The globe. (Huntingdon, Pa.) 1856-1877, August 06, 1861, Image 1
6lobe. WM. LEWIS, Editor and Proprietor TER ME ikons" is published twice a w eek at SUM a year-75 cents for air mouths-50 cents for three mouths—in advance. HUNTINGDON, PA. Tuesday afternoon, August 6, 1861 THE LATE RAILROAD ACCIDENT.-011 Thursday morning last, we visited the scene of the smash-up at Manayunk, a station about four miles below New ton Hamilton. On our arrival there we found a train consisting of eight passenger car9;and one Adams' Express car, to which had been attached two locomotives. On the main track, near a switch, an engine had become help less from some cause, and was left on the track. The switch tender antici pating the arrival of the Express about five o'clock, turned the switch to let her run from the main track to the siding. He also placed percussion railroad caps on the track to give the train notice to run slow ; but unfortu nately this was done too near the switch, so that the train had not time to check up . sufficiently to run from the main track to the siding. The first engine was thrown off the rail when about to change from the main track, and kept along in the direction of the siding, tearing up the side for a considerable distance, while the second engine, with the train of passengers, baggage and express cars, kept the main track, and at a short distance from where the first engine took to the right at the switch, came in contact with the disabled engine on the main track. The tender of the stationary engine was completely wrecked, while the engine which came in contact with it was thrown across the siding down an embankment of twenty-five or thir ty feet, making several somersaults, and reversing completely its position. The engine which first left the main track was very much wrecked. The engineer, Sam. Steimer, and fireman, Sam. Chner, were carried over the bank with their engine, and strange to state, were, but slightly scratched and scalded. Benj. Free, fireman on the first engine, who resides in Har risburg, had his face slightly cut and disfigured, and presented rather a sad .appearance. His wounds are not se rious. W. M. Ford, brakeman, who resides in Philadelphia, while at his post was caught between two of the passenger cars, and seriously injured about the stomach. Charles Miller, a young man from Columbus, Ohio, who was standing on the platform at the moment of the accident, jumped off, and striking the embankment, was instantly killed. Six or eight others were only slightly injured. There was on board at the time three hun dred and twenty passengers, two hun dred of whom were returned soldiers going home—two companies from Jef ferson county, Pa., and one from Bed ford. The passenger, baggage and express cars remained on the track; the bumpers and platforms of several of them were completely smashed, while the trucks of two were thrown from under and off the track. A CILINGE.—On the 15th of July, the party known as the Opposition party last fall, issued a call for an "Unconditional Union Republican Coun ty Convention" to meet in this place next week. Last week the call was changed to read ‘minion Convention of the People's Party:" In the body of the first call the words "authority of the President" is changed in the second call to read "authority of the Constitu tion." We don't exactly understand why ,these changes have been made. Per haps the " People's Party" are not all Repnblicans—are not willing to organ ize, this fill under the "Republican Party" banner. We are inclined to believe that a very large majority of the voters of the county of all parties, are opposed to any political organiza tions this fall. STILL THEY COME.—Since our laEt issue several regiments from the Western States have passed Bast to Washington and Harper's Ferry. The number of fighting men at those points is increasing very rapidly. But as the movements of the army are kept very secret, outsiders must keep cool and wait patiently for another advance towards Richmond. It is not likely that the army will move from Wash ington before the Ist of September; by that time the majority of the three months' men will have returned to the army. .4e- Rev. John D. Brown and wife leave this place on Thursday night, for Now York, whore they will take a vessel for India, the scene of his future labors as a missionary. Mr, Brown is a young man of fine promise, and we sincerely hope he may be successful in his great enterprise, and after his mis sion in the land of heathens has been fulfilled, may he and his bride elect be spared to return home again to the land they love. COURT.—August Term of our Court commences on Monday next, and as the farmers will be pretty well through with their hurrying work by that time we may expect a large crowd of people in town. ter Rev. Censer preached his fare well sermon to the people of this place on Sunday last, preparatory to leaving for the seat of war, whence he has been called as Chaplain of the sth Reg iment Pa. R. C. He left this morning rg" Thos. A. Scott, Vice President of the Pennsylvania Railroad Compa ny, has been appointed Assistant Sec retary of War, and has been for sev eral days actively discharging the du ties of the office. There are few men like Tom Scott. None more compe tent to fill the office safely than he. To OUR FRIENDS AND PATRONS.