Clearfield Republican. (Clearfield, Pa.) 1851-1937, December 15, 1858, Image 1

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iitit t t f ill
' J, II. LARItlMER, Editor.
TERMS-$1.25 per Annum.
VOL Villi. NO 2G.
N E V S EH I E8 Vo I . 1II.-KO 40.
Term ut' Hulmrrlptlim.
tfpM in ailvsnre. or within throo months, $1 25
fpiii tnj time within thyiMir, . . . 1 ill
ftr tlio expiration of t lie yeur, . 2 00
Terms of Advertising.
jr,rii,mnt uro inserted in the ltiquiblirnn
il the foliuTiig ruiof ;
1 Insnrtnin
(l,eqmir,(14llnc,) $ 60
tt.tqr.f,(M.) 1 00
.,iuros. (42 hues,) 1 50
2 l.
$ 75
3 ,1.
$100 1
1 50 2 00
2 00 2 50
till"- - i .
month. 6 inn's. 12 mo
Dnt &n'.
Three (ouuros,
four .arps,
Half n'olunin,
$2 60 $4 00 $7 00
4 00 6 00 10 on
: 5 00 8 00 12 00
00 10 00 I t 00
: 8 iiu ' 12 Oil 18 00
1 1 00 20 00 I!5 00
Om ooluran;
Over throo wooks ini'l less than three month? 25
ntl !er HUaro tor eiien maroon.
Bininof notice! not oxcoeding 8 Hues are in
ier:cJ fer $2 n yonr.
A lvorti'omont.i not marked with tho number of
iiMrtioni dmiroil, will bo continued till forbid
liarxcJ according to theno term.
Fe!!ju:-cili:ciis vf the iSeimtc ai-d IIuusc
Jlepromlatka : When we ciunpare the
condition of tho country at the present
day with what it was one year ago, nt the
meeting of Congress, wo have much lea
son lor gratitude to that Almighty Uiovi
dence, which has never failed to interpose
for our relief, ut the most critical periods
of Our history. One vear ago, the section-
iii v"i - j . .-
il strife between the .ortii aim uie .ouin ,
on the dangerous subject of slavery, had a- j
eain become so intense us to threaten the J
wMtfcur.d I'crnotuitv of tho confederacy.
L. , . . i- . . 1 .1 : . .: ,.r
tlie nniilication for the admission ol Knn- n State into the Union, fostered this
miliappy ugitation, and brought the whole
suliject once inure before Congress. It
irw the desire of every patriot that such
mefsUie of legi-l.iti m might be adopted.
u would remove the excitement Iroiii the
Slate, and confine it to tiie Territory
ivh?re it legitimately belonged. Much
ha boon done, I ant hippy to say, towards
nt ol this object, during
tlie last session of Congress.
Tlie .Supreme Court of the United States
bud previously decided, that all American
citizen, have an equal riglit to take into
liie Territories, whatever is held as prop
err? under the laws of any of the Stales,
mi to hold such property there under the
guardianship of tho iedeial constitution,
so liuiL' us tho territorial condi.ioii thall
This is now a well established position,
md the proceedings of the hi t session
were alone wanting to give it practical ef
fect. The principle has been recognized
in some form or other, by an almost unan
imous vote of both houses ol 'Congress, that
Territory has a right to come in'.o the
Union either as n tree or slave State, accor.
ding to the will of the majority of its peo
ple. The just equality of all the States
hm thus been vindicated, und a fruitful
source of dangerous dissension among
them has been removed.
Whils such has been the beneficial ten
dency of your legislative proceedings out
side of Kansas, their influence has no
where been so happy as within that Terri
tory itself, heft to manage and control its
own affairs in its own way, without the
pressure of external influence, the revolu
tionary Topeka organ i.ut ion and all its re
sistance to the territorial government es
tablished by Congress, have been finally
ibundnned! As a natural consequence,
that lino Territory now appears to bo tran
quil and piosjierous, nnd is attracting in
crensing thousands of immigrants to make
it tlieir happy home.
The past unfortunate experience of
Kansas has enforced the le.-son so often
already tuiight, that resistance to lawful
authority, under our form of government,
cannot fail in the end to prove disastrous
to its authors. Had tho peoplo of the
Territory yielded obedience to tho laws
enacted by their legislature, it would a
the nresent moment have contained a
lurse additional population of of industri
oui and enternrisina citizens, who have
keen deterred from entering its borders
ty the existence of civil strife and orgoni
ed rebellion.
