The globe. (Huntingdon, Pa.) 1856-1877, February 10, 1858, Image 1

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the term subscribed for will bo considered a now engage
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bite year, p 00
Administrators' and Executors' Notices, $1 75
Advertisements not marked with the number of inser
tions desired, will be continued till forbid and charged ac
tording to those terms.
Eleventh Annual Report of the Pennsyl
vania Railroad Company.
OFFICE OF THE PENNA.. R. It. CO., Piuu., Jan. 30,1857
To the Stockholders of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company :—At the time of your
last annual meeting, the business of the com
pany and the condition of the country were
highly prosperous. Every indication pointed
to the continuance of financial ease during
the year, and the uninterrupted prosperity of
your enterprise. Apprehensions, it is true,
were felt that the large individual and cor
porate indebtedness - of every section of the
country would, in time, lead to a monetary
crisis ; but there was no expectation that it
would come so suddenly or be marked by
such unprecedented violence. Now that it
has in a great measure passed, we can dis
cover no sufficient reason for the intensity of
the panic. Its effects are familiar to all, and
it is to these it is due that you failed to re
receive your usual semi-annual dividend in
November last. The profits of the company
were sufficient to justify a reasonable divi
dend at that time, but they had been invest
ed in the construction and equipment of the
road, under the impression that a sale of your
second mortgage bonds would enable us to
replace them in season to meet the legitimate
expectations of the shareholders. The near-'
ly total prostration of corporate and individ
ual credits throughout the country, in No
vemht,r, prevented the accomplishment of this
object. Between placing the credit of the
Company in jeopardy, or the sacrifice of its
securities, and the temporary inconvenience
of 43 ome of its shareholders, the Board could
not hesitate.
The permanent interests of all the stock
holders, which it was their duty to consult,
have doubtless been promoted by the course
adopted. Sound policy dictated that, under
the circumstances, all of the means of the
Company should be directed to the reduction
of its unfunded liabilities. These, we have
the gratification to inform you, have been met
to an extent that renders certain the payment
of a dividend in May next.
The Board have resolved to further reduce
the floating or unfunded debt, which does not
exceed five per cent. on the capital stock paid
at the present time, to three per cent., and
thereafter not allow it to exceed this limit.—
As the accounts of the Company, after mak
ing ample deduction for the contingent or re
newal fund, will justify , the payment of the
suspended dividend, it has been urged that
this should be divided among the sharehold
ers, in scrip convertible into bonds or stock
of the Company at par. As neither of these
methods of payment could be resorted to
without operating injuriously upon the sale
of the securities of the Company, the sugges
tion has not been adopted. At a later period,
however, it may be advisable to make this
disposition of these profits.
It will be seen from the settlement of the
Treasurer, annexed to this report, that there
has been received in payment from share
holders in the capital stock of the Company
up to Januaryl, 1858 :
And from loans,
Balance of interest and dividend duo to stock
holders and State tax on coupons unpaid,
Balance remaining to credit of contingent
and renewal fund,
Balance of profits for the years 1856 and 1557
(seo Treasurer's report)
Amount of bonds duo State of Pennsylvania
for purchase of main Hue of public works, 7,500,000 00
Which has been expended as follows
Eastern division, $5,651,363 07
Western division, 7,738,373 77
Second track, 3,955,143 34
Foremen's, workmen's and tool
houses, 89,466 93
Now office building, Pliilada., 70,414 10
shop machinery, 204,153 29
Telegraph line, 45,264 28
Locomotives, 1,345,051 30
Freight cars, 1,018,357 52
Passenger cars, 181,953 68
Road cars, 33,930 Cl
Extension of Penny simile rail
road to Pittsburg and Steu
benville railroad,
Amount, $20,356,167 37
Balance of profits of road No
vember 1, 1855, after paying
interest to stockholders, cred
ited to cost of construction, as
required by the charter of the
Cost of road and outfit, &c., 19,766,981 53
Cost of the Main Line of the
