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The Huntingdon Journal,
J. R. DURBORROW,
o . ,glee on the Corner of Bath wed Washington streets.
Ttte lICNTINGDON JOl 7 ENAL is published every
Wednesday, by J. It. Duttuounow and J. A. NASH,
Under the firm name of J. It. Dt•naonnow at Co., at
$2,00 per annum, Ix ADVANCE, or $2,50 if not paid
for in six months from date of subscription, and
$2 if not paid within the year.
No paper discontinued, unless at the option of
the publishers, until all arrearages are paid.
ARVERTISEMENTS will be inserted at Tea
Crass per line for cash of the first four insertions,
and Ft,: CENTS per line foi each subsequent inser
tion less than three months.
Regular monthly and yearly advertisements will
he inserted at the following rates:
3m Gm 9ml 1 y
~, ,clll 9003G00 3700,31100
' lO, gr0Ftg6.9.0,1 0
01 yr 30 0060 00 8000 1000
3m 6mfi6o0 Scilly
110 300 4&s
000, 00 0 00,1?. 00
4 001 9 00113 50118 001
600,12 00.18 00120 00
7 54P18 00 , 22 50.30 OD
Special notices will be inserted at TWELVE AND
X HALE CENTS per line, and local and editorial no
tices at FIFTEEN CENTS per line.
- All Resolutions of Associations, Communications
of limited or individual interest, and notices of Mar
riages and Deaths, exceeding live lines, will be
charged TEN CENTS por line.
Legal and other notices will be charged to the
party having them inserted.
Advertising Agents must find their commission
outside of these figures.
All adrertieing aerosols are doe and e.dlertalde
when the adrcrtieemesd is once inserted.
JOB PRINTING of every kind, in Plain and
Fancy Colors, done with neatness and dispatch.—
lland-bills, Blanks, Cards, Pamphlets, As. ' of every
variety and style, printed at the shortest notice,
and every thing in the Printing line will be execu
ted in the most artistic manner and at the lowest
pENNSYLVANIA RAIL ROAD.
TIME OP LEAVING OP TRAINS.
~,,,. w. STATIONS.
t , 9,
PiTiA•m - ItiN44" . ;N. Ilamilthn
4 461 b.......
1 12 2 52 7 50310. Union....—
4 541.-- 12 01 ......31apleton
Pfit " 11 - 1111rmirixonZtt . '
5 35; . .. 12 47 ,rotorsburg
5 45i . 12 23 lllarree
5 53 „.... 1 07 'Spruce Crook
808 ...... 128 ;Birmingham
627 ' 145 Tipton
634 ...... 153
7 00 9 30 2 00 9 40 Altoona
P. X. l A. X. P . M. A.N.
The Fast Lind' Eastward, leaves A Itoona at 12 42 A.
awl arrives at llantingdon at 1 17 A. U.
The Cincinnati Exp Fess Eastward, leaves Altoena at
5 55 P. a., and arrives at Huntingdon at 7 05 P. M.
Pacific Express Eastward, leaves Altoona at 8 25 A. a.,
and passes Huntingdon at 7 25 A. a.
Cincinnati Express Westward, leaves Huntingdon at
3 35 A. a., and arrives at Altoona at 4 50 a. 3f.
The Pot Lino Westward, passes lluntingdon at 7 55
P. a., and arrives at Altoona at 8 45 P. at.
H UNTINGDON AND BROAD TOP RAILROAD.
On and after Wednesday, Nov. 22. d, 170, PI
Trains will arrive and depart as follows :
Rough and Ready
P. m. I
LE 5 26!
..5 1 10
12 USI Bloody Ron
'AOI2 12 Mount Dalai
[OIIP's RUN BRANC]
LI 7 101
1 1 1 1 1551
Broad Top City
IUiLES ZENTMYER, .
Law, Huntingdon, Pa., will ai
to all legal business. Office in Cum
Law, If i gntingdon Pa. Special attention
given to COLLECTIONS of all kinds ; to the settle
ment of Estates, &o.; and all other Legal Business
prosecuted with fidelity and dispatch.
. Olliec.in room lately occupied by It. Milton
Speer, Esq. [jan.L'7l.
W, MYTON, Attorney-at-Law, Hun-
tiALL MUSSER, Attorney-at-Law,
• Huntingdon, Pa. • Office, second floor of
Lcisler's•new building, Hill street. Dan. 4,11:
A P. W. JOHNSTON, Surveyor
A-- 1 -• • and Scrivener, Huntingdon, Pa. All kinds
of writing, drafting. &c., done at short notice.
Office on Smith street, over Woods .h Williamson's
PM. 'M. S. LYTLE, Attorneys
• at-Law, Huntingdon, Pa., will attend to
all kinds of legal business entrusted to their care.
Office on the south side of Ifill street, fourth door
west of Smith. [jan.4,ll.
JSYLVANUS BLAIR, Attorney-at
• Law, Ifuntingdon, Pa. Mee, 11111 street,
three doors west of Smith.
JA. POLLOCK, Surveyor and Real
• Estate Agent, Huntingdon, Pa., will attend
to Survgini in all its branches. Will also buy,
sell, or rent Farms, Houses and Real Estate of ev
ery kind, in any part of the United States. Send
fut a circular. [jan.4'7l.
