The globe. (Huntingdon, Pa.) 1856-1877, January 16, 1861, Image 6

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The 1 iendly and peacrlol polity pulat,ed by
the tioveinntent of li, United ;:taten towards
the empire of ('hina has modueed the most :lit
isfactory re , ulin. The treaty of of
the 181 It of Jana 1 1i,"; , , been fail !d u ll y .1,-
: , erved by the Chine,o :tut horities. The con
vention attn. 11th OVelllbPr, 11.1 ti, ,upplemen
lary to thin treaty, for the adinstmeut and
!,attst action of the claims of our citizens on
China, referred to iu my l•tni Annual Message,
has been already carried into effeet, so far as
this Was practicable.
Under this convention the sum of 500,000
taek, equal to about •:z700.0110, was stipulated
to he paid in satisfaction of the claims of Anteri
eut mimic, out of the one-fifth of the receipts
for tonnage import, and export duties on Amet
an vessels at the pods of Canton, tihanghae,
and Pnehau and it was “agreed that this
amount shall be in full liquidation of all claims
of American citizens at the various ports to
!hi.: (late. - Debenture, for this amount to wit:
:;11(1,00tnelstbr Canton, 100,000 for Shaughae,
:111.1 11)0,1100 I.n• Foch:tit—were delivered ac
cording to the terms of the convention by the
r,spective (!binr , o collectors of the customs of
Ih e.) - ) perk to the agent selected by our minis-
ter to receive the saute.
Since that time the claims of our citizens leave
le en adjusted by the board of commisSioners ap
pointed for that purpose under the act of March 3,
and their awards, which proved satisfactory
to the claimants, have been approved by oar min
i,lcr la the aggregate they amount to the sum of
5126,1301 75. The claimants have already received
a huge p.oportion of the sums awarded to them out
of the fund provided, and it iscordidentlyespected
that the remainder will ere long be entirely paid.
liter the awards shall have been satisfied, there
'l, In remain a surplus at more than $2OO 000 at the
disposition of Congress. As this will in equity be
long to the Chinese government, would not justice
requtro its appropriation to some benevolent object
id which the Chinese may he specially interested?
Our minister to China, in obedience to his in
structions, lots remained perfectly neutral in the
oar between Great Britain and France and the
Chinese empire : although, in conjunction with the
Russian minister, he wac ever ready and willing,
had the opportunity ofiered, to employ his good
offices in restoring peace hotween the parties. It
is but an act of Eimple justice, both to our present
minister and his predeeesbor, to state, that they
have proved fully equal to the delicate, trying and
responsible positions iu which they litre on differ
ent occasions been placed.
The ratifications of the treaty with Japan
concluded at Vedo, on the ;null of July, 18:39,
were exchanged at WaQhington on the 11'.2,1111ay
la , t, and the treaty itcelt na, proclaimed on
the stiecer ding day. Thine is good reason to
expect that, under it: pi election ;Ind influence,
our trade and intercourse with that distant and
interesting people will rapidly increase.
The ratifications of the treaty were ex
changed with unusual solemnity. For this
purpose the Tycoon had accredited three of his
most distinguished subjects as envoys extraor
dinary and ministers plenipotentiary, who were
received and trested with touched distinction
and kinduesss both by the Government and
people of the United iiiitates. There is every
reason to believe that (hey have returned to
their native laud entirely satisfied with their
visit, and inspired by the most friendly feelings
for our country. Let us at tlently hop, in the
language of the treaty itecif, that "there shall
henceforth be perpetual peace and friendship
between the t acted Matus of Anierien and his
Majes'y the Tycoon of Japan an.l hi- i.ticces
Kith the conservative and liberal gov
ernment of the empire of llrazil our relations
continue to be of the most amirable charac
'l`he exchang.o of the ratifications of the con
vention with the republic of New tirauada,
signed at Washington on the 10111 September,
1817, has been long delayed from accidental
causes, for which neither patty is censurable.
These ratifications were duly exchanged in
this city no the :111 of - . yozejpd l e . 4.l
Thm-Vr I)VT - 6. - :
soy inaururation, as to require me, on the 1 7th
April, 1857, to direct our minister to demand
is passports and return to the United 'States.
Under this convention the government of
New Granada has specially acknowledged itself
to be responsible to our citizens "for damages
- which were caused by the riot at Panama on
the 15th April,lBso. - These claims, together
- with other claims of our citizens which had
been long urged in vain, era referred f‘n• ad
justment to a board of commissioners. I sub
mit a copy of the dOnsTeritiOn to Congress, and
recommend the legislation necessary to carry
it into effect.
Persevering efforts have been made for the
adjustment of the claims of American citizens
against tho government of Costa Rica, and 1
am happy to inform you that these have finally
prevailed. A convention was signed at the
city of San Jose, on the Ca of July last; be
mem the minister resil et 4 of the United
Statesin Costa Rica and th iitenipotentiarics of
that republic, referring. tiles ,claims to a Board
of Commissioners, and pi oviding for the pay
ment of their awards. This convention will
be submitted immediately to the Senate for
their constitutional action.
The claims of our citizens upou the republic
of Nicaragua have mu yet been provided for
by treaty, although diligent efforts for this
purpose have been made by our minister resi
dent to that republic. These are still contin
ued, with a fair prospect of success.
Our relations with Mexico remain in a most un
satisfactory condition. In my last two araual
messages I discussed extensively the subject of
these relations, and do not now propose to repeat
at length the facts and arguments then presented.
They proved conclusively that our citizens residing
in Mexico, and our merchants trading thereto, had
suffered a series of wrongs and outrages such as we
have never patiently borne from any other nation.
For these our successive ministers, invoking the
faith of treaties, had, in the name of their coun
try, p rsistently detnanded redress and indemnifi
cation, but without the slighte:t elleet. ludectl,so
confident had the lifexican authentic, become of
our patient endurance, that th..y universally be
lieved they might commit lh e. , e outrages upon
American citizens with absolute impunity. Thus
wrote our minister is ldii6, and expressed the
opinion that" nothinr, but a manifestation of the
power of the Government, and of its purpose to
punish these wrongs, will avail."
