago of march lust. P.eforo leaving tho us ,iubted the constitutional power of
capital, consider and discuss it among tliis government to niako appropriations
yourselves. You are patriots and states- 0f W(,ncy fr the object designated, r.nd all
men, and as such I pray you to consider 0f U3 thought our finances wero in no con
this proposition ; and at least commend it ' tijtj0n to boar tho immeiiso outlav which
to tho consideration of your States and j jU adoption and faithful execution would
neopie. as you woum perpeiuaio pojui-j
lar government for tho best people in the
world, I beseech you that you do in no
tviso omit this. Our common country is
in great peril, demanding tho loftiest
views and boldest action to bring a speedy
relief. Once relieved, its form of govern
ment is saved to the world; its beloved
history and cherished memories aro vin
dicated, and its happy future fully assur
red and rendered inconceivably grand. I eVl.n the law average of threo hundred
To you, more than toany othors.tho priv-j dollars, the price lixed by tho omancipa
ilego is given to assure that happiness mid ! flon d for the slaves of this District, and
swell that grandeur, and to link your own
names therewith forever."
At tho conclusion of these remarks eotnoi hundred millions cf dollars ; and if to that
conversation was had between tho rroii'l wo '.U,J l,ho of deportation and colon
.., , . - . - , . hzation at ono hundred dollars each, which
dent and several members of tho uologa. . but a fraction more than is actually
tions from tho border States, In which it Laid by tho Maryland Colonization Socio-
was represented that thc&o States could ty, we havo four hundred millions nioro,
not be expected to move in so great a
matter as that brought to their notice in
',10 -or0gning address while as yet tho
,, 1Rj(llken )0 slep ,,(yon(l tlC
passage of n resolution, expressivo rather
1 r- 1
oi u M-uumeiu man presenting a sut.Ktan
tial and reliable, basis of action
Tho President aeknov lodged the force
ol this view, and admitted that tho bor
jder States were entitled to expect a sub
stantial pledge of pecuniary aid as thi
condition of taking into consideration a
' proposition so important in its relations
to their social system.
) It was Itirther represented, in the Con'
ference, that tho people of the border
i States were interested in knowing the
iri-,..l i ti -r.i'1 n n cf uliiol, ll,,-. 1 '...itj 1. 1.... I .,
" .."--..-
i l"clll,l to the policy in question, while it
Mis equally duo to the country, to the
President, and to themselves, that the
""ioi.g inemseives, nicy (loterniincii
' lit. f. II Ilia .. i I . I 1 .I. . f.f ,. . n.,,1 r. n.i
..j..... nib i,4tiiuu v. a lutijviiij uici a uii
a."uri,y answer.
Reply of the majority.
Tho following paper wrs on Thursday
tout to the President, signed by the ma'
jority of the representatives from the bor
der shtveholding States :
Washington. July I, 102.
V'u tte 1'i c.u li nt : The undersigned, rep
reentatives of Kentucky, Virginia, Miss
muri, and Maryland, in the two houses of
Congress, have listened to your address
with the profound sensibility naturally
inspired by the high source from which it
emanate)!, the earnestly w hich marked its
ilelivety. and tho overwhelming impor
tuned nt the subject on which it treats.
vv e have given it a mo.t respectful con.
sideralion, and now lay before you our
response. We regret that want of time
has not permitted us to make it more
perfi ct.
We havo not been wanting, Mr. Presis
dtnt, in respect to you, and in devotion
to tho constitution and tho Union. We
have not been indifferent to the irreat dif-
. i,- t .i
luultlcs Mirrnctulinir vml. comtiariMl Willi
wiiicu all lormer national trouhies have 1.., .... -i... ,.i i i
1 i .
uui i; ii
oely given you our sympathy and
2 I Repudiating the dangerous heresies of
the secessionists, wo believed, with you,
that the isai on their part is aggressive
and w icked, .md object for which it was
to be prosecuted on outs, defined by your
message at the o cuing of ti e present
Congiess, to bo such as all good men
slioul 1 approve, we have not hesitated to
vote all necessary to carry it on vigorously.