It vnis the resistenco of rightful author
ilv and the nescverinir attempts to estab.
lish a revolutionary go ernnientunder the
Tonekit constitution, which caused the
the people of Kansas to commit the grave
error of refusing to vote for delegates to
the convention to frame n constitution,
under a law not denied to be fair and just
m it nrovisiono. This refusal to vote has
been the prolific source of all the evils
"linn nave lottoweii. in ineir nosiuuy
to the territorial government, they disre
prded the principle, absolutely essential
to the working "1 our form of government,
'hat a majority of thoso who vote not
tLe majority who may remain at home,
from w hatever cause must decide the re
Wit of an election. For this reason, seek
ing to take ndvantago of their own error,
they denied the authority of the conven
tion thus elected to frame a constitution.
The convention, notwithstanding, pro
ceeded to adopt a constitution unexcep
tionable in its general features, and provi
ding for the submission of tho slavery
question to a vote of the people, w hich, in
toy opinion, they were bound to do, under
the Kansas nnd 'Nebraska act. This was
'he all-important question which hndalone
convulsed the Territory i and yet the op
ponents of the lawful government, porsist
)ng in tlieir first error, refrained from ex
ri.sing their right to vote, and preferred
that shivery should continue, rather than
urrendor their revolutionary Topeka or
$Miijntion. A wiser and better spirit seemed to pro
before the first Monday of January
'"t, "hen an election was held under the
institution. A majority of th people
'hen voted for a governor and other State
i ollieors, for u member of Congress, and
members of tho State legislature. This o--:
loot inn was wnnniv contested l.v the two
political parties in Knnsns, nnd u gt enter
vote was polled than nnv previous elec
tion. A largo majority "of tlio inoinbcr.-i
ot the legislature t lci t belonged to Unit
party which had previously refused to
vote. Tho mi ti -slavery party were thus
placed in tlio ascendant, nnd tlio ptl.tical
power ot the State, was in their own hands.
1 ml Congress ndmitted Kansas into the
I nion niter tho Loronipton constitution,
tlie legislature might, nt its verv hrst sos.
sion have submitted tho question to n vote carrying out the principles of popular sov
ol the people, whether they would or ereigr.ty and nonintervention, have left
would nt have a convention to amend "tho mode and manner of its approval or
their constitution either on the slavery or I ratification hv the people of the proposed
any other question, nnd have adopted nil j state" to ho "piccribod by law," and they
necessary means lor giving speedy effect to 'shall then be udmitted into the Union as
the will ol the majority. Thus the Kan- a state under such constitution thus bur
sas question would have been mimed lately j y nmi legally made, with or without sla
nnu hiiany scttlnl. V01.v fts constitution may proscribe."
Under tliec circumstances, I submitted An election was hold tLrou"hout Kan
to Congress the constitution thus framed, js!lSf j ,,ur!Jtuam!e O,tho provisions of this
wnh all the ofheers already elected neces-' nuti on ti10 fl0O11 j tinv of Aiifjust last, nnd
etiry to jmt the State overniiient into op- , jt resulted in the rejection, by a large in iteration-uecompanied
by a strong recom- jority, of the proposition submitted to the
niendation m lavor ol the admission of ,)0eple by Congress. This lu iug tho case,
Knnsis as a State. In the course of my they urc now authorized to form nnother
long public hleJ have never performed! constitution, preparatory to admission in
uny olhcial act which, in the retrospi ct, i to th ?l'nion, but not until their number,
nas aiiorueu me more nearuea sui lsiau-
tion. Its admission could have inflicted
no possible injury on any human being,
whilst it would, within a brief period, have
restored peace to Kansas and harmony to
the Union. Jn that event, the slavery
qu stion would ere this have been lmnllv
settled, according to the legally-expressed '
. - - ,
'"-r"" ul "'"'.
mar sovereignty would thus have been vin-
dieated in n constitutional manner.
With my deep convictions of duty, I
V.W...V r -
.mil. I mvn i hiiiiih 1 fin nt li(l' nt ,111'si t, is
true, that, as an individual, 1 had exp; ess-
cd an opinion, both before and during the
session of the convention, in favor of sub
mitting tiie remaining clauses of the con
stitution, as well as that contain. iig.-hivcrv,
to the people. Hut, act ing in nn ollicial
character, neither myseli nor any human
auihoi ity had the power to rejudgo the
proceedings of the convention, and declare
the const ii in ion w hieh it had framed to be
a nullity. To have done this would have
been a violation of the Kansas nnd Ncs
braska act, which left the people of the
Territory "perfectly free to form and reg
ulate their domestic institutions in their
own wav. Mibject only to the constitution
oi iu- i Mnei . 'iiinr, lu v,
have violated the great principle of popu-
..I i.i ... viiit.w ir, I s.r.1 i 1 1 1
,r sovereignity, at me lounuuuou oi oui .
institutions, to deprive the people ol the
rower, if thev thought proper to exercise
It, ol confiding to delegates elected uy 1
themselves the trust of framing a consti
tution, without requiring them to subject
their constituents to the trouble, expense,
and del iy of a second election. It would
have been in opposition :o many precox
dents in our history, commencing in the
very best age of the republic, ol the ad
mission ot territories us ciuica mio me
Union, without a previous vote ol the peo
ple approving their constitution.
