Clearfield Republican. (Clearfield, Pa.) 1851-1937, January 09, 1861, Image 1

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Termse! SuhirriiUi)ii.
If oil ! In k,1 VAnnn. or within Himim m am t h a 41 9
f,; If paid any timo within the year, ... 1 40
; If paid after the expiration of tho year, . 2 00
Terms of AdvcrtUlng.
Advertisements aro inserted in the Republican
at the following ratos :
1 Insertion.
" M square, (14 lines,) $ 40
Two squares, (28lines,) 1 00
Tim squares, (42 lines,) 1 50
3 month
2 do.
$ 75
1 50
2 on
I 00
2 00
2 iO
12 mo
tr oo
10 00
12 00
11 00
13 00
86 00
no a.
On Square, I
Twoequaro.i, : :
Three squares, :
Four equaros, :
Haifa column, :
$ oo
C 00
8 00
10 00
12 00
20 1)0
: 4
: t
: 8
One column,
Over three weeks an J less thnn throe months 25
" cents per square for each iiiKertion.
, Buainoas notices notexeoediug Elines are in
serted for $2 a year.
Advertisements not marked with the number of
' Insertions desired, will bo continued until forbid,
and charged according to these terms.
An extensive stock of Jobbing nintoria
enab les the Publisher of the "licpvblican'
to an nounco to the public thut he is prepa
red to do all kinds ot
Fosters, Pamphlets, Programmes,
BLANKS, PaI'BR BoOKS, Circulars,
Labels, Bam. Ticrkts, llANrnii.i.s,
, and every kiwi of printing usually done
in n country job
All orders will be executed with neat
ness and despatch.
M'tULI.Ol f;ll & HltOTHEK,
Attorneys at I. aw.
Office on M:irkot strcut, opponite Mossop's Store,
Clearfield, Pa. Will attend promptly to Collec
tions, Sale of Luixlj, Ac. nov7-14
T) W. HAY?, Justice of the I'onoe, will attend
1 . promptly to collections and other ninttrrs
ft in his charge. Address Kersey, Elk co IV.
Oct. 3d 1860. ly.
; YlTfeTICE of the peace
AF l.utheri-burg, Clearfield Co, Pn.,
will attend promptly to all Lu."iiies entrusted
to bis care. March 28, I860. ly. d.
AT the mouth of Lick Run, five miles frem
Clcnrfield, MERCHANTS, and extensive
..Manufacturers of Lumber,
July 23, 1852.
Blacksmith, Wagons, Huggies, Ac, Ac, ironed
on short notice, and the very best etylo, at bis
eta stand in the borougu ot Uurweusvilie.
Dec. 2 185 J
DK. M.
tins (
WOODS, having chnnjed his loca
from Curwen.villo to Clearfield, res-
pectlully ouers his prolessionnl services to the
eituens of tho latter place and vicinity.
Reidono on Second street, opposite ti it of
J. Crans, Enq. my I 1155.
1 Physician and Surgeon,
Clearfield Tv, JIny 30, 1SS0.
; ; ATTOflNLY AT LAW, will attend promptly
and faithfully to all legal business entrusted to
hie care, in tho several Courts of Clearfield and
adjoining counties.
- Office, the one formerly occupied by O. R.
. Oct. 2flth, 1850 ly.
physician and Surgeon, ofTers his profes
sional services to the citizens of Xew Waah-
tou and aurroundinz community. Office three
doors west of the Washington House,
New Washington, Pa., Oct. 14, 1S59.
. Citil Engineer & Land Surveyor, offers
- hii professional services to the citizens of Clear
. field county.
All business entrusted to him will bo promptly
nd faithfully executed.
Office with Leonard, Finney t- Co.
. Justice of the peace
Lutberpburg, Clearfield Co, Tn., will
attend promptly to all business entrusted to bis
care. , He also informs tho public that he koeps
constantly on hand at his shop, a general as
ortment of Saddles, Uridles, Ilamoss and
whips, which ho will cell on reasonable tro ma.
. April 4, mo.
, A M. SMITH offors bis professional services
J. to the I.adiea and Cientlemen of Clcar
Beld and vicinity. All operations performed
with neatness and dospatch. Ueing familiar
with all the late improvments, he is prepared to
'make Artificial Teeth in the best manner.
'Office in Shaw's new row.