Public Works,purchased from
the State of Pennsylvania, 7,500,000 00
Total cost of roads and canals
belonging to the Company, 27,266,981 58
Subscriptions to Western rail- •
roads, and stock dividends
from same, 1,666,050 00
Bonds of municipal and other
corporations, 142,952 50
Bills and accounts receivable, 714,944 81
Balance in bands of agents, 234,660 23
Balance in hands of Treasurer,
December 31, 1857, 252,662 61
$30,278,251 73
The earnings of the road during the year,
as reported by the General Superinten
dent were, $4,855,669 76
From which deduct tolls paid
for use of other roads, as fol
lows :----Philadelphia and Co
lumbia (State) Railroad, to
July 31, $239,395 97
Harrrisburg & Lancaster R. R. 224,249 71
Northern Central R. R., 46,901 17
Philadelphia City 11. R., 5,303 99
Leaving the business of the Pennsylvania
Railroad proper, $4,339,828 02
From this deduct transportation expendi
ture and tonnage duties,
Leasing the surplus earnings of the road for
1857, $1,854,926 86
From which deduct the following items,
not included in the statement of the Gene
ral Superintendent:
Interest on Funded Debt, as it stood Jan. 1,
1858, which Is more tkan it averaged for
the year, $444,775 46
Expenses of general office, &c., 35,430 94
State tax paid on stock & bonds, 55,506 42
Balance of rent account, 25,513 07
Did in interest on bills payable
and receivable, say, 34,000 00
Five months of accrued interetst
on purchase of Main Line, .
Jan. 1, 156,250 00
T / here is a balance of $1,100,150 95
which is more than - for a dividend
of eight percent. wz a 4111 of the Com
,fl- • - • .1
Pa The high price that prevailbedUring .the
year for labor and materials, aided ,to the
large amount of expenditure incurred for iron
'Airs, cross ties, and bridge repairs, would
$1 50
. 50
1 insertion. 2 do. 3 do.
....$ 25 $ 3734 $ 50
50 75 1 00
.... 1 00 1 50 2 00
1 50 2 25 3 00
$13,206,625 00
8,190,523 71
30,281 96
371,515 76
979,272 17
$30;2.78,251 73
2,606 06
689,185 70
$515,810 84
2,484,902 08
754,775 91
seem to render any additional allowance for
deterioration unnecessary ; but if we place
the " contingent and renewal fund" $175,-
677, there would still remain a nett profit of
$924,473 95, which is equivalent to a divi
dend of seven per cent, upon the present cap
ital of the company. The tables appended
to the report of the General Superintendent
exhibit the earnings and expenses of the road
in detail. It will be seen by reference to
these, that the whole number of passengers
conveyed during the year between Harris
burg and Pittsburgh is equivalent to 143,613
passing over the whole length of the road,
showing a„decrease, as compared with 1856,
of 5040 passengers, and a decrease in receipts
for first class passengers of $9735, and for
emigrants $1395.
Upon the Harrisburg and Lancaster Rail
road, (leased by this Company,) the equiva
lent through passengers, adding the number
carried over the Columbia branch of that road
an equivalent distance, was 140,329, being
3284 less than the equivalent through pas
sengers on the Pennsylvania Railroad, show
ing the local business of the Pennsylvania
Railroad, though traversing a mountainous
region, intersected by rich valleys, to be great
er than that of its associate, though passing,
for its whole length, through the wealthy and
populous countleo of Dauphin and Lancaster.
The equivalent through passengers on the
Harrisburg and Lancaster road previous to
the commencement of the Pennaylvania Rail
road, ten years since, was but 51,568 ; and
on the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad,
but 65,751. The equivalent through passen
gers on the latter road, in 1856, was 207,086.
Should the travel upon these lines increase
with the same rapidity for the next ten years,
the prospects of our Company will fully equal
the expectations of those who have formed
the most sanguine anticipations of its future.
The gross earnings of the road for freight,
during the year, were $3,376,516 26 ; being
an increase over the year 1856, of $132,284
69. The through business amounted to 172,
072 tons, and the local, iniyluding coal, to
358,347 tons—an increase of 6,910 on the
through, and 69,418 on the local tonnage.—
The aggregate tonnage for the year was 530,-
420 tons, in which is included 200,392 tons
of gas and other coals, carried in the cars of
the Company. In addition to this there were
296,297 tons of freight transported in the
cars of individuals, of which 97,619 tons of
coal were delivered in Pittsburgh.
