The Columbian. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1866-1910, August 18, 1898, Page 6, Image 7

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    6
, WAR WITH FRANCE.
OUR GREAT NAVAL ENCOUNTERS
WITH THE FRENCH.
A* United htatua Fitted Out Privateer*
and Author!/ d American Officer* to
Capture Fmnoh Cruller* Wherever
z Found.
Vie
ft was Lord Wolseley who said re
cently that the United States being un
prepared for war might be congratu
lated upon not having tackled any first
class European power. There are so
many pcqple In this country of the
same opinion as the Commander-in-
Chief of the British Army, that it
aeems worth while to show that our
prowess as a naval power does not
rest exclusively upon our having whip
ped the decayed monarchy of Spain.
We whipped Great Britain much
against our will in the war of 1812; but
do those faint-hearted few whose
heart s sink into their boots at the name
of war, not know that we crushed
fiance also In 1798-9? England and
France were and still are each first
elasi European powers. And as there
is now as there was also a century ago,
some prospects of trouble with France,
the results of the Naval war and the
circumstances which led up to it are of
timely Interest, particularly as they re
call a phase of American history utter
ly unconsidered in its bearing upon
present events.
The cause of the trouble with
France arose out of the Inability of the
hot-head members of the French Di
rectory to appreciate such a constitu
tional revolutionist as John Adams,
who was not without some leanings In
the direction of a monarchy. Adams,
accordingly hated the authors of the
French revolution, and all its sympa
thisers, Including Jefferson, had little
love for the views of John Adams, who
held "levees" once a week In the White
House and advocated the use of plush
breeches and of curled hair and similar
frivolities iu the attendants on the Ex
ecutive. Though treated with studied
insolence himself by the English court
circle while ho p>as Minister to Eng
land. Adams was unnecessarily anx
ious to see friendship restored between
the United Stales and England. Though
England would yield nothing to
obtain it Adams still Indulged tho fool
ish hope that England would accept the
situation of the loss of her colonies;
and so if Engine •* condoned a success
ful rebellion Adams was anxious to
have this country forget the years of
oppressor r.r,-l all the bitter past. As
friends and ail'to -ommcrclally at least
he thought the two nations might go
op in peace; and as he says in his diary
"together they might gathor and divide
the world." Ia short there was a situ
ation and a reciprocity of feeling one
hundred years ago in certain Anglican
quarters very similar to the present,
and which went even to the extent of
having a faction in this country desir
ous of precipitating a war with France.
This faction was successful in securing
the ratification of the Jay treaty
through Alexander Hamilton and two
"Anglicists," Secretaries John Picker
ing and Oliver Wolcott. Upon the rati
fication of this treaty the French direc
tory were so angry after the assistance
that Lafayette had given the colonists
in securing their liberty, that they im
mediately recalled their minister and
sent home ours.
French cruisers therefore attacked
our merchant vessels. This country
was then too weak for a naval war and
Adams sent envoys to the Irate mem
bers of the Directory to set matters
right. There was much 111 feeling en
tertained towards Adams personally by
the leading members of the Directory,
who were furious that Jefferson was
not elected president, and a demand
was made upon Adams' envoys for a
sum of mouey to enable France to car
ry on her wars and also propitiate the
directory. It was then that arose the
famous cry of defiance —"Millions lor
defence but not one cent for tribute,"
the Justification for which was the un.
usual demand of France which it is
believed, however, now was most de
liberately colored by the Anti-French
and Pro-Anglican faction who hated
equally the two Republics and were
anxious to antagonise them In order
to restore English supremacy In Amer
ica.
Congress thus aroused by the one
sided report of the Adams envoys or
ganized an army. Soon also a state of
war existed on the sea, where Commo
dore Truxton defeated and captured
two French frigates. These two splen
did victories however sobered the bel
ligerent members of the Directory and
they constituted such interesting naval
engagements that European first class
powers might study them with advan
tage now. War it is true was not for
mally declared, but the depredations
stirred up the patriotic feelings of the
American people who were thus pro
foundly convinced that Europe whether
royalists or republican, was equally
quite unable to appreciate or to under
stand them. The United States fitted
out privateers and authorized Ameri
can officers to capture French cruisers
wherever found. The Constellation was
the name of the flr3t American frigate
that thug tested our navy against that
of a first class European power. While
cruising In the yidnity of St. Christo
pher one hundred years ago Commo
dore Truxton one day discovered a sail
ahead. He Immediately ran before the
wind so as to cross the stranger's
course. Before coming Into closer
Quarters It was found that she was
resolved upon changing her course and
she then hoisted an American flag.