]J. A: DEAVER, having located
9t Franklinvillc, offers his professional ser
vices to the community. Dun.4,'7l.
. W. ?VATTERN, Attorney-at-Law
J• and General Claim Agent; llnntingdon, Pa.,
Soldiers claims. against the Government for back
itay, bounty, widows' and invalid pensions attend
ed to with groat care and promptness.
Office on Hill street.
JOTIN SCOTT. S. T. BROWN. J. M. BAILEY•
SCOT'P BROWN & BAILEY, At
torneys-at-Law, Huntingdon, Pa. Pensions,
and all claims of soldiers and soldiers' heirs against
tho Government will be promptly prosecuted.
Office on Hill street. • Dan. 4,71.
DR. D. P. MILLER, Office on Hill
street, in the room formerly occupied by
Dr. John M'Culloch, lluntingdon, Pa., would res
pectfully, offer his professional services to the Mil
seas of Huntingdon and vicinity. • L1an:4,71..
JIL PATTON, Druggist and Apoth
• ecary, opposite the Exchange hotel, Hun
tingdon, Pa. Prescriptions accurately compounded.
Par, Liquors for Medicinal purposes. [n0v.23,70.
DR. A. B. BRUMBAUGH, offers his
professional services to the community.
Office on Washington street, ono door mist of the
Catholic Parsonage. [jan.4,'7l.
J. GREENE, Dentist. Office re
-m-l• • moved to Leister's now building, hill street
RALLISON MILLER, Dentist, has
• removed to the Brick Row, opposite the
Court Muse. 0an.4,'71.
VXOiIANGE HOTEL, Huntingdon,
-. 2 .4 Pa. JOAN S. MILLER, Proprietor.
Joetu!ury d, ISM
F OR ALL KINDS OF
. _ JOB WORK,
GO to Tun Jounnet. BUILDING, corner of Washing
ton and Bath stmts. Our press. and .type are
all new, and work is executed in the best style.
r;,i 11.4 -A.
(101_ 1 1 orirnal•
T 6 ADVERTISERS
J. A. NASA,
THE HUNTINGDON JOURNAL.
EVERY WEDNESDAY MORNING
J. R. DURBORROW & J. A: NASD
Office corner of Washington and Bath Sts.,
THE BEST ADVERTISING MEDIUM
P. X.jP.M.!A. x
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11 - 1241131; a
II 4158 39
4 06 8 31
110 40 4 00'S 21
9 4618 12
10 - 303 19'8 06
1. 3 2917 57
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P. M. P. M. A. M.
AU 8 40,
lIOME AND FOREIGN ADVERTISE-
MENTS INSERTED ON REA.
A FIRST CLASS NEWSPAPER.
1. 2 on
_ :Q; _.
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 9.1
$2.00 per annum in advance. • $2.50
within six months. $3.00 if not
paid withiu the year.
ALL KINDS OF JOB WORK.. DONE
NEATNESS AND DISPATCH
AND IN THE
LATEST AND MOST IMPROVED
POSTERS OF ANY SIZE,
WEDDING AND VISITING CARDS,
SEG AB. LABELS,
ETC., ETC, ETC., ETC., ETC.,
Our facilities for doing all kinds of Job
Printing superior to any other establish
ment in the county. Orders by mail
promptly filled. All letters should be ad
J. R. DURBORROW & CO.
DRUGS!! DRUGS!! DRUGS!!
• AND PIPES,
Crackers, Nuts, Fruits, &T., &c., &e.,
Choice Wines, Brandy, (in, &c., &c.
and pure old Monongahela Rye whisky for
family medicinal use.
Special care given to filling Prescriptions.
Call at the Depot Drug Store for any
and everything you may iieed in our line.
Jan. 4, '7l.
CARPETS:!! CARPETS !! CARPETS!!
AT RED UCED PRICES !
JAMES A. BROWN
Beautiful Patterns of Carpets, fresh from the
looms of the manufacturers. Ills stock comprises
Window Shades and Fixtures, Druggot, Velvet
Rugs, Door Mate, Extra Carpet Thread and Bind
ing. I make a speciality of furnishing Churches
and Lodges at City Prices, and invite Furnishing
Committees to call and see goods made expressly
for their purposes.
Buyers will core money and be better suited by
going to the regular Carpet and Oil Cloth Store,
far any of the above goods. I defy competition
in prices and variety of beautiful patterns.
CARPETS 25 cts. per YARD AND UPWARDS.
I have also the Agency for the Orignal
HOWE SENVING MACHINE,
so well known as tho best Family Machine in tho
Call at the CARPET STORE and see them.
EASTON BLAKE. M. MARION M'NEIL.
(Successor to J. N. Cunningham & Son.)
Made in a first-class Foundry. We have always
on hand all kinds of Plow and Stove Castings,
Wash Kettles, Cellar Windows, Grates, Coal-hole
Castings for pavements, Winslow weights of all
sizes and weights, Pipe joints, Sled . and Sleigh
rSolcs, Wagon-boxes, Machine Castings, for steam
and water, grist, saw, sumac ands , plaster mills of
We are prepared to furnish
HEATERS AND IRON FENCES
of the most improved styles, oven doors and
frames, door sills, and in fact everything made in
We have a large stock of patterns, and can fur
nish castings at short notice, and cheaper than can
ho had in the country. Having a good drill, we
are prepared to do drilling and fitting up of all
Office in Leister'F new street, Hun'
Jan. 4, '7l.