The year 1858 will be the first under
which the whole line, from Philadelphia to
Pittsburgh, will be operated by this Compa
ny, and from this period the accounts of the
Company will be kept so as to be of greater
value for future reference in exhibiting the
development of the traffic of the line.
On the first day of August last, in con
formity with the terms of purchase, sanc
tioned by your vote on the 23d of July, the
Main Line of Public Works was transferred,
by proclamation of the Governor of the Com
monwealth, to this Company.
The price required to be paid for the
works was $7,500,000, in the bonds of this
Company, bearing five per cent. interest, the
State relinquishing her reserved right to pur
chase the Pennsylvania Railroad. Of these
bonds, $lOO,OOO are payable on the 31st day
of July, 1858, and $lOO,OOO annually there
after until July 31, 1890, when the payments
will be at the rate of $1,000,000 per annum
until the whole amount is paid, excepting
the last payment falling due July 31, 1894,
amounting to $300,000. The terms of the
bill of sale have been fully complied with,
and the bonds of the Company for the
amounts required delivered to the Treasurer
of the State.
Appended to this report will be found a
statement, marked A, showing the amount
of principal due on the 31st day of July of
each year, and the amonnt of interest paya
ble each half year. It is seen that, under
the gradual extinguishment of the debt to
the State, as required by the bill, the amount
of interest and instalment of principal due in
1866, is $435,000. If this amount should be
set apart annually thereafter to meet interest
and principal due each year, and the sur
plus, after such payments, applied to a sink
ing fund, this fund would be sufficient to
meet the remainder of the debt at maturity,
if re-invested semi-annually at the rate of
only five per cent. per annum.
It is proposed to credit profit and loss ac
count with the reduction of the principal of
the debt, when paid from the resources of
the Company, after it shall amount to a. divi
dend of one per cent. upon its capital, and
divide the same among the stockholders, in
scrip convertible into the stock of the Com
pany. The price required for these works
is much more than they were worth to the
State or than could have been safely paid
for them by any other purchaser, expecting
to comply with the terms of sale. The accep
tance of these terms by the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company is justified by the greater
efficiency with which the whole line between
Philadelphia and Pittsburg could be opera
ted when placed under one control—an effi
ciency, which the close competition between
the four East and West lines, in price, speed
and accommodation, rendered a paramount
The purchase embraces 104 miles of canal
on the west, and 181 miles (including the
Swatara feeder, two and a half miles long,)
on the east side of the Allegheny mountain ;
37 miles of railway, part double and part
single track, between Johnstown and Holli
daysburg ; 80 miles of double track railroad
between Philadelphia and the Susquehanna
river ; together with all the real estate, loco
motives, cars, and all other property . con
nected with, or in anywise appertaining
The canals purchased were found to be in
a very dilapidated condition, having, in addi
tion to a neglect of necessary annual repairs,
suffered much from the frequent freshets of
the past spring. Very little progress had
been made in repairing these breaches, when
the line was transferred to this Company.
The railroad between Hollidaysburg and
Johnstown possesses no value, except what
is due to the material of which its track is
Z . j.;!•
The condition of the Philadelphia and Co
lumbia Railroad and its fixtures was found
to be scarcely more favorable than that of
the canals ; and the expenditures required at
once to place them in good order have neces
sarily been heavy, all of which have been
charged to current expenses.
It appears that nothing except the daily
supplies necessary to keep the trains in mo
tion was purchased by those in charge of
this road, for its operation and maintenance,
after the passage of the Sale bill. After the
sale the articles on hand then purchased by
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, were
used to work and repair the road until its de
livery, on the first of August, a period of
thirty-six days, while the receipts of all of
the works were appropriated to the use of
the original owners, leaving a just claim for
indemnification on the part of this Company.