Truxton now showed his colors and
gave the private signal of the day. As
the stranger did not respond he drew
down upon her and Immediately the
strange craft hoisted the French colors
jsnd fired a gun to leeward. The
Constellation started In hot pursuit
and after a six hours' chase gained a
position off the enemy's port quarters.
She now poured a full broadside into
the Frenchman which promptly return
ad the fire which thus became rapid
and constant upon both sides. After a
fc.. minutes of firing the enemy, ac
cording to Fides "Batailles Navales
de la France," luffed up to run aboard;
but owing to the loss of her main top
mast was not successful, thus enabling
the Constellation to run athwart her
course, forge ahead, and still pour In a
■withering fire. Truxton so splendidly
manoeuvred his ship that he kept her
Just ofr the enemy's starboard bow
where the Frenchman was weakest,
maintaining this position for a whole
hour, pouring in broadside after broad
side and receiving a heavy fire occa
sionally in return. At this stage an
eighteen pound ball struck the Constel
lation's foretop mast Just above the
cap, and she now drew out of the
smoke that had collected around the
two fighting ships. But espying the
shadow of the enemy again—and which
enveloped in smoke was unable to see
the Constellation, but which kept nrlng
away In the direction in which the
Constellation was last seen —the Amer
ican vessel now opened a heavy fire
upon her starboard battery which Boon
dismounted every gun upon the
Frenchman's deck. About 4:30 in the
afternoon or the day—the engagement
beginning at nine in the morning—the
Constellation dropped astern, crossed
the enemy's wake and was about to
sink the stranger with all on board
when she surrendered and was imme
diately secured as a prize. She was
found to be the French 36-gun frigate
L'lnsurgente.
Both the Constellation and the L'ln
surgente were rated as 36-gun frigates,
though in estimating their equality the
French pound was eight per cent
heavier than the English pound. Thus
a French 12-pound shot weighed 13
English pounds and a French 24-pound
shot was the equivalent in destructive
effect to 26 English pounds. After a
similar encounter on the morning of
Feb. 1, 1800, between tho Constellation
and the 40-gun-frigate La Vengeance
and after the superiority of American
to European ships had been establish
ed, the hostile attitude of the French
Directory was changed and no further
Interference was attempted by France.
After these brushes between the
American and French fleets Napoleon
replaced the feeble and incompetent
members of the Directory, President
Adams again sent his envoys to Paris
and things were made so permanently
satisfactory that Napoleon sold all the
French possessions to this country
saying—"l have now given to the
United States something that sooner or
later shall make them a formidable
rival to the commercial and maritime
supremacy of England." The accuracy
of this prediction was not so apparent
then as It is to-day. nor did Napoleon
ever imagine that the future held in it
a possible Anglo-American alliance.
Ice In Klckneii,
Ice Is employed In various ways In
Illness as a remedy. The ice-bag Is ap
plied to the head In cases where there
is severe pain, and to various parts of
tbe body to reduce inflammation. If
a proper bag is not at hand, a common
bladder from the butclied may be used
filled with ice broken up into small
pieces, so as to lie on tbe part more
comfortably; if a cork is placed In the
center it may be tied more securely.
The ice-bag should be slung over the
place so that the weight of the bag
does not rest on the part, but Just be
In contact with it; a piece of folded
flannel or lint should be placed under
ft so that the bag does not rest on
the bare skin; it might cause gangrene
without this precaution.
Ice Is given to stop sickness, or in
cases of hemorrhage from the lungs, a
small piece is placed on the tongue fre
quently. Ice should be kept in large
lumps if possible, and these ought to
be wrapped in a flannel or blanket
When required to be kept by the bed
side a piece of flannel is tied over a
cup or basin, the ice resting in the cen
tre, the water then runs, when melted,
into a cup, and prevents the ice from
melting too quickly. A darning needle
or bonnet pin is the best thing to break
up the ice with, if a proper ice Dick la
cot at hand.