Wo have voted all tho men and money
you have csked for, and even more ; we
have imposed onerous tuxes on our Jieo
plo.and they are paying t'neni with cheer
fulness and alacrity ; wo havo encouraged
enlistments and sent to the field many of
our best, men ; ar.dsomo of that number
have offered their person to the enemy as
iib-ih'os of their sincerity mid devotion l.n
, ... , . ... -
counuy. " nan-- uuiio an mis un-
der the most discouraging circumstances
niu! iii tin. face of measures most distaste-
ful to ,H lind injurious to the interests we
represents, and in the hearing of doctrines
avowed by thoso who claim to bo your
friends most abhorent to us and our con
stituents. Put, for ull this, wo havo nev
er faltered, nor shall we as long as w e have
n constitution to defend and a govern i
menl which protects us. And we are
ready for renewed efforts, and even groat
er sacrifices, yea, any sacrifice, w hen we
are satisfied it is required to preserve'our
admirable form of government and the
priceless blessing of constitutional lib'
A few of our number voted for tho ress
olution recommended Ky your message o
(i, ,,.r r,1P,.i, tst ti,,, cent nortion of
us ,iid not. and we will briellv state the
prominent reasons which influenced out
action. In the first plhee, it proposed a radical
change of our social system, ami was huri
ried through both Houses with undue
jm(,osc upon the rational treasury
If wo puuso but a moment to think of
tho debt the necaptanoo would liavo en
tailed, we aro appalled by its magnitude.
T he proposition was addiossed to all tho
States, and embraced to tho whole num
ber of slaves. According to the census of
IMJO thero were then nearly four million
slavps in tho country , from natural in-
ci ease they exceed that number now. At
greatly below tlieir real worth, their val
ue runs up to me enor.Tioussum ol twelve
wo were not willing to impose a tax on
qur people sufficient to pay the interest
on that sum, in addition to the vast and
daily increasing debt already lixed upon
them by tho exigencies of the war ; and,
if wo hail been willing, the country could
not bear it. Stated in this form tho pro
position is nothing less than tliu deporta
tion from the country of sixteen hundred
million dollars' worth of producing labor
and the substitution in its phiua ol an in
terest bearing debt of tho saino amount.
But, if we are told it was expected
that only the States wo represented
would accept the proposition, we rosprrU
fully submit that even then it involves a
sum to great for tho financial ability of
this government nt this time. According
to the census of 1. Still.
Kentucky had
225, -490 slaves.
S7,iss "
Virginia J'.'O.Ks'" "
Delaware 1,7'JS "
Missouri llljjj "
Tennesseo 27o,7sd "
. "
Making in thr whole 1,1911,112 "
At the sumo rate of valuation
thesowould amount to Sii'iS, 830,51)0
Add for deportation and coloni
zation S100 each. 1 19,21 1,5:'..'!
And we have tho enormous
sum of l7-,2l l,5;;:i
We did not feel that wo should bo jus
tified in voting for a measure which, if
carried out, would add the vast amount to
our public debt at u moment when the
treasury was reeling under the enormous
expenditure of the war.
Again, it seemml to us thatthis resolu
tion was but the annunciation of a settle
ment which couid not or was not likely to
be reduced to an actual, tangible proposi
tion. No movement was then made to
provide and appropriate the funds requi
red to cany it into effect, and were not en
couraged to believe that funds would be
provided. And our belief has been fully
justified by subsequent events. Not to
mention other circumstances, it ii quite
sutlicient for our purpose to bring to youi
notice the luct that, while the resolution
w.s under consideration in tho Senate, our
colleague, the Senator from Kentucky
moved an amendment appropriating fiOd,
UOdtotho object therein designated, and
it was voted down with great unanimity.
v mil coiitnience, then, could we reasona
bly feel that if we committed ourselves to
tho policy it propo.-ed, our constituents
would reap the fruits of the promise held
out, and on what ground could wo as fair
men, apjiioach tin in and challenge their
support ?
The right to hold slaves is a right apper
taining to nil tho States of the I'nion.