Afterwards, in 1857, came the adopt ion of a
new constitution for Mexico, the election of a
President and Congress under its provisions,
and the inauguration of the President. Within
one, short month, however, this. President was
expelled from the capital by a rebellion in the
army, and the supreme ponce of the republic
was assigned to General Zulu:tea. This usurper
was in Isis turn i-..eou compelled to retire and
give place to General Miramon.
Under the constitution which had thus been
adopted, Senor Juarez, is chief justice of the
Supreme Court, became t he lawful President of
the Republic; and it was for the maintenance
of the constitution unit hi, authority derived
from it that the civil war commenced, and
continues to be prosecuted.
Throughout the year 1853 the constitutional
party grew stronger and stronger. lit the pre.
'PIOUS history of Mexico a successful military
revolution at the capital had almost universally
been the signal for submission throughout the
republic. Not so on the present occasion. A
majority of the citizens persistently sustained
she constitutional government. When this was
recognized in April, 1859, by the Government
of the United States, its authority extended
over a large majority of the Mexican States
and people, including Vera Cruz and nll the
other important sea ports of the republic. From
that period our commerce with Mexico began
to revive, and the constitutional government
has afforded it all the protection in their power.
Meanwhile, the government of Mira:non at.II hell sway
at the capital ana over 'the surrounding country, and
continued its outrages against the few American citizens
who still had the courage to remain within its power
.1a cap the climes : After the battle of Tdenhay,i, iu
a l ,”1, 1 sis, con, nnh•rrd Huron cititen.. of tho
United Slat's, two of them physicians, to he salted in the
hospital at that place taken tut and shot, without 'crime
and without trial. This was done, notwithstanding our
unlortnoa e ..inutrytneu were at the momout engaged
in the holy e •use of atfordinw retie•! to the mu them of
oth patties who had been a ounded in the battle, with.
out .. 11.; nun distinction botwesu them.
Tine t nue bed arrived, in my op nice., lilies this floe -
etnment nab bound to exert its power to avenge and re
di ern The wrong> ol our Valero. And to afford them pro
tection in Mesi Tim interposing obstacle Was that
the port on of the country under the sway of Minium
could not to learbed without penning over territory un
der the jurintlietion of the ronstitutional ge comment
Under these circumstances, I deemed it any duty to re
commend to Congress. in any last annual rummage. the
employment of a sufficient military force to penetrate into
the interior, whore the government of fireman was to
be found, with, or, if need be, without the consent of the
.loan Z government, though it nos not doubted that this
consent could be obtained. Never have I hada clearer con
s lotion on any subject than of the justice as writ an wis
dom ofesuch a, polecy. No other alternative Was left, ex
cept the entirs abandonment of our fellow-eiliZers who
had gone to Men to, under the faith of trestles, to the
systematic km:dice ' cruelty and opprn salon of kliramon's
government Ileeldest it in almost certain that tine sin pie
authority to employ flea force would of Itself have to
complished all oar objects without striking a tangle blow.
The constitutional government would then ere thin have
been established at the city of Mexico, and would have
been ready and nettling, to the extent of An ability, to do
us justice.
.tu addition—and I deem this a most impel tent con
sid eration—Europeau governments oriel,' have been de
prinicel of all pretext to interfere in the territorial and
domestic concerns in Mexico. Wo should thus have been
relieved from the obligation of restating, even by forte,
should this become necessary, any attempt by these gov
ernments to deprive our neghboring republic of portions
of her territory; a duty from which we could not shrink
a intent abandoning the In aditional and established
policy of the American people. f ain happy to observe,
that, firmly relying upon the justice nod good faith of
throe governments, there is no present danger that sorb
a contingency a ill happen.
Raving discovered that me recommendation would not
be sustained by Congress, the next alternative lons to
accomplish, in some degree. if possible, thennemeohmets
by treaty ktipulations with the constitutional govern
Such treaties wore accordingly concluded by nor late
able and excellent minister to Mexico, and on the 4th of
January last were submitted to the Senate for ratifica
tine,' As these have not yet received the final action at
that body, it would be improper for me to present a de
tailed statement of their provisions, Still I may be per
mitted to express the opinion in advance that they are
calculated to promote the agricultural. the tuannfactu•
ring and commercial interests of the country, and to se
cure our just influence with an adjoining republic as to
whose fortunes and fate we can never feel indifferent:
whilst at the same time they provide for the payment of
a considerable amount townots the satisfaction of the
claim, of our injured teller-eititans.
At tile period of my inauguration I nos confronted in
Kansas by a revolutionary government, existing tinder
what is called the Topeka constitution. its avowed ob
ject wan to subdue the territorial government by force,
and to inaugurate what seen called the Topeka govern
ment in its Stead. To accomplish this object an extensive
milktary organisation was formed, and its command en
trusted to the most violent revolutionary leaders. Under
these circumstances it became toy imperative duty to
exert the whole constitutional power of the Executive
to prevent the Moues of civil war front again raging In
Kansan, which. in the excited state of the public oiled
both north and south, might hasp extended into the
neigh boring States.
The hostile parties in Kansas lied been inflamed
against each other by emissaries both from the north and
the south, two. degree of malignity without parallel lu
our history. To prevent actual collision, and to assist
the civil magistrates in enforcing the laws, a strong al:
tachment of the army woe ststioned in the Territory
ready to old the marshal and hi, deputies. when lan fully
called upon, as a posse comitatus in the execution of
cis and criminal process.
Still, the troubles in Kansas could not have been per
inauently settled without an election by the people. The
ballot box is the surest arbiter of disputes among fa cc
inen. Tinder thin conviction, every ploper ellort tins ein
ployed to induce the hostile parties to vote at the election
CI delegates to frame astute constitution. and nftet winds
at the election to decide wbetherKansas shouldbe n slave
or a tree State. The insurgent party telused to vote at
either, lest this might he considered n recognition on
their part of tho territro ial goberninent established by
Congress. A better spirit, however, seemed soon after
to prevail. nail the two parties met face to face at the
third election. held en the first Monday of ;January, ISSiS,
for members et the lege.lature and State officers under
the hecompton constitution The result scan the to itimph
of the anti-slavery party at the polls This decision of
the ballot box proved clearly that thin party were in
the majority. and removed the danger id civil nor.
