Clearfield Republican. (Clearfield, Pa.) 1851-1937, January 09, 1861, Image 2

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Nearly eloven Ibouinml ofour tollotv
citizen ro nor dovot.'ng their elTort to
tb improvement of the common ichool,
idirectom. Tlmn thU there i no more
ineritoroui body of men. An increafe of
the annual SIM tpproprialion wonld not
only he a material relief to the dmtncli,
nt thin time, but would, to Mme extent,
dinemburrMi director in their loenl opcr
tlon. , ,
It it not, however, the common nchool
nyntem, vnnt and honoraWo to the State a
it if, thnt cliiimn your cntiro attention, in
referenco to education. rcnnnylvania
aUo boast her collegiate, academical, ci
entlfic, profewionnl, and philanthropic
inttitutions, and numerous private chool
of every grade. In thi reepeet. nhe U
tecoml to no member of tho confederacy ;
but, from mere want of attention to the
proper Matistica, she ha thun far lioeu
ranked below her just standard. The
present I not the proper time to renew
grant to institution of these clase
which heretoforo received State aid. If it
were, the public authorities do not po
s the requisite data for a afo and just
extcriion of liberality. The period will
rrire when all public educational apen
ciei mut be included in one great y
tm for the elevation of mind and moral;
and when the State will, no doubt, pu
tronizo every proper effort in tho good
Foe the details of tho yntem during
the last school year, the attention of the
attention of the Legislature i respectful,
ly referred to the annual report of the
Common School Department, herewith
I dosire again, specially, to call the at
tention of the General Assembly to tho!
Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania. ft
an institntion which proposes to accom
plish an object which ha never Ixjen at
tained in this country the fjpplyofo
want which has ever been fell by the ag
roultural community : the education of
their sons, atoncoto scientific knowledge,
habitual" industry and practical skill, to fit
tberu for tho aidociations of rural life, and
the occupation chosen for them by their
fathers. The gains of the farmer, how
ever certain, are small. The education of
his son, should, thorafore, Lo measured
by the nature of his busine;. There
seems to be no practical mode of cheap
ning education, but by combining an
amount of expenditure, within the abili
ty of a farmer, witli the daily labor of a stu
dent, so as to make the institution so
nearly self-sustaining as to bring it with
in the reach of I hai class who constitute
0 important a branch of the industry of
our people. The original design of this
school embraced the accommodation of
four hundred students, a number ess-en
tial to the economical working of the sys
tem ; and, although the application for
admission are numberless, the utmost ef
forts of the trustoes have not enabled
thm to complete more than one third of
the builainjr, ot to accommodate more
than a corresponding number of students.
Many individual throughoutlthe Stato,
convinced of the merit of an institution
which promises no much goad, have con
tributed liberally to what has already been
done ; and the feoard of trusteos have la
ored with a real which cannot fail to
commend itself to the kind feeling of all
our citizens. Scientific education has ad
vanced the interests of avery avocation in
lifeagriculture far less than any other
and for tbo manifest reason that it has
not reached it U th samo extent, and
never will reach it, unless the body be ed
ucated to the plow, as well a tho mind to
the philosophical principle which the
plow's work developos.
I have alway looked upon tha Farm
rs' High School with peculiar favor, as
well because of my own convictions of its
Eromised usefulness, as tho favor which
a hitherto been shown to it by the Jtep-.
resentatives of the people It charter
requires an annual exhibition of its re
ceipts, expenditures, and operation gen
erally, and theso will doubtless be laid bo
fore you.
By the act passod by the last Leg sla.
ture, estwblishing a system of free bank
ing in Pennsylvania, and securing the
public against loss from insolvent,
radical changes were made in tho bank
ing law of thi State. Instead of corpo
rations created by special laws, voluntary
associations are authorized to transact the
business of banking, without further leg
islation, and as an indispensable prerequi
site to tho issuing of bank notes for cir
culation as money, ampio security uiusi
bedoposited with tho Auditor General for
their prompt redemption. The law makes
provision, not only for tho incorporation
cf new banking associations, but enables
banking institutions already in existence,
to continue their business for twenty
year af'.sr the expiration of their present
charter, upon complying with its provi
sions, by withdrawing their old circula
tion, and giving the securities required
for the redemption of the now issues. The
public, I am sure, will rejoice that no fur
ther necessity cxits for legislative action,
either on the ubject of creating new, or
re-chartering old banks; and that the
time and attention of their lteprejenla-
. 1
on tno outer
consent, or by
clot hod with lugislnlive,
trilmnal. A eovern.iiciit
with balances on band, at hand, whether created ty
. . ' .: ' million ,r dulla.! oonouest. when clothod V,
w hi 1 0 tho bo .1 d o f the State Treasurer is judicial, and executive powers, . neer
for only eiS y thousand dollars. Hi ac- rily in it. nature twere un ; and from thi