, Sept. 14th, 1858. lyi.
.V'4.1""1"1"- I. TKST
TT AHKIMKK & TKST, Attorheys at Law
-OJ Clearfield, Pa., will attetid promptly to Col
Uioln, Laud Agencies, Ac, Ac, in Clearfield,
lefttre and Llk couhties. July 30 y
Clearfield, Pa., Off.ce in Shaw', Row. on'
polite the Journal office.
flee. 1, 1858. tf.
,1'ITlioleKale and Retail Mri rhnnt.
ft extensive doalnn in timber, sawed lumd
lT and shingles. Also, dealers in fiour an
rraia, which will be sold cheap for eah
' Oct. 14,1859.
JUSTICE of the peace
F.ockton, Union fp., will attend
promptly to all basinets entrusted to his care.
' . Sept., 12, lSrtO. ly.
-1 very large stock of Spring and Summor
iA. elotbing of the latest styles for sale low by
Curwensville, Kay 16, 1860. E. A. IRVIN.
M'fkerel and Herring for sale at
toro of E. A
the corner
i'-urwensville, ay ,0
loot. aurt 100- A arR(,r (took and ower
J-f rrices than ever, at Irvins Chearost corner.
"urtventville, May 10, '0-
J AS r Alt Y 1, 1.S81.
;inen fiiet tlio Printer's mystic art began
To illurno tho darkened ln'ind of nmc,
And rep tore, by its enlightening grace,
I h' enfeebled powers cf our nol'lo race,
Which deep beneath unlettered ignorauco
Had forages lain in deathlike trance,
! ... ..-....,.v luisfiipT in gnei or toy,
nns ever been the laithful carrier boy.
'Tis he alone, with young and Blender
Has Always braved tHo cold am! howling
I To bear the holy light of truth afar,
vi" t RPleu 1110 iicwsorpeaeo or war.
lis ho who prompt and cheerful at your
Each week supplies you with some U3eful
Some knowledge to add to tho garnered
Something to freo tho weary heart flom
Something to sooth or lighten tho grief
, uctir ;
And if duty on him at times impose
1 o bear tho pago which sudJor thomea dis
wn. blame not him, who must tho types
And tell the current actions of tho day ;
1 hough unwelcome oft the tidings bro't,
hich, come nut unexpected, yet un
sought To eager eyes.'wLoso changing hopes and
Are seen in feeble smiles or startim tears:
All are alike the fruit of weary toil,
Which like, for bread, tho Farmer tills the
Heaped bounteous in the golden grain--For
mental food the Printer ti'ls his brain ;
While you, from one small "germ of tho't
By his art a thousand more unrolled.
Thus throughout caeh year that's pathless
The carrier has cn his misbion sped ;
Greeting his patrons with cheeful face.
Giving each in his heait a cherished
And now you see him still at his post,
Braving tho winter defying the frost
That he may at each door by dawning ap
pear, To ivish his kind friends a"happy New
Surely may ono who so faithfully serves,
Claim that a gcnerouB return he deserves,
What thoughts a carrier may express,
You will learn by reading this address ;
Wherein ho bids farewell to Sixty that's
And pays his respects to young Sixty one
By Heaven's Great Omniscience guided,
And His kind Beneficence provided,
We still, in life and health are hero
To hail once moro tho new born vear.
Not only hsro with life and health,
nt having evety source of wealth.
Whoso treasures vast aro vct untold ;
While by sixtv and an hundred fold.
Earth ha yielded her bounteous storef,
And want approaches not our doors.
Should notour erateful hearts o'erflow
With tho immeasurable thanks we owe,
For blessings vouchsafed us hero below,
And for that mercy which doth spare,
That wo fur. iudsjenient mav nrenare :
Then how much moro for thate-een lovo
Which proflor endless bliss nbovo,
If wo life's duties well fulfill.
On earth obey the Master's will?
But Patrons dear, with anguished heart
I saw the dying Year depart
With many a lingering look of pain,
Whi'.o Gloom and Sorrow formed its train,
And I could hearupon th 0 galo
A song of death a mournful wail.
Lamenting o'er the Nation's woes,
Inch wild and melancholy rose.
And as along tho blast it swept,
jueinougnt 1110 pitying angel wept
l'o hear the dirceof Freedom dead-
Tito knell, of hope forever fled,
10 seo her reign of glory done,
And Misery's dismal swav bei?iin :
That soon must sink in endless nitrht
A nation, born with hopes as brinht
Nay ! brighter far than ever yet,
A nation in its dawninc mot.