— Next week will give most of our pat rons an opportunity to " come to our relief." We want money—and we hope those indebted will not neglect to call. If those who desire to pay can not be in town, a neighbor will take pleasure in accommodating a friend by paying over any amount entrusted to his care. bad' We find the following 'Hunting don county " boys" flamed in the muster-roll of the " Bailey Invincibles" a three years' company organized in York county : George C. Bush, third Corporal, Solomon Barbin, lingo L. Bush, Wilson Everell, James Felten berger, Solomon C. Hampson, John A. Marks, James Morrison, John Rohr baugh, Richard Sneath, Christian S. Wagoner. WASTED.—YOUNG MEN, ATTENTION ! —A. - munber of able-bodied young men are wanted to fill up companies for three years' service, now organizhag in Huntingdon. Capt. McCabe's com pany of Zonaves, Capt. Miller's com pany of Infantry, and Capt. Hamil ton's company of Cavalry, each want men to fill up the ranks. We are gratified to learn that all three com panies are filling up rapidly. Appli cation should be made soon. CAMI• HUNTINGDON.—Capt. Hamil ton has erected a building in West Huntingdon, for the comfort of his men, and a ring enclosed with a high fence in which he will tame any wild and vicious horses entrusted to his care for an hour or two. Seats are erected in the enclosure for the ac commodation of lady spectators. His charges for'taming horses and giving instructions are moderate. ;^ A farewell Missionary meeting will be held in the M. E. Church in this place, on Thursday evening, for the encouragement of Rev. S. D. Brown and wife, who leave that night for Bos tOn, on their way to Northern India. All are invited to attend. Services to commence at 8 o'clock, P. M. AZ - Our force about Washington is said to be not less than 120,000. At Harper's Ferri• not less than 20,000. The numbers are increasing daily. TALL OATS.—Mr. John 'Warfel of the Ridges, Henderson township, has left at our office, oats measuring five feet ten inches. tkli - We are permitted to make the following extract from a private letter written by GEO. W. SPEER, Esq., who is traveling for his health. The letter is dated ONTONAGOIT ' Lake Superior, ) July 25, 1861. THE COPPER MINES I yesterday visited three of the principal Copper mines—the " Minne sota," " Rockland," and " National." They are 14 miles back in the moun tains, and are reached from here by means of a fine plank road, just fin ished at an expense of $30,000. It has the appearance of a city around the mines; and when I considered that every pound of beef, every barrel of flour, and indeed everything else con sumed by this entire population, has to be brought up here in the summer from Detroit, I had no difficulty in learning the secret of the success of that city. The tf Minnesota" mines are now working about three thousand men, ,and the immense quantity of copper produced would really astonish you.— They have just finished cutting away and cretting up the last of the " Mam motht Mass," which has yielded 600 tons ! It is nearly pure, yielding 86 per cent. when refined into ingot.— These blocks are hauled down here in mass. The adhering rock is broken off, burnt in a kiln like limestone, bro ken into powder under the "stamps," washed free of all sand and barrelled up for market; a barrel weighing about 800 pounds. The average cost of pro ducing Copper on this Lake and put ting it into market, is near 14 cts. per lb., and as it is now only selling for 17 ets., the profits of the companies are small. , You can judge of the business done at the mines when I tell you that there are four lines of stages running up from here twice each day. They go up - in / hours There are only a few of the Copper Companies paying divi dends. I attribute it to Yienkce man agement. INDIANS VS. NEGROES I was also astonished at the number of negroes on the Lakes, and their in dustry and enterprise, compared with the Indians, who aro everywhere to be seen here in filth, hunger and wretch edness. They arc evidently not the mighty race of people: wo read of.— The negro of the South is as much the superior to the Indian, as the white race is to the black. The sooner the Indian tribes of the'North are entirely exterminated, the sooner will a true philanthrophy have accomplished its aims. Humanity sickens at their sight now, while all- attempts' at their im provement have-failed." Yours &c., GEouon W. SrEETI, The Latest News. WASHINGTON, July 31.