counU are Vttlod monthly ly the Audi- sovereignty (low. it. right to enforce i
0 Uencr.r by whom the receipt. for,law and drcreo. !by civil process, and i .
money into the Treasury are count- in an emergency, by it m.l.tary and naval
SU ina theao are the only safe-power. The government owe prot.ct.on
3 'rovided by law to prevent theil-ltothe people, and they, in turn owe it
Sal and improper u.e of tho money of thoir alliance-. It. law oiiotbofo.
,e State, by thi State Treasurer. lated by its citisens, t
Happily the revenue, of the Common- ty to tie ti .bunals crea od to enr-rco?
we.ul.Phayve hitherto been safn.y kept, lree . $if 2m,
prope-ly disbursed, ?ftM T 1 ha'pTblhj ' 41 bo purged of erimo by revolution,
ted for, by -those ia cbarfee ot Le 1 ubho ,1,,,, tll0 porMn ergIVgod in
rossury, but in view of the serious tlelal- v.. ivt,cllted as tn tors,
cations which have occurred elsewhere, Vttrnment of tL United Slt...
and in other Stato, thi fact should fur-1 - ,u 1:,.?,! li,Mj l0 it is 0 po
nish no reason why we ought not to guard , ' ' wmSw olL, gov
against loss in the future. Iiefcrnng to.JW uSized world. The Cou
my former ...mud mos.agcs, I respeetful- , ' w . tue cm ,)UMM(mco
ly, but most earnestly, recomuiend that Vxtressly declaro-l to bathe
provision be ruado by law : of the land. Under tho Con-
f irst Thnt no money shall be clcposi- Btitution, the general government ha the
ted bv tho State Treasurer in any bank, ' ... , -..i., nnii tUnport armies, to
or elsewhere, without first requiring am-. , j mrtintrtin a navy, and to pro.
100 common
ril security to be civon to
wealth for tho prompt repayment of such
sum as may be depositod ; and that ucl
socuritios shall bo deposited in tho ollico
of tho Auc itor General.
StcondTliiA all checks issued by the1
State rreasurer, shall be countersigned by 1
htk Auditor General, beforo they are usocf. '
and that daily accounts shull bo kept of
the moneys received, deposited and disil
burscd, in the Auditor Gcnoral' olFico, as
well as in the Treasury Department.
TlarJ That condensed monthly tale-
ments, verified by the sig;iatuies of tbo ;
General and State Treasurer, shall bo pub-j
lished in ono newiaper in riiiladolph ia
and one in Uurrisburg, showing the buj-j certuin power of sovereignly, and declar
ances in the Ireasury, and wnere tteposi- ej lhQ)0 j)OWOrS( u0 surrendered, to bo
tod, with the particular amount of each Upremei without reierving to the State,
deposit; and or to the poople, tho right of secession,
Fourth- That tho bond of tho Statel .-0I or 0thor resistance. It is,
Treasurer be increased to the sum or; ,..,ror ore. clear that there is no consli'.u-
.1 ... 1 . . . ...
... . .1 ,i . :i : . :.. 4 n w An, , I a
vulo lor catling lorvu too inuum w
it laws, suppress insurrection, and repcll
invasion. Appropriate siaiuies nuvo uni
enacted by Congress, to aid it. tha xocu
tio: ol thoso important governmental
Tho creation of tho Govern
ment, with the power enuraorated iu the
Constitution, was the act of tbo people of
the United States, and it U oerloctly im
material that the people of the several
States acted separately within the terri
torial limit of each State. The form ol
their action ia of no consoquence, in view
of the fact that th4y created a Federal
Goverument, lo which they surrendered
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars.