Since God's bright Sun first roso and 6et ;
Sinco created nations dwolton earth.
Hope 6prang exultant with their birth :
'IV I 1 1 1 . '
i.u r reeuom, seeKing peace ana rest,
Turned her footsteps toward tho west.
The broad Atlantic croifsinc o'er.
Until she reached its farthest shorn,
And there, beneath tho sylvan shade,
Freedom's nrk of hope was laid.
Erelong her altar hero was reared,
And on its sacred hearth appeared
A sacrifice for human right,
Whcso flames dillused a holy light,
And threw their beams back o'er the main.
H hero, ,'neath tho Tyrant's galling chain,
Her million votaries groaned in pain,
And struggling, sought redress in vain
Revealed to them this new found home,
And bado Oppression's victims como.
To sharo this fruitful western land
With its gallant patriot band ;
Where freedom's incense as it rose,
Bespoke for all a calm repose,
Beneath her just and equal laws,
Who espoused hor righteous cause,
And joined her hardy son's of toil
Upon Columbia's virgin soil,
To teach the savage wilderness,
I heir labors, with its fruits to bless.
Nor quite unheeded was the beaeon sent,
or tho thrilling voice that with it went
A t its call a slumbering race awoke
brokeniShtf W'nS 11,6 morRin8
From an odious thraldom thousands flee.
1 henceforth determined to be brave and
free ;
Aud all make common cause in weal or
Plouged each to each, till aeuth, Oppres
sion's foe.
Men they were, stem of heart and strong
of hand,
Who loft their ancient homes and lather
Tocivo their nid upon a foreign shore,
To found a nation unsurpassed bef jre.
When they at last this safo asylum gain,
Installed in valo, on hill and plain,
Ty runts may their power assert in vain,
Their vengeful thunders now awake no
In tho dauntless hearts of Freedom's pio-.
Seo. by united, noble, bold empriso,
Beneath their hand a glorious empire riso,
Whoso fame o'er Earth extending far und
Proclaims the land whero Freedom's sons
There, underneath its kind protecting
shade, (a
Tho wearied head may bo in safety laid.
Oh! sight sublime I ne'er till now beheld,
1 ween,
Equality and Justice triumphant seen.
Despairing hope her pinions plumed anew
As broke tho scone on bar enrantnred
And upward soaring bent her cagor flight
With joy elate, toward tho realms of light,
That she might the tidings earliest bear,
To earth's desponding guardian spirits,
there ;
Who long had mourned, but ever mourn
ed in vain,
To seo their fuvorito race mid toil and
Wear in bonds, their suffering lives away,
Beneath somo cruel despots iron sway,
For centuries held with unrelenting grasp,
60 firm that mortal hand could scarce un
ci p;
But bow the monarch's mighty spell is
And tbey at last disdain the Tyrant's yo-e,
And arm, strike and triumph for Liberty,
Proclaim tho Saxons birthright to bo free.
Hope's npproach the spirits eager
And to her tale with listening ears attend
In pleased surprise, as from her tongue it
And deemed her blest to have such news
to tell.
And nov the sister's grateful task being
Tltn tM-i.nlnco 1 .Inocl.i ma tnl.l 1 .. ...1
And allo'er the oventheld brief commune
The celestial choir their harps attune.
Aud a clad triumphant chorus raise.
A joyful anthem in freo Columbia's praiso.
Now these supernal ceremonies o'er,
nope return to Atlantic s western shore,
And ever sirco has hover'd anxious there,
On poised wing upborne in middle air,
Watching o'er her charge with tender
care ;
Stationed as Freedom's faithful sentinel,
That she may each threat'ning ill fore
tell. Now on the nation's fate dark clouds
And liopo once moro to her sister spirits
With heavy heart sho wings her upward
To herald alas ! the knoll of human right.
But, how different her reception now.