It is to he lamciiieu unit a question so
lllslgnillcalit When vieweii in no piucucai
etlects on the people of Kansas, whether
decided one w ay or theot her, should have
kindled such a flame ot excitement
throughout the couutry. Ibis retlcction
may prove to lie a lesson ol w iMiom aiiu
of warning tor our luture guidance, i rae-
tically considered, the question is simply
whether the people ot that territory
should 11 ist come into the Union and then
chan"e any provision in their constitution
e . t .i i . . l:l.
not agreeable to llieniseives, or aeeouipu.-u
the very same object by remaining out of
the Union ami framing another constitu
tion in accordance with their will? In
either case, the result would be precisely
the same. Thu only dillerenee in point
of fact is, that the object would have been
much sooner attained, and the pacification
of Kansas more speedily ellectud, had it
been admitted as a State during the last
session of Congress.
My recommendation, however, for the
immediate admission of Kansas, failed to
meet the approbation of Congress. They
deemed it wiser to udopt a dill'eront mcas.
iiim I. it- tlie st: ttlement of tho question.
l or m o i . i,rtt ,,nv
1 should nave neen
,V1"".':l;...:,r....i .....,w,.r,. to ueoomiilish tins
COHSlllumm. -
..l.i.w.t I there fire.
.i:..n I
coiiua.y "VI"'
in what has been called the Lnglish Com
promise, and approved the "Act for the
,.,i,i,siot, nl1 the State of Kansas into the
l-.oi.n" noon the terms therein prescribed,
Under the ordinance which accompa-, tion, nnd the means .necessary i.r toe im
nied he Lecomj.ton constitution the poo- 1 provement of he lcr.itory and the ad
o o ' K hud chained double the vmcement of their own interests, nre thus
..r ....hlie binds for the support of diverted to very different purposes.
II1I.I1IL111 'l .
common shools. which hud ever oecii pre-
viouslv grunted to any State upon entering j.arent to the crri.ories, and a gen-, (i, , -U 'a V . cm h , eeo-ay J t mS another earnest attempt to questions in a practical manner, alike ho
the Union ; and also the alternate sec ions erous con ribu or to the usdul e .te prises e n g s to v . d 1 Uie " J J , negotiation. I was j norable and satisfactory to both ; and this
of land for twelve miles on each si. o o of tho car r sc tiers to o ex- s, m . o , nusU m nd ,1 uoU a j j, Uh , l,eeuse hope 1 have not yet abandoned. Jn my
ih i u.K
nnin me i , .
dary, and
1 li.isi.i l ift I'lisiei II tu mi; ,, ,.
i i ii., siotn. congress, uecm-
incf these claims unreasonable, provided,
4 IS,, to which I have
,n admission of the Slate
ig with the original
,tho fundamentul con-
hut. amaioritv ofthe
bv the act of May
iust referred, for an
on an equal footing
Siluli.n. but. "upon Uio
,i:.:.. l.,ni" Hint a majority
union I'll' , . ' . ' , . i i i
peoiile thereof, at an election to beheld
for that purpose, should, in jdace of the
i.. i. of nub he lands n Inch
vol y tin ktj f. .... .
hev l aS demanded under the ordinance,
r:': :: ; mw States. V n.ler
" , 1 4 na ,111 Itl'Cll
this act, should
a nnijoriiy rejeei, mu i" r
osition ollered them,
'in. "it shall be deemed
and held that tho pooj.le of Kansas do not
desire admission info the T'nion with said
constitution under the conditions set forth
in the jirojiosition." In that event, tho
act autorizoB the jK-oplc of the Territory to
elect delegates to form a constitution and
State government for themselves, "when-
ami is ascertained by a
" l .' . . . 1 .I...4 .l.-
con' us
dulv snd legiiliy iskco, iiiai uiu
propulutioti of said Territory equals or ex
coeds the ratio of representation required
for a member of tho J louse of h'eprcsetilu
tives of tho Congress of tho Uni
ted States." The delegates thus iisscm
hled "shall first determine ly a
vote whether it is tho wish of tlio people
of tho proposed State to ho admitted into
the Union nt that time, and, if so, shall
proceed to form a constitution, and take
i;ll necessary stcjis for tho establishment
ol'n State government in conformity with
the federal constitution." After this cou-
stitlll intl sluill li:iv I.....,, form.,.! f'..i.ri-..L.u
,1S i.,,,,..,! ,.- n ..nsns k ,o I n,, mil or
iiy a census,
exeeeil the ratio required to elect a mem
ber to the llou-e of Representatives.