Traden Followed by Ant*.
Bees are geometricians. The cells
are so constructed as, with the least
quantity of material, to have the larg.
est spaces and tbe least possible loss
to interstice. The mole is a meteor
ologist. The torpedo, the ray, and the
electric eel are electricians. The nau
tilus is a navigator; lie raises and low
ers his sails, and casts and weighs
anchor, and performs other nautical
feats.
Whole tribes of birds are musicians.
Caterpillars are sllk-splnners. The
squirrel is a ferryman; with a chip
or piece of bark for a beat, and his
tall for a sail, he crosses the stream.
The beaver Is an architect, builder!
and wood-cutter; he cuts down trees
and erects houses and dams. The
marmot is a civil engineer; he not
only builds houses, but constructs
acqueducts and drains to keep them
dry.
The white ants malutulu a regular
army of soldiers. +
*
"I guess," said Mr. Erastus Pinkley,
"dat I warn't built foh eoldierln'.'*
"But you's done Jlne de comp'ny." said
Miss Miami Brown. "Yaa, but dem
off'cers is ll'ble ter git pow'ful smaht.
I kin step oft ter de music as fine as
anybody. But dey won't lemme staht.
De man he say: 'Private Pinklev, de
right foot Is de wrong foot." Den I-got
kinder confuse an' I says, 'Which am
my right foot?' An' den he says, 'To'
left foot, ob eohse.' I reckons de fus'
ting I knows I gwinter git ketched lo'
•nntlnv."—WaAlmrinn a.
i THE COLUMBIAN. BLOOMSBURG. PA.
TYPICAL AMERICAN.
A SKETCH OF THE BRAVE LEADER
OF THE COWBOY REGIMENT.
KooaeT.lt la a Slan with a Future Who
Learned Human Nature on the I'ralrlea
and Who Can Turn Hla Knowledge to
Account llpou the Tented Flelda.
Theodoro Roosevelt has so much en
deared himself to the American people
by hie cheerful optimism that the
presldont of his alma mater once saw
flt to make apology for It. The sub
sequent events have shown that the
student was the master of the sage,
the scholar the head of the school. This
notable circumstance probably had
more effect In shaping Roosevelt's
public career than all he learned wlthm
Its walls, and will certainly do blm a
vastly greater service than any parch
ment diploma which that ancient in
stitution could offer. For had Presi
dent Eliot seen flt to laud Roosevelt's
course on the Monroe doctrine Instead
of to deprecate it, that plucky young
American might well have asked with
Daniel O'Connell, "What have I done
wrong now?"
Since leaving Harvard Roosevelt
has been more familiar with the herd
book than with Horace, yet he has
found time while administering law to
the ranchers and rough riders of the
West, to make more notable contribu
tions to American literature than any
public man of to-day. But he Is no
mere dilletante maker of books and
fine phrases.
Whether as a rancher on the banks
of Bitter Creek, or as chief of that de
partment at Washington which aims
to purify the spoils Bystem, and to re
form the public service, Colonel Roose
velt has Invariably proved himself to
bo r. man of fixed convictions and of
rare courage. "I would rather 6ee this
Administration turned out because it
enforced the laws, than to see it suc
ceed in violating them." Is a charac
teristic phrase of the man. and which
gives his character in a nutshell.
Phrases like this might ho culled from
his sayings, but It would be only a
rosary of Roosevelt's manly straight
forward qualities. He speaks as
straight as he shoots, and Roosevelt's
record as a cowboy is 23 bulls eyes out
cf a possible 25, while astride a mus
tang in full gallop.
