The Columbian. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1866-1910, July 28, 1898, Page 6, Image 6

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

XmeWorld la Likely to See Another Thai
Will Alter the Bountlnrlee of Nation*—
One at Midnight That Gave Ua Alaaka
a time when the world Is likely
to see another treaty that will alter
the boundaries of nations, It Is well to
look over the great treaties of the cen
tury. What did they effect?
Km first of these began almost with
century itself and arose from
vents connected with Napoleon's sei
zure of power and his aggressive policy
iU Europe. It Is known ss the "Peace
3f Amiens" between Great Britain, Hoi.
land, France, and Spain. It was face
ttMMly called "the Peace of Amiens"
because It really provoked war. Its
most notable achievement was to en
able Napoleon's irlends to invite the
French senate to give Napoleon, who
was then First Consul, some token of
the national gratitude of France. The
Senate voted to prolong the First Con
oid's tenure of office. The proposition
had hut one opponent, a Girondist,
who loudly asserted that the flrßt steps
towards * despotism had been thus
laken. and that a flagrant usurpation
ihreatened the Republic. Lafayette
registered a noble "No," sent the First
Uomsul a spirited letter, and ceased the
relations he had hitherto maintained
■lth Napoleon who had already stirred
up a rebellion In Holland, was the mas
ter of Italy, and was now about to be
come the master of France. The treaty
was signed March 27, 1802, by the Mar
quis of Cornwallis on the part of Eng
land, and by Joseph Bonaparte on that
of France, and after a long session of
the Senate in consequence Napoleon
was on August 3 proclaimed In these
terms "The French people name and
the Senate proclaim Napoleon Bona
parte First Consul for Life."
The London "Times" and the whole
British press roared Its disapproval.
Napoleon thundered back that if the
English press interfered In the domes
tic affairs of the French people, that
the nation knew how to respond to
such flagrant Impertinence, and would
not be slow to preserve the dignity of
the French name. Accordingly as
Addlngton used to say In after years,
the ink on the treaty of Amiens was
scarcely dry wlieo national pride was
aroused which imperilled the new
peace. The promptness with which
France challenged the British nation
upon that cccasior !s the secret of why
Hnglisbmer vw *r else they may
despise, still a profound respect
tor Frenchmen, and have been very
shy of touching upon their domestic
discords since. The blue envy of the
jress had nearly ruined the Empire.
The next in importance was the
Treaty cf Vienna In 1815. This was
:he great c. ncil ol the powers which
readjusted me uisturbance caused by
Napoleon In the affairs of Europe. The
Czar of Russia, the Kings of Prussia,
Denmark, Bavaria and Wurtemburg
md nearly all the statesmen of emi
nence gathered around the Emperor
MYancis of Austria and his more fa
mous minister, Metternich. Metter
ulch by common consent presided.
Lord Castlereagh represented England
and Talleyrand France. The subordi
nate envoys and attaches of other
lonrts added to a host of petty prince
lngs whose nominal titles remain, but
whose power have disappeared from
.he map of Europe, crowded every ho
.ol or available private residence in
Vienna. They all gathered like vul
.ures to feed upon the caged lion whom
ihe brutal Sir Hudson Lowe was at
.hat time Insulting on board of the
iellerophon en route to St. Helena.
Phla assemblage was also likely to end
in renewed war. By the secret un
derstanding after the Battle of Water
oo the allied sovereigns had reserved
.o themselves the disposal of all vacant
territory to some of the princes then
aut of a job. The Ministers of Aus
tria, England, Prussia and Russia de
ermined to decide upon all territorial
questions among themselves and only
ifter so deciding submit them to
France and the other Powers. This
nearly caused a rupture. Talleyrand
hearing of the arrangement de
manded that the whole European con
cert should meet In open Congress.
But the "Big Four" continued their
sittings as already arranged. Still It
was found impossible to continue.
While Napoleon reigned these powers
were united against him, but now that
the common danger was disposed of
they were no less against each other.
The Congress assembled In Septem
ber, 1814, and on January 3, 1815, Tal
leyrand's purpose of breaking Europe
into two halves was only averted by a
secret treaty pledging those powers to
at once take the field against Rusßta
and Prussia In defence of the Peace
of Paris. France was immediately ad
mitted into "the Big Four" and Europe
assumed those divisions In which It re
mained until a United Italy and the
German Empire arose.