—General Mc- Clellan expresses the opinion that this will be an artillery war, and asks as many batteries as it is possible to pro cure. Regiments have been sent by him to extend the line of pickets along the Potomac to Harper's Ferry. Seven additional regiments have gone up to Chain Bridge to-day where three or four are now posted. There are fresh indications of the inauguration of a more vigorous policy, and Gen. McClellan inspires and su pervises everything. We learn from a reliable source that Fort Fillmore, Texas, has been rein forced by ten companies; also that Col. Cooly has fitted out such expedi tions against Fort Bliss, now held by the Texans, as makes its capture cer tain. There have been more arrests for treason here, and the traitors are be ing well stirred up. Johnlohan. of this city, has been arrested and put in jail in this city, on a charge of having treasonably aided acid excited the late Bull Run panic. Strict movements arc on foot now to•remove all the secession clerks from the departments. This should have been done long ago. The city presents a most quiet ap pearance to-day. It has not been so calm for weeks past. General AL'Clel lan's strict rules of discipline are work ing great reforms. 2=E=l General Wool will now assume com mand of the Federal forces at Fortress Monroe. - Gen. Butler has been transferred to thfs point. The statement that forty men of the Massachusetts Eleventh Regiment had been captured by the rebels ; is true. An arrangement has been made by which it is believed that Col. Cameron's body will be recovered. Measures are to be taken to stop the transmission of letters from this city to the rebel States. OUR NEW MILITARY REGULATIONS. WASHINGTON Aug. ft. General AL.:Milan has already effec ted a thorough change in the city.— Previous to his arrival, and especially since the battle at Bull Run, the city was filled with officers and soldiers, who were absent without leave from their encampments. A patrol was ap pointed, with power to arrest, and place in the guard-house every officer and private found without a permit. The city was divided into patrol dis tricts, and a squad of from ten 05 twenty soldiers, under a lieutenant, assigned to each district. They marched round upon the sidewalks, and all privates found without a permit were sent to the guard-house. Having disposed of the privates, and returned them all to their regiments, the patrol paid their attention to officers. Many were found without the necessary paper, and among them a number of cavalry offi cers and mounted infantry officers, who were obliged to relinquish their char gers, and march to the guard-house. MAJOR GENERAL BUTLER ARRESTED ! Among the arrests made on the Av enue, last evening by the provost pa trol, was that of Major General Butler. who had within a few hours arrived from Fortress Monroe. The General had no permit to produce, and was held until he was satisfactorily identi fied. lie expressed himself in strong terms in favor of this system of mili tary police. CoNmlr.ss Congress will adjourn on Tuesday. The Muse will hardly keep a quorum until that time, as its business is all worked -up, but the Senate has several important bills which yet require final action. A number of the members of the House have already left the city on their return home. Official Despatch from Gen. Rosencranz. iVo Fight, but a D7se Retreat.—The Rebels Disbanding. WASHINGTON, August ].—The War Departmenthas received the following, direct from Gen. Rosencranz, by tele graph, dated to-day: " Gen. Cox reached Gaulev Bridge on the 29th ult. Gen. Wise fled with out fighting, destroying the bridge to prevent pursuit. We have captured a thousand muskets and several kegs of common powder. " Many inhabitants of that section, who have heretofore been strong Se cessionists, denounce Gen. Wise for his wanton destruction of property, and are abandoning him and his cause.— His Western troops are rapidly dis banding. The valley of the Kanawha is now free from the rebel forces." The Expected Attack on Bird's Point. CAIRO (111.;) Aug. I.—Jeff. Thomp son's force, 30 miles south of Biri.'s Point, consists of 5000 men, instead of 500, as before reported. Scouts just returned from the South report that the Rebels at New Madrid are well armed and drilled. They have five batteries of ten pound field pieces, officered by foreigners k and two regiments of cavalry well equipped. Gen. Pillow is in command. lie has also issued a proclamation, full of bom bast, to the people of Missouri, declar ing his intention " to drive the inva ders from the State, and enable her people to regain their rights so ruth lessly n taken allay by the forces who march under banners inscribed with Beauty and Booty. as the reward of victory.' He says he will show no quarter to those taken in arms. • Plan of the Rebels in the West. ST. Louis, Mo.; Aug. B.