As sho arrives with sorrow darkened brow, i
io smiles illumine each celestial laco,
Each step has lost its lightsome easy
grace ;
Al! with aspect clouded by doubt and fear,
Slowly approach the stricken messenger,
And when the melancholy talo was heard,
Deep pity, each angelic hosom stirred,
Sorrow with a tear dimmed every eye,
And anguish wrung from every heart a
While Hope, more dcoply grievod than
all the rest,
Turned her faco in sadness towards the
For ono last lingering look at that fair
Whose desolation sho foresaw at hand,
Ere she folded her wings and gave it o'er,
To the furious tido slid could stem no
With tearful eyes sho waved a last fare
well And turned her from the land sho loved
so well.
Thus to mo the dying Year'did eny
As on the midnight gale it passed away,
Foretelling dark and direst ills to come.
Of bloodhhed and death within the happy
Of horrors dread and fiorcest civil war,
Of cruel Devastation's' dreadful car.
And all attendant ills that in their train.
Concur the people's bravest blood todrain,
w.y young pen, tne task: attempts in vain,
ui writing an mat, swelled tho mournful
It is enough that wo may ere long behold
All tho dire misfortunes therein foretold.
May Heaven in time avort tho fearful
blow ;
And spare tho land th:s dreadful scono of
I would long ere this
gloomy theme,
havo quit this
Or treatod it as a passing idlo dream,
But my tho heart s foreboding thoughts
nouiu guute,
Though to change thoir current I in vain
havo tried,
On I may another New Year prove them
wrong !
Then 1 can greet you with a livelier song.
The Now Haven (Conn.) city election,
on Friday resulted in an emphatic Demo
cratic victory. The Democratic majority,
in a poll of 5,000 votes, is about 500. The
town embraces Fair Haven and Westville,
which always give Republican majorities;
fa the Senators and memlc
Jtfvesrntatuet af the
Pennsylvania :
r of tJ,e Home. of
Comrnomccalth '
Gentlemen: In submitting to the Gen
eral Assembly my last annual communis
cation, it is thosourcoof unfeigned gratifi
cation to be ablo toannounco to the poo
plo, and to their rnprcsentativos.that, not
withstanding tho present unfavorable
crisis in the monotary affairs of this coun
try, and tho ceueral prostration of bnyi-
ness and credit, the financial condition of
Pennsylvania is highly satisfactory.
The rccoipts at tho State Treasury, from
all sources, for the fi.-cal year ending on
the 30th of November, 1SGU, wero ?a,'170,
257 31, to which add tho available balance
in the Treasury on tho 1st day of Decem
ber, IH59, fs-y,223 t,.,( and tlj6 wLoo gum
available tor the year will be found to bo
$4,31S,58U 40. Tho expenditures, for all
l.,"r.I?ses, for tIie 8alu0 period, were
$3,037, 147 32; leaving an available bal
ance in tho Treasury, on the 1st day of
December, 18G0, of JfGlSi, 433 08. The fol
.owing items aro embraced in the expen
ditures for tho fiscal year, vi :
Loans redeemed
Rolief notes cancelled
Interest certificates
ilomestio creditors' certificates .
iiamagos on the publio works, and
old cluiuig ...
$064,857 85
1.811 00
2,438 52
5 40
22,644 32
Making.of the public dobt actually
paid during the year -
r.91,757 80
The funded and unfunded debt of tho
Commonwealth, on tho 1st day of Decern
ber, la5'J, was as follows:
6 por cent loans - . . $400,CI0 00
4 do do - . . 37,625,153 37
4) do do . . . 339,200 00
4 da do - . . 100,000 00
Total funded dubt
38,513,983 37
Reliof notes iu circulation
Interest certifioates outstanding .
Do do unclaimed .
Domestic creditors
$101,213 00
13,513 82
4,448 38
802 60
Total unfunded debt
124,977 70
Making the entire debt of tho Common
wealth, at tho period named, $38,038.
J0I 07.
1 ho funded and unfunded debt of tho
1 ut' ? ,ci?f. bus fiscal year,
December 1, 1SG0, stood us follows :
' 8 percent. loans
i 5 do do
$400,630 00
36,967,295 72
381,200 CO
100,000 00
Total fanded debt
37,849.125 72
Relief notes fn circulation
laterest cei tificatos outstanding -Do
do unclaimed -
Domestic creditors' certificates
$99,402 00
16,074 30
4,443 38
77 10
Totul funded debt
120,771 73
Making tho entire public debt of Penn
sylvania, on tho 1st dav of December last,
$37,,J,847 50.