From that time we love heard little or nothing of the
Topeka gm, eminent; and all serious danger of revolu
tionary trouble-, iu Kansas a a, then at an old.
The Lecompton COD atitution which had been thus
recognized at this State election by .the votes of
both political parties in Kansas, was transmit's - A
to me with the requmt that I should preeent it to
Cotw•ess. This I could not have refused to do
without violating my clearest and strongest con
victions of duty. The constitution, and all the pro
ceedings which preceded and followed its forma
tion, wore fair and regular on their face. I then
beleived, and experience has proved, that the Ili-
. . . . .
, coon, especia y as the majority, within a brief
period, could have amended the constitution ac
cording to their will and pleasure. if fraud ex
isted in all or any of these proceedinne, it was not
for the President, but for Congress, to investigate
and determine the question of rand, and whlit
ought to be its. consequences. If, 'at the two first
elections, the majority refused to vote, it cannot be
pretended that this refusal to exercise the elective
franchise could invalidate an election tairly held
under lawful authority, even if they hail not sub
sequently- voted at the third election. It is true
that the whole constitution had not been submitted
to the people, as I always desired; but the prece
dents are numerous of the admission of States into
the Union without such submission.
It would not comport with nu: present purpose
to review the proceedings of Congress upon the
Lecompton constitution. It is sufficient to observe
that their final notion has removed the last vestige
of serious revolutionary troubles. The desperate
band recently assembled, under a notorious outlaw,
in the southern portion of the Territory, to resist
the execution of the laws and to plunder peaceable
citizens, will, 1 doubt not, be speedily subdued and
brought to justice.
_ .
fad I treated the Lecornpion constitution as a
nullity and refused to transmit it to Congress, it is
not difficult to imagine, whilst recalling the posi
tion of the country at that moment, what would
have beon the disastrous consequences, both in and
out of tho Territory, from such a dereliction of duty
on the part of the Executive.
Peace has also been restored within the Territory
of Utah, which at the commencement of my admin
istration, was in a state of open rebellion. This
was the more dangerous, as the people, animated
by a fanatical spirit and entrenched within their
distant mountain fastnesses, might have made a
long and formidable resistance. Cost what it
might, it was necessary to bring them into subjec
tion to the Constitution and the laws. Sound pol
icy, therefore, as well as humanity, required that
this object should, if possible, be accomplished
without the effusion of blood. This could only be
effected by sending a military force into the Ter
ritory sufficiently strong to convince the people that
resistance would be hopeless, and at the same time
to offer them a pardon for past offences on condition
of immediate submission to the Government. This
policy was pursued with eminent success: and the
only cause for regret is the heavy expenditure
required to search a large detachment of the army
to that remote region and to furnish it subsistence.
Utah is now comparatively peaceful and quiet, and
the military force has been withdrawn, except that
portion of it necessary to keep the Indians in check
and to protect the emigrant tr,tins on their way to
our Pacific possessions.
GI my first annual message I promised to employ Iv
best exertions, in co-operation with Congress, to reduce
the expenditures of the Government within the limits of
n . sits. and judicious economy. An overflowing treasury
hail produced habits of prodigality and extravagance
which could onlybe'gradually corrected. The w ork re
quired both time and patience I applied myself dili
gently to tbii task front the beginning, and n as aided by
the able and energetic efforts of the heads of the differ
ent Executive Departments. The esult of our labors in
this good cause did not appear in the sum total of our
expenditures for the first two years, mainly in conse
quence of the extraordinary , expenditure necessarily in
curred in the Utah expedition, and the very large
amount of the contingent expenses of Congress during
this period. These greatly exceeded the pay and mile
rge of the members. For the }ear coding 30th June,
1838, whilst the pay and mileage amounted to $1,490,214,
the contingent expense , rose to :2,093,309 79, and for
the year ending 30th June, 1859, whilst the pay and
mileage amounted to $859,093 66, the contingent ex
penses amounted to $1,431,563 78 I am happy, hem
, er, to be able to inform you that during the last fiscal
year ending on the 110th June, 1800, the total expendi
tures of the Government in all its branches—legislative,
executive and judicial—exclusive of the public debt,
ere reduced to the aum of $55,402,465 46. This con
clusively appears from the books of the Treehury. In
the year soiling on the 30th June, 1858, the total expen
ditures. exclusive of the public debt, amounted to
$71.901,129 77, mod that for the year ending 30th June,
1959. to $66.346,226 13. Whilst the books of the Trea
sury show an actual expenditure of $39,858,474 72 for
the 'year ending on the 30th June, 1860, including
$1,010,667 71 for the contingent expenses of Congress,
there must he deducted from thin amount the east sit
$4,296,009 26, with the interest upon it of 9150.000, ap
propriated by the act of 15th February, 19110, for the
purpose of supplying the deficiency in the revenues and
deftaving the expenses of the Post Oilier Department for
the year ending the thirtieth of June, one thousand
eight hundred and tilty-nine.” This sum, therefore,
putty chargeahlo to the year 1859, must be deducted
front the sum of $59,843,474 72, in order to ascertain the
expenditure for the year ending on the 10th June, 1800.
which leaves a balance for the expenditures of that year
of $55,402,463 40. The interest on the public debt in
cluding Treasury notes fur the same ihical year ending
on the 30th Juno, 10119, amounted to $3.177,314 62,
which, adeb,l to the silo, I. Nom of ~ :55,502,41, : , 10, nn AL
the aggregate of 155,79,780 lei.
It ought Injustice to be oloerved that several of Ho
estimates from the departments for the year endingaltb
dune 1814 , was redueed by Congress below what 1101
and ;till is deemed eompati hie wi tin the pa hi iI . in ten est
Alton ing a liberal margin of $2,500,000 for thin ceder.
lion, and for other mussy, it may be sately asserted tlPit
the SIMI of $11,000,000. or at the moat "62,000,000. ii
amply sufficient to administer the Coverninient and to
pa . , the interest on the pulilie debt, unless contingent
events I,llould hi...after iendei extraordi rimy
This result . ha , been attained in IL considerable de
gree by the care cool eised by the appropriate departments
in entering into public contracts. I have myself never
interfered with the anon! of any such contract except
in a single caw with the Colonization Society, deeming
it advi-able to moot the whole responsibility in each caao
on the pioper heed of the department, smith the general
instruction that these contracts should always be given
to the lowest and best has ever been my
opinion that public contract: are not a legitimate sou ri e
of patronage to be route, red upon personal or politic al
favorites; but that in all .net, rases a public othvor is
bound to net for the Gin ,rnment as a prudent individual
would act for himself.