—The _Eve ning News learns from a well-informed citizen of south-west Missouri, who possesses peculiar facilities for acquir ing knowledge, the plan of the Seces sionists in that region. Their real object is not to attack Cairo, or Bird's Point, but to make • a desperate at—, tempt to secure possession of St. Louis. There is a strong force under General Pillow at New Madrid, Mo., another at Pocahontas, Ark., under the commtyld, it is believed, of McCullough; and 'an other in Mississippi county, Mo., under Jeff. Thomson. The plan is to keep up a constant threat to attack Cairo and Bird's Point, so as to employ the Federal troops at these points, and to menace Gem Lyon in the south-west by threats to attack him, while the I forces at New Madrid and Pocahontas effect a junction at Pilot Knob, and from there march on St. Louis and take it, reinstate Gov. Jackson, and, with this city as the base of opera tions, wrest 'Missouri from the 'Federal Government, Has the Constitution been Violated? It seems to be tacitly confessed by our statesmen that in his action to save the Union prior to the meeting of Congress, the President violated the Constitution. In discussing tlgs important question, we will premise 'by saying that any necessary act, by the President or anybody else, what ever it may be, for saving the Consti tution from destruction or from any violent and permanent change in its character or in the extent of its jar's diction, cannot, with any justice, he deemed a violation of it. The Presi dent is ,worn that he will to the be-t of his ability, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.— We do not suppose this means that he shall protect and defend one particu lar part of the Constitution, to the ex clusion of all others, but that he will protect and defend the whole fabric as best he can under any and all circum stances that may arise. Now, it is very easy to imagine a case in which it wonld be absolutely necessary for the President to tin a thing" that the Constitution forbids him to do, to save the entire Constitution and the whole fabric of government from total de struction. Would he be bound to dis regard the entire Constitution save that one clause which is in the way of saving the whole? Does his oath ap ply only to that single clause? And must he protect and defend that for the time, and thus lose the entire Con stitution forever? Our answer is, that the residue of the Constitution, including the President's oath, which is a part of it, rises superior to the single clause, and hold it in abeyance for the time being, and it is perfectly constitutional for the President to save the Constitution. But let us see if President Lincoln has done violence to any particular• provision of the Constitution in deal ing with this rebellion. Mr. Breckin ridge has reconnoitered the whole field and presented a formidable bill of indictment. He complains: 1. That the President has violated the Constitution by accepting volun teers for three years without express authority- of law for so cluing. We do not see that there is any Constitution al principle involved in this matter.— The Constitution authorizes, Congress to provide for calling out the militia in just such eases as this; and by the law of 1795 the President is author ized to call them out to serve for three months. His acceptance of them for three months is therefore strictly legal and Constitutional; and his agreement to accept them for any longer time, if not .ratified by Congress, would be simply null anclvoid; and no violation of la 1S can be charged upon him in this behalf until he retains them in service e,reeeding three months without the au thority of law for so doing. This has not yet been done and cannot non - be done until the number of five hundred thousand shall have been exhausted. 2. He has made enlistments for the regular army without previous au thority flom Congress to do so. This admits of the same answer, chiefly, as the above. The enlistment is purely conditional, and if ratified by Congress, as it has been, there is no violation of If, however, Congress had re fused to grant the addition to the ar my which the President had condition, ally made, and he had then - retained such addition in the service, it, would have been a violation of law. This whole work of organizing forces to repel the rebel armies in advance of the needful legislation to authorize it, was of the sternest necessity; it was demanded at the President's hands by the entire loyal portion of the coun try, its acceptance by Congress after wards, covers all irregularity hi-its in ception, and none but traitors and their sympathizers would censure the President for it now. 3. "The Constitution declares that Congress alone has power to declare war, yet the President has made war," says Mr. Breckinridge. It is very strange that a man of Sen. Breekinridge's knowledge of the Constitution and laws of the United States, should make such a charge as this. To undertake to refute it looks very much like trying to prove that two and two make four. Suffice it to say that there is no war in a Constitu tional sense. The rebels have waged an actual war against the government of the United States, and have assumed to declare war against it; but they are not a lawful government, and all their declarations, their so-called laws, their