Newspaper Page Text
t u vmri,
Offick Front Room, Over I'ostoflloc.
onioo over tat. National Bank. ul00mDurlfi Pa
OXco in Xnt'a Building.
J OIIN M. OLAMC,
JUSTiOfi .OF THE PEACE.
oaice oyer Moycr Bros. Drug Store.
I W. MILLER,
oraco in Drower'B bulldtmr,sooond noor.room Mo. 1
O FRANK ZAKB,
o ftlco corner of centre ana Bin Stmts, clan
Can be consulted In German.
EO. E. ELWELL
-ATTORN EY-AT-L AW,
Office od First' floor, front room of Col.
dmwas Unlmlng, Main street, below Ex
pAUL E. WHIT,
Office in comuBHK boildino, Room Mo. 1, Bocond
' BLOOMSBURG, PA.
JJ v. WHITE,
B LOO M S B U R Q , PA.
Office in Browera' Building, 2nd floor,
B. KN0RR. L. I. W1NTSR8TBBH.
KNOBR & WINTER8TEEN,
A ttorney s-at-Law,
omca la 1st National Bank building, second noor.
first door to tbolert. Corner ot Main and Market
street uioemsaurg, ra,
HSfircnnont and BoutUitt Collected,
tWnffiVii over Den tier's shoo stnrc
llloomsburg, Pa. npr-30.80.
yf. II. RHAWN.
O Ecu, corner orjrnlrd and Main street.
jypOHABL F. EYERLY,
Conveyancer, Collector of (Claims.
LEGAL ADVICE IN THK SETTLEMENT OF
tvnfllra In T)f iil'pr'R butldlnn- with P. P. BUI
nicyer, attorney.at-law, front looms, 2nd floor
moomsuunr, in. itiyi-y-oo.
It. nONORAA. BOBBINS.
Office and residence. West First street, Blooms-
uurg, is, no.so : i
" J3. McKELVY, M. D.,8urgeon and Fhy
. slclan.north aide Main Btreetbolow Market
It. J. O. BUTTER,
Offloe, North Market street,
rU. WM.. M. REBKIt, Burecon and
LFhyalBlaiu Offlco comer of Bock and Market
W. R. TDBBS, PROPRIETOR
OPPOSITE COORT HOUSB.
Large and convenient sample rooms. Hath room,
hot and cold water; and all modem conveniences.
g F. HARTMAN
liriU&IHTS TO! fOIXOWINO
AMERICAN INSURANCE COMPANIES
North American of Philadelphia.
l'enn.sylvanla, " '
York, of Pennsylvania.
Sueens, of London,
orth Brttlatyot London.
Office on Market Street, No. I, Bloomsburg.
CHRISTIAN P. KNAFF, BLOOMSBCBO, FA.
HOMbVOP V. T.
MBKcnANW, OP NEWARK, N. J.
fUNTON, K Y.
pboi'lks' n. y.
These old cohfohationb aro well seasoned by
ate and mi tsktid and have never yet had a
I oss settled by any court of law. Their assets are
all invested In solid ssouuitiu are liable to the
hazard of rial only.
Leases raouiTLT and honestly adjusted and
bald-aa. soon aa determined by Caim r.
Kiurr, arsoiiL aoint and adjbbtxb uloouuoo,
The people of -Columbia oonnty should patron
ize the agency where losses If any are settled and
pall by one of ther own citizens.
PROMPTNESS. EOU1TY, PAIR PKALLNO,
17REAB BItOWN'8 INSURANCE
JP AOENOY. Moyer's new bulldlnif, Main street,
jEtna Insurance Co., of narttord, Conn fT,crr3,2-jo
lloyal 01 Uverpooi .'. I3,cai,ooo
Vtre Association, Philadelphia ,iu,7io
l'hojnli of London 208.3
London Lancashire, of England 1 ,TW,mi
llartford of Hartford;.... 3'iM'
tiprinsneld Fire and. Marine 2,ot.N(0
As the agencies aro direct, policies are written
or the Insured without delay in the office, at
Bloomsburg. Oct. S8,"M-
, PuiLADxmiu, Pa.
UfAS, bVllUI'S, COFFEE, SUGAR, MOLASSES
B10, 8PIOXf, BKJABB SODA, KTO., STO.
N. E. Corner Second and Arch Sts.
taordora will receive prompt attention.
Bloomsboho, Columbia County, Fa
All styles ot work done In a superior manner, work
id without Fain by the use of Qas, and
free ot charge when artificial teeth
i m 1 .1 . . . ,11, rnl .lu.l
uiuco in uarion-s oiuiainR, juuiu i
below Market, Ave doors below Klclra'a
urug store, urst uoor.
lobe open at all houri during the da
LEMUEL DRAKE, Prop'r.
Tills well-known botel has been re-opened and
OQ&nr Imnmjnm.nti tnA fnr thA AnrAmmndatlon
of the traveling pubuo. The bar and table are
supplied with the beat the market affords. A large
ana commodious stable Is connected with, toe
uuuii, ivniia always reafconaniB.
!nay87J LEMUEL BRAKE, Proprietor.
AGENT POIl THE
KEYSTONE DYNAMITE POWDER CO..
tjfnufacturersof the celebrated Keystone Dyna.
rnlte, This explosive Is giving universal satwao-
.vu, iuuiaiions cneeriuiiy giveu. iiiuuvw-
J K BlTTENBENI)En,;rrofJtor.
A. O.YATES & CO.
SIXTH CHESTNUT STS.
kazzlKoad xx tan tabi,b
TELAWARE, LACKAWANNA AND
A. H. A. U,
NORTrtCM BERLAND S 40
10 10 (I IS
muicruu. (j 55
Chulaskv it mi
Banvlllo 0 oa
Illck's Fcrrr. 7 is
Shlckshlnny 7 so
llunlock'si 7 4.1
Nantleoke 7 50
AvoKkile, 7 54
j-ixtuioutn 7 59
Plymouth Junction 8 at
Kingston 8 as
Bennett 8 12
Maltby 8 IT
Wyoming 8 23
West Iltuton s 27
Plttston 8 33
LacKnwanna 8 40
Tavlorvlllo. 8 48
Bellevue 8 51
SC11ANTON, 11 no
8CK1NT0N 6 10 9 60
Bellevue a 15 55
Taylorvllle 0 so 10 00
Lackawanna c in 10 on
Huston 6 36 10 16
west Plttaton 6 42 10 22
Wyoming 6 17 10 27
Maltby 0 61 10 30
Bennett 0 55 10 31
Kingston 6 58 10 3S
Plymouth Junction rut 1043
Plymouth 7 10 10 47
Avondale. . 7 14 10 61
Nantlcoko 7 1!) 10 53
Hunloek's 7 28 11 ra
Shlckshluny 1 47 11 12
11 ick's verrr. . o 11 v-t
Beach Haven, 8 01 II 28
Berwick 8 07 11 87
Bnarcreek. b la
willow Grove n 15
LimolUdgo. 8 20
Espy... 8 20
Bloomsburg 8 33
ltnpcrt 8 37
CatawlBsa 8 43
Danville 8 57
Cameron 9 07
NORTnUMBBULAND 9 23 12 65 5 15 9 45
AX l'U ru V M
cnnnpiotlona at Ttunert with Philadelphia &
Reading Railroad for Tamanend, Tamaqua, will
lamsport, bunbury. Pottsvllle, etc. At Northum
berland with P. & E. Dlv. 1'. If. It. for Harrtsburg,
Lock llavcn, Emporium, Warren, corry and Eric.