. , .
It is with gloat , atislaciion I communicate the tact,
that, since the date of my last Annual Message. not a
single slave has been Imported into the United states in
violation of the lams prohibiting the An lean slave trele.
This statement is founded upon a thorough e‘animati on
and investigation of the subject. Indeed. the spirit
it Ilia prevailed 0001 e time since among& portion or our
follow-citizens in laver of this trade groins to have en
tirely subsided.
I also congratulate you upon the public sentiment
which now exists, against the crime of setting on foot
military expeditions within the limits of the 'United
States. to proceed from thence and make war upon the
people of tinoffending States. with whom we are a t pen. s.
In this respect a happy change has brew effected Kin',
the commencement 01 my Administration. It surely
ought to be the prayer of every Christian and patriot,
that such expeditions may never itgLin receive counte
nance in our country or depart from our shores.
trn'old be a t,ele‘s repetition to do more than rotor,
with earnest commendation, to my former recommen
dations in laver of the Pacific railroad—of the great of
power to the President to employ the nasal force in the
vicinity, for the protection of the lit es and property of
our fellow-citicens forcing in transit over the different
Cent) al American routes, against sudden and lawless
outbreaks and depi edationa; and also to protect Ameri
can merchant vessels, their crews and cargoes, against
violent and unlawful seizure mid confiscation in, the
ports of Mexico and the South American republics. . hen
these may be in a disturbed and revolutionary condition.
ft in my nettled cons fiction, that without such n power
we do not afford that pit - dm:Pion to those engaged in the
commeice of the country which they have a right to de
T again leen:lmmo," to Congress the passage of a law
in pursuance of the provisions of the Constitution, ap
pointing a day cei tale. previous to the 4th March. in
each year of an odd number, for the election of repro.
bentatires throughout all the States. A /similar pi:ll,er
has already been e‘erci,ed. with general approbation,
in the appointment of the same day throughout the
Union for holding the election of electors for President
and Vice President of the United Platen. My attention
•as einuestly directed to this subject front the fact
that the 413th Congre,s terminated on the March,
1859, without making the nece.sary appropriation for
the service of the Post Oilice Department. I was then
forced to consider the best remedy for this omission,
and au immediate call of the present Congt cos was the
untural resort. Upon however, I ascertained
that fifteen out of the thirty-three States composing the
Confederacy wet e without representatives, and that.
consequently, these fifteen States would be disfranchised
by such a rail. These fit teen Stater will be in the same
condition on the 4th March next. Ten of them cannot
elect representatives, according to es Ming State lau , .
until different periods, extending from the beginning of
August next until the mouths of October and November.
--• • • .
In my last message I gavo naming that, iu a timo of
sudden and alarming danger. the salvation of our initi
tutione might depend upon the pon er of the Pi evident
Immediately to ns,emble a lull Congres., to meet the
It is now rytite evident that the financial necessities
of the ti. - :verninent hill require a modification of the
tariff during the present sesssion for the purpose of in
creasing the revenue. In this aspect, I desire to reit
crate the recommendation contain• I in my last two an
nual messages, in Carer at imposing specific instead of ad
saloem duties on all imported articles to ohich these
can he properly applied. Prom long ehservat ion and es
pc inure. I am coil% inced that specific duties are neees
both to protect the revenue and to secure to stir
manufacturing interests that amount of incidental en•
rour•genteut n high num oid.thly results from a essence
As an abstract proposition it may be admitted that ad
rdlorem duties would. In theory, ba the most just and
equal. But if the experience of tide end ol all other com
mercial nations Inns demonstrated that such duties cannot
be assessed and Lalleeted without great trawls upon the
ref emu!, then it is the part of w tallow to resort to specific
duties. Indeed from the s cry oat.° of an ad valorem
duty, this must be the result. Under it the inv. iteble
consenuenee is, that Manias goods will he entered at
less than their true value.. The t roman y gill, therelore.
lose the duty on the difference between their real and
fictitious value, and to this extent we are defrauded.
The temptations which ads Aoreni duties present to a
dishonest i m pot ter are in resistible. Ili, object is to pass
his goods through the custom house at the very lowest
valuation necessary to Moe them from conn , mtion. In
' • • • • -"
e e. I ' AIR, r t
leor ''
...ain't` audio nuttier for the custom house, and
In other expedients to defraud the government. The
honest importer produces his ins oiee to the collector.
elating the tote it price at a bleb he purchased the arti
cles abroad. Not so the dishonest importer and the agent
of the foreign manufacturer. And here it may he ob
i erred that a vary large proportion of the manmactures
imported from abroad are consigned for ease to commis
nion merchants, who are mere egoists employed by the
manufacturers. In such canes no actual sale Las tiecn
made to liv their value. 'I he loreian manufacturer, if he
be dishonest, prelim es an invoice ot the goodsowit at their
actual s elite, but at the very lowest rate necessary to
escape detection. t n this intones the dishOnest im
porter and the foreign manufacturer enjoy a decided
advantage of er the honest mei chant. They are thus en
abled to undersell the fair tsr ler, and drive him front the
snorkel. In fact, the operation of thin system hits all cady
drivels from the pursuits of honorable commerce ninny
of that OMR of regular and conscientious merchants
whose character throughout the world, is the pride of
our country.
The remedy for these evils is to be found in specific
duties, so far as this maybe practicable. They dispense
with any inquire at the customs-house into the actual
cost or value of the article, and it pays the precise
amount of duty previously hard bylaw. They present
DO temptations to the appraisers of foreign goods elm
receive but small salaries, and might, by undervalua
tion in a few cases, render themselves independent
Besides, hpeciiie duties best conform to the resmisi..