In the repairs of this road during the five
months, ending December 31, 1857, that it
has been in our possession, $54,291 have
been expended for iron rails, $29,269 for ties,
chairs, frogs, spikes, and for repairs of
bridges, and $3,605 for the renewal and re
pairs of water stations, for which no expen
ditures were made by the State for the pre
vious seven months.
We refer to this subject in explanation of
what would otherwise appear to be a heavy
outlay upon this portion of the road—now
known as the Philadelphia Division of the
Pennsylvania Railroad. The tracks of this
division at present are in good order, but
they will require more than their due pro
portion of iron to maintain them in like con
dition for the next twelve months.
The ordinary running expenses of this
portion of the line have been largely curtail
ed, and will be further reduced as circum
stances permit.
By reference to the tabular statements ap
pended to this report, it will be seen that
the gross earnings of the canal portion of
the main line during the five months (from
August Ist, 1857, to December 31st, 1857)
amounted to $92,996 04, and the cost of re
pairs and maintenance during the same peri
od was $73,190 10, leaving the sum of $19,-
775 94, as the nett earnings of the same for
the period above stated. It is proper, how
ever, to remark that the earnings up to the
close of navigation in 1857, will be all ex
pended in preparing the works for the open
ing of the navigation in the spring.
Upon the remainder of the line the in
creased expenditures are mainly due to the
increased tonnage transported, except for
the items of iron rails, chairs, spikes, cross
ties and repairs of bridges, all of which are
approaching the maximum of deterioration,
and will not hereafter be very materially ex
ceeded upon the same length of tracks. The
amount expended for these items during
1857, was $220,673, of which $83,560 was
on the Philadelphia Division of the road.—
The amount expended in 1856, for the same
items, was $47,125.
The prevailing low price of labor and ma
terials will be sensibly felt during the year
1858, in reduction of expenses, and we think
that they will fully compensate for any antici
pated decrease in the buisiness of the road.
Very little progress has been made with
the second track during the year. The amount
now laid on the western division, which ex
tends from Pittsburg to Altoona, a distance
of 117 miles, is 92 miles. There is, also, on
this division, 13 miles of sidings and a branch
to Indiana, containing 20 miles of single
track On the eastern division, from Altoona
to Harrisburg, 132 miles, the length of sec
ond track laid is 70 miles, and 12i miles of
sidings. The branch from Altoona to Hol
lidaysburg, 8 miles in length, including si
dings, is equivalent to
. 10 miles in single
The sum necessary to complete the entire
double track, and substituting iron for the
present wooden bridges, except the Susque
hanna bridge, is estimated at $1,088,396 36.
The facilities now afforded for operating a sin
gle track, by the aid of the telegraph system,
renders it less important to continue the ex
penditure for this object, until the buisiness
of the line shows some considerable increase.
Additional warehouse room is required for
the accommodation of the freighting buisiness
of the road. The accommodations for pas
sengers at the stations on the line are yet de
ficient, particulary upon that portion recen
tly purchased of the Commonwealth, and at
Pittsburg. The erection of a suitable sta
tion at the latter point has been delayed chief
ly in consequence of the uncertain movements
of our western connections. It has been our
wish to bring all of the roads with which we
connect at Pittsburg into one station, for
- which this Company has provided ample
grounds. The causes that have delayed the
commencement of this station house, will, we
think, soon be overcome, when arrangements
for its erection will be made.
The expectations expressed in the last an
nual report of the board in relation to an early
connection with the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne
and Chicago Railroad have not been realised.
That Company has, however, after much de
lay, succeeded in placing its eastern termi
nus on the Pittsburg side of the Allegheny
river ; but owing to the interposition of mu
nicipal objections to the passage of Penn St.,
their road has not yet been connected with
that of this company. These difficulties we
trust will soon be overcome, and the incon
veniences to which passengers have been sub
jected at Pittsburg, obviated.
The transfer of passengers from wide to
narrow cars at Harrisburg still continues, in
consequence of. delays attending the procure
ment from Councils of the privilege of in
creasing the space between the tracks of the
Philadelphia city railroad. An alteration in
the height of the tunnel on the Harrisburg
and Lancaster road is also important to effect
this object. That company has consented to
make this change during the ensuing spring..