W. P. IIALSTEAD, Gen. Man..
Philadelphia & Erie R. R. Divis
ion, and Northern Oentral
In effect Way 29, 1887. Trains leave Sunbury,
9.o a. m.. Sea Shore Express (dally except
Hundav. for narrlsbure and Intermediate stations.
arriving at rmiaaBipuin-a.!?.. m. , new iunt,
u pon. m. - nn.ittmora. 8.10 d. m. : WaahlDGrton.
5.60 p. m., connecting at Philadelphia for all sea
Hhore points. Through passenger coach to
1.43 p. re. Day express
dally- except Sunday),for Harrlsburg and Interme
diate stations, arriving at Philadelphia
8.60 p. m. : New York, 9.85 p. m. ; Baltimore
6.45 p. m. i Washington, 7.45 p. m. Parlor car
through to Philadelphia and passenger coaches
tnrougn lOl miaaeipujiiauu Dtuuuiuro.
1,45 p. m. ltenovo Accommodation (dally
for Harrlsburg and all Intermediate stations, arriv
ing at Philadelphia 4.25 a. m. ; New York 7.10 a. m.
Baltimore, 4.65 vm. : Washington 6.05 a. m. j
sleeping car accommodations can be secured at
Harrlsburg for Phllirtelphla and New York. On Sun
days a through Bleeping car will be run; on this
train from Wllllamap't to Philadelphia. Philadelphia
passengers can remain In sleeper undisturbed untl
2.w'a. m. Erie Mall (dally oxcept Monday,
for Harrlsburg and Intermediate stations,
arrWlng at Philadelphia 8.85 a.m. New York,
n m. Thmuirh Pullman alcenlnir cars are run on
this train to Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washing,
ton, and through passenger coaches to PMladel.
phla and Baltimore.
iLicia. m. Erie Mall (dally exeent Sunday), to
Erie and all Intermediate stations and Canandal
tnia unit intermediate stations, ltochester. Buffa
lo and Niagara Palls, with through Pullman Pal.
ace cars and passenger coaches to Erie and Koch
ester. , , j
9.53 piewB Jfixpress iuauy etwpb ouuuajj iv
lock Haven and Intermediate stations.
12.63 p. in Niagara Express (dally except Sun-
d y) tor Kane and Intermediate stations and Can.
aiualgua and principal Intermediate stations,
Rochester, Buffalo and Niagara Falls with
through passenger coaches to Kane and Rochester
and Parlor carta Wtlllamsport.
5.30 p. m. Fast Lino (dally.exccpt sundaylfor Re
novo and Intermediate stations, and Elmlra. Wat.
kins and Intermediate stations, with through pas
senger eoachea to Renovo and Watxtns.
V.2U a m. ouuuugr uitut ivt muviu miu mmiuiw
ril.rn ot ntlftfi"
THROUGH TRAINS FOR SUNBURY FROM THE
Hnndnv rnali leaves PhlladelDhta 4.S0 a. m
Harrlsburg T.40 arriving at sunbury 9.20 a. m. with
through sleeping car from Philadelphia to Wll
llamsport. MOWS JuprcaS IDavvn 1 hiiuudi,iiiir t.su au.
ltarrinhiinr: 8.10 a. m. dally except Sunday
arriving at Sunbury 9.63. a. m.
Niagara Express leaves
Philadelphia. 7.40 a. in. 1 uaiiimore t.su a. m. latuiy
..,u ,n.. arriving fit HunTlUrV. 12.53 D. m..
and through passenger coaches from Fhiladel.
P Fast Une leaves New York 9.00 a. m. ; Phlladeji
.iir ,1 nn a m. . Washlnirton. 9.60 a. m. : Baltl
more. 10.45 a. m., (dally except Sunday) arriving at
eoachea trom riiUMeipma ana iiauixnore.
S sunbury 6.1(J a. m., wfth throusU lullman
Bleeping cars trom 1'hUadeiphia. WaafilDgton una
jiaiumurtJ nuu miuu,u 4auviv.
HUNHDUV.IIAZLUTON A WII.KEHI1AIIHK
II Al IiIlUA I' ai) m4 m
(Dally except sunuay.)
Wlixturn) mtui .va.vm .
arriving at Bloom Ferry 10.4S a. m., Wllkes-barre
Jl'.P-"1: ,.c..H....oK. nm -
rlvlna atliioom Ferry aisij wiwes-uarre, kwriu.
WlIiVC-l'U""" a--UtU V4aw uuuuu j w, ,y"'
ml, at liloora Ferry 11.61 a. ra., Hunbury 18.45 p. m
Express West ltavea Wllkos-barres.60 p. m.. ar.
rlvine at Bloom Ferry 4.19 d. m.. Sunbury tuop.ro
riving atBlooin Ferry 6:30 n mi; Sunbury, ivit p m
Sunday mall leaves iSunbury ,9 f 5 a. im. arriving
Sunday accomm'odatloneaves Wllkes-Barre 6:10
a m., arriving at Bloom Ferry, tuf p. m., sunbury,
o2apiL il poan. j, h. wood, ,
OeiLManager. oen. Fasaenger Agent
f l I il hi ill it t IT
11' vi;pt Iflltlif fill '
BLOOMSBURG, PA., FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER
NO ONE NEED
"I liavo been Buffering for
over two years with Dyspep
sia. For tho last year I
could not tako a drink of cold
water nor eal any meat with
out vomiting it up. My lifo
was a misery. I dad bad re
commended Simmons Liver
Regulator, of which I am
now taking the Becond bottle,
and tho fact ia that words
cannot expiccs the relitf I
feel. My appetite is very
good, and I digest evtrything
thoroughly. I sleep woll now,
and I used to bo very restlts.
I am fleshing up fast; good
strong food and Simmons
Liver Regulator have dooo it
all. I write this in hopes of
benefiting sotno ono who has
suffered as I did, and would
take oath to theso statements
K. S. Ballou, Syracuse, Neb.
OF PURE COD LITER OH
Almost as Palatabloas Milk.