His first step after leaving Harvard
with the blessings of the faculty, was
to mend New York politics. For two
hundred and fifty years the name of
Roosevelt has been connected with the
business Interests of the metropolis. It
Is a name associated with one of the
oldest of New York's streets, and with
one of the most serviceable of the city's
hospitals. Colonel Roosevelt's debut
In public life was conceived with the
view of making manifest the Influence
of the scholar In city politics; and In
this purpose he succeeded sufficiently
to give Increased power to the Mayor
of New York and to take away from
the aldermen the power of confirming
appointments. He was also the can
didate of the Republican party for
Mayor of New York in 1886, his op
ponents being the late Henry George
and Abram S. Hewitt
Col. Roosevelt, however, was destin
ed to be identified with New York poli
tics later on. But meantime he was
making the most of his opportunities
to shape his own and the yuntry's
future. Two years after leaving Har
vard Roosevelt wrote a history of the
Naval War of 1812. The book took
high literary rank and paved the way
for his entrance into public service, as
assistant Secretary of the Navy. The
vigorous style of this Initial work did
much to arouse the country to the nec
essity for an enlarged navy, and to
quicken the patriotic sentiment of the
country, which was then beginning to
be tinged all over with burnished hue
of gold. A year afterwards he gavo
the public some glimpses of his stud
ies of pioneer life In a work on ranches
in the West, and of the "Hunting Trips
of a Ranchman," which are tilled with
delightful reminiscences of western
Ute; and in which much that was worth
knowing has been lescued from fore
fathers or from mere hearsay and tra
dition. His experience hunting the
bison or the buffalo, and the physical
wirlness then developed will prove as
useful to him now in Cuba as his
knowledge as a student of naval his
tory made him an Invaluable aid In
the Navy Department in preparing for
the present war with Spain. He
brought to the navy the experience
and researches of a scholar, and he
now brings to the Roosevelt rangers
the skill, endurance and exploits of a
horsemen who is as happy In the sad
dle as other men are while In bed.
That Colonel Roosevelt understands
the west and Its matters, and appre
ciates them, is proven by the hearty
manner In which he has elucidated Its
phases in his many wo.ks. And In
nothing is this broad and American
view so well borne out as in consider
ing the number of those works which
treat of the noble examples of the west,
and of the bounding nature of th
backwoodsman that Roosevelt nas
given to the reading communities of
the East. In the view of this descend
ant of the early Dutch settlers of New
Amsterdam, the winning of that vast
Empire nursed by strong men, and
taught by fate to know Ichoval's plan
"That man's devices can't make a
man" ought to be the great theme of
our statesmen. For It Is upon the
character and prosperity of the west
that much of our future as a nation
depends. Colonel Roosevelt, there
to re, Is never weary of telling In the
•jKht volumes of his entitled "Thi
winning of the West," of the part
which the frontiersman has played,
and of the part which his descendants
will play all through the coming years
in shaping our national future. Hav
ing thus thoroughly familiarised him
self with the Wast and having ab
•orbed of lu large sympathies and of
its buoyancy and dash. Roosevelt was
no less successful at the National Cap
ital. There the scenes were changed
but not the man. He was as popular
In Washington as he was In Dakota,
and when he bade good-bye to his col
leagues recently, to actively enter Into
the Cuban campaign, his office at
Washington was strewn with flowers,
and there was scarcely a dry eye
among those various officials who call
ed to say farewell.
It Is Frederic Harrison who says
that "the man of culture In politics Is
one of the poorest mortals alive." But
Col. Roosevelt has shown that the man
of culture can wield great Influence In
political life; and that men of culture
bavo as great opportunities before
them In American as In European life.
It is the lot of too many men of so
called culture that they really are not
men of culture at all, but that they
belong to the affected class of men
whom Matthew Arnold called "our
barbarians." And If this lackadaisl
cal, jejune class, who are steeped with
an lnsouslance proportionate to their
desire to patronize the plain people,
only learnt the wisdom that Roosevelt
could teach them it would not be so
difficult to reconcile politics and the
scholar, In this country.
When Colonel Roosevelt was asked
one day what he would do with the city
young men If he had the power, "I'd
order them to work," said he as quick
as the snap of a gunlock. "I have
tried to do this by example," contin
ued he, "and It Is what I have preach
ed; for myself I'd work as quick be
side Pat Duggan as with the last de
scendant of a patroom; It literally
makes no difference to me as long as
the work la good and the man Is in
earnest." No such wisdom as this was
learned at Harvard. And it Is no
small tribute to the confidence which
this man Is capable of Inspiring even
In men who never saw him —and most
of whom were also aware that he had
never been In action—that volunteers
from every part of the Union more
freely staked their lives upon Colonel
Roosevelt's judgment and were less
afraid to die If necessary in his com
pany. than if he were a West Point
graduate and a full-fledged mlllta.-y
commander.