As soon as these alterations are made the in
convenience referred to will cease, and the
charges on our route be reduced below those
of any other line to the West,
The rolling stock upon the Pennsylvania
Railroad, consists at the close of the year, of
216 freight and passenger locomotives.
54 wide passenger cars.
FEBRUARY 10, 1858,
14 narrow do.
31 emigrant cars.
18 baggage cars, with mail appartmentq.
9 do without do.
188 eight wheeled stock cars.
1264 eight wheeled house cars for general
109 four wheeled house cars for general
292 eight wheeled lumber, coal or wood
92 four wheeled coal cars.
Th outfit is deemed sufficient to meet any
demand that can arise during the present
It has been the policy of this Company to
aid in the construction of western railways,
designed to facilitate trade to and from its
road, and to avoid the serious inconvenience
and loss to its freighting business, from the
uncertain character of the navigation of the
Ohio river. With this object in view, assis
tance has been extended to the Pittsburg,
Fort Wayne and. Chicago, the Steubenville
and Indiana, and the Marietta and Cincin
nati Railroad Companies.
The two first named works have, to a con
siderable extent, met the objects for which
the investment was made, but neither have
yet succeeded in obtaining such connexions
as would have justified the expenditures that
have been made on their account.
The continuation of the Pittsburgh and
Fort Wayne road to Chicago, and an inde
pendent line from Steubenville to Pittsburgh,
seem to be essential to give to them the abil
ity to repay us for the expenditures incurred,
or prove profitable to their shareholders.—
We expected to have been able, ere this, to
report that these objects have been accom
plished, but the continued financial embaras
ments of the country have prevented the pro
curement of the means required for that pur
Arrangements are now in progress, which
it is believed will lead to the completion of
these connections. When flushed, they will
secure to this Company all the indirect ad
vantages anticipated from their construction;
while the lapse of a few years will enable the
Companies to relieve themselves from their
embarrassments, and make direct returns to
their shareholders. Both works occupy fa
vorable locations for traffic, and would, but
for their inability to procure funds at reason
able rates to complete their lines, have proved
ere this, profitable investment.
The financial difficulties of the Marietta
and Cincinnati Railroad Company have pre
vented the extension of its road to a point
' that would render the investment made in
its shares by the Company, either dirctly or
indirectly, profitable to it. These embar
rassments have induced the Directors of that
Company to call a meeting of its sharehold
ers and creditors, on the 10th day of Febru
ary, at which meeting this Company will be
duly represented,
The advantages anticipated by the stock
holders from a connection with this line,
would doubtless, have been fully justified
by the results, had the subscription, as re
commended by the directors, been made con
tingent upon the Marietta and Cincinnati
Company, securing additional means from
other sources, to complete their whole line to
The attempt to consolidate the Marietta
and Cincinnati Company with the Chartiers
Valley and Hempfieid Railroad Companies,
alluded to in the last annual report of your
Board, was not successful, and we do not
think that such a combination, owing to the
embarrassed financial condition of all these
Companies, would have been attended with
useful results.
The additional business that has devolved
upon the General Superintendent, in conse
quence of the acquisition of the State works,
and the increased traffic upon the whole line,
having proved too great for the close super
vision of all the operations of the Company
by one head, the Board, at the suggestion of
the late General Superintendent, has separa
ted the business of the transportation depart
ment into two divisions. To one is commit
ted the supervision of the active operations
of all the sub-departments for working the
road, while to the other is given the supervis
ion and auditing of all of the accounts of the
Company; the first to be known as General
Superintendent, and the other as "Controller
and Auditor."
The office of Controller and Auditor has
been filled by the appointment of H. J. Lom
bert, Esq., who has so long and successfully
managed the whole line as General Superin
tendent. The thorough acquaintance pos
sessed by this gentleman of railway accounts,
and his minute knowledge of the value of all
articles of railway consumption, added to his
high character for integrity, peculiarly fit
him for the post.