Our various charitable and reformatory
institutions the Stale Lunatic Hospital,
lioual richtof secession. .Secession isonly
onother form of nullification, hither,
Kli..n iiitAimiLad to b9 rallied out by force,
at Harrisburg the Western Pennsylvania' jg rebellion, and should bo treatcd'assuch,
Hospital for the Insane, at PitUburgh by those vvho.o sworn duty it is to niain
tho Asylum for th6 blind, and deaf, and tain th supremacy of tho Constitution
dumb,at Philadelphia tho Houses of Ke-' nu j juwg 0f the United States,
fugeat Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, audi H U certainly true, that in casos of great
the Ptnnsylvaniu Training School for idi- cxtromity, when the oppression of govern
otic and feblo minded children, at Media, ' mont has Wcome so intolerable that civil
will present their usual annual claims ,var , preferable to loncer submission,
upon the bounty of the State. These ex-'tuore reaiu'ms tbo revolutionary right of
cellcnt charities are continually Uupons-, resistance ; but where tho authority or tue
ing oenefi'.n and blessings upon sullcring 'government is limited by a written Con
nnd erring humanity, which can scarcely '6litution, and each departtrent is held in
bo overrated. They are heartily commen- 1 check by the other will
ded to the discriminating liberality of tbo rarely, if ever, happen that tho citizens
Legislature. I refrain, us I hove hereto- .jjay not be adequately protected, without
fore done, from recommending, as proper resorting to tho s.vrod and inalienable
object for appropriations from tho Stato I right to resist and destroy a government
Treasury, other charitable and benevolent ! which has been perverlol to a tyranny,
mctitiitinna. not because thev are uudo-i it,. ul,;l,- ,irnvitMr tho lilit of a State
serving the confidence and patronage of to absolve its citizons from tin allegiance! jn the Sta'o of Maryland and that she
the public, but because they are local : xu:cn they owe to the Federal Govern-1 escaped into the Stato of 1 ennsylvanw in
111 tneir cuaiucier, uuu in ii4 juKiiivmi rnent, it is ncvemieiess iiigu.p j.rr.j'i-i mui. uiu ) km h-.j
have no claim upon tue common lunu wo t,otild carofully and ca.ioiaiy examine
which can bo admitted, in justioo to the u,0 reasons svhkdi are adv anceil by those
rights and interests of other portions of jwho liavo evinced a determination to de
the Commonwealth. ntroy the Union of these American States;
ti. ;ncr,o"in- nf ili Slain Ppnif entiarv ' nl if it shall appear that any of the
""". . . . . , H..... I.III,..
cause ot Cf mpriini r43 rn iuuiiuru,n4i-j
should bo Jinhesitatingly renwvod, and, as
far as possiblo. reparation niado for the
nioro uncquivoi
direct in its com
lound. on the name
nul.j.rt. in tho Constitution 01 1110 1 nm...
Tho act, by Its terms, was made innppli
coblo to-domeflio slaves attending upon
Peletfatcs in Congress from other Ameri
can States, and thoso held by persons
while passing through this State, or so
journing therein lor n penuu iiuv
tlian nix niontus.
In 1778 it was mado ahigh penal aiTenco
for any person, by force.vlolenco, or fraud,
to take out of this State, any negro, or
mulatto, with the intention of keeping or
soiling tho said negro or mulatto as a slavo,
for a torm of year. Soon after tho pswsago
ol this act, the Suprom e Court of Pennsyl
vania decided that it did not apply to the
forciblo removal of a slavo, by tho owner
or his a?rnt, but that it objoct was to
punish the fraudulent abduction from the
Stato of free negroos, with tho intention
of keeping or solting them as slaves. Thus
Ot that early day giving judiciul sanction
to tho doctrine, that a master had tho
right to take hi slaves wherovcr ho could
find them. ,
Tho first act of Congress providing for
tho rendition of fugitive from justice or
labor, wn passed in 17'J:5, and originated
from tho refusal of the Governor of Vir
ginia to surrender and deliver up, on the
requisition of tho Governor of Pennsylva
nia, three persons who had been indicted
in Pennsylvania for kidnapping a negro,
aud carrying him into Virginia. And
when itwa found that this Congressional
statute did not afford a simple, npcody,
and efficient remedy for tho recovery of
fugitives from labor, tho Legislature of
Pennsylvania, at the request of the ad
joining State of Maryland, in 182G, passed
her act "to give effect to tho provisions of
tho Constitution of the United Slates rel
ative' to fugitives from labor, for the pro
tection of freo people of color, and to pro
vont kidnapjiinir." This excellent and
well considered law met all tho existing
emergencies. It required the judges, jus
tices of tho peace, and oldonuen of the
State, upon tho oath of the claimant, to
issuo their warrant for the arrest of any
fugitive from labor escaping into this
State; directing, however, that such war
rants should bo made returnable, by
whomsoever issued, before a judge of tho
proper county. It required sheriff and
constables to execute uch warrants. It
authorised tho commitment of tho fugi
tives to tho county jail, and otherwise
roAde previsions to secure it effective ex
ecution, and at the same time to pievnt
itj abui.