Tho only preparation of COD LIVER OIL that
can bo taken readily and tolerated for a long tun.
by delicate ttomarbj.
AND AS A REMEDY FPU rOSOIPTIOX,
K('UOH:i.()l S AH-KCIID.IS. A.NAl.ilH,
Kit A I, Ilt.Il
I.I TV. ( Ill UI1S AMI TIIUOtT At'.
and nil MAMINll IH.MIItm.lLS Ilk1
ClIll.llltkN It l nturrrllons In ll molt.
Prescribed and endorsed by tho boat khj alclana
la tho conntriea of tho world.
FOR SALE BY ALL DRUGGISTS.
THE BEST BURNING OIL THAT CAN
BE MADE FROM PETROLEUM.
It gives a brilliant light.
It will not smoke thecnlmncys.
It will not char tho wick.
It has a high fire test.
It win not explode.
It Is pro-cminently a family safety OIL
WE CHALLENGE COMPARISON
With any other Illuminating oil made.
We Stake Our Reputation,
As renncrs, upon the statement that It Is
THE BEST OIL
IN THE WORLD.
Ask your dealer for
Trado for Bloomsburg and vicinity Supplied by
ffl. C. SLOAN & BRO.,
CARRIAGES BUGGIES, PHAETONS-
SLEIGHS, PLATFORM WAGONS iC
First-class work always on band.
BEPAWING NEA TL Y D ONE.
Price reduced to tuit the times.
BLOOMSBURG PLANING MILL
The undersigned having put his Planing Ml
on Railroad street. In nrst-ciass condition, la pre
pared to do nil kinds ot work In his line.
FRAMES, SASH, DOORS,
furnished at reasonable prices. All lumbornsed
la well seasoned and none but Bkllled workmen
ESTIMATES FOB BUILDINGS
urnlshed on application. Plans and specifics
ons prepared by an experienced draughtsman
G. W. BERTSCH,
THE MERCHANT TAILOR.
Gents' Furnishing Qoods, Bats & Caps
OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.
Suits rnado to order at short notice
and a fit al wa s Guaranteed or no sale.
Call and examine tho largest and best
selected stock of goods over shown in
Store next door to First National UanV,
ORNAMENTAL IRON FENCES
OF OAST CIt WKOUGUT IKON.
The f oUowlng shows the Picket Gothlo. one of
the several beautiful styles of Fence manufactured
by the unoersignea.
For Beauty and Durability they areunsurpass
ea. net up ny expenencea nanus nuu nurreuwu
to give satisfaction.
Prices and specimens of other do.
signs sent to any addrcBS,
g. m. aim
-" - ' ' ' " - II N I II I ' 1 .
How, When and by Whom It
To Bo Held in Philadelphia Sept.
15, 16 and 17.
m.tory of tlio Movement Leading to the
Adoption or tlio Document Portrait
of Somo of tlio Men trim Had a Hand
In It. Preparation nmt Who Took Part
In tho Adopting Convention.
Copyrighted by tho American Press Association.
Our renders nre already apprised of tlio
fact that It Is proposed to bold a centennial
celebration of tho adoption of the constitu
tion of tho United Htntes, in Philadelphia on
the 15tli, 10th and 17th ot September. Not aU
who know this oro fmnillnr with tho causes
that led up to tho adoption of tho consti
tution nnd tho history of the movement.
Ono hundred years ago tliero was no
United States of America. There was no
nation on this continent only English,
French, Spanish nnd I'oituguese colonies
from Hudson's bay to tho ltio do La Plata.
Tbero was In this country no president, no
cabinet, no sonato and no national treasury;
there was no public credit, no power to create
national revenue, no authority to secure)
union at homo and respect abroad. Even the
piratical Barbary states sneered at tho talk of
American power. Tho contribution box was
passed Sunday after Sunday in New England
churches for moans to ransom American
Bailors in Algerian captivity. Tho last the
definitive treaty of peaeo had been signed at
Versailles on Sept. 8, 1 "S3, and the army had
been disbanded with a mere fraction of It
pay. Nono of the treaties recognized the ex
istence of n now nation tho independence
and sovereignty of thirteen colonios, each by
name, wore separately acknowledged. Tho
public securities wot o steadily declining, the
worn soldier of llborty sought his desolated
homo with only wounds and glory for his
pay. Not because tho country was poor it
was admittedly rich In resources that could
soon lo converted into cash but there was
no central power J tliero wcro thirteen sepa
rately Independent sovereignties bound to
gether only by a vague something which
could not be called a charter of union, was
lily defined as a confederation, and scarcely
merited even the title of a league or compact.
Each stato had Its own army, its own
currency and banking system, Its own com
mercial marine, Its own system ot ad
ministration, and, above all, Its own system
of customs duties, ono state tarifung against
another. In short, each stato held In Itself
tho complete power ot the sword and the
purse, and only obeyed tho mandate of the
confederation congress so far and at such
time as the state chose. The adverse voto ot
one state could defeat an important law.
The plan was In Imitation of that of the
united provinces of the Netherlands In the
preceding century a very poor model In
deed, and very badly Imitated. The system
almost ruined tho united provinces, and was
utterly unsulted to a confederation in which
the area of a single stato was greater than
that of the Netherlands.
Thero had been three governments Colo
nial, Revolutionary or Continental, and Con
federated. Tho Colonial had ended In revo
lution, the royal governors flying to British
ships and the people seizing tho power; tho
Continental began to take form in tho first
congress at Philadelphia, Beptember, 1774,
but could not bo called complete (if It all) till
a few weeks after the Declaration of Inde
pendence; and it expired peaceably in March,
1781, when tho last state (Maryland) acceded
to tho Articles of Confederation, and the con
gress then m session at once proceeded to
act under Its new powers. The Colonial had
expired In revolution and the Continental had
grown slowly Into tho Confederated; and
now the Confederation was dying of dry rot
It only had power to "ronuest" of the states;
each successive requisition was met with
mora indlirerence until, on Nov. 1, 1784,
Robert Morris announced that he could pay
no interest on any foroigu loans and n very
email fraction of tho domestic claims, and
that ho saw no way of securing a revenue
under the Confederation then resigned bis
post as superintendent ot the finances In a
tono that seemed Uko a wall of despair.