The position of General Superintendent
has been filled by the appointment of Thom
as A. Scott, Esq., who has been connected
with the transportation department since its
organization, and has acted since the opera
tions of that department were extended be
yond the mountains, as Superintendent of
the Western Division. From the successful
administration of the duties heretofore con
fided to him, the Board has entire confidence
that the high reputation of the road for safe
ty and the despatch of its business, will be
fully preserved, while a comparative release
from office duties will enable the General Su
perintendent to exercise a larger influence
m promoting the economical management of
the road.
The Board have to regret the loss, by res
ignation, during the past year, of three of
its members, Messrs. C. E. Spangler, John
Farnum, and Geo. W. Carpenter—the two
first on account of their private engagements,
and the last from bodily affliction, which has
for some months deprived the Company of
the benefits of his long experience and judi
cious counsel. Messrs. Spangler and Car
penter were the only remaining members of
the original Board at the organization of the
Company. These vacancies have been filled
by the appointment of Messrs. John Hahne,
G. D. Rnsengarton, and Wistar Morris—gen
tlmen woll known to this community.
I I On Thursday, the 28th ult, in the National
House of Representatives, the Hon. Mr. Hick
man, the Democratic member from the Sixth
Congressional District, composed of Chester
and Delaware counties, delivered an able
speech in condemnation of that part of the
President's Message relative to Kansas affairs.
Coming from Pennsylvania, and from a dis
trict almost within sight of Wheatland, Mr.
Buchanan's place of residence ; and coming
from one of the soundest Democrats in the
whole Keystone, it will be read by the people
throughout the Union with unusual interest.
It reflects the old-fashioned Pennsylvania
doctrine which all hands subscribe to—which
we all feel so much pride in—and which we
all regard as the inherent principle of repub
lican institutions, introvertible and unassail
able. Let us stick to it—cherish it. It is
our bulwark—lot us defend it at whatever
The following is a slight sketch of Mr
Hickman's remarks :
" Mr. Hickman, of Pennsylvania, said he
was compelled to to dissent from the views of
the President on the Kansas question. But
his opposition to the President's treatment of
Kansas did not arise from any objection to
slavery, but it was based on a foundation
more plainly understood, namely :—A viola
tion of the declared principle of the Kansas
Nebraska act. To ask him to support the
Lecompton constitution would be to insult
him, by casting a suspicion on his integrity.
He might stand alone, but he would not part
with his free thoughts for a throne. He knew
different motives would be attribted to him.
If his conduct, bearing immediately or re
motely on southern institutions, should subject
him to the anathemas of his southern friends,
so be it. He should not conceal his senti
ments in order to obtain a charitable con
structions. The attempt to force the Lecomp
ton constitution on an unwilling people by
force or fraud, would induce him to resist it.
He would grant to his brethren what he
claimed for himself, namely, the exercise of
their rights in their fullness, conferred by the
pure spirit of liberty. This was the golden
constitutional rule, sound alike both for in
dividuals and States. He strongly denounced
the frauds and impositions on the people of
Kansas, slavery having been fastened on them
in bold defiance of their sacred rights. He
could not lend himself to any movement to
undermine the foundation ou which legisla
tion rests, or falsify the pledges made by Dem
ocrats to the people of the country during the
last Presidential election. In alluding to the
President's message, he said he always knew
slavery was a peculiar institution, but never
before knew that it embraced all the domes
tic institutions, while, by the Kansas-Nebras
ka law, the people were to be perfectly free
to act in their own way. This doctrine of
popular sovereignty is not so popular as it
was. It was formerly supposed to mean some
thing, giving the people power over all do
mestic institutions. But now, as thought by
the President, it is to be sweated down to the
contemptible dimensions as to whether they
shall hold a negro in bonds or not. This is
all the extent of popular sovereignty. The
case, however, is worse. It is false pretence.