Thi. l.iw continued nuietly iu operation
until the decision of tho Supremo Court of
ii.n tTnitpd States, mado in 1812, in tho rtf lri"t VS. Tim Commonwealth of
i'cnnsylvanm. Tho history of the case
may be briefly statd: Edward Prigg was
indicted in the Court of Oyor and Terminer
of York county, for kidnapping a colored
nci'aon. named Martha Morgan. Upon
t!io trikl it appeared sho was held a slave
1 4 1
"i "" " " " 1 .. . . t, 1.....:.. I., niinr inn nor incrm
n,ro unc.uivocl own ollW rrs to aid in nrrcs i. in g
for tho Eastern Dutnct of Pennsylvania,
in their annual report for the years 1(58
and 185'.), called the attention of tho Le
gislature to the insecurity of such parts of
tha Penitentiary buildinus as were expos
ed to their own fires and those of the .mont created by the people, ami main
neighbothood, and recommended that taincd for their benefit, should do injus
roots of such of the corridors as were cov- tice to any portion of its citizens,
crcd with shingles, and needed renewal, After asserting her right to withdraw
should be replaced with slate or metal. ! from tho Unicn, South Carolina, through
On visiting tho institution, my attention I her Convention, among other reasons, de-
that in I801, hdward I ngg
was anointed by tho owner of tho slave.
to sei7X! and arrest her as a fucitivo from
labor. In jursuaucc of this authority,
and under a warrant issued by a justice of
the peace, Prigg caused the negro woman
to bo arrested, and, without having ob
tained any warrant of removal, he deliv
ered her ta her owner in the State of Ma-
past, and security given for the future; for ryland. lhoso lacts were toun.t t.y a spe
lt is'uot to be tolerated, that a govern- c'ial verdict, and by agreement of counsel,
a judgment wits entered against irij;g.
From this judgment ft writ ot error was
takci to the Supremo Court tf the State,
where a pro fvnna judgment f affirmance
..'.a ncuin 1,1' nuTPfmPllt. (MltProd. ai.d the
j m ilm Siinro.tne Court of the for delivering up fugitives
! Ki.ioa minority were then of the
ore. Tho necessity for tho charge was bo ' this time, that right, because several of, it wifl be observed that the question,
apparent and urgent, that I advised them j the Stales have for years not only refused w;,ther Edward Prigg was really guilty
not to hesitate in having the old, dilapU to fulfill their constitutional obligations, 1 0f til0 crimo of kidnapping, under tho
dated and dangerous wooden roof of such but have enacted laws either nullifying t l'enneylvauia ntntuto of 1320, wa never
portion of tho building as required re- the Constitution, or rendering useless the actually passed upon, either by the court
newal, replaced with oiue substantial fire 'aots of Cougress relative to the surrender Lrjury, in tho county of York, or by the
p . :i ri.:.l ..i:.,.i i.rr...:,:...i.,... il..l ihnv hnv nermit. c Cmoi aC il.n 5sl.ln TIia inrv
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merely rounri tne lacts, ana tne action 01
both courts was but a matter of form.
In the argument and determination of
tho case, in tho Supremo Court of the
United States, it appears to havo been ta
ken for granted, that our act of 1820 mado
it a criminal offence for a master to take
his slave out of this State, without a war
rant of removal j and upon this construc
tion, tho ocl was declared unconstitution
al and void. This I submit, was a clear
nvsipprchension of tha purport and
meaning of our legislation. Tho first eec-
nr.f material. This has accordinul v been 1 nf fumlive .lave: that they have permit
done, and I respectfully recommend that1 ted the open wtatilitshrucnt of seci'?ties to
a small appropriation be granted to defray disturb tho peace of other Stales ; that
the expenses incurred.
I commend lo your
report of tho Stato Librarian, whoso at
tention to the interests of tho Library
lii.. rww.ninif ilm nnn-slavcholdi n c States
consideration the! have aided in the escape of slaves from
their master, ana iwvo inmea 10 m-xviie
insurrection thoso that remain; and havo
, i ? -i . 4i. .4 'onnnnnced llieir determination wriuuuo
Under nio iirr, hodvi ii n.w nuiuneiiwiir - - . .. . .