prommciamentos, their marauding, their thievery, and their piracy, cannot raise it above the dignity of an insur rection. As such, the President has met it. and in pursuance of his plain Constitutional duty he has resisted it, and this is all. This resistance takes the form of wv; it may be said to be a war in fact, though not a war by the Constitution or the laws of nations, but simply a rebellion ; and therefore it does not require a declaration by - Congress to authorize the Comman der-in-Chief to suppress it. 4. "The President has established blockades, and there is no clause in the, Constitution authorizing hint to do this," we are told. This is a most wonderful discove - ry. No less a statesman than Brec•kinridge could have made it. We might add, that there is no clause in the • Consti tution authorizing the President to build up defences about Washington, or to prevent traitors from stealing all the public property. or to march an army to Manassas. or to occupy Grafton, or to fight the battle of Philip pi, or of Corriek's Ford, or of Bich Mountain, or of Carthage. According to Mr. Breckiniidge these are all unconstitutional too. With bins every thing is uncontitutional that does not tend to destroy the Constitution and extinguish the Government. Nothin . , : , is Constitutional but treason. The Constitutionality of a blockade by the President depends entirly upon his Constitutional power to suppress a rebellion by military force, 110 is the Constitutional commander-in-chief of the army and navy and in that capa city being Constitutionally charged with the duty of suppressing rebellion. it necessarily follows that he is author ized to use for that purpose, all mili tary means that are usual fin• overcom ing an enemy in war. To deny this, is to deny his right to fire a gun or to march an :u•my into the field. Blockade is a lawful and usual net of war, and the filoelgide of the Southern ports by President Lincoln. is there fore• Constitutional. 5: The last and 'greatest of Breckinridge's charges against the President. is that•he has violated the Constitution by suspending the writ 1 of habeas corpus. This insurrection assumes all the forms of war, and it must necessarily be treated with the medicine of war. The civil authorities are powerless to cure it. If it is ever suppresed it must be done solely hy the military power—by war. War is an abnormal condition of a Government. Its exist ence presupposes the inability of any other power in the Government to ac complish the object for which it is waged. It is the last resort and the highest tribunal of nations, and there fore it cannot be controlled by any other authority, by any other law, or by any Constitution but its own. • It is no violation of the Constitution of the United States for a military com mander to run counter to all its pro visions in time of actual war and in his field of operations; for the simple reason that an appeal to arms is an appeal above and beyond all civil au thority and civil laws and Constitu tions, to the laws and usages of war under the laws of nations. To super sede the military by the civil authority in time of war, is to appeal from the higher to the lower power. If the civil authority is competent to control the military, it is competent also to ac complish the object for which the latter took the field, and it is a solecism to have any militay power in the Gov ernment. And we may add if the civil power rules the military power, there is no military power but in the name and if it can rule in one case it can in all.—The 11 7 heeling Press. The Writ of Habeas Corpus and the Pow ers of the President. OPINION OF ATTORNEY GENERAL BATES Attorney General Bates has written a long letter on the question of sus pending the writ of habeas corpus, in answer to the following questions propounded by the President of - the United States: "1. In the present time of a great and dangerous insurrection, has the President the discretionary polver to to cause to be arrested and held in custody persons known to have crimi nal intercourse with the insurgents, or persons against whom there is prob able cause for suspicion of such crimin al complicity. "2. In such cases of arrest is the President jusitied in refusing to obey a writ of habeas ciwpuS issued by a court or a judge, requiring him or his agent to produce the body of the pris oner, and show the cause of his cap ture and detention to be adjudged mid disposed of by, such court or judge?" After a review of the differences that exist between European principles of Government and those which obtain in this country, Mr. Bates proceeds to demonstrate the separate and inde pendent character of the several de partments of our Government, and then expresses the opinion that "in a time like the present, when the very existence of the nation is assailed by a great and dangerous insurrection, the president has the lawful discretion ary power to arrest and hold in custo dy persons known to have criminal intercourse 'with the