it is not probable, in the present state
of the case, that u third constitution can he
law fully framed and presented to Congress
j.y Kansas, before its population shall have
reached the d. simiated imnih..i-. Nor is it,
to tie piesumcii that, inter their sad espe-
, ioiice in resisting the territorial laws, they
will attempt to adopt it constitution in
'express vitiation of the provisions of an
iu - 1 in viiiii;i ess, j.'iu iu me se.-sion ui
. , r . . It . . .1 : r
net ot Congress, filling the K
lS'ii, much of the time of Congress was
occupied on the qucMion of admitting
Kan: as under the Topeka constitution.
A.'.'iin, Hourly the whole of the hi: I sc. .. ion
was devoted to the question id' its admis
sion under the l.ecomplon constitution.
Surely it is not unreasonable to require
the people ot Kansas to wait, belore ma-i
king a third attempt, until the number of -their
inhabitants shall amount to ninety-!
three thousand four hundred and twenty, i
Uuring this brief period the harmony of
tin" States, as well the great business in-!
tercsts of the country, demand that thei
people of tho Union shall not for a third
time be convulsed b, another agitation on
.. i- .. i. .
mo question. Jiy wailing tor a
s10rt time, and acting in obedience to law,
Kansas will Hide into the Union without
the slightest mil ediment
This excellent provision, which Con
gress have applied to Kansas, ought to be
extended and rendered applicable to all
Territories which may heicaftcr seek ad
mission into the Union.
Whilst Congress posses the undoubted
power of admitting a new State into the
Union, however small may be the num
ber of inhabitants, yei this power ought
not, in inv opinion
to lie exercised before
me population simu iu.iou.ii, tuiii.- ""
required by the act for the admission of I
Kansas. Had this been previously the I
rule, Iho country would have escaped "'l !
lilt I'VIIS IIIJO II11MOI linn lo II1V 11 It IHIS
been exposed by the Kansas question. I
Of course, it would be uiijiist to give this '
rule a retrospective application, nnd ex
clude a State which, acting upon tho past
practice of the government, bus already
formed its constitution, elected its legisla
ture and other ofliccrs, and is now prc-
pured to enter the I num.
ineruie ougiu 10 oe uii.q.ieu, nin-iuei
we consider its bearing on the people ol
the Territories or upon the people ol the
i-xistini? States. Many ot the serious ills-
- r- .... -ii-.
sr iisiotio w noli liavo laeviii oil in ( oniri'ess
nml tbromdioiit the countrv. would have
.V . . , ii
i been avoided, ha 1 this rule been estab-
lished at an earlier i.eriod of the govern -
Immeihjitelv onon the formation of a
r, . r .1 :.r i t. .. t
new I eiTllory, people iioio iiiiieieiu r-iaies
and from foreign countries rush into it, for
the laudable purpose of improving tlieir
condition. Their first duty to themselves
is to onennnd cultivate farms, to construct
ronds. to establish schools, to erect place:;
of relicious worship, nnd lo devote their
energies generally to reclaim the wilde
ness nnd to lay the foundations of a Hour
' iuli mr mill nrosnorous ooniinonwea th.
,"" -. .;' -.',...,. . ...:,,
11, 111 1111- llicipll Ol l oii'iiiion, niiiiii poj'-
elation of a few thousand, they should
prematurely enter the Union, they are op-
'pressed nyxne ouroei. ... ie i-.a.
l lie lei.orai gov err. n. cut nn u-u, ..
! We Zui of 'tile cn,;,;
i " ... ., ... i,, r... 1
. in i . nii'l til lis: irivno ........ ....... w ,
c 'uireo. L nder
thoso circumstances,
nothing can be Utter calcuhited to leturd
! theirmaicrial progress, than to divert them their useful employments, by juema- excitihg angry political contests a-
niong themselves, for tho benefit of
i,,g leaders. Itissurelyno hardship for
ing leaders. Itissurelyno hardship lor
ernhrvo coveriiors. senators, nnd members
of Congress, to wait until tho inhabitants
shall equal those of a single congressional
j district. They surely ought not to be j-cr-
: ulati.n less than one-half of several of the
large counties in the interior of somo
Kansas when in it made application to be
admitted under tho Topeka constitution,
p i les it requires some time to l ender
tl e nias's of a population collected in a
now Territory, ut .11 homogeneous, and to
un te them on anything like a fixed poli-
cv F.ublisl. the rule, and all wiU look
Wward to it and -overn Uifitwlvraaoror-
l,Tl nni'i iv i o
. , i , . . -n . ..... i 1 1 n .m-o i ii win r.i
1: I..