MONEY CANNOT BUY IT
FOR SIGHT IS PRICELESS!!
Bet the Diamond Spectacle., will Peeserec
THE DIAMOND GLASSES,
IVhich arc now offered to the public, are pronounced
by all celebrated Opticians of the World
Natural, Artificial help to the human eye ever known
They arc ground under their own supervision,
from minute Crystal Pebbles, melted together, and
derive their name "Diamond" on account of their
hardness and brilliancy.
The Selena* Principle on which they are con
structed brings the core or centre of the lens direct
ly in front of . tho eye, producing a clear and distinct
vision, as in the natural, healthy sight, and pre
venting all unpleasant sensations, such as glim
mering and wavering of sight, dizziness, Ac., pecu
liar to all others in use. They a, Mounted so the
Fined Manner, in frames of the best quality, of all
materials used for that purpose. Their Finish and
CAUTION.—None genuine unless hearing their
trade mark stamped on every frame.
AARON STEWART, Jeweler and Optician, is
Sole Agent for Huntingdon, Pa., from whom they
can only be obtained. These goods are not supplied
to pedlars, at any price. Chute] 5,'70y
SMITH IN HIS NEW BUILDING,
CALL AND EXAMINE. •
IF YOU WANT GREAT BARGAINS GO TO
The host Sugar and Molasses, Coffee, and Tea
Chocolate, Flour, Fish, Salt and Vinegar, Confec
tionaries, Fruits,Cigars, Tobacco, and spices of
the best, and akinds, and every other article usu
ally found in a Grocery Store.
Also—Drugs, Chemicals, Dye Stuffs, Paints, Var
nishes, Oils Spts. Turpentine, Fluid, Alchohol,
Glass, Putty, &c., &e. The best Wine and Bran
dy for medical purposes, and all the best Patent
Medicines, and a variety of articles too numerous
The public generally will please
inc for themselves, and learn my
'. S. SMITH.
Jan. 4, 11
WILLIAM I. STEEL,
SADDLE AND HARNESS MAKER,
Has removed to his New ROMP, on Main street,
three doors east of the "Washington House," where
ho has ample room and facilities, and is now pre
pared to accommodate his old customers, and all
others who may desire anything in his line of trade.
Plain and Fancy Buggy Harness,
Carriage, Tug, and Yankee Harness,
Saddles, Bridles, Whips, Blankets, &c.,
always on hand, or made to order on the shortest
notice, and most reasonable terms, Also, a good
assortment of Horse Blankets and Sleigh Belle.
Having had twenty-five years practic;lcaporienee
in the business, he Hatters himself that he can ren
der entire satisfaction to all who may patronize his
Work warranted and Repairing neatly done.
Unntingdon, Oct. 19, Ism
(Stock New and perfectly Pure,)
J. R. PATTON
Near the Depot, Huntingdon, Pa.
L constantly 2vcciviny at his nem
TNIIR A INS.
WOOL DI Ten,-
LIST and RA( CARPETS
COCOA AND CANTON MATTINGS,
FLOOR, STAIR AND TABLE
and a largo stock of
JAMES A. BROWN.
Jan. 4, 1871
BLAKE & M'NEIL,
IRON AND BRASS FOUNDERS.
Iron and Bross Crurtingg,
J. E. SPENCER & CO., N. Y.,
to be the
CANNOT BE SURPASSED.
SMITH'S NEW STORE.
HUNTINGDON, PA., JANUARY 11, 1871
To the Senate and House of Representa
tives of the Commonwealth of Pennryl-
GENTLEMEN :—An All-wise Provi
dence has permitted you to assemble un
der circumstances demanding profound
gratitude to the Great Lawgiver of the
Universe. Our acknowledgements are
first due to Him whose hand has not
grown weary in showering blessings of
profusion upon the people in every de
partment of industry, and crowning their
toil with richest rewards.
The circumstances under which you
commence the duties of the present ses
sion are, indeed, auspicious; and at no for
mer period in our history has their been
greater cause for felicitation upon the in
estimable blessings we enjoy, and the
happy and prosperous condition of our
great and growing Commonwealth.
The meeting of the General Assembly
is always a matter of deep interest to the
people, and perhaps never more so than
now, when an unusual amount of neces
sary general legislation will occupy your
attention, and questions of the highest
importance are to be discussed and deter
mined upon. I sincerely trust your in
dustry and faithfulness in the.performance
of the important work before you, will
win Till the proud title of "the working
Amid such circumstances our attention
should be directed to a careful review of
all the most important and essential inter
ests of the State; and in the exercise of
that discretion which the Constitution bas
confided to the Executive, 1 proceed to
communicate such information, and to re
commend to your consideration such meas
ures as are deemed necessary and expe
As first in order and the most impor
tant, I will present a carefully prepared
and precise statement of the financial con
dition of the Commonwealth.
It affords me pleasure to congratulate
the people upon the satisfactory condition
of the Treasury. Every demand upon it
for ordinary and other expenses has been
promptly paid, and the public debt ma
terially reduced, which has inspired such
public confidence in the securities of the
Commonwealth as to cause them to com
mand the highest premiums in themarket.