They have a right to cherish or abolish tin
institution, as their tastes or their inter
ests may prompt, and no one i.-. auth jiv
zo 1 to question the right, or limit its en
joynicnt. And no one has more clearly
allirmcd that rubt than you have. Your
inaugural address does you great honor
in this respect, and inspired the country
with conlidencc in your fairness and re
spect for tho law. Our Statos are in the
enjoyment of that right. Wo do not feel
called on to defend tho institution, or to
affirm it is one which ought to bo cherish
od ; perhaps, if we worn to make tho at
tempt, we might lir.d that we differ even
among ourselves. It is enough for our
purpose to know that it is a right ; and.
so knowing, we did not seo w hy we should
row bco.vpeeted to yield it. We had con
tributed our full shaie to relievo the coun
try at this terrible crisis ; we had dune as
much as has been required of othors, in
liko circumstances; and we did not seo
why sacrifices should ho expected of us
from which others, no more loyal, were
Nor could we see what, tiood the nation
would derive from it. Such a sacrifice
submitted to by us would not h ive sticn
gthened the arm of this government or
weakened that of tho enemy It was not
necessary as a pledge of our loyalty, for
that had been manifested beyond a reas
onable doubt, in every form, and at every
place possible. There was not the remo
test probability that the Stales we repre
sent would join in tho rebellion, nor is
there now ; or of tlieir elocting to go with
the Southern section in the event of a rec
ognition of the independence of any part
of tho disaffected region. Our States un
fixed unalterably in tlieir resolution toad,
here to and support the Union ; they see
no safety for themselves and no hope for
constitutional liberty but by its preserva
tion. They will under no circumstances
consent to ils disolution, and wo do them
no mors than justice when we assure you
that whilo the war iJ'conduotod toptevent
the deplorable catast rophy, thev will sus.
tnin it as long as they can muster a man
or command a dollar. Nor will they ()Vor
consent, in any event, to unite with the
Southern Confederacy. Tho bitter fruit
of the peculiar doctrines of that region
will forever prevent tlmm Loin plaein;
their security and happiness in tho custo"
dy of an association which has iocorpora
led in its organic law tho seeds of ils own
Wo cannot admit, Mr. President, that
if we hud voted for the resolution in the
emancipation message of March last the
war would now bo substantially ended.
We are unable lo see how our action is
particular has given, or could give, encour
agement to the rel ellion. The resolution
has passed ; and if there bo virluo in it, it
will be (Uitc ns efficacious as il we had vo
ted for if. We have no power to bind
our States in this respect by our votes
here ; and whether wo had voted the ono
way or the other, they aro in tho same
condition of freedom to oeppt or reject
its provisions. No, sir ; the war bus not
been prolonged or hindered by our ction
on this or any other monsure. Wc must
look for other causes for that lamented
fact. Wo think there is not much dilli
cully, and much uncertainty in pointing
out others far more probable, and potent
in their agdicies to that end.
! The rebellion d'-rives Iho st length from
tho union of all classes in the insurgent
Sintes ; and while that unis.ii hist i the war
: will never end until they aro ulti r!y o-
jhausted. We know that at the inception
of those troubles southern society was di
l .,;.i.i i . i..:. .. i . .
vi.i.-vi, uici intib a nu go portion, pci'iiais a
majority, were opposed to secession. Now
the groat mass ol southern people aro un
ited, To discover why they arc so wo must
glance at southei n-ociety, and notice the
classes into which it has been divido 1, and
which still distinguish it. Thev are in
arms, but not for tho same objects ; they
are moved to a common end, tint by diff
erent and oven inconsistent reasons, I'he
leaders, which comprehend w hat was pros
viously known as the State Rights pu ty,
ar.d is much the leaser cl.-rs, seek to break
down national independence and sot up
state denomination. With them it Ls a
war against nationality. 'I'he other class
is lighting, in it .supposes, to maintain and
preservo its rights of property and domes-,
tic safely, which it has been made to be
lieve aro assailed by this government.
I bis latter class aro not di unionists per
.v;they are so only because they have
1 eon made to believe that the tho admin
istration is inimical to their lights, and is
making war on tlieir domestic institu
tions. As long as these two classes act to.
gether they will never assent to a peace.
The pollic) , then, to be pursued is obvi
ous. The former class will never be rcc
tmciled, but the latter may be. Kemovo
their apprehensions ; satisfy them that, no
harm is intended to them and their lustii
lotions; that this government is not ma
king war on their rights of propciiy, but
it is simply defending ils legit ima-,-. au
thority, and they will gladly return lo
their allegience as soon as the jiro-snvu . ,
military dominion imposed by tin- Vi
fed ?rate authority is removed trom m,.