All these years, however, tho spirit of
nnlon was trowing fast Thero had been
from the first a few who could "think con
tinentally," as the phrase was. They saw in
patriotic fancy a time when all this country
should form "an empire of free republics in.
dissolubly united." Most active among theso
were Washington, Hamilton, Madison,
Oouverneur Morris and Gen. Philip Schuy
ler. Tbey had many ardent supporters; but
the mass of mankind are naturally decontrall
tattonlsts. The citizen stands for his neigh
bors as against the next neighborhood, for bis
county as against tho state; ho loves his own
state, and It Is not till it becomes truly great
that bis heart swells with pride at thought of
his nation. The states' rights principle In our
system Is one that needs little cultivation
only intelligent direction. 8a tho "Strong
Government Whigs," as they began to bo
called, worked cautiously. Every schoolboy
knows the repeated dllllculties Washington
had with their sovereignties, the states; bow
often be appealed for a stronger central
power, bow often he had to literally beg the
stato authorities to stand by him. And if
the local feeling has more than onco proved
too strong within the memory of living men,
what must it havo been when as yet no glori
ous memories clustered about the general
government, when thero was but a vague
promise of union, but an ideal natlonl
Nevertheless, there were a few conditions
which made Americans one people. Though
planted In adverse Interests at Intervals
stretching over 120 years, with forms of.gov
ernment varying from the extreme of pro
prletaryshlp to the extreme Democracy ot
Connecticut and Rhode Island, representing
atloost six great branches of Christianity,
nnd extremely diverse social and Industrial
conditions, the colonies still had many mora
points ot resemblance than ot dlffarenoa.
They all had the same languago and tubftta
tlally the same literature; they all claimed
tho liberties of Englishmen and judged case!
upon the principles of the English common
law; they were all planted by men who
louged for a larger liberty, and wero all
swayed by tho same necessities as against
wild nature and the Indians, and most of all,
perhaps, the native born Americans wore
similarly transformed from the European
type by breathing the air and seizing upon
the opportunities of a new continent. Th
result was apparent In this: the animosities
of the Seventeenth century between Puritan
and Quaker, and Yankeo and Dutchman,
Protestant and Cathollo had yielded 0
rapidly that In the middle of the Eighteenth
century but a trace remained; Cathollo
Charles Carroll, Liberal Stephen Hopkins
and Freo Thinking Puritan Franklin
Joined In the publlo devotions without
hesitation, and the now comer from Europe
remarked with amazement that thero was
already the onu American tj jx?, with local
variations less than marked tho counties ot
England, from Boston to Uavnunab. While
tho Lincolnshlreuian still laughod at the
"babble" ot the Cbrnlshman, anil both ot
them regarded the Yorksulremau as an "out
languldgod vurriucr," It was but barely lo-
slble (and seldom tbati in tuo conuuciitaicotv
grew to distinguish the accents ot the Geor
gian and the. uoyopun. -if written lan
gnngo was absolutely one; the most ncute
crltlo cannot decide by the Internal ovldence
In which colony any document of that time
was produced. Tbesaiuo books were read,
and often exchanged tho length ot n conti
nent, and at the foot of tlio JIluO llldgo as at
tho head of the Hudson wero many men like
Madison and Jefferson, of powerful Intellects
and of vast nnd varied reading. The Amer
icans wero one far more truly than the Eng.
Ush of that day and more than tho English
and Scotch now ore.
MOVEMENT FOR A GENERAL GOV
ERNMENT. It is not possible to assign nn exact date to
the movement for a genoral government It
was in the air. In 1513 tho tbrco Now Eng
land colonies joined In a short lived confed
eracy against the Indians and the Dutch. In
16S1 a common movement against tho six
nntlons of Indians united all the colonies but
South Carolina. Tho attempt of James II to
restrict colonial liberties led to temporary
unldns, but tho British revolution of 1088
brought In William and Mary, who restored
tho colonial charters. John Locke then drew
up n plan for a cap
tain general and
ono assembly for
all the colonies, but
to consider it In
18'J7 William Penn
(In England) pro
posod a congress of
two membors from
each colony, but
tho ministry of that
day refused it In
Franklin drew up a ben. franklin.
very good plan of confederation, but could
not get it considered. In 17C5 nine colonics
wore represented in a conference at New
York. Finally, on the 5th of September, 1771,
thejflrst Continental congress met at Phila
delphia, and thereafter the tendency toward
union was irresistible till tho declaration of
independence, July 4, 1770,
It is not easy to define the powers of the
Continental congress, they were so augmented
by necessity and so supplemented by the
colonial legislatures and local committees of
safety, which exercised almost despotic
powers. The movement for a better organ
Ized government was already in progress.
Tom Paine Issued his brilliant pamphlet In
favor of a national government, and Alex
under Hamilton warmly seconded Paine1
argument in many letters and addresses.
Paine was a revolutionist, Hamilton an or
ganizer; Washington followod as the mod
erator. He first ventured to use the word
"empire," meaning, as subsequent letters
show, an "empire of republics." After tak
ing command of the army he often urged th
members to consider "that power and weight
which ought of right to belong only to th
wholo." Four years he continued to urge a
stronger central power, and in March, 1779,
wrote to Georgo Mason, of Virginia: "I
lament the fatal policy of the states employing
their ablest men at homo. How useless to put
In fine order the smallest parts ot a clock unless
the great spring which is to set tho whole In
motion is well attended to. Let this voice
call forth you, Jefferson and others to sav
their country." Yet It took the congress two
years to complete tho articles of confedera
tion and nearly two more to get them sanc
tioned by all the states, only to find them in
efficient within six months after their
On the 1st of Mnrch. 1781. tho delegates
from Maryland subscribed the articles; on the
second it was taken for granted that the new
government was in force, and within the
month several members complained of the
want of sufficient powers. On the lth,
James Madison introduced a new clause, that
tho states should give congress the power to
comiiel a recalcitrant stato to perform its
obligations. On the Sd of May it was re
ferred to a comniitteo of ono from each state;
on the 20th of July they reported a substi
tute, that congress might in time of war lay
an embargo for sixty days nnd name receivers
of publlo monoy.nfter It had been collected
by state officers. On the same day Edmund
Randolph presented the resolutions or tne
Virginia legislature, that congress "ought
to have more power." In July and August
Hamilton lssued'a series of papers called "The
Contlnentallst," In which he vigorously urged
a more complete union, a central executive
and a national revenue. But all in vain.
Boon after Cornwallls surrendered, the
British hastily concentrated In two or three
ports, ready for embarking; overy ono went
wild in expectation of an Immediate close of
tho war, and the "more perfect union" was
Ignored. Philip Schuyler, Alexander Hamil
ton and others bad just before this persuaded
the great state of New York to agree that
duties should "be collected In such manner
and by such officers as congress should di
rect," and Virginia bud consented to a similar
measure; but the other states were so
slow that the opposition had time to
rally, and both concessions wero re
voked or Ignored. Now York, however,
for the first, propostd a convention to form
a new constitution. Hamilton drafted tho
resolutions, his father-in-law, Schuyler, urged
them vigorously, ad they passed both houses
of the legislature by unanimous vote. There
after they were tho platform, the store house
of text and arguments for tho "Strong Gov
ernment Whigs." Finally all the states tt
Rhode Island consented to a national revenue
from customs duties; tho negative of tue.ona
state ruined tho scheme, and thus tho weary
seesaw went on four years longer, till the con.
federation was without cash at borne or credit
abroad, and was fast sinking Into contempt.