The operatians of this department will be
presented to you more fully and in detail
in the reprts of the Auditor General,
State Treasurer, and Commissioners of the
Sinking Fund. The following statement
exhibits the receipts and disbursements
for the fiscal year ending November 30,
Balance in Treasury, November 30,186
Ordinary receipts during the fiscal year end
ing Nov. 30,1870 0,336,653 24
Total in Treasury duriugyear ending N0v.30,
ing ifaventber 30, 1.870.....:52,866,832 CO
Lonna, &n., redeemed 1,702,679 05
Interetta.on loans 1,864,611 77
Balance in Treasury, November 30,1870... 81,302,042 82
The public debt due on November 30,1800,
WBB 932,814,549 95
Deductinu amount redeemed
by Sinking Fund Commt
sioners during tho fiscal
your ouding November 30,
1870 51,602,321 31
Amount rodeemod by Treas
urer darn'g the mime time 100,137 71
Total public debt, November 30,1670 $:31,111161 9.1
The following statement shows the na
ture of the indebtedness of the Common
wealth, November 30, 1870.
Fundod debt, via :
Amount of over-due loans— $ 707,0'.0 3.3
Amount payable in 1871,
int. 6 2,769,260 CO
Amount payable in 1872, int.
6 p. ct. , 1,731,300 00
Amount payable in 1872 tnt
6 p. ct.:
Amount payable in 1677 int
p. ct., 7,893,560 00
Amount payable in 1677 tnt
Amount payablo in tB7B Int
5 p. et:,
Ani aunt payable in 1919 int,
6p. et —
Amount payable In 1882 tnt.
Gp. ct ................ ..—.... Mai:Xi) 00
Amount payable In ISB2. int.
434 p. ct, 112,000 0)
Amount payable in 1082 int
6 p. ct.
'Unfounded debt, viz
Relief notes in circulation 606,382 CO
Interest cortillcat. outstanding 13,086 52
Interest certificates unclaimed 4,418 38
Domestic ereditms' certilleatos 4l 67
Total public debt, No:. 80,1670 as above
REDUCTION OF TIIE PUBLIC DEBT.
On the fifteenth day of January,
1867, the total indebtedness of the State
was thirty-seven million seven hundred and
four thousand four hundredandninedollais
and seventy-seven cents. Since then, and up
to November 30, 1870, the sum of six mil
lion five hundred and ninety-two thousand
seven hundred and forty-sveven dollars and
eighty-seven cents has been paid. The re
duction during the year ending NoveMber
30, 1870, is one million seven hundred and
two thousand eight hundred and seventy
nine dollars and five cents.
The average reduction per annum, for
the last four years, is one million six hund
red and forty-eight thousand one hundred
and eighty-seven dollars.
In view of the fact that prior to the
#ist of July, 1872, nearly eight million
dollars of the public debt will be due, and
in order that the Commonwealth may
continue to meet all its obligations prompt
ly at maturity, I recommend that such
provision be made by the Legislature, as
will authorize the Commissioners of the
Sinking Fund to sell all the assets that
may be in their possession, and apply the
proceeds to the extinguishment of the
debt; or, at the option of the holders, to
exchange . them for the outstanding bonds
of the Conimonwealth.
The indebtedness of the State might be
paid in the following manner: As already
shown, it was, on November 30, 1870,
about thirty-one million dollars, from
which amount, if the said assets, 89,500,-
000, be deducted, there would remain un
paid 821,500,000. After which, estimat
ing the revenues and expenditures to con
tinue as at present, the entire liabilities of
the State could be liquidated in about
If this mode of paying the State debt
should be regarded as unncessarily rapid
and oppressive, then a movement to revise
and modify taxation may meet with much
more general favor. Our debt is now
held firmly by those to whom it is a great
benefit to have so secure an investment.
A certain reduction of one million dollars
per annum on it would, perhaps, be more
satisfactory to them and to the people,
than to strive to pay it off so hastily. In
an endeavor to force things under the pre
sent mode of taxation, there is great dan
ger of driving capital away from our
manufacturing centers. The landhold has
been exempted from taxes on his land for
State purposes, and the burden shifted
upon the active, energetic and enterprising
portions of the community, who have al
ways had their full share to bare. The
farmer is at ease, and runs no risk; whilst
the business man, merchant and manufac
turer are the motive power of the com
munity, upon which the farmer himself
must, in a great measure, depend for a
relization of his industry. A more liable
policy towards those engaged in mercan
tulle, manufacturing, railroad and mining
pursuits should be adopted. Unless these
interest are fostered and kept in full opera
tion, all classes of the people will suffer.
They are the very life-blood of the State,
and should not, in any way, be chilled or
impeded, by over burdenino• '
taxation for the immediate payment of
the entire State liabilities.
The foregoing recommendations, in my
opinion, embrace the true policy of the
Commonwealth, and if adopted, will,
doubtless, receive a hearty response and
endorsement from the people. The tax
payers demand that all their social, indus
trial, commercial and financial operations
shall be relieved from the burdens of any
more taxation than may be necessary for
the gradual payment of the debt ; as is
last above indicated, and to defray the
frugal expenses of the administration of
the government. Economy and reform
should no longer be advocated as glittering
generalities, or mere abstractions, without
meaning or intent, but as vital, liviqg re
Four years' experience as an executive
officer has given me abundant opportuni
ty for careful observation upon the work
ings of our fundamental law and the leg
islation of the State. This experience has
strongly impressed me that there should
be a thorough revision of the State Con
stitution, with such amendments as the
wisdom of the Convention assembled for
that purpose would undoubtedly suggest
and an enlightened public sentiment de
The authority for holding such conven
tion is found in the second section of the
ninth article of the Constitution, and is
declared in these words: "That all power
is inherent in the people, and all free Gov
ernments are founded on their authority,
and instituted for their peace, safety and
happiness For the advancement of these
ends, they have at all times, unalienable
and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or
abolish their government, in such manner
as they may think proper."