Passing over the treaty which ended
the Crimean War, those which ended
the Holsteln and the Austro-Prusßlan
wars and that of 1871 which gave Al
sace and Lorraine to Germany, we
come to the next great International
conference, that of Beilin.
The treaty of Berlin in 1878 stopped
the victorious march of the Russian
Army upon Constantinople. It thus
preserved a plague spot in Southeast
ern Europe, Spain being the blotch in
the corresponding corner of Southwest
ern Europe. These precious blossoms,
the word "Jingo," and "the Princess
League" are said to be the net results
of that treaty in which Lord Beacons
fleld flgured. Russia had perfected a
treaty with "the Sick Man," the fa
tuous treaty of San Stefano, by which
was secured complete Independence for
Ihe Christian populations of Montene
gro and which created the new state
Dt Bulgaria with a seaport on the
Elgean Sea. Bulgaria was to be a
tnere blind for Russia. The British
Bovernment took alarm contending
that any such step reopened those ques
tions already settled on the abdication
of Napoleon. A Congress of "the Big
Five" was accordingly called In Ber
lin. This time Prince Bismarck pre
ilded. Prince Oorchakoß represented
the Czar, Count Andraasy, Austria and
Lords Beaconsfleld and Salisbury the
Interests of Great Britain. Under the
tonditions of this treaty Turkey was
thorn of some of her territory, which
was added to Austria; the principality
of Bulgaria was recognized as an au
tonomous Power with a Christian Gov
■rnment and a national militia. Stlpu
ated reforms were to be Introduced ln
lo Crete, Epirus, Thessaly, Armenia,
tnd other parts of the Ottoman Em
Lord Beaconsfield went back from
Berlin with the cry of "Peace with
tionor," the ludlcrousness of the situa
tion being that there was neither peace
nor honor. Two years ago the most
frightful massacres took place in Ar
menia and when Lord Salisbury who
was a member of the conference was
ippealed to by the Christian sentiment
>f England to enforce the treaty. Lord
Salisbury jauntily declared that the
redreßS of Armenian Injustice was not
i function of the Conservative party.
The great leader of the Liberals Who
lad formerly stirred England over the
Bulgarian atrocities was not in Par
lament, and Sir Vernon Harcourt was
is silent as a heap of baggage on the
ipposltlon bench.
The next arrangement which mlght
>iy affected the world's destinies was
:hat at the Town Hall of Shlmonosekl
n April, 1895. Count Ito was at home
in this occasion and Li Hung Chang
with Mr. Foster of America and Count
Jaselni In the back ground safe guard
ing those of China. As most of the
Chinese fleet waß either In the hands
if the Japanese or at the bottom of
;he Yalu river or In the harbor of Wel-
Bel-Wel, and the victorious armies of
;be Mikado were In sight of Pekin. the
Jhtnese had no alternative but to con
i :ede whatever was demanded, knowing
;hat Russia, Germany and France,
which constitute the "Triple Alliance"
lor the control of the Orient would
reto any immoderate terms. Japan
lemanded the cession of the Llao Tung
peninsula, the warships already in
lapanese hands, control ol Port Arthur
ind 1200,000,000.
The Plenipotentiaries held five ses-
Uons, the result of which was that the
mailed hand of Russia was seen be
hind the Chino-Japanese war. Japan
lad to be satisfied with the money ln
lemnity and Formosa, Russia more re
:ently taking the Liao Peninsula and
valuable railroad rights in that terrl-
Mty which 13 now virtually a Russian
province. Great Britain apparently
lid not know that anything was hap
pening until the Russian bear had
:ompletely fortified himself In the Gulf
in ice-free port and an outlet in the
Pacific Ocean which It destines ere long
io be a Russo-Amerlcan Lake. But
England finally assured the contlnu
ince of peace by taking Wei-Hel-Wel.