Con in the Constitution that " no preference shall be
given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the
porta of one State over those of another." Under our
ad valorous system such preferences are to some e'.tont
inevitable, and complaints have often been auntie that
the spirit of this precision has been violated by a lower
apprassement of the same articles at one port than at
An impression stn sagely enough prevails, to some ex
tent, that specific donee are necessarily protective du
ties. Nothing eon be more fallacious. Crest Britain
glories in tree trade, and yet her whole eel eAle from
imports is at the present moment collected tinder a sys
tem of specific duties. It is a striking fact in this row
'motion that, in the commercial treaty of 23i1 January.
1800, bet, ern Prance and England, ono of the articles
pros - ides that the ad valorem duties which it imposes
shall be converted into specific duties within six months
from its date. and these are to be ascertained by making
an aver age of the pt ices for six months previous to that
time. The reverse of the proposition would be nearer
to the truth, because a much larger amount of revenue
would he collected by merely converting the ad valorem
duties of a tariff into equivalent specific duties. To this
extent the revenue would be increased, and in the same
proportion the specific duty might he diminished.
Specific duties would secure to the American manu
facturer the incidental protection to Which he is fairly
entitled entire a revenue hill fr, and to this surely no poi
son would object. The framers of the existing tariff
have gone further, and in a liberal spirit have discrimi
nated in favor of Int ge and metal branches of our 11101111.
factures, unit by raising the rate of duty upon the iinjim -
tation of similar articles from obi Oftli, but what is the
same in effect, by admitting article, free of duty which
enter into the composition of their fabrics.
Under the present s' stem It has been el ten truly re
marked that this incidental protection dee. eases alien
the manufacturer needs if most, and increases , hen
he needs it least, and constitutes a sliding scale which
always operates against him. Tho revenues of the coun
try are subject to similar fluctuation. Instead of up
in °aching a. steady standard, as would he the case under
a system of specific duties, they sink and rise with the
sinking and icing prices of articles in foreign countries.
It would not be difficult for Congress to arrange a tem of speeific duties widen - would afford additional sta
b both to our revenue and our manefactures, and
without injury or injustice to any interest of the coun
try. This alight ho accomplished by ascertaining the
average value of any given article for a series of years at
the place of exportation, and by simply converting the
rate of nil valorem duty upon it which might be deemed
necessary for revenue purposes, into the foam of a spe
cific duty. Such an arrangement could not injure the
consumer. If lie should pay a greater amount of duty
one year, this would be counterbalanced by a lesser
amount the next, and in the end the aggregate n gild be
the same.
I desire to call your immediate attention to the pres
ent condition of the Treamary, so ably and clearly pre
sented by the Secretary in his report to Congress; and to
recommend, that measures be promptly adopted, to ena
ble it to discharge its pressing obligations. The other
recommendations of the report ace well worthy of your
favorable consideration.
I herewith transmit to Congress the reports of the
Secretaries of War, of the Navy, of the Interior and of
the Postmaster General. The recommendations and sug
gestions which they contain are highly valuable and de
setve sour careful attention.
The ropmt of the Postmaster General details the al r
miustances under which Cornelius Vanderbilt, on my re
quest, agreed, in the month of July last, to carry the
ocean mobs between our Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Rad
lie not tints acted, this important intercornmanication
must have been suspended, at least for a season. The
Postmaster General had no power to make him any other
compensation than the postage on the mail matter is hints
he might carry. It wan karma, at the time, that these
postinies would fall far short of an asequate commas,
tion, as well an of the Me which the same service had
previously cost the Government. Mr. Vanderbilt, in a
commendable spirit, was willing to rely upon the justice
of Congress to mahe up the deficiency; and I, tuerefore,
recommend that an appeopnation may be granted for thin
I shoutl do great injustice to the Attorney General,
wore I to omit the mention of Ilia distinguished services
In the measures adopted and prosecuted by him for the
defense of the Government against numerous and un
founded claims to land in tiliternia, purpurtiug to have
II With by the 31i an-an Gorr] nment factious 10 the
..aty I,i CB B Bl.. Tile buceeMlnl oppo,ition to tunic
i its hits .V2t to the Unitcd Mum, plop uv
orth many nullion.s doll are, and to individuals
lug title and, then, to at 10.1,a an equal amount.
It has been represented to nie, from 1.(111:0, tc11,1 . 11
demo tell tole, that the sea. not porta), of
hanque have been retie, ed utarly Le a -tale Ili sta. alma,
00 Recount al the almost total failure of their crop,
chi let the harvests in every other portion M the el. try
hare been abundant The prospect below them line the
approaching, winter is well calculated to enlist the ...ynipx
tides of every heart. The destitution appears to be 80
general that it cannot he relieved by private ~.ontribli
flops, and they are in such indigent tireentatences as to
he unable to purchase the necetHaries of Me fur them
meth es. I refer the imbject to Congress. II any constitu
tional measure for their relief can be dorm. I would
recommend Its adoption.
I cordially commend to your favorable regard the in
terestx 01 the people of this District. They ore eminently
euii tied to ycur c nsideration, egpaeially since. unlike the
people or the States. they can appeal to no government
except that of the Union.
W kSHINGTON CITY, December:,, MO.
LETTER FROM tIRMII.1:13 tiumNix,
• [Fromm the Beside Advertiser, November 2t.]
We take pleasure in printing the following
interesting letter from Mr. Sumner to Mr.
Sparks, describing the "memorial stones" of
the Washington family, received from the Earl
of Spencer. The letter describes the parish
church of Brington, near Althorp, (the home of
the Spencors,) and the magnificent park at Al
thorp : and exhibits the associations between
the Spencer family and Washington:
BOSTON', '2'..!d November, 1800.
My MIAR SIR: Since our last conversation
the Earl Spencer has kindly sent to me precise
copies of the two "Memorial Stones" of the
English family of George Washington, which
I have already described to you as harmonizing
exactly with the pedigree which has the sanc
tion of your authority. These are of the same
stone and of the same size with the originals—
and have the original inscriptions, being in all
respects far ,Uniirs. They will, therefore, give
you an exact idea of these most interesting
memorials in the parish church of hirington,
near Althorp, in Northamptonshire.
The largest is of Lawrence Washington, the
father of John Washington. who emigrated to
America. It is a slab or bluish gray sandstone
and measures five feet and nine inches long,
and two feet and seven inches broad.
here is the inscription :
Above the inscription, carved in the stone,
are the arms of the Washingtons with an ad
ditional quartering of another family.