The last Convention for this purpose was
held in 1838. During the thirty-two
years which have since clasped, sundry
amendments have been made by joint res
olutions of the generl assembly, and in
compliance with the tenth article of the
Constitution, were approved and ratified
by a majority of the qualified voters of the
State. The most important were those of
1859, making the judges of the courts
elective ; of 1857, creating a sinking fund,
regulating the public debt and legislative
districts; and of 1864, conferring theright
of suffrage upon those engaged in the mil
itary service of the State or nation, and
imposino• ° sundry restraints on the power
of the legislature. These -amendments,
though important and valuable, gave an
incongruous and sort of patch-work char
acter to the Constitution, and are not con
sonant with the requirments of the times.
This is a progressive period, and our
State has outgrown its fundamental law. I
That law should, therefore, be made to
keep pace with the age in which we live.
The existing Constitution, including the
amendments of 1857 and 1864, impose
many wholesome restrictions of the power
and jurisdiction of the legislature; but ex
perience has demonstrated their inadequacy ,
to protect the people against the evils in
tended to be remedied, and especially those
of corporate power, and of special and
local legislation . The pamphlet law
for the last four years show that the
general laws for each session made
only about one hundred pages, whilst the
local and special legislation for the same
period amount annually to about thirteen
hundred and fifty. The resulting evils
are manifold and agrivated ; and promi
nent among the reasons and suggestions
why a remedy should be applied, I res
pectfully submit the following :
First.—Different systems of laws for
roads, bridges, schools, elections, poor
houses and many other things, arc enact
ed for the several counties, townships and
on subjects which ought to be
regulated by general laws, operating uni
formerly upon all.
Second.—lt is impossible for the citizens,
judg,s of the courts, or members of the
legal profession, to acquire or retain an
accurate knowledge of the varying system
of laws in their respective districts, and
frequently on removal from the county to
another, our people find themselves under
almost entirely different codes.
hird.—Practically, the whole theory
of our constitution and government is sub
verted and destroyed by the present sys
tem of local enactments. Representative
government is based on the idea that the
laws shall be framed by, and by the result
of, the collective wisdom of the people's.
representatives. But what are the actual
facts ? The wind and efforts of the mem
bers are so wholly absorbed by private and
local bills that it is almost impossible to
get a general or public act considered or
passed. The special and local bills are usu
ally drawn by the member representing
that locality, or by some one from the dis
trict interested in the proposed law. By
what is called courtesy, it is considerea a
breach of etiquete for any member of the
Senate or House to interfere with or op
pose a merely private or local bill of any
other member. The result is, the bills
are passed as originally prepared, without
examination or comparison of views, often
crude and ill-digested, and without regard
to constitutional requirements or sound
public policy. Some of the worst of these
hasty and badly considered enactments are
arrested every year by executive interpo
sition; but in the nature of the case the
veto at best can only be made a partial
restr'int upon the evil; and nothing can
eradicate it short of constitutional prohi
Fourth.—Special legislation is the great
and impure fountain of corruption, pri
vate speculations and public wrongs. It
has become a reproach to republican gov
ernment, and is one of the most alarming
evils of the times. Judicious amendments
to the Constitution would arrest and de
stroy the growing evil; and it is the duty
of every patriotic citizen to co-operate in
all lawful measures to effect so desirable a
consumation. In the enactment of laws a
radical change is demanded. Every bill
presented for adoption should be read, at
least once in full, and the yeas and nays
be recorded on its final passage.
Fifth.—lt is important th - a . t the State
Constitution should be made to conform
to the constitution of the United States as
Sixth.—The subject of minority repre
sentation is now much agitated and is re
ceiving a large share of consideration
among the thoughtful and considerate men.
It embraces problems of great political im
portance, and its manifest justice commends
it to public favor. Whilst some of the ob
jects it proposes might be obtained by leg
islative enactments, the general principles
involved are so elementary and radical,
they should, if adopted, be incorporated
into the fundamental law.
Seventh.—The members of the general
assembly should be increased in number.
Eighth.—There should be a fundamen
tal limitation to the powers of corpora
Ninth.—There is absolute necessity for
greater security for the public funds and
for their proper distribution.
Tenth.—The state treasurer, superin
tendent of common schools, and a lieuten
ant governor, the latter to preside over the
Senate, and perform the duties of governor
in case of his absence, sickness or death,
should be elected by the people. The at
torney general, secretary of state, and the
adjutant general for obvious reasons, con
tinue to be appointed by the governor.