insurgents, or pemunz-ugainot -whom—thoro-1.3 p-rt>ha_. ble cause for suspicion of such criminal complicity." In replying to the second question, Mr. Bates begins by an analysis of the nature of the writ of habeas corpus, and alludes to the constitutional view of the question, as follows : " There is but one sentence in the Constitution which mentions the.writ of habeas eorpus—arliele 1, section 9, clause 2—which is in these words; The privilege of the writ of habeas cor pus shall not be suspended unless when, in cases of rebellion or• invasion, the public safety may require it.' " Very learned persons have differed widely about the meaning of this short sentence, and I am by no means confi dent that I fully understand it myself. The sententious language of the Con stitution in this particular, must, I suppose, be interpreted with reference to the origin of our people, their histo rical relations to the mother country, and their inchoate political condition at the moment when our Constitution was formed. At that time the United States, as a nation, had no common law of its own, and no statutory pro vision for the writ of habeas corpus.— Still, the people, English by descent, even while in open rebellion against the English crown, claimed a sort of historical right to the forms of English law and the guarantees of English freedom. They knew that the English Government had mere than once as sumed the power to imprison whom it would, and hold them fbr an indefinite time beyond the reach of judicial ex amination ; and they desired, no doubt, to interpose a guard against the like abuse in this country. And hence the clause of the Constitution now under consideration. But we must try to construe the words, vague and inde terminate as they are, as we find them. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,' &c.— Does that mean that the writ itself shall not be issued, or that,' being is sued, the party shall derive no benefit from it ? Suspended.- 7 --does that mean delayed, hung up fbrif time, or al toget h er denied ? The writ of habeas eorpus whieh writ? In England there.were many writs called by that name, and used by the courts for the more conve nient exercise of their various powers; and our own courts now, by acts of Congress—the judiciary act of 1789, section 14, and the act of March 2, 1833, section 7—have, 1 believe, equiv alent powers." Ie adds : " If by the phrase the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas cor pus we mint U11(101'SitlIld a repeal of all power to issue the writ, then I freely admit that none but Congress can do it. But if we are at liberty to under stand the phrase to mean, that, in ease of a great and dangerous rebel lion like the present, the public safety requires the arrest and confinement of persons implicated in that rebellion , I as freely declare the opinion that he President has lawful pincer to suspend the privilege of persons arrested under such circumstances, For he is especial ly charged by the Constitution with the public safety,' and he is the sole judge of the emergency which requires hispromptuetion. . . • "'rho power in the President.iti no part of hi , nrdinary times of peace; it is temporary and exceptional, and was intended only to meet a pres sing emergency, when the judiciary is said to be too weal: to insure the pub lic safety—when (in the language of the act of Congress—there are combi nations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial pro ceedings, or by the powers Vested in the marshals.' 'Then, and not till then, has he the lawful authority to call to his aid the military power of the na tion and with that power perform his great legal and constitutional duty to suppress the insurrection. And shall it be said that when he has fought and captured the insurgent army, and has seized their secret spies and emissaries, he is bound to bring their bodies be fore any judge who may send him a writ of habeas corpus, to do, submit to and receive whatsoever the said judge shall consider in that behalf ?' " I deny that he is under any obli gations to obey such a writ, issued tin der such circumstances." The opinion concluded as follows : • "To my mind it is not very impor tant whether we call a particular pow er exercised by the President a peace power or a war power, for undoubtedly he is armed with both. He is the chief civil magistrate of the nation, and be ing such, and because "he is such, he is time constitutional commander-in-chief of the army and navy ; and thus, with in the limits of the Constitution, he rules in peace and commands in war, and at this moment he is in the full exercise of all the functions belonging to both those characters. The civil administration is still going on in its peaceful course, and yet we are in the midst of war—a war in which the ene my is. fin• the present, dominant in many States, and has his secret allies and compliances scattered through many other States which are still loyal and true. A war all the more danger ous and more