The other is of Elizabeth Washington, daugh
ter of Lawrence Washington, and sister of the
emigrant. This is a slab of the same sandstone.
and measures three feet and five inches long and
two feet and sia inches broad. The inscription
is on a small b r ass plate set into the stone and
is as follows :
On a separate brass, beneath the inscription,
are the arms or the Washingtons without any
addition. These, as you are well aware, have
sometimes suppose' to lave suggested our no
tional Slag. In heraldic language there are
bars of goles, and argent, with tilt ee mallets or
In the interesting chapter on the origin and
genealogy of the Washington family, winch you
give in the appendix to your Life of Washing
ton, it, appears that Lawrence, the father of the
emigrant, died 1;:th December, and was buried
at Brington Lith December, MN. But the
genealogical tables which you followed gave no
indication of the locality of this church. llad
it, appeared that it was the parish church of the
Spencer family in Northamptonshire, the local
ity, which 1 believe has not been heretofore
known in our country, would have been pre
cisely fixed.
In point of fact, the slab which covers Law
rence Washington is in the chancel of the church,
by the side of the monuments of the Spencer
family. These are all in admirable preserva
tion, with full length effigies, busts or other
sculptural work, and exhibit an interesting
and connected series of sepulchral memorials
front the reign of Henry VIII. to the present
time. Among them is a monument by the early
English sculptor, Nicholas Stone; another by
Nollekins, front a design by Cipriani, and
another by Flaxman, with exquisitely beautiful
personifications of Faith and Charity. Beneath
repose the successive representatives of this
illustrious family which has added to its aris
tocratic claims by services to the state, and
also by thc unique and world-famous library
collected by one of its members. In this com
panionship will be found the last English an
cestor of our Washington.
The other slab, covering Elizabeth, the sister
of the emigrant, is in ono of the aisles of the
nave where it is scraped by the feet of all who
The parish of llrington is between seven and
eight miles from the town of Northampton,
not far from the centre of England. it is
written in Domesday Book Brinintone" and
also " &intone." It contains about 2,210
acres, of which about 1,400 acres belong to
Earl Spencer, about :;:!G acres to the rector in
right of the church, and about MO acres to
other persons. The soil 13 in general a dark
colored tote with a small trace of clay towards
the north. Nearly four-titths of the n hole is
pasture and feeding land.
In the village still stands the house, said to
have been occupied by the Washinn,lons when
the emigrant brother left. them. You will see
a vignette of it on the title-page of the recent
English work, entitled The ]I ail Over
the door is carved the words, , 6 The. Lord giv
eth ; the Lord taketh away. Blessed be the
name of the Lord;" while the parish register
gives a pathetic commentary byshowing that, in
the very year when this house was built a child
had been born and another one Mid died in this
The church, originally dedicated to the Vir
gin, stands at the northeast angle of the village,
and consists of nu embattled tower with five
bells, a nave, north and south aisles, a chancel,
a chapel and a modern porch. The tower is
flanked by buttresses of two stages. The pre
sent fabric goes back in its origin to the be
ginning of the fourteenth century, nearly two
hundred years before the discovery of America.
The chancel and chapel, where repose the
Spencers and Lawrence Washington, were re
built by Sir John Spencer, the purchaser of
the estate, at the beginning of the sixteenth
century. They afford one of the latest speci
mens of the Tudor style of architecture. The
church is beautifully situated on the summit of
the highest ground of Brington, audsurrounded
by a stone wall flanked on the inside by trees.
Dibdin says that a more complete picture of a
country churchyard is rarely seen. A well
trimmed walk encircles the whole of the inte
rior, while the tine tiothic windows at the end
of the chancel till the scene with pi9tnrescine
The Register of the Parish, which is still
preserved, commences in 1560. From this it
appears that William Proct or was therector from
leol to 16'27. covering the period of the last
ot . the Washingions there. The following fur
ther utiles occur relating to this family :
lult. • Mr Learonce WRRltington wsv buried XV th
41,13 •a U.
HI k Hins Amy Wanltinllon
%tore 1.1111.11 Allgust 8 '
tli Itllblil t 111,511ingtoti am tomitrl Mai eh ye
llth '
"Mr , Bli/altil Wa4liingt son ,1 , 10 , .
MEin h I e .20111."
Of one to the ministers in this church we
have an jut crest ing glimp , e in Evelyn's Me
moirs l felt 1., p. 012, I where he following entry
will be mind under date of July, 1088: •• Dr.
Jeffryes, the minister of Althorp, who was my
lord's chaplain when ambassador in Prance,
the shortest discourse I ever heard;
but what was defective in the amplitude of his
sermon, be had supplied in the largeness and
convenience of hr par-onage-house. -
At a short, distance—less than a mile—is
Althorn, the seat of the Spencers, sarrounded
by a park of five hundred acres ' one of whose
gates opens near the church. There are oak
trees bordering on the churchyard. which were
growing at the time of the purchase of the
estate in the reign of Henry VII. Evelyn was
erten here a delighted visitor. On one occasion
he speaks of " the house or rather palace at
Althorp.'' (Vol. T., p. 612.) In another place
lte desetibes it tie "placed in a pretty open
bottom, very finely watered and flanked with
stately woods and groves in a park." (Vol. 1.,
p. 451.1 Let ate add that there is an engraving
of Althorp at this time, by the younger Voster
man, a Dutch artist.
There is one feature of the park which ex
cited the admiration of Evelyn, and at klater
day of Mrs. Jameson, who gives to it some
beautiful pages in her Visits and Sketches at
Home and Abroad. It is the record of the time
when different plantations of trees were begun.
While recommending this practice in his Suiva,
Evelyn remarks: "the only instance I know of
the like in our country is in the park at Al
thorp.'' fhere are six of these commemora
tive stones. The first records a wood planted
by Sir John Spencer, its 1507 and 1568; the
second, a wood planted by Sir John Spencer,
son of the former, in 1589 ; the third, a wood
planted by Robert. Lord Spencer, in 1602 and
1603 ; the fourth, a wood planted by Sir William
Spencer, Knikht of the Bath, afterwards Lord
Spencer, its 1624. The latter stone is orna
mented with the arms of the Spencers, and on
the back is inscribed "lip and be doing and
God will prosper." It was in this scenery and
amidst these associations that the Washingtons
lived, When the emigrant left in 11357, these
woods must have been well-grown: . It was not
Inns afterwards that they arrested the attention
of Evelyn.