Eleventh.—The day for holding the an
nual elections could, with great propriety,
be changed from the second Tuesday in
October to the same day in November on
which nearly all the surrounding states
now hold theirs. This would dispense
with ono election every fourth years, and
prevent invasion from other states for the
purpose of interfering with our elections,
as the citizens of each state would be occu
pied with their own. The season, too,
would be more satisfactory to the people of
the agricultural districts, as it would not
interfere with the harvesting of their corn
and other summer productions.
The necessity for constitutional reform
is appreciated and admitted by all who
have reflected upon the subject, and with
out distinction of party, the press has been
outspoken, and has almost unanimously
sanctioned the calling, at an early day, of
a constitutional convention.
For these reasons and many others
equally important which might be enu
merated, I earnestly recommend that the
legislature make provision for a convention
to thoroughly revise and amend the con
stitution of the State.
REVISION OP TIIE CIVIL CODE.
The Commissioners to revise the stat
utes have completed their work. The entire
laws of the Commonwealth, including those
of British origin, except such as relate to
crime have been revised, collated and sys
tematically arranged in a volume of less
than three hundred pages, or about one
third the size Purdon's Digest. Our laws
are the accretions of one hundred and sev
enty years. Many of them are incongruous
and disjointed enactments, which have
been increasing, from time to time, by
fragmentary legislation, without any at
tempt at system, logical arrangement, or
conciseness of language. From the exam
ination I have been able to give the re
vision, I am satisfied that in the discharge
of their duty, the Commissioners have ex
ercised great diligence, ability and consci
entious desire for its successful accomplish
ment. It cannot be presumed that a work
of such magnitude is perfect in every par
ticular; and how far it may answer the
purpose for what it was undertaken, re
mains to be determined. That it is an
improvement upon what it is intended to
supply there is no room for doubt. It ad
heres to the main of the text of existing
laws, with occasional changes to meet pres
ent demands, but which were not needed
when they were first enacted, and also ad
ditional provisions which the progress of
the age requires. The work, as presented,
might properly be adopted without mate
rial changes, making it the basis of such
amendments as time and necessity may
suggest, or as may be recommended by
the joint committee to which it was refer
red fcr examination by the legislature of
last year. It will be seen that some of its
provisions have been framed with a view
to throw much of our special legislation
into the courts, where it may be disposed
of with less inconvenience to interested,
parties and a great saving in our annual
WRITS OF ERROR IN CRIMINAL CASES,
At the last session of the legislature an
act was passed entitled "An act to allow
writs of error in cases of murder and vol
untary manslaughter." The first section
provides that a writ of error "shall be of
right, and may be sued out upon the oath
of the defendant or defendants, as in civil
The second section makes it the duty of
the judges of the supreme court, in all
such cases, to review both the law and the
Before this enactment the law required
the defendant to allege that some error
had been committed by the court on the
trial, and to show cause, within thirty days,
why the writ of error should be granted;
but this law gives a writ, whether any er
ror is alleged or not, and allows the de
fendant seven years in which to issue it,
according to the practice in civil codes.
Heretofore the executive did not ordinari
ly issue the warrant for execution of any
criminal until the expiration of the thirty
days within which he was permitted to ap
ply for his writ of error. That limitation
of thirty days being now virtually repealed,
and seven years submitted therefore, is it
expected the warrant shall be withheld for
the seven years ? If not, when may it
properly issue ? And if issued at any
time within the seven years, may not the
criminal supercede it at any time he pleas
es by his writ of error? And may it not
be reasonably expected that this will be
the practical result in such cases? This
would seem like trifling with very serious
matters ; and I repsectfully submit whether
the act of last session should not be re
pealed, or very materially modified without
delay. In my message of the 10th of Feb.
1870, returning the bill with my objec
tions, I gave sundry reasons why it should
not be approved, and the views therein
expressed remain unchanged; and the su
preme court of the state in the recent
Shoeppe case, expressed their opinion of
this enactment as follows :
'lt is not improper before closing to say
a few words in reference to the act of 1870,
to draw attention to some of its defects, and
to the radical change in our criminal juris
prudence it will produce. It was passed
for this case, but owing to the governor's
veto it came too late. It is another evi
dence that laws which arc the offipring of
feeling are seldom wisely framed. It com
mands this court to review the evidence,
and to determine whether the ingredients
to constitute murder in the first degree
were proved to exist; and yet in forgetful
ness of the former law. it provides no means
to take, preserve and bring up the evidence.
This, the first attempt to act under ' it,
proves its inefficiency, the judge below re-
turning to our certiorari that he was not
able to make the return of the evidence.—
He is not bound by law to take the testi
mony or to certify to it. A bill of excep
tions brings up only so much of the evi
dence as may be required to explain the
point of law contained in the bill.
"The effect of this law seems not to have
excited attention. It has changed the
whole doctrine of the criminal law as to
the speed and certainty of punishment,
and left to the felon both the hope and a
door of escape, not only from the law's de
lay, but by prison breach, and all the vari
ous means of avoiding retributive justice.
At this moment two cases occur to my
memory of convictions of murder in Alle
gheny county, delayed by dilatory motions,
where the prison doors opened by unknown
means, and the prisoners escaped forever.
Any murderer may, under this law—though
like Probst he may have murdered a whole
family—take out his writ of error, without
limitation of time or condition, whether in
prison under sentence, or stepping upon
the trap of the gallows, with cause or with
out it, and suspend his case until the next
term of the supreme court. No one could
condemn him, if the death warrant not
preventing, he should wait till the term of
the supreme court be passed, and then take
out his writ of error to delay the execution
of his sentence for a whole year. That
only security to the public, the examina
tion of the case and allowance of the writ
for cause, is repealed."