In Virginia the Issue was debated almost in
eossantly for six years, Washington and
Madison leading the nationalists, Richard
Henry Lee contending tor separation and
state sovereignty, Patrick Henry advocating
only a strengthening ot tho existing confed
Pressure from without had kept American
united during th war; a renewal at that
pressure was needed to force a more perfect
union, and it came exactly at the right time.
When the British parliament met after the
jioaco of Versailles the liberal clement pro
posed a renewal of closo interpoureo with
Aniorica and "tree trade on liberal princl
pies." When asked what guarantees tbey
could secure, they were forced to reply that
they knew of no power to bind the separate
colonies; a reaction set In and ceased not till
Groat Britain had adopted the most stringent
navigation laws and every practical method
of crippling the trado ot Americans. When
this was known in the states, the number of
those who could "think contlnentally" In
creased suddenly and rapidly. Virginia, es
pecially advanced toward extreme national
views. Jefferson said that his first choico
woultbe m navigation laws, no distinction
uoiween ports uuu
tho freest possible
commerce; but as
Great Britain had
we must have a
government . that
could meet her in
tbo sanio spirit
usual, resolved that
each state should do
it owu retaliating;
but almost every
where elso thero
Alexander HAMILTON, was a movement
toward union. The states began measures to
surrender their western lands to tho general
government, and the movement progressed
so rapidly that it was completed before tho
Congress bad already established a mint
and Federal coin, Tho Bank of North Amer
ica had been set up. Settlements In the west
em territory wero In rapid progress, and tho
Bottlers were impatient tor exact statement
OI their relations to government Already
ttpain was harassing the border with un
friendly legislation. Treaties with the In
dians were imperative and wars probable.
JtoniucKy and her neighbors were demand
ing, in daily louder tones, f reo navigation ot
tho Mississippi, or I On all sides foreign
and domestio questions pressed the denjand
for a stronger central government; yet a few
states held back and tho others delayed out
ot defereuce to them. Meanwhile Pitt was
enforcing the British navigation acts against
tuo united Htato.1 wltu the utmost severity.
and tho "Strong Government Whigs" were
making convert The powers pf established
churches In the several state wete greatly
curtailed: religious freedom liecamo ceuoral.
and by local act the right of a citizeu In any
state wero freely accorded to Immigrant from
other states. And the clause on this subject
in the constitution is the only one more cb-
scure, at any rate more nwkwardly worded,
man tuo laws it superseded. Uommorce be
tween the states was bolng bettor system
atlzod. In short, the country was traveling
slowly toward a sort of unity, But tlio war
between debtor and creditor was raging with
great severity; tho "soft money men" of
many localities dreaded a general government
which would abolish logal tender paper; there
were riot in divers places, and Cnpt Daniel
Bhay's rebellion In Massachusetts. Com.
merco, finance nnd foreign affairs domanded
a stronger government
On March 88, 1783. commissioners from th
two states of Virginia and Maryland met
at Mount Vernon to form a plan for tho Joint
navigation of the Potomac Georgo Mason
nnd Alexander Henderson for Virginia, Dnn-lel-of-Bt-Thomas
Jenifer, Thomas Stone and
Samuel Chnse for Maryland, all assisted by
Washington. Their special work was quickly
done, so they discussed general politics, nnd
ended by drawing up a plan of union for tho
two states involving uniform money and
taxes. Maryland promptly acceded and asked
that Delaware and Pennsylvania might bo
added. Virginia argued these matters till
Jan. 21, 1780, thon by largo majorities In both
branches lnvltod all the other states to meet
her In convention at Annapolis, Md on the
first Monday of the next September. Tim
sixth congress was In session, and South Car
olina, by Charles Pinckney, led tho move
ment for n new government Ho proposed n
number of amendment to the articles giving
tho central government more power, but was
defeated by tho extremists. Those who wanted
no chango and thoso who wanted an entirely
new system were alike opposed to reform.
The Annapolis convention met, but throo
states sont no delegates and others nr-
rivod so late that tho short sitting
was over before they could net The
few present united in an able appeal to con.
gross to order a national convention. Even
this action excited violent criticism. The
Nationalists were In despair, when Madison,
of Virginia, raised .thorn again to hope. On
his motion the general assembly unanimously
resolved on a Federal convention, to meet at
Philadelphia, May' 2, 1787, and draft an en
tire constitution to bo presented to tho states.
As soon as 'the news reached New Jersey that
state, on the 23d of November, acceded and
chose its delegates. Pennsylvania followed,
in December, North Carolina In January nnd
Delaware in February. Congress next ap
proved tho measure, and then tbo states fol
lowed ,ono by one an but Rhode Island,
which refused to act as usual. But Mary
land, distracted by a fight over paper money,
did not elect till near the end ot May, and
new jiampsnire was a lew days later.
On tbo 14th of May, 1787. tho dav finally
set, only Pennsylvania and Virginia wcro
represented; but their delegates repaired to
the state bouse, organized and were soon
Joined by others. On the 17th came South
Carolina, on the 18th New York, on the 21st
Delaware, on the 23d North Carolina. On
tho V5th William Churchill Houston, of Now
Jersey, previously detained by lllnosfi, arrived,
and so the seven states needed for n quorum
wero represented from tho south, four states,
with nineteen membors; from the north.
three states, with ten members. On motion
of Benjamin Franklin Washington was
unanimously chosen president of the conven
tion. On tho 23th the delegates from Massa
chusetts and Maryland arrived. It was a
convention of learned men. Thero were nine
graduates of Princeton, four of Yale and six
of other colleges; at least seven were of somo
eminence in literature; one, a native of Scot
land, had taught in her first universities; a
very large proportion were well read lawyers,
and nearly all had had long and valuable
training In the state legislatures or congress.
And to these men was submitted this prob
lem: How shall we combine theso sovereigns
into ono sovereignty! How shall wo toko
just enough power from the thirteen to form
government sufficient for all general con
cerns, especially commerce and foreign
affairs, and yet leave all other powers unim
paired In each state!
Their work may be detailed historically or
analyzed by themes. For many reasons tho
second plan Is the better, chiefly becauso It
avoids detail and makes the conclusion clearer.