needing jealous vigilance and prompt action because it is en in ternecine and not an international w a r." Important Army Orders. WasumuTox, August 1. The tollowing orders have just, been promulgated. eneral Orders, No. 12.] HEADQUARTERS OF ARMY, WasulxoToN, July 31, 1861. Searches of houses for army traitors or spies, and the arrests of offenders in such matters, shall only be made in any department by special authority of the commander thereof, except in extreme cases :tdmitting of no delay. By command of General Scott. Signed. E. D. TowNsExu, A. G. HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, WASHINGTON, WASHINGTON, Augustl, 180 i. [General Orders, To. 13.] It has been the prayer of every pat riot that the tramp and din of civil war might at least spume the precincts within which repose the sacred re mains of the nailer of his country; but this pious hope is disappointed— Mount Vernon, so recently consecrated anew to the immortal Washington by the ladies of America, has already been overrun by bands of rebels, who hav ing trampled under foot the Constitu tion of the United States, the ark of our freedom and prosperity, arc pre pared to trample on the ashes of him To — wlionr - ve - -mainly-indebted for those mighty blessings. Should the operations of war take the United States troops in that direction, the General-in-Chief -does not doubt that each and._ every roan will approach with clue reverence and leave unin jured not only the tomb but also the house and groves and walks which were soloved by the best and greatest of men. Signed. WINFIghD Scorr By command : D. TOWNSEND ; Ass't .Adj.*Gcn Save the Eyes Now---A Hint Probably everybody now rends dai ly three times as much as he did a year ago. The excitement of the times keeps every one reading the news, or leading to find news. This is not to be deprecated, if it gets the mass into the way of reading more than former ly—provided the habit be turned to good account after the excitement is over, that is, if light trahsy literature does riot come in to supply the place of news. But we began this item to to offer a single hint about saving the eyesight, suggested by a call' on a neighbor the other evening. Father. mother, and four children, were around a table reading fine-type Newspapers by a single central bright light. _Ev ery one of them had the paper spread on the table, with the face toward the light—the most uncomfortable, most unhealthy position that could hecho sell, and the very worst one for the eyes. To say nothing of the compres sion of the chest and lungs, and the eurving of the shoulders, the bright light fell directly into the eyes, con tracting the pupil unnaturally, and weakness tending to produce and infla illation by-the effort required to read with only a few rays entering the eye, The best position for reading, and the only one that should be adopted, is, to sit upright,, , with the back or side to the lump or winoW, and let the light fall over the ,shoulder upon the paper or book. If there are windows on the opposite side of the room, change the position so that the wall or some dark object will be in front of the eyes. The pupil of the eye then expands. and takes in a complete picture of the page or letters. A much smaller light will be required in the position-recommended.—.4weri can Agrieulturb..t. Major Gen. McClellan and Prayer Dr. Thomson, pastor of Second Presbyterian church, Cincinnati, re lates that he was - recently :seated - in - his study, when a gentleman ' rdqaested an interview whieh was granted. He came to discuss the affairs of the country. expressing his anxiety about its Condition, and at length requested the Doctor to pray for the Republic and lbr hint. The Doctor of coarse complied, and after further conversa tion on this theme, the gentleman-re quested the Minister to pray ivith him. They knelt upon tbd floor, and the visitor, in a devout and eloquent peti tion, inVolted the aid and protection of' the Almighty in the struggle in which the RePtiblic is involved. My visitor. said DIY Thompson, .was Maj.- General George B. McClellan, It was the most touchings::and' affected in cident :L i 'eve :ti i trtessed.— fePlig".ne The Pennsylvania Army Vpeei.tl Depth to the Bulletin 11Auntseuno, Aug. 2.—We have just received from the Governor some most gratifying military information, 'indi cating that the Federal Government is awake to the comma - tiding position of Pennsylvania ' and her services in the war: Thr entire force of Reserve Regi ments from, Pennsylvania is to be placed under command of Gen. McCall, by order of Gen. McClellan. Eleven thousand of the Reserves have been sent forward already, and the only re maining regiment of infantry , will be at the seat of war in a few days. The Artillery which will be attached to -this Pennsylvania army will com prise forty-eight guns, consisting par tially of rifled cannon. The guns range from 32 pounders to 6 pounders. As soon as they are ready they are to be sent forward by batteries. The first battery goes &nth on Sunday night, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, and the other batteries will follow in short time. The Cavalry regiment is almost ready, and the men are all in eanip.