Roosevelt Is a man with a future
who has learned human nature on the
prairies, and who can turn his knowl
edge to account upon the tented fields.
If the war progresses he Is also mor
ally certain to make a creditable rec
ord there. He is no mere canting
theorist, but a broad guage practical
man whoso education In the world be
gets the highest confidence In his ca
pacity to face the future—a future that
Is quite likely to have no room for
mere men of leisure, but which may
be depended upon even to put Itself
to some Inconvenience In order to
make room for men of the stamp of
Theodore Roosevelt.
SpttnUh Cruelties.
John Gilmer Speed discussing the
Spaniard eays of them: "Still, after
all that can be said for them, It must
be confessed that the Spaniards as a
whole are cruel and bloody minded
Judged by our standards. They may
not be unkind parents, or. among the
peasantry, unkind husbands. But what
no English speaking people can stom
ach Is the national passion for the
bull light. No passion or sentiment
anywhere in the world is so compre
hensively and Intensely national as the
passion for "tauromachia" is to-day in
Spain. There was a time when bull
fighting had a comparatively slight
hold on the northern provinces, but
that time Is past. Just as the broad
"faja," or girdle, is the one article
of dress which is worn by all the com
mon people of Spain, otherwise as
various in costume as all the rural
populations of France and Germany
put together, so are they all united
in their love for this amusement. The
man who will not save up all his pen
nies to pay for admission to a grand
Sunday or Corpus Christ! "corrida de
toros" is either an Inveterate spend
thrift or no Spaniard; and if he leaves
his wife at home ne is a bad husband.
What we Americans cannot and never
will unucistand about bull lighting,
even when we have managed to master
all the intricacies of the game itself,
is how a gathering of both men and
women can laugh and cheer, and clap
hands, and throw their hats into the
ring when a living disembowelled
horse is making his screams heard
above all the uproar. On the whole,
we would rather not understand it.
There Is one Spanish woman for whose
memory all Americans feel some rev
erence —Isabella the Catholic, who
pawned her Jewels to fit out Cristobal
Colon —and it is pleasant for us to re
member that Isabella the Catholic set
her face sternly against bull lighting,
and would have abolished It in her
dominions if she could, but even Isa
bella was not strong enough for that."
Equal to the Occumou,
Ex-Secretary William M. Evarts was
for a long time the most skilful of all
public men in polite and pointed repar
tee, says the Ladies' Home Journal. At
a reception in Washington he was once
drawn into a discussion between two
women.
"Mr. Evarts," said one, "do you nol
think I am right In saying that a wo
man is always the best Judge of an
other woman's character?"
"Madam," replied Mr. Evarts, "Bhe Is
not only the best Judge, but also the
lest executioner"
Speed of th On If Stream.
Three miles an hour Is about the
average speed of the Gulf Stream. At
certain places, however. It attains a
speed of fifty-one miles an hour, the
rapidity of the current giving the sur
face when the sun is shining, the ap
pearance of a sheet of fire.
_ "A PERFECT FOOD—ma Wholesome a* it ia Delicious."
0 WALTER BAKER & CO.'S O
1 jffBREAKFAST COCOAS
X fx "Kh stood the test of more then too yer* use among all A
CJ gj MmhXl clesiei, end for purity end honest worth is unequalled."
XH ! ninUl Costs less than ONE CENT a Cup. A
X sfs KH] Trade-Nlark on Every Package. V
X WALTER BAKER & CO. LTD., X
X tsadi-mahk. Established 1780. DORCHESTER, MASS. A
ALEXANDER BROTHERS & CO.
DEALERS IN
Cigars, Tobacco, Candies, Fruits and Kuts
SOLE AGENTS FOR
Henry Maillard's Fine Candies. Fresh Every Week.
Gooes jl Specialty.
SOLE AGENTS FOR
F. F. Adams & Co's Fine Cut Chewing Tobacco
Sole agents for the following brands of Cigars-
Henry Glay, Londres, Normal, Indian Princess, Samson, Silver Ash
Bloomsburg Pa.