Four general schemes wero suggested:
First The extreme Federalist or National
ist plan: That tho states should be practically
abolished; reduced to more deportments, and
on their miiis one strong govern moot estab
lished "on tho British model," added Hamil
ton. Tho convention took ono good look at
this plan and rejected it unanimously. It
does not appear that they did more than
merely listen to its Drescutatlon.
Bocond Tho extreme states' rights plani
That tho Confederation should be strength
ened a little, so far as to havo on independent
rovonuo and exercise somo control over com
merce, each stato to retain its absolute sove
reignty as before, vho convention con
sidered this at some length and rejected It,
not quite unanimously.
Third The moderate Nationalist plan.
Fourth The moderate states' rights plan.
Out of the last two, by compromise, the
convention evolved the present constitution,
with the understanding that it was to bo con-
sirueu accoruing to lue plain meaning ui tuo
words on theso three basis principles:
Mrst That the power of tho flag, the
sword and the national purse (and these con
stitute sovereignty) should be vested exclu
sively in the national government
bocond That as to these, the public prop
erty, especially the land, certain general
functions, and all foreign alrairs, tho peoplo
of the United States should constitute ons
Third That just enough and no more-
powers should be taken from the states to
constitute a government for theso general
purposes, and all other powers remain in tho
states as before.
James Madison came with tho outline of a
constitution already formed and employed
the clays ot waiting in urging its mam points
upon the delegates who first arrived. Ed
mund Randolph had elaborated certain prin
ciples In addition to those of Madison, Wash
ington had drawn up the beads ot theso con
stitutions. Paterson, of New Jersey, had a
plan which was merely to strengthen tbo
confederation. And It was known that Con
necticut was coming with still another.
"The New Jersey system," said thoso who
spoke first, "is federal, tho Virginia system
national; in the first the powers flow trom
the state governments, but in tho latter they
derive authority from the people of the
states." And even before the convention
met, the extreme states' rights party bad
sounded an alarm about the Virginia plan.
ivuuam joiics, oi ."iortn uaroltna, rerused to
serve, as ho understood the convention was
designed to subordiuato tho states, and was
replaced by Hugh WlUtaingon, an "original
free soiier," who wanted slavery excluded
from all new states. Patrick Henry, Thomas
Nelson and Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia,
refusal to accept their appointments, as they
would not act under the Virginia resolutions.
and were replaced by men of much less note
but ardent nationalists. Edmund Randolph
wavered. Ills first intent was to vote for a
mere strengthening of the confederation, but
his personal record pointed to nationalism as
his final position. Though but 33 years old.
ho had liorne a very active part in the revo
lution and was now governor of Virginia.
To him, therefore, was intrusted tho duty of
presenting the "Virginia plan" to tho conven
tion, which ho did May 2fJ In a preamble and
They declared for a national legislature ot
two branches, with specltlo jiowers ovor
national concerns; a national executive to be
chosen by the legislature and eligible tor but
one term; a council of revision to examine
and approve the acts ot the legislature before
they should go Into force; a national judici
ary, substantially such as we now huve; a
national reveuue to bo collected from the
states by quotas, and the right ot suffrage In
each state should be the basis ot enumeration
for apportioning the quota; new states to be
admitted on terms of equality, and each state
to ue required to mm, and to be guaranteed
a republican form of government. This plan
contained two notable clauses. Ono provided
lor representation in both branches accord
ing to imputation; tha other suggested that
only "free inhabitants" should bo counted for
representation, We do uot find in the
scanty accounts that the latter proposition
uttracted much attention, but the former at
onco provoked flerco opposition from the
smaller states. Charles Pinckney, ot South
Carolina, only 29 years old, presented awries
oi resolutions very similar to those from Vir
ginia, and both wore referred tu a committee
ot one from each state.
On the morning of tha 80th Nathaniel Gor.
ham, ot Massachusetts, offered a resolution
THE COLUMBIAN, VOL. XXI.NO80
COLUMBIA DEMOCRAT, VOL, LI, NO 25
that "A national government ought to be es
tablished, consisting of a supremo legislative,
executive nnd Judiciary." Fierce Butler, of
South Carolina, now passed over from On
Confcderntlonlst to tho Nationalists, saying
that tho division ot powers between three de
partments, tho domocratlo branch coming di
rect from tho peoplo and holding the power
of the purse, bad removed his objections. Bo
tho Gorhnm resolution passed, Connecticut
only voting in tho negative; New York di
vided. Next day the first clause of the Vir
ginia plan, that there should be a national
legislature of two branclres, passed wlthotfl
bebate, Pennsylvania alone voting In the nog.
atlve. Three weeks later she withdrew her neg
atlve, and the voto was made unanimous. All
tho powers of tho legislature were agreed
upon tho samo day. On the 1st of June lb
ctfecutlvo was taken up nnd debated long
and earnestly. The veto power was conferred
by tho votes of eight states against Connecti
cut and Maryland. The Judiciary was de
bated for a week and settled nearly as we
now havo It Then came the hard fight na
to equality of representation; and tbo first
settlement was that each stato should have at
least one senator and others In some propor
tion to Its population. The remaining Vir
ginia resolutions were gnno through with
rapidly, and In thirteen sessions the work on
them was complete. But the smaller state
had been deprived of eqnal representation,
and their discontent soon took active form.
New Jersey organized and led the oppo
sition of the smaller states. Connecticut, by
Roger Sherman, had already presented and
vehemently urged what might be called tha
moderate states' rights plan, but It was merged
In the ""New Jersey plan," which Paterson
presented on tho 15th of June. It provided
for a legislature with a single house, aud was
eenerally less national than tho "Virginia
plan." The convention debated this five days,
nnd by the voto of seven states rejected It In
the midst of this debate Hamilton Introduced
his plan for extremo centralization. It was
"praised by everybody but supported by
nobody," says ono member In bis memoirs.
It was, In fact, a plan for an elective mon
archy, with democratlo features very much
such a government as that of England now Is,
or would be if th
elected "for life or
From tho lBtli of
Juno to tho 2d of
July tbo conven
tion debated almost
constantly on on
subject the right
of the states, espe
cially the right to
now took tho lead.
PATRICK RENBV. Bnd by Roger Sher
proposed a compromise that there
should be equal representation in on
branch and proportional in the other.
On the 2d of July five states voted
for It and five against It, Georgia divided and
New Hampshire was not present So the
matter was referred to a committee of on
from each state, and, as the conven
tion was in a very hot temper over It,
an adjournment ot three days after
tho 3d was voted, in tho hope that rest and
the celebration of the 4th would restore bar-
nony. The final settlement was In favor or
quality in the senate. As soon as this was dona
Paterson, Bherman and Ellsworth passed over
to the Nationalists, and thereafter voted for
svery measure to strengthen the general gov
srnmont Paterson was for tho rest of his lifo
an ardent and extreme Federalist
The basis of representation in the lower
bouse, or democratlo branch, excited long
discussions on tho slavery question; but tha
lgreement on a three-fifths enumeration of
the slaves was nearly unanimous. The next
ton days were devoted to drawing the lino
between state and national powers, and per
fecting the general outlines of the constitu
tion. Meanwhile the states had comploted
the cession of their western lands, and con
gress (the congress of the old confederation
being In session contemporaneously with tho
convention) had adopted the ordinance of
87, for tho government of the territory
north ot the Ohio and west ot Pennsylvania,
o the convention's next task was to provide
for a territorial system.