— As soon as they are mounted they will be sent to join the main body. The Governor is much gratified at this mark of appreciation of Pennsyl vania, and the little remaining to complete his preparations will be cxc. cuted With care and energy. THE "BOYS" AND HUNTINGDON.—Wo find the following in the army corres pondence of the Cambria 31 - owitaineer. The writer is a member of the Cam bria Guards attached to a Regiment which passed through here from Camp Wright on the 23d of July : " The people of Gallitzin have our thanks for many necessaries they had provided for us, pies, cakes, hot coffee, &c Nothing farther of note occurred until we got to Huntingdon, a place that will live in the memory of our vol unteer soldiery—hundreds of men wo men and children were at the station with well filled baskets of provisions, each one vieing with the other in 'ad ding to the comfort of the ," poor sol dier." Ours was the second Regiment that had thus been treated by that place on the same day, and the inquiry when we left was, " Are there not inure soldiers coming over to-night ?" How marked the difference between Huntingdon and the other towns along the road, where stir arins of hucksters annoy the soldier with the worst,..kind of provisions at the highest prices." , The Ebensburg Alleghenian says:, Speaking of sonic incidents of the trip one of the Guards writes : "I must put in a word hire for the ladies of Huntingdon. They met us at the cars with a bountiful supper—more than sufficient to feed the twelve hundred men who were in the train—consisting of hot coffee and tea, bread and butter, warm biscuit, boiled eggs, pickets, and in flirt everything else good to eat.— Their kindness willnever be forgotten." Statement of Gen. Patterson BALTIMORE, Thursday, July 24,1801. —A private letter from Gen. Patterson, dated Harper's Ferry, 22d, says:. " (Ten. Johnston retreated to Win chester where he had thrown up en trenchments and had' large number of heavy guns. I could have turned his position and attacked him in the rear, but lie had' received',large rein forcements from Mississippi. Alabama, and Georgia, a total force of over 85.- 000 Confederate troops, and 5,000 Vir ginia militia. My force is less than 20,000, 19 regiments, whose term' or service was up or would be within a week—All refused to. stay one hour over their time, but four, viz : two Indiana regiments, Frank Jarrett's [the 11th Pennsylvania,] and Owen's [the 24th Pennsylvania.] Five regi ments have gone home. Two more to-day, and three more to-morrow.— To avoid being cut off with the re mainder, I fell back and occupied this place.", Good out of Evil Tt is reported' that Major General McClellan, in speaking of the battle of Bull Run, and deploring it, added, " but it was a splendid reconnoissance for me." This shows the spirit of the new General who commands the army about Washington. He is determined to profit by the disaster to our arms, and w ill ma k e good use of the knowledge obtained b by General liTcDowell's "splendid reconnoissnnee.", It was a sad thing that so many lives should have been lost; but the informatiowgain ed nS to the strength of therebels, their lighting qualities and their position, will be of incalculable value in the fu ture. ' While diNcovering the strength of the enemy, the battle at Bull RIM also revealed our own weakness, the defects 'in our military organization,' Arid individual eases of inefficiency in offs. cers. The Government and the cam , manding General• are busily engaged in remedying these faults, and - We shalk be surprised if the arty atlYaShington does not become, in a 'few weeks, the most efficient and the best disdiplined ever seen on • this 'continent. This seems to be'the wish ' and determina s . tion of every 'one holding any impel': taut position. The officers of the ular army aro laboring for it as a mat ; ter of necessity; it is w i th them im affair of professional pride as well as of pa ; triotism. The volunteer officers; hay.. ing learned on the field and by bard experience what' fighting'' is, aro bent on retrieving the_ reputation of their. Class of soldiers, and are trying tO make. their men colaprebentl"thekliffei•ercie between mancelivringbefore mt eni4v and Parading' in II p'eat•eful "ep'ciainp ineitt: , ;,i The filioelcof the defbat at Bull Bun js entirely gone, and now, with a healthy recovery of the utorat • eoni•age of the troops and the fieople,owe' are deriving from it some substantial good, Tho lesson wa•a a 'severe One; but it will be all• the better rememberbt, Phila. Bulletin. 31A RHUED, On the 21111 1,11., by 1 .1.1, A. Rohrer, JACQII'i;111". of Slurlo3 :burg. to ~111,o; Mu l .l.lllA. &Om% a Etlit, Wuterfonl itiointo untolar . I,A Jost-, by Rev, a. U. 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