The question of slavery could not be voted
on, because the proviso to the Lecompton con
stitution rendered this impossible, for the
reason that it declares slavery shall not be in
terfered with as it now exists. And it now
exists in Kansas just as firmly as in South
Carolina. This was the first time he had
learned that that State is a free State, where
the institution shall not be disturbed. - Where
Democrats arc all bound to support the Le
compton constitution, simply because it has
the Executive approbation? He should as
soon admit a bastard to be a lawful heir, as
that constitution to be the representative of
the sovereign will of Kansas, with no lawful
blood in it. The Kansas Legislature never
was a lawful body, and hence the acts ema
nating from it were illegal. Ruffianism has
there held sway from the beginning to the
present time ; and, in order to conceal this
from everybody, efforts have been made to
conceal the fact. How had it occurred that no
Democratic officials were found strong enough
to stand the atmosphere of Kansas ? Four
Democratic Governors have successively been
sent thither, and all have returned telling the
same story, and in nearly the same words—
that popular sovereignty was crushed out of
The reply to the question, " What is to be
done with those who vote against the Lecomp
ton Constitution 7" was given in a Southern
newspaper. They are to be branded, have
their ears slit, and be then read out of the
Democratic party. But care must be taken
that too many men of the North are not read
out of the organization. He thought that he
had a pretty distinct recollection of the ne
cessity which existed for strenuous efforts to
secure the vote of Pennsylvania for Mr. Bu
chanan, and remembered, too, what feeling
there was in the South, lest the Presidency
should fall on a sectional party. Might he
not then inquire why the soldiers in that con
test should be slaughtered so unceremonious
ly. To support the Lecompton constitution
was to support that which was begotten in
fraud and brought forth in iniquity. Ile
scorned the recommendation to admit Kan
sas on the ground of expediency, in the ab
sence of right. It was in direct violation and
contempt of the pledges which had been
made to the people, and violative of the title
by which President Buchanan holds his pres
ent position. Had the President's annual
message been read before the election of
1856, there is no telling how large a major
ity there would have been against him. Let
Kansas be forced into the Union with the Le
compton constitution, and there will be an
end of national platforms and the beginning
of sectional Presidents.
There tire ono hundred and twenty
eight counties in the State of Texas.
Editor and Proprietor.
Speech of Hon. Sohn Hickman
Col. Cook's March to join the Utah Ar
my—Terrible Suffering.
Col. Cook's report to the Adjutant Gener
al of the Utah army, of his march from the
Missouri to the valley of the Salt take, is
full of matter of curious interest. He started
in command of six companies of second dra
goons; from. Fort Leavenworth; on 17th Sep
tember; and his journal ends with his arrival
at Fort Bridger on the 19th of November.—
He says:—
The regiment had been hastily recalled
from service in the field, and allowed three
or four days only by my then commanding
officer to prepare for a march of eleven hun
dred miles, over an uninhabited and moun
tain wilderness. In that time the six com
panies of the regiment who were to compose
the expedition were organized; one hundred
and tea transfers necessarily made from and
to other companies ; horses to be condemned
and many to be obtained; the companies
paid, and about fifty desertions occurred ;
the commanders of four of them changed.
I marched them on the 17th. Then it was
to be proved that three or four more days
were to be lost in waiting for the quarter
master's department, to supply the absolutely
necessary transportation. On the 18th, 107
mules were furnished, which the same day
had arrived from a march of perhaps 2000
miles to and from Bridger's Pass; above 100
of the others were nearly worthless from
want and age, and requiring several hours to
harness a team. On the morning of the 19th,
twenty-seven teamsters were wanting, and
men were furnished utterly ignorant of the
business and without outfits. Half allow
ance, or six pounds a day of corn for horses
and mules, was the largest item of transpor
tation ; three or four laundresses, with their
children, were with each company:
The regular journal of each day's march
is given, how it rained, and how the mules
died, and the men complained. On October
sth he arrived at Fort K.earney ; on the 15th
crossed the South Platte—the thermometer
was at 13, and the river full of ice.
It was discretionary with Cul. Cook to
winter at Fort Laramie or to post on to Salt
Lake. 3_l.e preferred the latter course. On
November 4th his command was at Sweet
Water Pass, in the Rocky Mountains ; next
day they gained Devil's Gate.