From tho 17th to the SOth ot July tho con
vention debated the general outlines of the
constitution, adopted somo restrictions on tho
powers of tlio states, agreed unanimously
that tho states were to retain all powers not
specifically taken from them, but that it was
unnecessary to so stato in tho constitution;
appointed a conjmlttee of-threo from tho
north and two from trie south to (orniulato
the work so far done, and then adjourned to
Aug. tk Tho committee of detail consisted
of Gorham, Ellsworth, Wilson, Ran
dolph and John Rutlcdge the last an
eminent scholar of South Carolina, of
great experienco in congress and state
legislature, bolng chainnaif On Aug.
they presented each member of tho con
vention with a printed copy of their
draft ot a constitution, and thence to Sept
10 it wns thoroughly discussed In detail.
From the middle to tho end of August slav
ery was debated with great earnestness and
the compromise agreed upon, the word
"slave" being carefully excluded from the
constitution. Tho method of choosing tho
president was long and warmly debated; the
result was tho most awkward clause in the
Instrument Tbo judicial system of tho
United Btates was settled with littlo heat,
after which it was decided that the constitu
tion should bo submitted to conventions,
chosen for that purposo only, in the states,
and should go into operation In the adopting
states as soon as they numbered nine, A
committee of five was named to make tbo
complete draft Madison, Hamilton, King,
Johnson nnd Oouverneur Morris and the
last named wrote the final copy. And now a
new difficulty arose; a few members refused
to sign the completed Instrument, and
declared they would oppose Its Adop
tion In their states. Washington, Ham
ilton, Madison and Franklin labored
with them most earnestly. Finally all
signed it but Gesry, Mason and Randolph.
So the unanimous consent of the eleven state
present was sevuml on Monday, the 17th of
Beptember; tbo convention adjourned, tho
members dined together and then retired,
says Washington, "to meditate on tho mo
mentous work which bad been executed."
ADOPTED BY THE STATES.
But tho contest was not over. Indeed, tha
bitterest fight was to come; for only friends
of the new consti
tution consented to
serve in tho con
vention, while ene
mies remained at
home to fight In
their statos. In
New York and Vir
ginia the uproar
was terrific. The
contended that tho
mi lip bciiUYLEii. was despotic It
contained no bill ot rights, it mado no pro
visions to secure tho citizens against Illegal
powers; thero was nothing about the right of
conscience, tha freedom of the press, the trial
by jury, exoesslvo balls, linos, forfeitures or
opprcsslvo military establishments. Its
friends replied that tho whole instrument was
a bill ot rights, since he general government
could exercise no powers except such as wero
granted, and the states could devise as many
safeguards as they chose. Nevertheless,
they generally consented that these things
should be provided for In amendments, though
Insisting (and truly, too) that they wero
needless. The first fight came on In ftio con
gress still in session, which was, Indeed, asked
to approve its own annihilation. Richard
Henry Loo opposed'the new government be.
cause it was too strong; Grayson, also
of Virginia, becauso It was too weak.
All the New York delegates, Melancthon
Smith at their head, opposed it on the ground
that New York could not afford to surrender
her customs duties. Finally congress do
elded to submit tbo constitution to the states
without special recommendation. But Rich
aril Henry Loo was Implacable. Ho and
OXayson bad boen outvoted by their throo
colleagues, and so Vlrgluia was recorded In
cougress as tor the cpustltutlon. He now
stirred up opposition in every state, scatter-
ing many thousand copies of his "Letters
f lorn the Foderul Farmer." Madison and
Hamilton repllisl in Tho Federalist, while
Washington exerted himself In Virginia
against Harrison, Nelson and Patrick Henry.
Tbo Vlrgluia assembly wet on the third
Monday In October, and wrangled till March
befors ordering a convention: and. then the
date of Its iueeflng was postpoWl to Ihe first
Monday in Juno (17SS), The debates ot this
convention furnished a most valuable guld
to the Intent of tho f rnmers and the meaning
ot the constitution ; but this Is no place for de
tails. Bufllco It that utter long and heated
discussion, and only upon the pledgo of It
supporters that the constitution should t
amended, tho Virginia convoiillon ratified It
on tho 25th of June, 178S, by tho narrow mar
gin of eighty-nine yeas to eeventy-nlno nays.
In Delaware tho legislature hastened to Bay
that It "could not find languago to exprcst
tho Joy of tho peoplo," and called a conven
tion at once. That body, as soon a organ
ized, unanimously ratified the constitution on
Deo. 0, 1767. Tbo Pennsylvania convention
mot Nov. 20, and after three weeks' debate,
ratified tho constitution on Deo. 12 by a vote
of 10 to 23. Twenty-one of tho minority
elgned a protest "that tho powers vested la
congress would lead to an Iron handed des
potism, with unlimited control of the pun
nnd sword." Now Jcrsoy's convention met
Doc. 11, 1787, road tho constitution by sectoni
for a week, and on the 18th ratified it unani
mously. Bo the union of tho central state
was complete. Georgia also ratified unani
mously and without debate, Jan. 2, 1783,
firing thirteen guns as tbo signing progressed. '
Connecticut, with very little opposition, rati
fied Jan. 9, 1788, by a vote ot 129 to 40. Then
came the great battlo royal in Massachusetts.
Tho delegates In that state were olected la
tho heat and fury following tho Bhay's Insur
rection, and eighteen "rebels" bad seats la
the convention. Tho friends of the constitu
tion confessed themselves In a minority at
the start, but they gained by concession and
tho Maine delegates saved tho day (Malm
was thon a district of Massachusetts). For
three weeks the opposition offered overy ob
jection that the mind ot man can concelvo
religious, commercial and fiscal, tho lack of
bill of rights, the want of a religious test, the
matters. They then tried nil posslblo scheme!
of delay; another convention wns proposed,
a reforonco of the matter, back to congre&i
etc Finally, when tho friends of tho con
stitution hail promised all sorts of amend
ments, the ratification was squeezed through,
Feb. 0, 1788, by tho painfully small majority
of 187 to 1C3. Boston was wild with en
thusiasm for tho new government, and
celebrated with exceeding great Joy.