Hut justiee '.o tho peopln ofthosevern I
states requires that this rule should be os'
tablishcd by Congress. Kach Slate i en"
titled to two senators and nt least one rep
reseiilativo in Congress. Should the peo
of the States tail to elect a Vice President,
the power devolves upon the Senate to se
lect this ollieer from (he two highest can
didates on tho list. In case of I he death
of the President, tho Vice President thus
eleetod by the Senate, becomes President
of the United States. (In all questions of
Irinlation, the senators from tho smallest
States of the Union have an equal vote
with those from tho lnrgo.M. The same
may be said in regard to the ratification of
treaties, nnd of Kxeoutivo appointments.
All this has worked ndmirablvin practice,
whilst it conforms in principle with too
character of a government instituted by
sovereign States. presume no American
citizen would desire tho slightest change
111 I llO lirrnilf'oniClit Still is it not nniim'
and unoouni to the existing Sl.ntos In th.
vest some forty or fifty thousand people
collected in a Territory with the attri
butes of sovereignty, and place them on
nnd equal footing with Virginia and New
York in the Senate of the United States?
1'or these reasons I earnestly recom
mend the passage of a general act, which
shall provide Unit upon the application of
a territorial legi.-ln.ture, declaring that the
territory contains a nunibi r of inhabitants
which, if in a State, would entitle them to
elect a member of Congress, it shall be the
duty Of the President to cause a census to
lie taken, and. if found sufficient, then
by the terms of this
tr '
act, to authorize them
ir own wav,
to frame
a State constitution preparatory to admi
sion into the Union. I also recommend
that an appropriation be made to enable
j the I'resident to take a census of the pen.
1 jde of Kansas.
j The condition of the Territory
I oil tuli, when contrasted with what it
I was one year ngo, is a subject for
, illation. Itwns then in' a state n open
Rebellion, and, cost what it might, the
! character nf the government required that
I this rebellion should be siippre-'-cil and
the Mormons compelled to yield obedi
i once to the constitution and the lairs, hi
order to accomplish this object, us I in-!
formed you in my J:-t annual message, I
appoiuted a new governor instead of Hi -ig-haul
Young, and other federal ollieers to
take the jdacs of those who, consulting'
their jicisonul safely, had found it neces.
sary to withdraw from the Territory. To
protect those civil ollieers, and so aid them j
as a ; iwr coihltdn.i, in the execution of iho
laws in case of need, I onlerc 1 a detach-
meiit of tlio iirmv to accompany them to
I. tali. T he necessity lor luloptui
measures is now demonstrated.
On the l"th of September,
Go v- 1
ornor Young issued his proclamation, in
the style of an independent sjver ign, an
nouncing his purpose to resist by force of
arms the entry of thcUniled States troops
into our own Territory of Utah. I5y this
he required all the forces in the Territory,
to "hold themselves in readiness lo
n,arch at a moment s notice to repel any
ul a1 (ilR.,1 invjon,' and established
,llltriial law from its date throughout the
Territory. These proved to be no idle
threats, l'orts Drulger and supply were
vucuteilalid burnt down by the Mormons,
to ilenrive our troops of a shelter after
-.heir lorn: and fatiguing march.
woe issued by I'.iiiie' H. Wells, styling
himself "Lieutenant General, .'aVoo Le
gion" tostampede the aniuialsol' ihe Uni
ted States troops on their march, to set
fire to their trains, to burn the grass and
,(0 wi1(J eolintry beloro them and on
,1(.;r Hanks, to keep them from sleeping
. ,,, K, .,.,.,.. .,,.. to blockade the
..' ..i i .. n;. ,i., it,.,
loan i letting mi.-i V o -
. i .. t. i ..
o-i . . i '...,..,....,,.. i l . -.!
' IICSC oiuei s ii ei e i oiii.i i mm mi -
tuallv obeved. On the It li October, lSoT,
;.,,. rn,.,'0s Ciu lured and burned on.
Green Liver, three of our supply trains,!