" ' .r.tpm r,r nirlinni.pi tho iinuth from the common territory of
with tho different Slate of the Union, tho Union. As the Hepresent.tivo of the
and with foreign Governmonts, common- pooplo of Pennsylvania, it become your
ix! and prosecuted under his auspices, solemn duty
has resulted in great advantages to tlio
Library, and deserves the continued coun-'
tenance of the Legislature. The increase
of tho Library, at a comparatively small
expense to tho State, has been such, that
it ikiw neens enlarged accouunouauons iot
the safe-keeping of the volumes, and, if
to cxamino theso serious
charges, mado by the authority of a sove
reign btate,
rcnnsylvanift is included in the list of . tion of the act of 182G, under which tho
. . . ... . ... . - . ,.. i- .,
iniiir.tment aeainst Priccr was framed.
was almoft literally copied from the sev
enth section, of the act of 1788, to which
a construction had already been civen by
thn hichest judicial tribunal of the State!
tives will now, happily, bo ro loiig-T nw
nonolized iu the eonsvderation of a sub
ject hitherto productive of so much strife
and contention, if not of positive evil.
The rapid increase of private bank
throughout the Slate, makes it eminently
right that they should be placed ander
pioper legislative restrictions, and that
too large amount of capital, thus employ
ed, sho'dd be made to contribute its fair
proportion to the revenues of the Com
monwcalth. Their biawnesn, in the aggre
gate, is now bsiievea to n mount io a uin
almost, if not ouite. equal to
States that aro charged with having re
fused compliance with that mandate ef
the Constitution of the United States,
which declares "that no person held to
the increase continue, will soon require a service or labor in one Mate, u nek; r the
separate building far i1s exclusive use. laws thereof, escaping intonother, shall,
The reports of tho State Treasurer, tho i consequence ot any taw or regu.auon
4 .. i:.. .i ,i, c,.. ;,... thcirain. bo Uischanced from such service
.ru.,..r.7L..r" .V; a., ut,r l.nt shall bo deliveted up. on' acent. with or without warrant.
" rZ :..n"r .Sm of ' the twtv to whom such service W tho undoubted law of the Stat uudr
JiratioDi presenujor laoor may bo due.y So far from ad
ed by ho 'o several departments, for the milting tho truth of thin charge, I uolicni
alt Leal year. They are entitled to tb t.lm, y .ver that upon a f
tivo and judicial action of Pennsylvania,
.i.oi..r na cMonv. as a member oi w y i . .
.1,1 rrfoilotitlon. or uniler tho ex
Constitution of the United Slates has
been almost invariably influonced by a
rKATiif tt mirp ifttion of her own oblica
tions, and by a high regard for the rights, act, could have induced
the feelings, and tle interests oi tier shut
mi l d. liv
ering up fugitives mm luiwr. .. ...
ken h.-r constitutional obligatun, rvn.l
that her n.-t wan in violation of, rather
than obodienco to, tbo Constitution ot
Iho United States. Under nu:li nrcurn
stances, it was the manifest duty of tlio
Stale to repeal hor law thun doclarod un-
..4 . .ii . . i . . I... il... nrr.
constitution!, .uin waa nuim vj
or 1817; and if that act had contained
nothing more than a repeal of tho law ol
18"G, tind tho rconactment of the law
against kidnapping, it could not have
been subject to any just complaint. Hut
the third" section of tho act of 1817 pro
hibits, un ler heavy penaltios, our judges
and magistrate from actisg under any
act of Congress, or otherwise taking juris,
diction of tho caso of fugitive from labor;
and the fourth section punishes w;th hne
and imprisonment, the tumultuous aud
riotous arrest of a fugitive slave, by any
person or persons, utidor any pretence of
authority whatever, o as to create a breach
or tho public peaco. Tho sixth section,
denying tho uso of tho county jails for
tho detention of fugitive slaves, was re
poaled in 1852, and need only bo referred
lo as showing the general spirit of tho act.
Tho seventh section repoaled the provi
sions of tho act of 1780, which authorized
persons passing through our Stato to take
their slaves with them, and gavo to so
journers tho right to bring tlioir slave in
to tho rltato, and reiain Hum here for any
period not exceeding six month.