To pay the principal and interest of this
debt, besides tho ordinary sources of reve
nue, the Commonwealth holds tho follow
ing mortgage bonds, derived from theaalc
of her public improvements;
Ponds of Ponn'a Railroad C"., - $7,200,000 00
Uonds of Sunbui y A Krio R.R. Co., 3,500.000 00
Bonds of Wyoming Canal Company, 231,000 00
10,981.000 Oil
At the cloee of the finca! yar, on
the 1st day of December, 1357,
the public debt of this Common
wealth, founded and unfounded,
was - - - $3'J,861,73S 22
It is now, at the closo of the fiscal
yoar of 1860 - . . 37,9C9,847 50
Raring been reducod, during tho
last three years
1,911,890 72
Th e available balanao in the Trea
sury, on the 1st day of Decem
ber, 1857, was - - -
On Jhe 1st December,'.! 860, it was
Exceeding the former balance in
tho sum of -
Add to this tho sum paid at the
Treasury, during the past thtce
yean, for debts and claims
againrt the Cntnnvinwealth ari
sing out of the construction and
maintenance of the public im.
provcraentftnd which was sub
stantially a part of the unfunded
debt of the Commonwealth,
amounting to - -
And we have the sum of
$523,106 47
CSl,4:i3 OS
153,326 61
171,664 E2
224,991 42
By adding this sum to tho amount paid
on tho public debt from December 1, 1h')7,
to December I, 180U, to wit: $1,911, b'JO
72. it will bo found that during the past
throe years the State has not only met
all her ordinary liabilities, including the
expenses of government, and tho inter
est on her public debt, hut has diminish
ed ker actual indebtedness tho sum of
$2 230,885 15.
When it is remembered that for tho
last threo years the tax on real and per
sonal estate has been but two and a half
mills on tho dollar, while trom 1844 to
1850 it was three mills that for tho past
two years and six months the State has
re ceivod no part of the lax on tonnage
due from tho Pennsylvania railroad com
panyand that sinco July, 1859, the in
terest on the bonds held by the State
against the Sunbury and Erie railroad
company has remained due and unpaid,
it is certainly cause for hearty congratu
lation, that, without aid from these im
portant sources of revenue, so great a re
duwion of the public dbt has been
accomplished in comparatively so short a
period. The funded debt of the Stato is
now less than it has been since 18 42, and
-J via
the unfunded and floating debt, wllif'll
at that timo amounted to upwards of two
tmIll0'1 of dollars, has been almost u-
iriVmod- U ' no,v reJuced to
ll-OJU iS and of this sum ever nine
ly-nine thousand dollars consists of roliof
notes, most of which aro undoubtedly ei
ther lost or destroyed, and will, therefore,
never bo presented for payment. The
claims against tho Stato. accruing fnim
the construction and maintenance of her
canals and railroads, are now roduood to a
moro nomiual sum : and. in the future
after providing for theordiunry expends
of government, her revenues arid her en
ergies may be exclusively applied to pay-
muiicoi uio interest, ana ttie discharge of
uiH principal oi ner public dept.
The peoplo of this Commonwealth have
hitherto met, with promptness, tho des
manusmacio upon tbom, ironi timo to
t mefor the ways and means of replenish-
nifc luu j. uuuu iieusury ; ana now, mat
they sea that the onerous debt with
which they have so Ion; beon burdened,
it. eacn year certainly and rapidly disap
pearing mat the amount renuirod to
meet the interest is rapidly being dimin
lsueu tuat consequently a still greater
sum can eacu year bo devoted to the re
duction of tho principal of tho debt,
without resorti jg to additional sources of
revenue and that, with a proper hus
banding of theresourccs.tha day is not diB
tant when direct taxation in Pennsylva
nia will ccaso altogether tho payment
of such taxes as may for the time bo re
quired to meet tho necessities, will con
tinue to be mot with cheerfulness and
alacrity. But they will unquestionably
hold those to whose caro they" have
entrusted tho financial interests 'of tho
State to a rigid accountability. That
there should at this particular juncture,
when tho business and monetary affairs of
tho country are so greatly depressed, be
the strictest economy in public expendi
tures, is so manifest, that it can scarcely
bo necessary to call attention to so plain a
duty, It is equally clear that any legis
lation which would tend greatly to lessen
tho rovenues of thoCommot wealth, would
at this time, be peculiarly unwiso and iu.
expediont. The exigencies of tho future
no man can foretell tho prospect before
us is beclouded with doubt and uncertain
tyit is, therefore, no more than the part
of wisdom to guard, M'ith unceasing vigi
lance, all our present sources of revenue,
and to thus be prepared for every possi
ble contingency.