The imporant duty devolves upon you to
apportion, in accordance with the last cen
sus, the representation to the Cleneral As
sembly and to Congress. This will be
among the most laborious and difficult
works of the session. In its performance,
is presumed and trusted that you will be
guided and governed by a strict sense of
justice and impartiality to all parties and
to every district in the State,
so that no
well-founded reason be given fur complaint
Under the laws of the State it is made
the duty of the county commissioners of
the respective counties to make returns to
the Governor of the septennial enumera
tion of taxables on or before the first Tues
day of December. Not one-fourth of these
returns have yet been received, although
the attention of the commissioners was in
vited to the subject by special circular from
the Secretary of the Commonwealth. As
soon as the returns come to hand, the nec
essary abstracts will be made out and for
warded to the Legislature.
The report of the Superintendent of
Common Schools shows that there are now
within the State, 2,002 school districts;
14,212 schools; 2,892 graded schools; 13,-
100 directors; 79 county and other super
intendents; 17,612 teachers, and 828,891
pupils. This is an increase over the pre
ceding year of 31 districts; 276 schools;
447 graded schools; 200 directors; 3 su
perintendents; 470 teachers, and 13,138
The cost of tuition for the past year, was
83,745,475 81; building, purchasing and
renting school h0u5e5,52,765,644 34; con
tingencies, $1,165,226 05; other expendi
tures, $95,475; making a total of $7,771,-
761 20. Estimated value of school prop
erty, $15,837,183. Average salary of male
teachers, $4O 65 per month; length of
school term, 6.06 months ; and the cost pee
month of each pupil, 98 cents.
In addition to the above, five Normal
schools are recognized by the State. These
are intended specially to instruct in the art
of teaching, and to furnish suitable teach
ers for the common schools. The many
highly qualified instructors that have grad
uated therein, afford a sufficient assurance
of their success and usefulness. They have
aided materially in the rapid advancement
of our general and widely approved educa
tional system. Since their recognition,
12,390 students have been received into
them; and 2,675 are now enrolled. There
are 66 professors and tutors. The libra
ries contain 8,135 volumes. The buildings
and grounds arc valued at $364,667; and
the furniture and apparatus at 875,000.
Besides the school's that receive legisla
tive support., there are in the State 601
private schools, seminaries and academics,
employing 848 teachers and having 24,815
students. The estimated value of their
property is $600,000, and the annual
amount received for tuition $380,000.
There are thirteen colleges, with 157 pro
fessors and tutors, and 2,805 students en
rolled They own much valuable property,
and their libraries number 95,000 volumes.
These statistics will, doubtless, prove in
teresting to all who peruse them, and those
relating to the common schools merit the
especial attention of the Legislature. The
prosperity and happiness of all communities
depend, more than anything else, upon
their general intelligence. Idleness, im
morality, crime and poverty, abound most
where ignorance prevails. The greatest
wealth a people can possess, and the high
est political freedom and power they can at
tain, are based upon and derived from a
sound and generous education. Freedom
from the many evils that disturb the peace
of society; social harmony; good and health
ful government; and all the multiform
blessings that conspire to produce human
happiness, are its legitimate fruits. Money
judiciously expended by any community
for the mental training of its youth; cannot
be lost; it will not fail to return in due
time, bearing a liberal interest. The ad
mirable workings of our Pennsylvania
school system are everywhere admitted,
and its great success is chiefly owing to the
generosity of the Legislature by which it
has been so kindly and so benifleently
nurtured, and it is sincerely to be trusted
that it will never weary in this praisewor
thy work, which has thus far been so well
accomplished and so abundantly rewarded.
SOLDIERS' ORPHANS' SCHOOLS.
Your attention is respectfully invited to
the report of the Superintendent of the
Soldiers' Orphans' Schools, for the year
terminating May 31, 1870.
Since the first organization of these
schools the whole number of children ad
mitted is 5,053. And during the same pe
riod, the discharges, including deaths,
amount to 1,524, leaving 3,529 in the
schools at the close of the year ; of whom
2,137 arc in "graded,", and 793 in "prim
ary schools," and 599 in "Homes."
During. the year terminating May 31,
1871, 493 of these will be discharged on
age; in 1871, 477; in '73, 599; in '74,
646; in "75, 646; in. '76, 602; in '77,584;
in '7B, 410; in '79. 291; and in 'BO, the
remainder, 171. From this statement it
will be seen that all the children now in
the schools, on reaching the ago of sixteen
will be discharged in ten years on age
alone. The reinforcements to the schools
will hereafter consist only of children born
prior to January 1. 1866; consequently all
who may hereafter be admitted must come
in during the next ten years, and they will
be more than absorbed by the discharged
on order. The number discharged this
year, on age, is 400, and on order, 230,
and 15 have died, making in all, 645.
Should the rapidity of the discharges on
order continue in anything like the ratio
of the present year, it will not require
more than five years to exhaust the greater
portion of the schools, and the children re
maining in them will from time to time
have to be consecrated in a few of the
schools which shall be deemed the best, to
close up the concern.