Tho provisions of the third and fourth
sections ol tho act of 1847, seem to have
been predicated upon the languago of the
Supremo Court in Prigg's case. It is
thoro admitted that tho several Stales
may prohibit their own magistrates, and
other otlicors, from exercising an authori
ty conferred by an act of Cangrcss ; and
that while an owner of a slave, under and
in virluo or the Constitution of the Uni
ted States, is clothod with power, in eve
ry Stato of the Union, to seize and recap
ture hi slave, he must nevertheless, do so
without using any illegal violence, or
committing any breach of the peace. It
is evident that the framor of tho net ol
1847 had closely studied tho case of Trigg
vs. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
and had ept this law strictly within it
letter. In many respects, the act is n coJ
ifica'ion of the principles enunciated by
thn Court: and moro fault may justly be
found with its temper than its want of
If fugitivo slaves were still claimed un
der the act of Congress of 1793, the de
nial to tin master or tho aid of State
judges and magistrates, might, be a source
of great inconvenience to him ; but the
complete and perfect remedy now p:ovi
ded by the act of Congress of 1850, ren
der him entirely independent of State
officers. And the punishment of arrests
without wan ant, by a master in the exer
cise of his constitutional right of rcap
tion, but made in a violent, tumultuous
and unreasonable manner, amounting lo
a breach of the pea:e, is but recognizing.
I.y statute, what was before the common
law. These soction were ro enacted in
the revised penal code of Pennsylvania,
at the last session of tho Legislature, and
aro still tho law of the State; but they
are not now of any practical importance,
and nu their retention on ourstatuto poor
is calculated to creato tho impression
that the pr oplo of this State are unfavor
uble to the execution of the fugitive slave
law, and the di-chargo of their confeder
ate duties, and with the view of removing
this subject of reproach, I earnestly re
commend their unconditional repeal.
While a majority of judge of the Su
preme Court of the United States, in the
Pri22 case, held that a State had no con-
eti'.utioual liglt to provido by legislation
r.M .lni;T.,rin,, nn fuililivM fl fITl Iflhni. A
ODini n t bt
nnntilclani n-ifli fitiri in nirl nf.
obMic S tunoianui si - -
the constitutional injunction, were valid
and proper. And this minority opinion
is now the judgment of the present
court, os xocently indicatied in a case
which arose in tho State of Illinois.
There is, therefore, nothing to prevent
tho revival of the act of 1820, and it res
toration, to the place ir. our oode to which,
by its merits, it is so justly entitled. This
would leave to the option of the claimant,
whether he would seek his remedy under
the Stato or National laws. Ho had this
right before the repeal ot our act of 1820,
and, in my opinion, no good reason can
bo assigned for refusing to place him again
in tho some position.
I would also recommend that the con
sent of tho Stato be given, that tho mas
ter, while soiourninc in our State, for a
limited period, or passing through it, may
bo accompanied by his slave, without lo
sing his right to bis service. While such
lecislation is due to tho comity which
should ever exist between tho different
States of this Union, it would undoubted-
Ii J
him been nerioimly qunal tonerl
the power to legiMnto upon iM, J
i i... . ...i..,! .,.i.;..4 .... ., '
llllll lllljuil ii'ii i'l'y ' 4 rn eiPf
in Congress, in niv judgment it
I. ;...i '!' .i I
141 111, CA.I I'I"' 'I, v. ..'.u.lliu
nluill not exist in tho Territorioi,
lated lo exclude from their L1
tho citizen of the southern or iU
in States ; while, to make it aUi
tution in all the teriitories ot'thA
State, by Congressional encctm
to provide for its continuance,
their entiro territorial existenc,,
equally injurious tot'ne peopls0fti
State. The principlo adoittod
C'ompromiso measures of 1850, for;
ing of tho quoUion of slavery ii
Mexico ana utan, aim reiterated
Kansas and NoVraska bills of 1854
intervention by Congress with iy
tho states and in tne territorial
truo rule. It is tho duty of (V
when a sufficient numbur of he
adventurous pioneers find theirs;.'
our distant territories, to furnuh
shield of protection aud a form of rJ
mem ; out to trio peopio monuelt.
long the right to regulate their o
mesne institutions in their own i
ject only to the Constitution of th
While these views have long bJ
tertainedby me, and while I am litj
of the opinion that their general nd
and fairhful enforcement would
preserved and may yet restore, pwJ
harmony to all sections ot the com,
am nevertheless not o wedded to
not to reject, unceremoniously, all
propositions for tho settlement i
vexed questions which now Hired
sundor the bonds which for three
tors of a century have marlo us one p.