Since July, 1858, the rennsylvaniarail
road company has refused to pay the tax
on tonnage required to be paid by tho
act incorporating the company, and its
various supplements, and there is now
duo to the State, on that account, exclu
sive of interest, tho sum of $074,2 22.
Including the interest, the sum now due
is about $700,000. Before my last annual
message was communicated to the Legis
lature, a case had been tried in tho court
of common pleas of Dauphin county, be
tween the Commonwealth and th'a rail.
road company, involving tho question of
tho constitutionality of this tax, which
was decided in favor of tho Stato, and tho
imposition of tho tax pronounced consti
tutional. In January last, another suit
was tried between tho samoparties, in tho
samo court, involving tho same question
with a like result. In December last, a
judgment was obtained in the district
court of Philulolphia, upon ono of
thosomi-anntial settlements, for ?1 10,000.
So that judgment has boon obtained for
?3G5,000 of (ho debt, being tho whole
atnonnt which became duo prior to 1800.
Tho tax which accrued during the past
year, amounts to $308,820 03. Tho first
settlement for tho year is before tho Dau
phin county court on an appeal taken by
the company ; and tho second, or List, set
tlotr.ent was made but a few days since by
the acoountuut department of tho Com
monwealth. After tho recovery in tho common ploas
of Dauphin county, tho cases Jwcre remo
ved by writ! of error, taken on behalf of
the defendants, to tho Supreme Court of
this State, wharo they were argued in
Juno hist, and in October that tribunal
sustained tho decision of tho court
of common pleas, and held tho Ux
to bo clearly constitutional ; thus uniting
with the law making power in allirming
tho right of the Stato to tax a corporation
undera law to which it owes its existence.
But, notwithstanding this concurrence of
opinion aud action on behalf of the con
stituted authorities of Pennsylvania, tho
litigition is not yet at an end ; for the
railroad company has recently removed
tho cases, by writs of error, to tho Su
preme Court of the UnKed Slates, whero
they aro now pending. That the decision
of that court will, when made, fully sus
tain tho right of a sovereign Stato to en
force a contract between tho State and a
corporation, and entirely vindicate the
power of a State to imposo such taxes
upon corporations, as in her sovereign
will she may deem proper, 1 cannot for a
moment doubt.
Tocomplcto tho history of this impor
tant litigation, und to show that every ef
fort has been, thus far, made to compel
tho payment of this largo sum of monvy
into tho Treasury of tho 'Stato, it is prop
er to add, that the law otlicar o tho Com
monwealth, being of opinion that the
writs of error were not issued from tho
Supreme Court of the United States in
timo to prevent the collection of tho judg
ments rendered in the SJta'o ennru v.
cutiona were issuo'd to tho Sheriff of the
! County of Dauphin, and proceedings are
now penning in me supreme court ot this
Stajo, to dolormine whether thoCommou
wealt'a can compel tho payment of the
judgments already recovered, beloro the
final decision by the Supreme Court of the
United States.
The Sunbury and Erie railroad compa
ny tiaving failed to negotiate its mort
gage bonds in their present condition, the
expectations confidently ontertained of
per Annum, if paid in itdTBnco.
nkwskhies-voL .-'0 25"
an early completion of that most impor
tant improvement, have not been realized.
Tho work during tho past yoar, however,
although greatly retarded, has been con
tinually progressing; upwards of one miU
lion of dol.'a-s having been expended on
the line fioni November, 185'J, to Novem
ber, 1800. Tho wholo length of the road,
from tho borough of Sunbury to tho bar
boron the lake, at tho city of Erie," is 288
miles ; of which 148 miles aro now finish
ed and in operation, and 115 miles of tho
remaining portion of tho lino are graded ;
leaving but twcii'y-fi vo miles yet to grade.