The Household BOoks at Althorp show that
for many years the Washingtons were frequent
guests there. The hospitality of this seat has
been renowned. The queen of JamesJ. and
the Prince Henry, on their way to London, in
1003, were welcomed there in an entertainment,
memorable for a masque from the vigorous
muse of Ben Jerson. (Ben Jonson's Works,
Vol. VI., p. 485.) Charles I. was at Althorp,
in 11147, when he received the first intelligence
of the approach of those pursuers from whom
he never escaped until his lire had been laid
down upon the scaffold. In 1698 King William
was there for a week, and according to Evelyn
was "mightily entertained." (Vol. 11. p. 50.)
At least one of the members or this family was
famous for hospitality of a different character.
Evelyn records that he used to dine with the
Countess of Sunderland—the title then borne
by the Spencers—" when she invited fire-raters,
stone-eaters and opera singers, after the lash
, ion of the day." (Vol. 1., pp. 458, 483, 579.)
The family was early and constantly associa
ted with literature. Spencer, the poet, be
long(' to it and to one of its members he has
dedicated his "Tears of the Muses." It was
for Alice Spencer that Milton is said to have
written his Arcades, and Sir John Harrington
has celebrated her memory by an epigram.—
The Sacharissa of Waller was the Lady Dorothy
Sydney. wife of thp first Earl of Sunderland,
the third Lord Spencer, who perished fighting
I for King Charles I. at Newbury. Ido not
of a later nay, as tn.,
object is simply to allude to those which existed
' in the time of the Washingtons.
"The nobility of the Spencers has been il
lustrated and enriched by the trophies of,Marl-•
borough; but I exhort them to consider the
Fairy Queen as the most precious jewel of their
coronet." Thus wrote Gibbon in his memoirs,
and all must feel the beauty of the passage.—
Perhaps it is not too much to say that this
nobility may claim another illustration from
its ties of friendship andneighborhood with the
family of Washington. I cannot doubt that,
hereafter the parish chni-ch of Brington will
be often visited by ourcouutrymen,whowillloek
with reverence upon a spot, so closely associated
with American history.
1 trust that this little sketch, suggested by
what I saw at Althorp during a brief visit last
autumn, will not seem irrelevant. Besides my
own personal impressions, and the volumes
quoted, I have relied upon Didbin's -Liles
thorpirow, so interesting to all bibliographical
students, and especially upon Baker's History
of Northamptonshire, one of those magnificent
local works which illustrate English history, to •
which you refer in your Appendix, but which
was not completed till some time after the Life
of Washington appeared.
Of course, the Memorial St ones, which I have
received from Lord Spencer, are of much his
toric value, and I think that J shall best carry
out the generous idea of the giver by taking
care 'that they are permanently placed where
they can be seen by the public; perhaps at the
State house, near rhantry's beautiful statue of
Washington—if this should be agreeable to the
- .sled. our
Pray pardon this long letter, and believe me,
my dear sir, with much regard,
Ever sincerely yours,
Jana Sparks, Esii
From Household Words
Your wife discovers, on retiring for the
night, that her drawers are void : her toilette
table is bare ; except the ornaments bite now
wear., her beauty is as unadorned as that. ail
(bud:cress : not a thing is left ; all the fond
tokens you gave, when her pre-nuptial lover,
are gone; your own miniature, with its setting
of gold and brilliants; her late mother's dia
monds ; he bracelet "dear papa" presented her
on her last birth-day; the top of every bottle
in the dressing case brought from Paris by
Uncle John, at the risk of his life, in February
1848, (being of gold,) are off—but the bottles
(being of glass) remain. Every valuable is
swept away with the most discriminating vil
lainy; for no other thing in the chamber is
touched; not a chair has been moved; the
costly pendule on the chimney-piece still ticks ;
the entire apartment is as neat and trim as
when it had received the finishing touch of the
housemaid's duster. The entire establishment
runs frantically np stairs and down stairs, and
finally congregates in my lady's chamber. No
body knows anything whatever about it. The
,housemaid bursts into tears; the cook declares
she is going into hysterics; and at last you
suggest sending for the police, which is taken
as a suspicion of an insult on the whole assem
bled household, and they descend into the
lower regions of the house in the sulks.
90 arrives. His face betrays sheepishness
combined with mystery. lie turns his bull's
eye into every corner of the passage, and upon
every countenance on the premises. Me ex
amines all the locks, bolts and bars, bestowing
extra diligence on ;those which enclosed the
stolen treasure. These he declares have been
"Wiolated:' thus concisely intimating, without
quoting Pope, that there has been more than
one "Rape of the Lock." lie then notes the
non-disturbance of other valuables: takes you
solemnly aside, darkens his lantern, and asks,
in a mysterious whisper, if you suspect any of
your servants, which implies that he does. He
then examines the upper bed-rooms, and, in the
room of the female servants he discovers the
least valuable of the rings and a cast-oil silver
- - ,
tooth-pick, between the mattresses's; You have
every confidence in your maids; but what can
you think? You suggest their safe custody;
but your wife intercedes, and the policeman
would prefer speaking to his inspector before
he locks anybody up.
Ilad the Whole ruatter,rentainecl in the hands
of X 40, it is possible that youeivhole troubles
would have lasted till now.' 'A train of legal
proceedings—actions for defamation of charac
ter and suits for damages—would have followed.
costing more than the value of the jewels, to
gether with the entire execration of all your
neighbors anti every private friend of your
domestics. But, happily, the inspector promptly
sends a plain, earnest-looking officer, who an
nounces hinisetf as one of two detectives of the
X division. lie settles the matter in ten min
utes. Ills examination is ended in five. As a
connoisseur can determine a painter ofa picture
at the first glance, ore wine taster the precise
vintage of a sherry by the merest sip, so the
detective at once pounces upon the authors of
the work of art under consideration, by the
styles of performance, if not upon the precise
executant, upon the "school" to which he be
longs. having finished the toilette branch of
the inquiry, he takesa short view of the parapet
of your house, and makes an equally cursory
itivestigatiou of the attic window fastenings.