While these events were taking place
In the far East, this country was creat
ng a diversion of momentlous lmport
ince in Venezuela and the message of
President Cleveland In December, 1895,
was admirably timed whether Cleve
and so Intended It or not, to create
mch a disturbance In London as would
lot only vindicate the Monroe doc
rine In Venezuela but also repay Rus
ila for the famous "midnight treaty"
if 1865, under which Alaska was ceded
:o the United States. To Russian as
ilstance and Russian friendship for the
United States we are Indebted for the
present encouraging foreign policy un
ier which, particularly with the pos
lesston of the Philippine Islands, we
ire sure to have an "open door" in the
Jrlent independent of any Power on
sarth. In fact it Is no longer either
he "Big Four" or the "Big Five." It
s now the "Big Six" as any further
reaty making in consequence of the
present war with Spain, will abundant
ly reveal to anyone who does not al
ready see the United States looming
iminously upon the destinies of the
:entury that is now at our doors.
America is henceforth going to have
foreign markets for her manufactures
ind a foreign policy of her own and
Europe will have to reckon with our
ralleyranilß in the great events of the
tirevlUe'i Reply.
Mr. Grevllle was persuaded, when he
was over sixty years oI age, to attend a
iplrltualistic seance. Foster, the pro
dding medium, was in great form, and
;he revelations were astounding. Gre
irille sat silent, and his aged, wizened
face was emotionless as a mask. Sud
lenly the medium grew excited, and
said to the old gentleman:
"A female form is bending over you.
[>h, the extraordinary likeness!"
Greville sighed.
"She lifts her hands to bless you."
Grevllle Blghed again.
"It Is your mother."
"Ah, poor thing," said Grevllle; "1
im glad."
"She smiles. She says ail is well
with her."
Grevllle sighed again and said, '1 aca
"She says she will see you soon. You
ire old, and you must meet her before
i long."
| Then Grevllle quietly observed,
I "That's very true. I'm going to take
tea with her this evening."
"Is it true that Blgley has met with
. business reverses?"
I "Couldn't Bay, but his wife is riding
i last rear's wheel."—Detroit Journal.
Recalling the ot Irish Revolu
i t lon of 1798.
"At noon on Oulart's moss-clad heights
Loud rang the musketry.
And Wexford flung upon the foe
Her peasant chivalry.
For vengeance nerved the patriot's arm
And pointed where to strike."
I Such was the spirit In which an old
ballad records the Irish Insurrection
of 1798 which some have described as
the last expiring shriek of Irish free
dom against English class oppression.
| It la well to make the oharge of op
pression against "the governing
classes" rather than against England
as s nation, because It Is only very
lately that the people of England ob
tained the right to rule their own coun
try, and It Is but simple justice to say
.that ever since the masses of English
men wrested their freedom from a rul
|lng ring of nobles, they have been no
|bly undoing the past and making the
Relations of England and Ireland more
sweet and kindly. It Is not, therefore,
in any spirit of hostility to England,
or to the English people that the Irish
patriots will this summer hold appro
priate ceremonies to celebrate the gal
land stand of the peasantry a century
ago, against the laws which crushed
'the Irish people and who, strange to
relate, numbered about 4,700,000 then
as now. The Irish have not numeric
ally Increased In Ireland during the
past one hundred years, but they have
Improved In wealth and in education,
and they are now in the enjoyment of
'more political rights than were their
fathers In 1708. A hundred years ago
the condition of Ireland was utterly,
wretched. The people had no prop
erty, no political rights, no schools, no
manufactures; they were mere renters
at the mercy of a body of taskmasters
planted among them and whose lands
■they cultivated for the bare necessl-l
ties of existence. . }
Their natural leaders had been
driven out of the country after the
Hanoverian wars, and thus is furnish
ed the solution of the puzzle to Amer
icans, that the names cf an O'Donnell
as Duke of Tetuan, or a Senor Moret
jd'Prendergrsst now occur respectively
as Ministers of Foreign Affairs or of
the Colonies, in the dispatches we read
from Spain. These are the descend
ants of Irish gentlemen whose estates
were confiscated in the numerous wars
for the conquest and subjugation of
and of which train of events
the rebellion of 1798 was the sequel and
the natural consequence.
| The rebellion of 1798 was, however,'
the revolt of a freedom-loving Protes
tant democracy touched Into explosion'
jat sight of the horrid wrongs of a loyal,'
jbrave, and oppressed Catholic peasan-!