..nisisiiniT iA' seveiitv-fivo wulmius loaded
! . . 1 ...... f ... i 1
wnn provisions ami icnis lor mo arun ,.iihi
j , rried away several hundred animals.
This diminished the supply of provisions
ao materially that General Johnson was
oi.ii.ied to redueo the ration, and even
ith this ii.ecuution. there was only siifli-
. icnt left to subsist the troops until the
fii-ut of .1 tine.
i i.ii. liiil.. iirmv behaved admirably ill
i r.i,e:o,miiieiit at l oi t 111 nh-'er inn er
'" '" "." . ' "V ' .
jnesO iryillg iIlVU.loiiR. jntne ilhu. oi
Hie mountains, in a dreary, unsettled und
;i.r,,;i,.l.o rcirioii more than a thou-
l,lll'.'.....'.v ..j... ... --
.....1 .c fi-nni hoi. n t hev ii:lsci1 the so.
vere and inclement winter without a mm- Besides, after a careful examination of i ol April, lt-jd, Have been nnaiiy adjusted.
!niur Thev looked forward with confi- the nature nnd extent of our gricvan- At the commencement of your last ses
' deuce lor nlief from their country in due cos, I do not believe that they were of such sion, I had reason to hopo that, emanci
! season and in this they were not disap- a pressing and aggravated character, as , pating themselves from further unavailing
p",. , ... n , , ,,
:. . i
;U, on the par. oftheMon,H,l,o,,,
l.,uu ... i lom ...iinointf- in war without
l u.,,u I. ..i,i iintr. t m without
tlie'otlnsion of blood. In his effort he was
idlicieiitly sustained' by Congress. They
granted appropriations sulhc, nt to cover
the dclicieiicy thus necessarily created,
nnd also provided for raismg two regi-
ment. ol volunteers, "for the purpose of
quelling disturbances in the lerritory o
quelling disturbances in the lerritory of bility. In conjunction w ith tlie luissian
Utah, lor the jiroteclion of supply and Plenipotentiary, he has peacefully, but ef
emigrnnt trains, undtheni.pressionof In- fectuiilly co-operated with the English
dian hostihtiss on the frontiers." Happily nnd French ph nipotontiaries ; and each
there was no occasion to call these regi- of the four powers bus concluded a se la
ments into service. If there had been J rate treaty with China, of a highly satis
should huvo felt serious einbrrnssineut in factory tharncter. The treaty oonchidivl
l..i.tin! them, so great was the number
.-.I nin ir vh iiiiii I nn l luiie i i' b uiiaioii.-i
to serve their country in this distant and
iippi.rentiy dangerous expedition. Thus
, it has . ver be, n, nnd thus may il ever bo!
The wisdom and economy of K-nding reinforcements to Utah are os -
tablished not only by the event, but in
the opinion of those who, from thou- posi-
tion an o,,portunities, arc tho ne-st a-
I ,, ... i;...l... ..... r:..
al'IC Ol loruullg a inn.
.Johnson, the commnudur of the forces, iii
addressing theSoeretnry of Wtir from Tort
Hridger, under date ol October IS, 1,17,
expresses the opinion that "unloM a large
foiee is sent here, from the nature of the
country, a protruded w ir on their the
Mormons part is inevitable." ''"his he
considered necessary to terminate the war,
"speedily nnd more economically than if
attempted by insnlliciorit inenn!''
In the mean time it was my niixious
desire that the Mormons should yield obe
dience to the constitution and tho laws,
without rendering it necessary to resort to
military force. To aid in ' accomplishing
this object, I deemed it advisable, in A
pvil hut, to dispatch two distinguished ci
tizens of the United States, Mes-rs. I'ovy
ell and M'Culloch, to Utah. They born
with them a proclamation addressed by
myself to tho inhabitants of Utah, dated
on tho lith day of that month, WfiiTiing
them of their trim condition, and how
Iiop'dess it was on their part to persist in
rebellion against tho I luted Stales, and
otlering fill thoso who should submit to
the laws a full pardon for their past sedi
tions nnd treasons. At the tame time, I
iissured thoso who should jiorsist in rebel
lion against tho United States, that they
must expect no further lenity, but look to
be rigorously dealt with according to their
deserts. The instructions to these agents,
as well as a copy of the proclama
tion, nnd their roporis, are herewith sub
mitted. It will be .'een b their report of
the od of July lust, that "they have fully
continued the opinion expressed by Cen-
oral Johnston, in too previous veiouer, ns
to tho necessity of sending reinforcements
to Utah. In this they state that they v-re
"(irmly impres-ed with the belief that the
presence of the army here, and the large
additional force that had been ordered to
this Territory, were tho inducements
I that caused the Mormons to abandon the
! idea of resisting the authority of the 1'ni
I led States. A lets dechive policy would
piohably have rcmlted in a long, bloody
: and expensive w ar,"
l These eeiitlemen conducted themselves
! to my entire satisfaction, nnd rendered
' u-cful services in executing the humane
! intentions of the government.