The expenditure of the system for the
school year ending May 31, 1870, are as
follows, viz :
For education and maintenance of children in,
advanced acbtals, $288,900 07
For education and maintonanco of children in
Primary echools, .
For education and maintenance of children In
For clothing, shoes, snaking, mending, &c., 63,993 75
For partial relief of thirteen children, at thir
ty dollars each
Fo; general expenoes,
Total =pew., 614 126 42
Total appropriation, 491,700 00
9 19,426 42
The sum appropriated is for the amount
estimated by the Superintendent in his re
port of 1869, but owing to the extreme
pressure of the guardians and relatives of
many indigent and suffering applicants, the-
Superintendent, with my consent, admitted
a larger number of children than originally
estimated for; the balance, - as above stated
has, for this reason, necessarily and una
Under an act, entitled "An Act to pro
vide means for the establishing a soldiers'
orphans' school in each State Normal school
district in this Commonwealth, now desti
tute thereof," approved April 15, 1867,
and a supplement thereto, approved March
25, 1868, the sum of $21,000 was advance 4
out of the State Treasury as a loan to fivif
institutions. These being fully establishef,
are - re-paying this loan at the rate of 5 poil
cent. quarterly, as specified in the act.
teen thousand eight hundred dollars of this
loan remained unpaid on May 31, 1870,
and owing to the change of the form of
settlement which, by law, went into opera
tion at that time, it was, unexpectedly to
the Superintendent, deducted from the ap
propriation by the accounting officers, and
consequently bills for education and main
tenance for that sum and the above balance
remain -unpaid. No special appropriation
for this amount is asked; but all that is re
quired is the passage of a joint resolution,
authorizing its payment from the sum ap
propriated for the expenses of the current
year, which, in consequence of a reduction
in prices, I am informed will exceed them
to about the amount of the said balance.
The early passage of such'a resolution is
necessary, because the institutions to which
the money is due cannot afford to wait long
for it without serious inconvenience. Pro
vision should also be made by the Legisla
ture that, as the said sum of $16,800 is re
paid in quarterly instalments by institutions
from which it is due, it shall be applied to
the reimbursement of the funds appropri
ated for the advances thus made.
The Superintendent estimates the ex
penditures • for education, maintenance,
clothing, &c., of 3,600 children, during
the year terminating May 31, 1872, at
$500,000. After a careful examination, I
find it correct, and respectfully request an
appropriation for that amount. This esti
mate will, it is believed, enable the Super
intendent to admit all proper applicants.
It is $20,000 less than the appropriation
for the current year, and it is confidently
anticipated that hereafter each succeeding
estimate for annual expenses will be much
more largely decreased.
1 have personally visited, inspected and
examined quite a number of these schools
since the adjournment of the last Legisla
ture; and I do not hesitate to pronounce
most of them superior, in all respects, to
any other institutions of a similar charac
ter in the country. The supervision of
the Superintendent, and the male and fe
male inspectors have been exceedingly
faithful and effective; and those having the
schools in charge, with but few exceptions
have displayed a devotion to their duties,
and to the interests of the children, as un
exceptionable a as it' dictated by the purest
The sanitary condition of these children
is oue of the most remarkable features of
the school. During the five years they
have been in operation, out of 5.053 chil
dren, only 71 have died, which is but a lit
tle over one and four-tenths per cent. of
the entire number for the whole time, or
less than three-tenths of one per cent. per
annum. These facts are incxmtestible evi
dences of the care and attention that hate
been bestowed upon these institutions.
The establishMent of these schools. and
the liberal encouragement and support they
have received, have met the approval and
admiration not only of the other States of
the Union, but of the entire civilized
world. Philanthropists and statesmen
from foreign nations are constantly making
inquiries concerning the laws governing
and directing the operations of our soldiers'
oriShans' schools, their management and
the results. and give frequent assurances
of unqualified commendation.
The foregoing exhibit is, I trust, suffi
ciently satisfactory to prompt a continuance
of the generous patronage already extended
to an institution unsurpassed by any other
of the kind in usefulness. Its benefits ex
tend beyond the mere shelter, clothing,
feeding and education of the sons and
daughters of our heroic dead. In genera
tions far remote its influences will stimulate
to deeds of patriotic ardor and heroism.
Hereafter the defenders of our country
will not falter when they reflect that should
they fall, they have in the Commonwealth
a parental protector of their beloved ones,
who otherwise would be left desolate and
neglected. The State has abundant cause
to rejoice in what it has done for its sol
diers' orphans, and to be proud of these
schools, which now constitute the brightest
jewels that adorn its crown of glory.
This institution appears to be gradually
accomplishing the objects for which it has
been liberally endowed by the State. It
has about sixty students who are instruct
ed, not only in the ordinary branches of
literature and science, but in all the field
operations necessary for a thorough agri
The Experimental Farms, established
under the supervision of the officers,
have thus far answered their expectations.
The experiments Herein are carefully re
corded; every incident of cultivation, the
nature of the seed committed to the soil,
its inception, growth, progress and results,
together with the conducing causes, being
accurately noted. The publication of
these observations, made in illffeient parts
of the State, with varionii 'Climates and
soil, under the guidance of skill agricul
turalists, will impart valuable lessons for
the benefit of the practical farmer, and,
doubtless, be the means of establishing a
"Science of Agriculture," baying its founda
tion in the wisdom of experience. The