|try. It was also as much a conse-1
jquence of the action in 1776 of Jeffer- i
json, and Washington, and Adams, as!
|was the French revolution of 1793. j
■Though it fizzled out during the sum- j
pier, when the year 1798 opened there
were nearly 600.000 of the 2,500,000 of!
males then In the country enrolled In a
secret non-sectarian organization, and ,
pledged to die for their native land, i
But the Government found means to'
disarrange this formidable organlza- ■
tion. They succeeded in sowing dls- 1
trust between the leaders and their
■followers. When the peasantry were '
'drawn away by the Government prom
ising concessions—that substituted;
Maynooth College for the old House
of College Green—these Ottoman lords
turned upon their brave and faithful
leaders who were hung, Imprisoned, or
exiled. Only three out of the thirty
two counties therefore came to the
front in the rebellion, but In these the
■peasantry fought bravely; and Wex
iford, Oulart, Vinegar Hill, New Ross,
•and Ennlscorthy remain In Irish song
'and story to attest what a change
might have been wrought In Ireland
had the united Irishmen, North and
'South, stood together in 1798. The
'rebellion was timed to take place in
;March, 1798, Ulster agreeing to furnish
>llO,OOO, Munster 100,643, and Leinster
66,672 men.
| The Government, however, having
captured the leaders stunned the chief
end of the revolt so effectually that
[the great body of the people did not
rise at all; and hence it was in coun
ties where no preparations were made
and no promises given that was seen
jthe most gallant struggle for Ireland'*
liberty. The people who did rise were
armed with pikes for the most part, a
primitive sickle-shaped weapon with a
long handle and which was utterly in
adequate to contend with the sabres of
the yeomanry. Others had old flint
locks, but by far the larger proportion
|Were armed only with pitchforks, l
scythes, or anyavaliable weapons found
around a farmyard. That the peasan
try could make any defence whatever
against British power under these cir
cumstances is marvellous, particularly
as the insurgents were not always able,
bodied men, but were recruited from,
boys, old men and sometimes even wo
men. Yet at Vinegar Hill and Oulart.
the King's troops fared as badly as at
Concord or at Lexington. At the lat-'
ter place the royalist troops attempted
.to dislodge the insurgents who skill
fully manoevured to draw the fire of
(the soldiery. For this purpose the in
surgents withdrew behind an embank
ment and raising their hats upon the
handles of their pitchforks a little over
the level of the embankment, the sol
diers, mistaking the hats for heads,
fired over the fence or into the Held,
beyond. As soon as the soldiers drew
near the embankment fancying the
Irishmen were all killed, the latter
sprang np and simultaneously dls-|
charged a few weapons they had into
the faces of the red coats with tre
mendous effect. Then with a wild
•cheer the main body scaled the em-'
bankment and wielding pike and:
•scythe, blade and pitchfork, they soon'
discarded the attacking regiment and;
•©cured from ths soldiers more for
midable weapon*.
No less dexterous and brave was the
conflict at Vinegar Hill, where envelop
ed In smoke and flame both sides
fought valiantly, disputing every Inch
of ground, the same position being cap
tured and lost by each party In suc
cession. An English observer of this
battle says: "A small number of them
(the Irish) only had fire-arms, but the
pike-men, wonderfully tall, stout,
strapping, able fellows, fought with
their pikes In the most furious and
desperate manner, thrusting at the sol
diers whe had much ado to parry with
their bayonets after having fired and
before they could reload."
Better arrangements could have
shown no braver spirit. For three
weeks the rebels held possession of
Vinegar Hill, making It the base of
their operations, and from which
strategic position they commanded the
town of Ennlscorthy. Field glasses
were not In vogue In '9B and In all en
counters between the patriots and the
forces of the Crown, the hills were
strong objective points.