' It also aH'ordS mo great satisfaction lo
'slate that Covernor Cumming has perfor
med h:s duty m an ume auu conciliatory
manlier i.ndv.lth the happie.-t ell
cannot in this connexion refrain from
mentioning the valuable services of Tho
mas h. Kane, who, from motives of pure
benevolence, and without any ollicial char
acter or pecuniary compensation visited
Utah during the hist inclement wintcr.for
the puriiise of contributing to the piieifi-
cation of the Territory.
! 1 am IkiM'V to inform vou. that the go-
vernor and other civil ollieers ol I. tali ar
now performing their appropriate fundi-
oliswithout resi, lance. Theuuthority ofthe
constitution and the laws bus been fully
restored, and peace prevails throughout
the Territory.
A portion of the troops .sent to Utah
art; now encamped in Cedar Valley, fortv
foiir miles southwest of Salt Lake City ;
and the remainder have been ordered to
Oregon to suppress Indian hostilities.
The march of the army to Salt Lake Ci
ty, through tho Indian Territory, h:u hud
a powerful ell'ect in restraining the hostile
feelings against the United States, which
existed among the Indians in that region,
and in securing emigrants to the far west
against their depredations. Tiiis will also
be the means of e-tithlishing military posts
nn 1 promoting settlements along the
I recommend thai the benefits of our
land laws and jiio-eniption system be ex
tendi u to the people of Utah, by tho es-
tai'iialiuteiit ol a land otlice
tu that leni-
I havo occasion, also, to congratulate
- ... -.1 ,
vou on the result ol our negotiations w ith
You were informed bv my List annual
iness.T'e. that our minister had been in-
. . . . - l . ...... I ....1 l..,i i,, 1 1 ,
mi ueien m uccupj a ncmi ...
hostilities conducted by Great Britain and
France against Canton. He was. however,
nt the samo time, directed to co-operate
cordially with tho British and 1 roiicli
monitors, in nil peaecltil nieasures to se
cure nv treaty inosc ju-t nnitiwiis m
foreign comnierce, whieu tho nations of
t he world had a right to demand.
It was
niiiiossil le lor nio 10 pioceeu nu iner iiiaii
..,.,' .... .,tl.,.i.v tvitlioot i.s.ivn.
i ins, on tuji i i.v... ........ , -
ing the war-making power, w hich, under
the constitution, belongs excius.veiy to
. ,
i Vnuld have lllstilleii iongi ess in ueciiuing
- -"V.,, 'n Chinese omi.ire without
of the severe chastisement which adthen
hot reeent V been Illllicieu noon uie iii-
nit recent V neen iniucieu noon me tii
ii. se bv our squadron, in the capture and
, dostru'etion of the Pmrrier forts, to avenge
j nn dloged insult .
1 he event has r
nou.r.dity. Oui
his instructions w
b.lity. In oonjut,
lleeed insult to our flag.
proved the wi: dom of our
minister has executed
ith eminent skill Htid a-
bv our own piemnoieniiury w in lnimoui-
i fi . - -
; I ton happy to announce that through
the energetic, yet conciliatory cllorts ol
our consul general in Japan a new trea-
y l.a len concluded a ith that cmiure,
; which may be expo, ted materially to imp.
ment our trade and intercourse in that
quarter, nnd rernoy , from our counfrymcn
the diaal.iUtiea vrhieh hnv. hereto ore been
- rl .r. tl.f- Aw.a:-i1.. ol l:ii-M'V,-l-
iiv.ei u)'uu in .
gion. The treaty shall hoBubmittod to tin
Senate for appprovid without delay.