On the 6th, we found the ground once
more white, and the snow falling, but then
very moderately. I marched as usual. On
a four mile hill, the north wind and drifting
snow became severe; the air seemed turned
to a frozen fog; nothing could be seen ; we
were struggling in a freezing cloud. The
lofty W'all at "Three Crossings" was a happy
relief, but the guide, who had lately passed
there, was relentless in pronouncing that
there was no grass; the idea of finding and
feedin ,, upon grass in that wintry storm, un
der the deep snow; Was hard to entertain,
but as he promised grass and other shelter
two miles further, we marched on, crossing
twice more the rocky stream, half choked
with snow and ice. Finally, he led us be
hind a great granite rock, but all too small
for the promised shelter; only a part of the
regiment could huddle there in the deep
snow; while, the long night through, the
storm continued, and in fearful eddies from
above, before, behind; drove the falling and
drifting snow. Thus exposed, for the hope
of grass, the poor animals were driven with
great devotion by the men,- once more across
the stream, and three-quarters of a mile be
yond, to the' base of a granite ridge, but
which almost faced the' storm; there the fam
ished mules, crying piteously, did not seek
to eat, but desperately gathered in a mass,
and some horses, escaping the guard, went
back to the ford where the lofty precipice'
first gave us such pleasant relief and shelter.
The morning light had nothing cheering
to reveal, the air still filled with driven
snow—the animals soon came driven in, and
mingled in confusion with men, went crunch
ing the snow in the confined and wretched
camp, tramping all things in their way. It
was not a time to dwell on the fact that from
that mountain desert there was no retreat
nor any shelter near, but a time for action.
But for six hours the frost or frozen fog fell
thickly, like snow, and again we marched
on as in a cloud: The deep snow-drifts im
peded us mud], and in crossing Sweet Wa
ter the ice broke in the middle. Marching
ten miles only,- I got a better camp, and
herded the horses on the hills; it was a dif
ferent road, where a few days before the
bodies of throe frozen men were found.
On the Bth the thernaometor stood 44 deg.
below the freezing point. The snow was
deep; twenty-three mules gave out, and five
wagons were abandoned.
, Nine trooper horses were left freezing and
dying on the road, and a number of soliders
and teamsters had been frost-bitten. It was
a desperately cold night ; the thermometers
were broken, but by comparison must have
marked 25 deg. below zero. A bottle of sher
ry wine froze in a trunk. Having lost about
fifty mules in thirty hours, the morning of
the 11th, on the report of the quartermaster,
I felt bound to leave a wagon in the bushes,
filled with seventy-four extra saddles and bri
dles,- and some sabres.
Next day the corn gave out;' and the mules
were dying.
They gnawed and destroyed four wagon
tounges, a number of wagon covers, ate their
ropes, and getting loose ate the sage fuel col
lected at the tents. Some of these they also
atackod. Nine died The fast growinr , b com
pany of dismounted men were marched to
gether as a separate command by day ; the
morning of the twelfth a number of them
were frost-bitten from not being in motion,
although standing by fires. That day eigh
teen miles were marchd to Big Sandy, where
the guide found grass, and fuel with it ; so
good that the 13th was made a day of rest ;
the animals -were all herded at the grass.—
Fifty horses had been lost since leaving Lar
Ire closes the report of his march with
the following:
I have 144 horses and have lost 134.--
Most of the loss has oecurcd this side of the
South Pass, in comparatively moderate wea
ther. It has been of starvation. The earth
has a no more lifeless, treeless, grassless des
ert; it contains scarcely a wolf to glut itself
on the hundreds of dead and frozen animals
which, for thirty miles, nearly block the road
with abandoned and shattered property.—
They mark, perhaps,- beyond example in his
tory, the steps of an advancing army with
the horrors of a disastrous retreat.
NO. 34.
OPPRESSIVE Lt - .—ln the year 1.632 the'
General Court of Ply - niouth Colony made
this law, which, from its contrast of our way
of doing things, is worthnoticef 'Mat who;
soever refuses the office' of governor, shall
pay twenty pounds sterling, unless he were
chosen two years going and whoever refu
ses the office of counsellor or magistrate, tea
pounds sterling."