IF YOU ARE IN NEED OF
CARPET, MATTING,
©r OIL CLOTH,
YOD WILL FIND A NICE LINE AT
W. M. BROWWS
2nd Door above Court House
A large lot of Window Curtains in stock.
/jj
This settles That's the
it! Ht-eafter UW^7r'.g bl id
I will have all J|ti|| win success a
my clothes VrjHlg man cannot
JIADB TO ** <9° careful
ORDER BY ' appeir "
EDWARD E. STRAUSS & CO.
America's Popular Tailors, Chicago.
New Use for the Sunflower.
A new use has been found for the
sunflower. The sticky substance
which exudes from it has been made
into a covering for bicycle tires. The
homely sunflower is rapidly coming to
the front as a uselul article. Its seeds
make excellent food for cattle, its oil
is equal to the best linseed oil, and
its stalks are, pounds for pound, a
I better heat producing product than
coal.
The Doctor's Opinion.
"My little boy broke out all over
his body with painful sores and kept
running down in health. The doctor
said his blood was out of order and
that the best blood purifier was
Hood's Sarsaparilla. We began giv
ing him this medicine and he was
soon entirely cured." MRS. GRACIE
ARMSTRONG, Ricketts, Pa.
Hood's Pills are the favorite family
cathartic. Easy to take, easy to
operate. 25c.
You Don't Need to Believe This.
A surgeon in a neighboring county
was called to treat a cow that had
swallowed an alarm clock. Several
children had been playing on the hay
mow, and had a small alarm clock
with them, which they left there, and
it got among the hay that was fed to
the cow, and she managed to swallow
the time piece. When Mrs. Brown
milked the cow that evening she heard
the familiar alarm inside the cow.
The doctor was puzzled, and finally
decided to give the cow a dose of snuff
as an experiment. He got her to
sneeze, and up came the clock, which
was wound up tightly. The doctor's
theory was that the key was against
the wall of the stomach, the motion of
which kept it wound up.
OABTOXIIAi
Bean the BuUgK
THAT'S JUST IT !
Yovt can't always tell by the
looks of a garment how it is
going to WEAR.
WHY NOT
get the WEAR as well as
the looks when you can have
both at the same
PRICE. $12.00 is the starting
point of those
Edward E. Strauss & Co.'s
Famous Custom Tailored
Suits and Overcoats
with an ironclad guarantee
thrown in free.
IT WILL PAY YOU to examine
this line, and leave your or
der for one of these hand
some garments.
CALL ON
L. GROSS,
Bloomsburg, Pa.
His Money Kept Well-
The Mansfield Advertiser says:
Abner Jenkins, a year ago, lost a five
dollar bill from his watch pocket while
haying on the Murdough farm at
Lamb's Creek. Diligent search at the
time failed to bring it to light. But
last week while some of Mr. Jenkins'
neighbors were haying in the same
field and talking of his loss, Seymour
Hotchkiss saw something green lying
on the ground and reaching down
picked up the indentical bill, neatly
folded, just as it had fallen from Mr.
Jenkins' pocket twelve months ago.
Yellowstone Park and Omaha Exposition
Personally-Conducted Tour via the Penn
sylvania Railroad.
The Yellowstone National Park is
unquestionably one of the most inter
esting regions on the globe, for within
it is displayed the greatest collection
of nature's manifold wonders. Indeed,
this mountain-bound plateau, high up
on the summit of the everlasting
Rockies, is a veritable playground for
the world's giant forces.
The personally-conducted tour of
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company,
which leaves New York on Septem
ber i, affords the most satisfactory
means of visiting this wonderland and
viewing its marvelous features. A
stop of two days will be made on the
return trip at Omaha, affording an
opportunity to visit the Trans-Mississ
ippi Exposition. Tourists will travel
by special train of Pullman smoking,
dining, sleeping, and observation cars,
in each direction. Eight days will be
spent in the Park. A stop will also
be made returning at Chicago. The
round-trip rate, $235 from New York,
Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Wash
ington, $230 from Pittsburg, covers
all necessary expenses.
For detailed itineraries and full in
formation apply to ticket agents,
Tourist Agent, 1196 Broadway, New
York, or address Geo. W. Boyd, As
sistant General Passenger Agent,
Broad Street Station, Philadelphia.