Forty years ago our fathers letti
angry controversy growing out oft
lar question, by dividing tho Terr,
purchased from France, and pw.
that slavery or . involuntary mth
should not exist north of acwtain
and the whole country acquitfswVwi
compromise. In 1854, thnt rti
upon slavery was removed, ami thi
of all tho Territories' were left free i-
cide the question for thcmselvi
the sectional issuo is again present?
tho dominant party in the north. d'
that slavery cannot legally com:
Territories oven if sunctionedby
cress or tho Territorial
that it is tho tieht and the dutv of
preRs to prohibit its exiitenco. W
doclnno winch obtain with a nwji'
tho people in mast of the southerns
is that under the Constitution, tht
torios ore all open to slavery; tin:
ther Congress nor the Territorial Le;
ture can lawiully prohibit its cxw
and that it is the duty of Copprealo
vido for it all needful protection, m
not wisely follow the example of os
thers..y ro-enacting the old conma.
lino of 1 820, and extending it to tlmk
dary of California ? Not by tho ma:
legislation of doubtful eonstitutioiu
but by an omenmentd to tho Jconititr
itself, and thus permanently tix the
dition of tho Territories, so that tho
desiro to occupy them, may find sf.:
at their discrotion, either where ili'l
is tolerated, or whore it is prohibited.
the adoption of such nn amend
would teacefully settle tho diffix'
which now surround us, I am satisfied
it would be sanctioned bv the peopi
Pennsylvania. At all events, Uiey to;
havo an opportunity to accept or iwci
if mado os a peace offence I (wu
therefore, recommend theGenerslAw
bly to instruct and request our Bent!
and Representatives in Concress lor
port a proposition for such an nineEd1"
jf theConstitutiori, to bo submitted
ratification or rejection, toaeonvenlw
delegates, elected directly by the p
of tho Stato.
v.. .... ... -4. -
in tne event ot tno taiiure oi w,i
speedily to rroposo this or a sit
amendment, to the Constitution,
citizens cf Pennsylvania should hut
opportunity, by the application ofc
peacerble remedy, to prevent the diss'
berment of this Union, lhis can
be done by calling a convention of
gotcs, to be elect sd by the people,, f
view solely to the consideration of
measures should be taken to meet
present fearful exigencies. If Coef
should propose no remedy, let it ww11!
from the source orall authority, the j:
Everv attempt, unon the part of it
viduals, or of organized societies, to M
tho people away from their a. eginna
the eovernment. to induce them tol
late any of the provisions of the Cowl
tion. or to incite insurrection in snj,
the State of thi Union, ought ft
of Pennsylvania, whero it was held to ly tend greatly to restore thot peace and
have no application whatever to the re- harmony, which are now o unwiely im
moval of a slave bv the master or hi periled. Bv it Pennsylvania would con-
Such cedo no principle we would simply be
tatting bacK upon our ancient policy,
attentive consideration of the Legislature.
Soon after my inauguration, upon the
recommendation of my predecessor in
office, a dwelling house wa purchased in
this city for the residence of the Governor
of the Commonwealth. The purchase in,
eluded several article of heavy furniture,
then in the building, and a small oppro-
ir I ....mi-Jof a thA nprivigArv .
rriaiH'II ' . ''Ctolna
t. f I.a 1,aiiua mn .a in malr a il . , dUtle.
lurnisnioE u - "
fit and convenient residence for live incom
ing Exocutive. I cheerfully recommend
the immediate passage of a bill nuking a
suitable appropriation for this purpose.
rheexttaordinary and alarming condi
tion of our National aflairs demands your
immAdiate attention. Un the 20ih of De-
the whole j comber last, the Convention of South Car
tho statute of 1788, and in reenncting
that statute, in the act of 1820, with an
increased penalty, it is manifest that tho
intention and object of the Legislature
was to protect free persons of color, and
f tho to punish those who. by fraud, forco or tional. From 1780 to 1847, a period
isting violence, were guilty of kidnapping, and 'sixty-seven years, Pennsylvania, herself a
holdincor sellme free men as slaves. i iree state, permitted tne citizens oi otner
. . , .... , ' r. . . .