Pennsylvania is largely interested iu the
early completion and success of this great
thoroughfare, not only becauso she is the
creditor of the company to the amount of
three and a half millions of dollars'; but
for the additional, and moro cogont rea
son, that the improvement, when comple
ted, will open one of the most important
channels of trade between the city of Phil
adelphia and the great lakes of tho west,
at tho best harbor on Lake Erie, entirely
within the limits of our own Stato, which
has ever been contemplated. It vill,
moreover, develops the rescu es of a
largo portion of North.western Pennsyl
vania, abounding with the richest miner
als, and a lumber region of unsurpassed
excellence, which the munificent hand
of the State has hitherto totally neglected
By disposing of her blanch canals to that
company, in exchanga for its mortgage
bonds, the State has already largely aided
in thoconstruction of this groat work;
and it may be necessary, to insure its com
pletion, that further legislation should be
had in order to render tho means of the
company available. It is evident that
a liberal poliey, on tho part of the gov
ernment, will promoto alike the interests
of the Commonwealth and the railroad
company; nevertheless, great caro should
be taken to protect, as 'ar as possible, the
debt new duo from tho company to the
State. If all propositions which maybe
made for a change in tho securities now
held by the Commonwealth, bo carefully
considered by tho Legislature, and no
more yielded than sound economy de
mands, with proper provision for the duo
application of whatever means may bo
realized, it is believed that sufficient re
lief can bo granted to tho company, to
enable it promptly to finish the road,
while the security remaining will be fully
adequate to insure tho ultimate payment
of the principal and interest of the bonds
of tho railroad company now held by the
I commend this sulject to the Legisla
ture as ono entitled to its most careful
consideration, as well on account of its
vast importance to that portion of the
Stato through which tho railroad passes
to tho cities of Philadelphia and Erie
and to tho railroad compan' as to the
Commonwealth herself. Promising that
whatever policy it may bo thought expe
dient, 10 pursue, should be adopted solely
with reference to tho protection and
furtherance of the public interests.
The attention of tho Legislature is again
invited to the subject of general educa
tion. At tho present juncturo it present
peculiar claims. Tho experience of a
quarter of a century has satisfied tho pro
verbially cautious peoplo of Pennsylvania,
of tho adaptodnoss of tho common school
system to their wants and condition. No
less has the severe ordeal of the past threo
years shown its capability to endure thos
sudden reverses which occasionally pros
trate tho other interests of tho communi
ty. Involving greater expenditure than
the rest of the departments of govern
ment, and that, too, mainly drawn from
direct taxation, it is a proud fact, that,
while most o f the enterprises of society
have been seriously embarrassed, and
some of them suspended, by the pecunia
ry crisis of 1857, our educational system
has not been retarded in any appreciable
degree. On tho contrary, its operations
havo boon maintained, to an extent which
plainly indicates that our citizens fully
appreciate its value. Contrasting its main
results during the past year, with those ot
1857, wo find that the whole numoer of
pupils now in the schools, is 647,414, be
ing an increase of 41,422; (hc-so wer
taught in 11,577 schools, 021 moro than
in 1857, during an aveiage term of five
months and fivo and ona hnlf days, at
0 cents per pupil, per month, by 14,00 "
teachers, being 52!) moro than in 1857.
The entire expenditure of the system, for
t he past year, including that of tho School
Department, is 21o38,550 80. These fig.
tires afford sonr idea of the magnitude of
tho operations of tho system ; bat neither
words nor figures can adequately express
tho importance of Us influence upon tho
present, or its relaticns to tho future
In contemplating thedtui!sof a plan
for the due training of the youth of a com
munity, its large proportions and impos
ing array of statistics do not display tha
potntsof its greatest iniprrtanco. Pupils
may bo enrolled by hundreds of thou
sands ; school hoiucs of the best struc
ture and mot convenient arrangements,
may be dotted at convenient distance
over the wholo faco of the land ; tho most
perfect order of studies may 00 adopted,
aud tho bst possiblo selection of book
bo mado; but what aro all theso, without
tho learned and skillful, tho faithful, mor
al and devoted teacher? Without this)
animating spirit, all is barren and un
fruitful. In this vital department, I am
happy toannounco that tho improvement
of the common school teachers of tuo
Stato shows more solid advancement,
within tho pat throo years than any oth
or branch of the system. This, therefore,
being tho point whence all rsal progress;
in learning and culture must originate, is,
lso tho 0110 to which tho fostering atten
tion and care of tho publio authorities
should bo mainly dircctod.
Our peculiar mode of traimna; loachors
under tho normal act of 187, has now
stood the test of practical experience ;
and, agaiast the most adrcrso circumstaa-