Now Hampshire had substantially tho
samo fight, with variations; so tho friends
of tbo constitution proposed an adjournment
till June, hoping that tbo Inllucnco of other
states would help them. Finally, on Juno 21,
1788, after agreeing to twelve amendments,
tho ratification was carried by 57 against 40.
This was the ninth stato, and so the existence
of tho new Union was secured.
Maryland, after a short but very spirited
debate, had ratified, April 20, by C3 votes to
11. South Carolina's convention met at
Charleston on the 13th of May, debated ten
days, but with
great calmness and
courtesy, and on
the 23d ratified, by
a vote of 149 to 73.
Tho New York
convention met on
Juno 17, "and do
nated with much
earnestness till Jul v
20," then ratified
by tho closo voto
of 80 nrrnlnst 27.
KLnniDQE rjEimY. -with the under
standing that numerous amendments wero
to be adopted or another Federal
convention called at oncul North Car
olina's convention met July 21, and
on tha 1st of August declined immediate
ratification by a tie voto 181 to 184. Tho
next day, however, the convention provided
that congressional laws as to commerce
should be In forco In the state Just as If sho
had ratified. After the now government was
fairly established North Carolina acceded,
Nov. 21, 17b9. Rhode Island, as usual, was
in opposition to the last; unrepresented In the
convention and in tho first congress, sho rati
fied May 29, 1700, tho last of the thirteen.
J, H. Beadle.
XIow the Mnrncnlbans Ilvo.
Going ashore early before sunrise, our first
visit was made to tho market placo to seo
what Maracaibans llvo upon. A better and
a cheaper market would bo bard to find. Ex
cellent beef, goat, pork and fowls averaged
ten cents a pound, and all varieties ot tropical
fruits abounded at corresponding prices. Tied
together In bunches wero great green lizards
two or three feet long, wtth brown warts all
over tbem and vicious black lieads of eyes.
They snapped at us like dogs aa wo passed,
and when teased with a stick clung to it like'
bull terriers. Those wero Iguanas, whoso de
licious, white flesh is eagerly eaten by all
classes. It tastes like chicken, but is more
delicate. Of course considerable hunger
would bo needod to make them appetizing to
a straqger who should recognlzo them in a
a stew. Farther on an animal with head and
tail like a rat, feet like an alligator and a coat
of mail like an ironclad man of war was tied
to a post Upon receiving a poko it rolled
itself promptly into a ball, head and all being
quite covered by its plates, and thus defied
further attack. This was an armadillo, also
a tidbit when properly stewed or roasted.
Monkeys were scarce In the market; and
the old school book fable of travelers making
use of them to get cocoanuts from lofty trees,
by shying stones up at them and dodging
nuts that came down in return, enrao to mind
as I watched tha antics of u few of theso poor
brutes waiting their turn to bo sold. Tho
fact is, monkeys aro very shy of their human
cousins, and retreat from civilization with
all speed. Coconnut trees do not grow wild,
but require careful cultivation and constant
care, being planted for profit or for orna
ment near bouses; so that a monkey is almost
as likely to be found upon an apple treo as on
a cocoa palm. And owners of plantations
would probably welcomo any stranger,
whether two or four banded, w ho attempted
to steal their fruit, very much in tho soma
manner 03 tbey would with us. I fear that
tho story of monkey usefulness Is exaggera
ted, not to say mythical. Dr. W. F. Hutch
inson in American Magazine.
A Couplo of Stirring Scenes
Ill tho earlier days of Colorado minimi
camps there wero somo very stirring scenes
and adventures, and the tender feet wero
broken In without much ceremony sometimes.
1 remember visiting a certain camp when It
was quite new, and saving a man's lifo tho
very first night Ho was in tho lied next to
mlno In the tent, and about midnight an order
came for him to get up, as ho was wanted.
He was nsked to lose no time, as he was to bo
summarily tried for having shot a man. I
Jumped up and declared that tho man was
innocent, but I was shown tho niuzzle of a
forty-two caliber and told to lia down. How
ever, as there was no help for it, I said I
would accompany the accused, who was
nearly frightened out of his wits. We went
dow n to one who was styled "tho justice,"
and tbo complaint was lodged that tho
prisoner had shot a man. As he could say
nothing in his own liehalf, I spoko for him,
and stated that at the timo tho shooting w as
said to have occurred tho accused was soundly
sleeping. Just then a stranger appeared and
announced that ho did tho shooting, and
proved that it was In self defense, and tho
matter was all settled.
Next day we were treated to n little "fun.".
A tin can was tied to an unwelcome visitor's'
coat tall and ho was told to "git." He lost
no time in striking a two-forty gait, and as
he flow down the road the can dangling be
hind him was a mark for all the rest ot tho
boys to "take a crack at" More than one of
them bit the can, too, and I am not sure, but
that I mado It quiver mysel t. Wo thought it
was very funny, and so did the ioor victim
perhaps. Georgo Trumbull In Globo-Demo-crat.
The Matches Which Smokers Use, '
Those small wax matches which cigar
smokers use, and which are put up in fancy
boxes, como from Mexico. Thero Is ono fac
tory In this country, but th agent Informed
mo that he had tho greatest difficulty in
getting dealers to take them. Wo Import
them from Mexico and yet are able to sell
thcin at three boxes for a nickel, after paying
heavy duty. There aro fifty in a box. You
will notice what care must be taken In pro
paring them. They are molded something
after tho style I have seen my mother use in
making caudles. Thero is a wick and tallow
and a colored mixture of phosphorus to
'Ignite. The boxes are neatly constructed,
consisting ot two roses held together bra
piece of rubber. They contain colored pict
ures on all sides. In Mexico they sell for a
bait ront a box, so you see to mako a profit
the manufacturers must havo very cheap
labor. They have no gi eat machinery as In
this country, yet their trade seems to thrive
These matches are the ones commonly in uso
in Mexico. After paying duty on our matches
we cannot comjiete with them. They are
not In general us. here, but aro favorites with
smokers. U, W. KrelulnGlolKi-Democrat
The Old Testament In Kthlopln.
It Is not generally known that In Ethiopia a
people numbering utiout 200,000 havo the Old
Testament In Ethiopia version ami still ad
here 1'i.ridly to the Mosaio ceremnni.-s ami
laws. Thev lire the rliildicn of !Im1ii-w tin.
migrants nun, in tlio time of tlio great -lUper-slop,
settled lu Ab.Msiniu and married IV I
of that iiutlou, Detroit Free l"ivn
Tho report that tlu-1 hurtle n-etl has
bt-en discovered to be pml i oiUou
seed for oil-produrit'g iurpj'ii ptorn
Ues tho development of a i.nv dopsrt
mont of ngiieultural hidusUy, Tho
cultivation of a thistlo faun would be
a good job for tome Jary men.