Ills mind is made up, and most likely he will
address you in these words:
" All right, sir. 'this is done by one of the
' Dancing School?"'
"impossible!" exclaims, your plundered
partner. "Why, our children go to Monsieur
Pattitoes, of No. 81. and I assure you he ie
highly respectable professor. As to his pupils.
The detective smiles, and interrupts, " Dan
cers," he tells us, "is a name given to the sort
of burglars by whom you have been robbed :
and every branch of the thieving profession is
divided into gangs which are termed "Schools."
From No. 82-to the mot of the street the houses
are unfinished. TheMbief made his way to the
top df one of these, and then crawled to your
"But we are twenty houses distant: why
did he not favor one of my neighbors'!" you
"J ither uppermost stories are not so practi
cable, or the ladies have not such valuable
•But how did the thieves know that?"
"By watching and inquiry. This affair may
have been in preparation for. more than a
month. Your house has been watched; your
habits have been ascertained. They have
found out when you dine—how longyou remain
in the dining room. A day is selected; while
you are busy dining, andyour servants waiting
on you, the thing is done. Previously, many
journeys have been made over the roofs, to
find out the best means of entering your house.
The attic is chosen; the robber gets in and
creeps noiselessly, hr 'dances' into the place to
be robbed."
"Is there any chance of recovering our
property?" you ask, noxiously, seeing the
whole matter at a glance.
" I hope so. I have sent some brother offi
cers to watch the Fences' houses."
"Fences ?" •
"Fences," explains the defective, in reply
to your innocent wife's inquiry, "are purcha
sers of stolen goods. Your jewels will soon be
forced out of their settings and the gold mel
A suppressed scream.
" We shall see, if at an unusual hour of the
night, there is any bustle in or near any of
these places; it' any smoke is coming out of
any ono of the furnaces, where the melting
takes place, I shall go and seek out the precise
garretteee—that's another noise the plunder
ers give themselves—whom IMtspect. fly this
trying to 'sell' your domestic by placing the
ring and toothpick- in their bed, I think I know
the man. The next morning you Will find all
these suppositions verified:" The detective
calls and' obliges' you; at breakfast, (after a
sleepless night,) with a complete list of the
- stolenlaticleiciiiid - prodtices some them for
identification. In three months- more your
wife gets nearly every article back, except
some of the gold r, her damsel's, innocence is
fully established; and the thief' is taken from
his 'school' to spend a long holiday in a penal
Sometimes they are called upon to investigate
robberies so executed, that no human ingenuity
appears, to ordinary observers, capable of find
ing the thief The robber has left no trail;
net a trace. Every Clue seems cut off; but the
experience of a detective guides hint into tracks
invisible to ocher eyes. Not long since a trunk
was rifled at a fashionable hotel. The theft was
so managed, that no suspicion could rest on any
one. The detective sergeant, Niko had been
sent for, fairly owned, after making a minute
examination, that he, could afford no hope of
elucidating the mystery. As he was leaving
the lied-room, however, in which:the portman
teau' stood, he picked up an ordinary shirt
button from the carpet. He silently compared
it with those which the'thief had left behind in
the trunk. It 'did not match them. He said
nothing, but hung about the hotel for the rest
of the day. Had he been . narrowly watched,
lie would have been set, down for an eccentric
critic of linen. He was looking out for a shirt
front or a wrist-band without a button. Ills
search was long and patient; but at length it
was rein - Merl. One Of the inmates of the
house showed a deficiency in his dress, which
no one but a detective would 'have noticed.—
He looked as narrowly as he dared at the pat
tern of the remaining buttons.' It corresponded
with that of the little tell-tale he had picked up.
lie went deeper into the subject, got. a trace of
some of the stolen property, • ascertained a
connection between it and the suspected person.
confronted him with the owner of the trunk,
and finally succeeded in convieting'him of the
theft. At another hotel robbery, the blade of
elan, broken in the lock of a portmanteau,
formed the clue. The detective 'employed in
that case was for some time indefatigable in
seeking out knives with broken blades. At
length lie found one belonging to an under
waiter, who proved to he the thief.
AMEItletN MINISTM; IN P %nts,—A letter
dated Paris, November 10, says:—The Ameri
can Minister again threw open his hospitable
doors a few evenings ago and brought together,
in a very brilliant and very agreeable reunion,
the American colony in Paris, with a light
sprinkling of diplomacy and other foreign ale
! monts. Among the ladies present,noted either
for their position or beauty, Or both, were, after
the amiable and charming ladies of, the Minis
ter's family, Mrs. Spencer, wife of the consul,
and Miss Spencer; Mrs. Commodore Stuart;
Mrs. Coleman, (daughter of Senator Critten.
den,) and Miss Coleman; Mrs. Caldwell, (Miss
Breckinridge, of Kentucky :) Mrs. and Miss
King, of Alabama; Mrs. Dr. Hitchcock, of Cali
fornia, (Miss Hunter, of Virginia,) and Miss
Lillie Hitchcock; Mrs. Bass, of Mississippi;
Mrs. and Miss Thorn, of Louisiana;
Mrs. Ro
bles, of Paris, (grand daughter .of John Cl.
Coster, of New York* Mrs. Fagnani, wife of
the artist; Miss A. C. Johnson,, the anthoress ;
Mrs. Field, of New York; Mrs. Butterfield, New
York; Mrs. Estelle Lewis, the poetess; Mrs.
Hutton, Jr.; the Misses Downing, of Newyork,
and others.
is on his way from Peru,.is a veteran diploma
tist. lle went from Pennsylvania in 1830 witle
John Randolph, as his Secretary of legation at
st. Petersburg, where' be 'afterwards noted it
the same capacity with Mr. Buchanan, who
has ever since been his friend. In 1838, Mr.
Clay was transferred to Vienna, 'where he waa
secretary of legation until 1845; when be wad
restored to his positihn at St. Petersburg by
Mr. Buchanan, then Secretor.* of State. In
1841, Mr: Buchanan obtained from President
Polk the appointment of ohaige d'affaires to
Peril for Mr. Clay, and in 1863 he was made a
minister plenipotentiary.