Twelve months ago both Houses of i." :i
gress, adopting the spirit of your nm..j, .
then but recently sent in, declared v'.
singular unanimity the object of the v. .
and the country instantly bounde 1 t
side to assist you in carry ing ii
the spirit of that resolution ha.' 1 e
noied to we me cinfidcot that i.
before now have 'ecu tho e nd on i
plorablo conflict. Put what. Imv w-
In both houses of Cong re -s we ha u
doctrines subversive of the priu. q, , s .
the constitution, and seen measure
measure founded in s -ibstance otid. .
doctrines proposed and carried tb:oc
which can have no other elle-ct than
distract and divide loyal men, and . ..
pernio and diivo still liu'tin-r inn i u- .
their duty the po-j-lo of tho ,-,( -Lu.,.-Stato.s.
Millitary otli-crs, following i!K.,.,
bad examples, have sloped beywid Me
just limits of their ant hority in the s ttiio
direction until in several instances you
have felt the necessity of interfering to
arrest them. And even tho passago of tho
resolution to which ou refer has been
ottcntatiously proclaimed as tho triunipli
of a principle which tho people of tho
Southern Slates regard as ruinous to them.
The effect of these n-e..ui es was loreteld,
and may now be seen in tho indurated
stale of southern fecling-
To these causes, Mr. Pr. sident, and m
to our omission to veto for the ii so.'. t,o:.
recommended by you, w solo: ,.,.y bo.
lievo we are to attribute ti.o -rrii.'.s e;.r
ne.lne;s of those in arms agi'-inf tho gov
ernment and the continuance of the ivai .
Nor do we (permit, us to say, Mr. Pre.ii
deut, with all respect for you) agree thst
llie institution ofslavery is "tho lover of
their power," but, we aro of the opinion
that "the lever of their pow'er is- the ap
prehension that the powers of a common
government, created for common and
equal protection to the interests cf all,
will be wield. d aguin-t tho institutions of
tiio Southern States.
There D ono oth"ridea in your address
we feel called on to notice. Alter statin"
tho act of your repudiation of f ten. Hun
ter's proclamation, you add :
"Yet, in repudiating it, I gave dissatis
faction, if not offense, to many whoso sup
port the country cannot afford to lose.
And this i" not the end of it. Tho pres
sure in this direction h still upon mo and
is increasing. Uy concedim; what f now
ask you can relievo mo, and much more.
can relievo tho country in this important
o have anxiously looked into this pas
sage to discover its true impoit, but wo
ar in iii p uniui uncertainty, now can
we, by conceding what yott now ask, re
lievo you and the country from tho in.
crea-ing pressure to which you refer? We
tvill not allow ourselves to think that the
proposition is, that wo consent to give up
slavery, to tlio einl tliat. tlm Jlu;;ter proc
lam tl ion may be let loose en tlio .South.'
Cl-ll people, lor it is too well kt0""l ill,;
wo would not be parries . jii
n.e.vurri, and w havo too niucu ''i'-:n.i.i
lot you to imagine j ou would i . ; :
Can it in- .-i ii lua1 by ,e-c dic:i;. , ;;)t,.(..
est ill slavi i- we a - .-i jt . ;. ,t
controls thai pre .m,; . ,. c-, ,-,).-drawn,
an. I rid the c a t :, : ., .;.
lent agitation o' ',n ,
We aro foil,;. Ihu so io ,hi.,k. ...
spirit wool 1 not ho sail-i i ...!. tn id,,
eration of seven hoiidrci t.-ic, , ' 1
and cease its ugit liin. .s.iJe i. .. ,m
lions remain in boiidm:-.. i i..
that by abandoning slav. -ly i-i .' i.
wo are removing the pres ai:-' i
and the co jnliy, by k op.ouig c - :
nr ion on the I i 1 1 o' th j Co't u
We are forbid-len so to think
is known that wo me, and is
you are, unalterably npp-i--ion
nt all. We would pi e
you dcairo this
our support, and thus lo c ,
withstand a prr ssure w hich vs -on
you and t he country.
Mr. i'resident, no such ;.jf'.
rc-sary to securo our suy. ort.
yourself to your constilAtional i.i..
tonlino your subordinates within ttiosuai