adopted at a time when our people them
selves struggling for their rights, and nev
er departed from, until, by a misconcep
tion of its meaning, one of our most im
portant statutes was declared unconetitu-
7 , r. 1 A l IOI. .1 r
This the Sntte had a clear right to do;
and nothing but a misconstruction of her
tho aectarauon
t .101 quite, equw io vuo rr - --. - - lin,U nf
business of tho regu arly bartered bank. or or ----- - - y",; -
. . I . . .... nY r , St V. M.K1fl. II T SB U iwvn
. M 1 . -
with the exception of merely nominal " tai ino u..e... 'n''--""
license Ux. is free from taxation. This is South Carolina and th other! States, under
nnjust to ever, other clau of our tax pay- i
n6gKtXC Soul ucn, ta 17So, moro than ei6bt year, bo-:
i, Mir as I7tJj.tle provincinl authori
ties of Pennsylvamia, after reciting in the
preamble, that 'tbe importalion of Indian
slaves from Carolina, or other places, haUi
been observed to give the Indians of thi
povinco somo umbrage for suspicion and
dissatistaction," ptvwed an act against the
importation of Indian slaves from any
other province or colony, in America, but
t the samo time declared, "that no such
Indian slavo, as deserting his master's ser
vice elsewhere, shall fly into this province,
shall bo understood or construed to bo
mm nrch ended within this set." And
Marvland. and delircrinc her up to her
owner; and it i equally clear, that no at
tempt was made, by the Statute of Penn
sylvania lo declare his act a crime. He
should have been discharged, not because
the act of the State was unconstitutional,
out because he had not transgressed its
The Supreme Court of the United
States not only pronounced the particular
section of the act of IB26. then bofot-o
prohibited by law, as crimes of a trn1
Lie natute. It is of the first imoortsn
to tha perpetuity of this great Union, '-j
the heart of the people, and tb cli1
of their constituted authorities, irifuiu
in unison, in civinna faithful supoori
the Constitution of the United Statw
The people of Pcnusylvania aredMW
to the Uninn. They witl follow its it
and its strines through everv peril. :
before assuming the high responsible 1
now dimly loresnadoweii. His tneir
ram dutv to remove ever iust csaim
complaintautinst themselves, so
mnv stand before Tlich Haaven. and
civi lized world, without fear and wilt
reproach, ready to devote their lives
their fortunes tn tha .nr.nnrt of the
. ... -r I
six months, and to pass through tho State! form of government that- has ever v
uevisej oy ',n wisdom ot man.
In accordance with the provisioiJ
the Constitution of the State. I shall
resign tho office of Chief Bxecuuvs
Pniiniivlrnniii willi irhirh Ihft PPOt
- ... j ...... ' . .. - ,
hnvn enfructtivl mA. to whom thev Ili'l
chriRpn n triif siicrpsaor. I shall "n
States to sojourn within her limits, with
their slaves, for any period not exceeding
that it was forbidden by the conititution i in traveling from one Stato lo another, free
of the United States. It is perfectly clear, from all molestation. v as she injured, or
that Edward Prigg had committed no was the cause or human freedom retarded,
crime in removing Margaret Morgan from by tho friendly grant of thi privilege?
.. ... ! T. Li... .r .I.:.I......IU. ..nnl.l l,Al.ll,rillU .Kim...
tllO .Mate Ol 1 ennsyivania iu iu cimtm iiiufiucnnuu liiuuuiucuuvuiuiij "u"rr
cd in the affirmative ; but it may be safely
averred, that bv changing our policy. n
thi respect, we have in somo degree, at! with me into the walki of private lif.'1!
. . . , J - .l.rl' .1 - . . ..1! II-
least, anenateu irom us tne leeungs oi , consciousness ot having honestly t.i'
rraternat kindness, wh'ch lound together god tho duties that hnve devolved fl
so closely, the sisterhood of States. Let me dnrins tho term of niv office, to '
us then renew the pledge of amity and; bast of my ability ; and shall everclief
rriAndshili. and onco more extend a kind' Mm rnrmmt nirnetion for. and tho
lv wnlcorun to the citizens ofour common . nf. inlnrAat in thn fntnrn welfare of cl
country, whether visiting us on business beloved Commonwealth and our dlortoH
or pleasure, notwithstanding they miy be
them, unconstitutional, but a majority uf , accompanied by those who, under the
nAr.i, T.a in.Hnu Aft dirk eW
doe indeed rest upon u; but my hl