In Antrim too there were some stiff
brushes between the Presbyterians of
the North and George the Third's mili
tia, and In one of which engagements
a grand uncle of President McKlnley's
fell nobly fighting, the sept of the Mc-
Kinleys, of Dervock, being among the
staunchest patriots- of the period. It
Is one of the sublime romances of his
tory that In the first centennial year
after the passionate resistance by An
trim Presbyterians, of the cruelties
perpetrated by the last Marquis of
Cornwallls In Ireland, the grand
nephew of the patriot, McKlnley, Is
president of the greatest nation of the
world; and the same power that ruth
lessly executed the ancestor. Is now a
suppliant for favors from the descend
ant! Such are the chances and
changes of realms; such the fortunes
of retributive time.
Hunk In the Navy.
! It will be of considerable help to re
member that military and naval rank
correspond In this way:
Admiral (when the office Is created)
to general.
Vice admiral (when the office is
created) to lieutenant general.
Rear admiral to major general.
; Commodore to brigadier general.
. Captain to colonel. i
Commander to lieutenant colonel.
Lieutenant commander to major. ,
Lieutenant to captain.
Lieutenant, junior grade, to first
lieutenant. ,
Ensign to second lieutenant.
Considering only the two highest
grades now actually held, the number
of officers In each since 1882 has been
six rear admirals and ten commodores.
The present rear admirals in order
of seniority are:
William A. Kirkland, commandant
of the Mare Island Navy Yard, San
Francisco, retires July 3, 1898.
i Joseph N. Miller, commanding Pa
cific station, retires Nov. 22, 1898.
Montgomery Sicard, on duty In the
office of the Secretary of the Navy, re
tires Sept. 30, 1898.
; Edmund O. Matthews, president of
the Naval Examining Board, retiree
Oct. 24, 1898.
! Charles S. Norton, commanding
Washington Navy Yard, retires this
Francis M. Bunce, commanding
Brooklyn Navy Yard, retires this year.
1 Officers of the navy may be retired
on their own application after forty
years' service, and those above the
rank of lieutenant commander must
retire upon their reaching the age of
62. Those below that rank are re
tired for physical or mental disability.
The pay of retired naval officers is
'three-quarters of their sea pay of the
jrank they held at the time of their
retirement. At sea a rear admiral
jreceives 36,000 a year; on shore duty,
36.000, and on leave or waiting orders,
34,000. Commodores are paid 31.000
less in all three lines of employment
Retired officers of the navy cannot
be assigned to active duty except in
time of war, and the purpose of the
Administration so far has been not to
assign retired officers in the army or
navy to field or sea duty, but to let
these posts of danger be held by those
still on the active list. Of course,
such work as the command of the mos
quito fleet along the coast is expected.
This has been given to Admiral Er
ben, who was retired four or five years
Until the second year of the civil
war the highest naval rank was that
of captain, though generally the title
of commodore was gtvep to a flag offi
cer who commanded a squadron. In
1862 the rank of rear admiral was
created by Congress, and to this grade
were appointed Farragut and three
other active captains, and about a
dozen retired captains. In 1864, for
his capture of Mobile and subsequent
successes, Farragut was appointed to
the newly created rank of vice admiral,
and later D. D. Porter and Stephen C.
Rowan were given the same rank. Af
ter the war ended. Congress went a
step further, and made the grade of ad
miral, and to this grade promoted
Farragut and Porter. There was a
special provision of the laws creat
ing admirals and vice admirals which
caused the grades to die with the men
holding them. When Porter and Far
ragut vacated their commissions as
vice to accept the higher office, it left
Rowan the only holder of the second
place, and upon his death in 1896 tb*
office lapsed. Farragut died in 1876,
leaving Potter sole possessor of the
commission of full admiral, and upon
his death in 1891 both grades were
vacated until Congress shall revive
them, perhaps, for the heroes of this
Clancy—Phwat do yes t'ink av thot
ter a parade 7
1 Caeev--Shure. an' it beats th' Dutch!
V _ _a PERFECT FOOD— MM yvholeaome HS it i Delicious.'' t
\f ffl frrbS " H1 stood the teet of more then 100 yeere' use among all J*
I } M classes, and for purity and honeat worth is unequalled." '
al{ Costs less than ONE CENT a Cup. <)
V/ jf| ■ JWTnj Trade-Mark on Every Package, v
Cigars, Tobacco, Candies, Fruits and Huts
Henry Mail lard's Fine Candies. Fresh Every "Week.