It is my earnest desiro that every tniu
till lerstmdiiig w ith the Government ot
!roat r.ritain.should leaiuicubly and spee
dily ft ljustcd. It has been tho misfortund
of both countries, almost ever since tho
revolution, to have licen annoyed bv u
succession of irritating and dangerous
questions, threatening tlieir friendly re
lations. This has partially prevented tho
full devolopomcnt of those feoiings of mu
tual friendship between tho jieojdo of
tho two countries, so natural in them
selves and bo conducivo to their common
interest. Any serious interruption ofthe
commerce between the United Stales and
Great liritain, would he equally injuriqiix
to both.' In fact, no two nations havo ev
er existed on tho face yf Uie. earth, which
could'hY each other so much good or so
much harm'. .' " ."
lmte'i taming 'these soiitimenls. I am
gratified to inform you that tho long lien
ding controversy between the two govern
ments, in relation to Ihe question of visitu
tion and search, has been amicably adjust
ed. Tho claim on the part of Great JJrit
ain, forcibly to visit American vessels oli
the high Beits, in time of jieaco. could not
be su.-tained under the law of nations, and
it hud been overruled by her most emi
nent jurists. This question was recently
brought to an isaue, Ly the repeated acta
of British cruisers, in boarding and search
ing our merchant vessels, in the Gulf of
Mexico, and tho adjacent seas. These acta
were the more injurious and annoying, as
these w aters were traversed by a large jior
tion of tho commerce and navigation of
the United .States, and their freo and un
restricted use is essential to the coastwisd
trade between tho dill'eront btatcs of Ihe
Union. Such vexatious interruptions
could not fail to exeile the feelings of tho
country, and to require the interposition
ofthe government, lfcmoiistruhccs were
addressed to Iho ISritish government or
ganist these violations of our rights of sov
ereignty, and a naval force was at the
same time ordered to the Cuban waters,
with directions "to jiroteet all vessels of
the Uniteil Stales on the high seas, front
search or detention by the vessels of
war of any other untsoii." These measure
received tho unqualified and even enthu
siastic approbation of tho American peo
jde. Most fortunately, however, no colli
sion took jdace and the Drilish govern
ment promptly avowed its recognition of
the jrineiplos of international law upon
this subject, ns iaid down by the governs
inent of the United States, in the note of
the Secretary of State to the Uritish Min
ister at Washington, of April 1, 1H58.
which secures tho vessels ofthe United
Sttten upon the high seas from visitation
or search, in time of pence, underbuy citf
cu instances whatever. The claim has been
abandoned in a manner reflecting honor
on tho British government, and evincing
a just regard for the law of nations, nnd
cannot fail to strengthen the amicable re
lations between tho two countries.
The lirilish government at tho tamer
lime, proposed to the United States that
some mode should be adopted, by mutual
arrangement between the two countries,
of a character w hich may bo found ellec
tive without being offensive, for verifying
the nationality ol vessels suspected on
good grounds of carrying false colors. They
have also invited the United States to take
tlio initiative, and proposo measures for
this inirj.ose. Whilst declining to assume
so grave h responsibility, tho Secret wy of
State has informed tlio British govern
ment that we are ready to receive any
proposals which they may feel disposed to
oiler, having this object in view, and to
consider them in an amicable spirit. A
strong opinion is, however, express.ed,that
the occasional abuse of the flag of any na
tion, is an evil far less to be deprecated,
than would ho the establishment of nny
regulations which might bo incompatible)
with the freedom of the seas. This gov
ernment has yet received no eomuiuniea-
i I inn .-i ...i.ilVin i I li a iii'inmip ii tvli ili t ti A
- ........ ...v.
Briiish government would j.ropose to car-
ry out their suggest! m; and lam incli-
lied to believe, that no jdan which can I
devised, will bo tree from grave embarass-
ments. Still I shall lornt no decided
opinion on the suliject, until 1 shall havo
carefully and in the best spiiit examined
any jn-ojiosals which they may think jiro
per to make.
1 am truly sorry I cannot also in
form you that the complications between
Great Britain and tlio United States, ari
sing out of the Clayton and Bulwnr treaty
proceed to settle the Central American
nisi iissiuiiB, uiu f'"""""''"" ""urn
,.t annua 1 message stated t hat over-
- , imra met .i .v mv- .miiidii tui-
eminent for this purpose in a friendly spi-
rit, which I cordially reciprocated. Their
proposal was, to withdray there fpiestions
front direct negotiation between the two
governments; but to accomplish thobame
object by a negotiation between tho Bri
tish government and each cf the Central
American republics whose territorial in
terests are immediately involved. Tho
settlement was to bo mado iwi accordance
with tlio general tenor ofthe interpreta
tim j lac.-d upon tho Chyton and Buhvef
treaty by the United StKte, with certain
modilieations. As negotiations are still
ponding upon this basis, it would not le
proper for meiow to cocnmunicHto thoir
prascnt condition. A fiunncial sett lenient
of theseque.-tions is greiiflv to bo desired,
as this would wipe out the last remain
ing subjeel of dispute between Uie two
iietiutries. , ,
( ur relations with tho great empiieti of
Fr.mce and Kussia, as well as with all oth
er ovorn:nentson the continent ofEurop,