IF'iE.tTitT'S Goods -a. Specialty,
F. F. Adams & Co's Fine Cut Chewing Tobacco
Sole agents for the following brands of Cigars-
Henry Glay, Londres, Normal, Indian Princess, Samson, Silver Asb
Bloomsburg Pa.
2nd Door abovn Oonrt Houuc.
A large lot of Window Curtains in stock.
This settles „ - , That's the
hi Hereafter ?*g ht
i nsrcauer Harry. To
I will have all, JaWIl win success a
my clothes' RHrT man cannot
fIADB TO I , to ° careful
ORDER BY LjsgSJ a PP taf -
America's Popular Tailors, Chicago.
Experiments in England have
proved that fine coal is an excellent
material for sewage filtration.
Glaciers are formed by the accumu
lation of snow on mountains or ele
vated table lands. The snow is com
pressed into ice by its own weight.
Lord Kelvin puts the age of the
sun at 100,000,000 years. At its
present rate of combustion the sun
will last from >,000,000 to 15,000,000
of years before burning itself out.
Bacteria are found everywhere in
the air and in our homes, they are so
minute that 250,000,000 could be ac
commodated on a penny postage
stamp, and they multiply with incredi
ble rapidity.
Twelve thousand mail cars of the
German railroads are now lighted by
electricity, storage batteries being
employed. The light has given full
satisfaction and is also said to be
cheaper than the gas light used
Experiments made in compressing
flour show that the bulk may be re
duced two-thirds without injury to
the quality. It is molded by hydrau
lic pressure into'bricks, which are
sweet, wholesome and proof against
A musket ball may be fired through
a pane of glass, making a hole the
size of the ball without cracking the
glass, if the glass be suspended by a
thread. It will make no difference,
and the thread will not even vibrate.
Sunstroke generally occurs to per
sons laboring in the open air and sun
shine, but it would be better named
heat-stroke, for it can occur even in
a close, darkened room where the
temperature is for a long time above
the normal.
It is estimated that a human being
by respiration 30,000 germs
each Say, or 100 millions a year. Not
onlyße most of them harmless, but
they *ive flavor to butter, cheese,
game 1 , etc., and they are the scaven
gers of nature. They are absolutely
necessary for the "round of life."
You can't always tell by the
looks of a garment how it is
going to WEAR.
get the WEA R as well as
the looks when you can have
both at the same
PRICE, $12.00 is the starting
point of those
Edward E. Strauss & Co.'s
Famous Custom Tailored
Suits and Overcoats
with an ironclad guarantee
thrown in free.
IT WILL PAY YOU to examine
this line, and leave your or
der for one of these hand
some garments.
Bloomsburg, Pa.
Month of July,
July, the seventh of the year in our
calendar, was the fifth in the Roman
calendar, whe.e it was called the
Quintilis. Originally it contained 36
days J>ut it was reduced by Romulus
to 3t, by Numa to 30, but was res
tored to 3t days by Julius Caesar, in
honor of whom it was named July, o ■
account of his birth having happened
on the t2th of that month. Our
Anglo-Saxon ancestors called the
month "mead month" from the mead
ows being then in their bloom. The
month contains our own glorious
Fourth and dog days, both ot which
are very important periods.
A Strong Nation
Consists of strong men and healthy
women, and health and strength de
pend upon pure, rich blood which is
given by Hood's Sarsaparilla. A nation
which takes millions of bottles of
Hood's Sarsaparilla every year is lay
ing the foundation for health, the
wisdom of which will surely show
itself in years to come.
Hood's Pills are prompt efficient,
always reliable, easy to take, easy to
operate. 25c.
Independent Nominations.
Independent nominations appear to
be the rage now-a-days. The latest
is that of Hon. W. L. Nesbit late
Republican member of the Legisla
ture from Northumberland county,
who was refused a renomination by
his party at their late convention. He
now announces that he will run inde
pendent, and as he is a very able man
and good stumper he will most likely
give those who turned him down a
heap of trouble in the future. Mr.
Nesbit had the name of being a very
honest legislator. May be this caused
his defeat in the convention. He is a
very prominent Granger.— Ex.
BMH th The Kind You Have Aiwan Boqgft